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Historic Building Information Modelling - Adding intelligence to laser and image based surveys of European classical architecture

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Abstract

a b s t r a c t Historic Building Information Modelling (HBIM) is a novel prototype library of parametric objects, based on historic architectural data and a system of cross platform programmes for mapping parametric objects onto point cloud and image survey data. The HBIM process begins with remote collection of survey data using a terrestrial laser scanner combined with digital photo modelling. The next stage involves the design and construction of a parametric library of objects, which are based on the manuscripts ranging from Vitruvius to 18th century architectural pattern books. In building parametric objects, the problem of file format and exchange of data has been overcome within the BIM ArchiCAD software platform by using geometric descriptive language (GDL). The plotting of parametric objects onto the laser scan sur-veys as building components to create or form the entire building is the final stage in the reverse engi-neering process. The final HBIM product is the creation of full 3D models including detail behind the object's surface concerning its methods of construction and material make-up. The resultant HBIM can automatically create cut sections, details and schedules in addition to the orthographic projections and 3D models (wire frame or textured) for both the analysis and conservation of historic objects, structures and environments. Ó 2012 International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, Inc. (ISPRS) Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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Historic Building Information Modelling – Adding intelligence to laser
and image based surveys of European classical architecture
Maurice Murphy
a,
, Eugene McGovern
a
, Sara Pavia
b
a
Dublin Institute of Technology, Bolton Street Campus, D1, Ireland
b
Trinity College, D2, Ireland
article info
Article history:
Available online 9 January 2013
Keywords:
CAD
Cultural heritage
Modelling
Architecture
Building
Software
abstract
Historic Building Information Modelling (HBIM) is a novel prototype library of parametric objects, based
on historic architectural data and a system of cross platform programmes for mapping parametric objects
onto point cloud and image survey data. The HBIM process begins with remote collection of survey data
using a terrestrial laser scanner combined with digital photo modelling. The next stage involves the
design and construction of a parametric library of objects, which are based on the manuscripts ranging
from Vitruvius to 18th century architectural pattern books. In building parametric objects, the problem
of file format and exchange of data has been overcome within the BIM ArchiCAD software platform by
using geometric descriptive language (GDL). The plotting of parametric objects onto the laser scan sur-
veys as building components to create or form the entire building is the final stage in the reverse engi-
neering process. The final HBIM product is the creation of full 3D models including detail behind the
object’s surface concerning its methods of construction and material make-up. The resultant HBIM can
automatically create cut sections, details and schedules in addition to the orthographic projections and
3D models (wire frame or textured) for both the analysis and conservation of historic objects, structures
and environments.
Ó2012 International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, Inc. (ISPRS) Published by Elsevier
B.V. All rights reserved.
1. Introduction
In this paper Historic Building Information Modelling (HBIM)
(Murphy et al., 2009) is described beginning with a short review
of literature concerning parametric modelling and Building Infor-
mation Modelling (BIM). The methodology for constructing a
library of interactive parametric objects based on historic archi-
tectural data is presented illustrating the sourcing and analysis
of historic architectural data and how the parametric architec-
tural elements are coded using geometric descriptive language
GDL. The building of the library is followed by an example of
mapping the interactive parametric objects onto the laser scan
and image survey data, resulting in the automation of survey
engineering drawings and schedules, demonstrating the complete
HBIM process. In conclusion, the evaluation process, which is,
now under-way is outlined; initial results indicate the potential
for HBIM for the conservation of historic structures and
environments.
1.1. Definition
Historic Building Information Modelling (HBIM) is a novel
solution whereby interactive parametric objects representing
architectural elements are constructed from historic data, these
elements (including detail behind the scan surface) are accurately
mapped onto a point cloud or image based survey. The architec-
tural elements are scripted using a geometric descriptive lan-
guage (GDL). The design and detail for the parametric objects
are based on architectural manuscripts ranging from Vitruvius
to Palladio to the architectural pattern books of the 18th century.
The architecture of the renaissance introduced and documented
advanced scientific rules for the production of architectural ele-
ments, which support the design of parametric models. The use
of historic data introduces the opportunity to develop detail be-
hind the object’s surface concerning its methods of construction
and material makeup In the final stage of the HBIM process, the
prototype libraries of parametric objects (see sample of library
in Fig. 11) are mapped onto the point cloud and image survey
data using a system of cross software platform management. Full
engineering drawings orthographic, sectional and 3D models can
then be automatically produced from the Historic Building Infor-
mation Model.
0924-2716/$ - see front matter Ó2012 International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, Inc. (ISPRS) Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.isprsjprs.2012.11.006
Corresponding author.
E-mail addresses: Maurice.Murphy@DIT.ie (M. Murphy), Eugene.McGovern@DI-
T.ie (E. McGovern), pavias@tcd.ie (S. Pavia).
ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing 76 (2013) 89–102
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1.2. An additional and new approach
Historic Building Information Modelling has been described in
previous work (Murphy et al., 2009) which concentrated on the
identification of data collection using laser scanning and the pro-
cessing of the scans in order to isolate and test the most suitable
survey products for further modelling in HBIM. These were identi-
fied as segmented point cloud sections and ortho-images, used as
frameworks for plotting parametric. The concept for designing li-
brary objects in GDL was introduced in addition to the design of
a plotting procedure. The motivation for this work has evolved
from attempts to automate conservation documentation in the
form of engineering drawing and schedules from laser scan and
image based surveys of historic structures. In the field of practice,
particularly our work with historic structures in Ireland, it
emerged that conservation experts found it difficult to use point
cloud survey data as a basis for developing conservation documen-
tation. With the result that much of the valuable research in the
areas of remote sensing for architectural heritage was limited as
a visualisation tool whereas its potential to automate documenta-
tion for the whole conservation cycle for historic structures is not
yet realised. In this paper the following new and additional aspects
are developed for modelling architectural heritage:
A historic framework for building a parametric library of archi-
tectural elements is proposed, through assessing the evolution
of architectural manuscripts in order to map and identify signif-
icant rules that represent a wide range of classical buildings,
and can be applied to computer modelling. Secondly the inter-
pretation and understanding of these rules is essential and can
be more easily adapted from the architectural pattern books
which emerged after the renaissance and beginning of the
enlightenment period of the 17th and 18th centuries, these pat-
terns are interpreted for both geometric shapes and non uni-
form shapes.
The development of parametric and shape rules to re-produce
the classical elements detailed in the pattern books using GDL
is presented, these are illustrated in Figs. 2 and 3, and described
in a sample code. The shape commands and new library of
primitives allow for all configurations of the classical orders in
relation to uniform geometry. Non-uniform and organic shapes
are developed in GDL through a series of procedures attempting
to maximise parametric content of the objects (see Figs. 4 and
5). These shapes are stored as individual parametric objects or
combined to make larger objects in a library and when used
in the HBIM platform can be varied and deformed to match
their requirements. The library range and size is best illustrated
by their use in models, this range is illustrated in Figs. 6 and
9–11.
The problems of plotting onto point cloud and image survey
data is addressed and solutions are proposed and tested, the
fact that Building Information Modelling generates its 3D mod-
els through plotting in 2D onto different planes, requires that
survey data be segmented and processed in 2D in the BIM envi-
ronment. This has been solved through a series of procedures,
see Fig. 7. Secondly objects are re-generated and deformed
through changing parameters and this is based on numeric data.
To facilitate this, a photo scaling application, which is
web-based, has been developed and is used for plotting and
measuring distances and angular values using two-dimen-
Fig. 1. Pattern book details.
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sional segmented data. This automates the production of
numeric parametric data for revising and plotting the library
objects onto the laser survey data.
Finally a design for end user scenario testing is proposed to
assess the suitability of HBIM as a tool for the automation of
engineering drawings for the conservation process.
Fig. 2. Parametric and shape rules.
Fig. 3. Doric column.
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The HBIM approach is new as most applications of Building
Information Modelling are applied to designing new buildings
and new innovations that are concentrated around plug-ins for en-
ergy, structural, economic analysis and scheduling of components
as an addition to new architectural design. With the exception of
(Fai et al., 2011), very little work has been done in relation to mod-
elling historic buildings and also generating BIM models from laser
scan survey data. Their work, concentrated on the problems asso-
ciated with combining laser scanning and BIM through plotting
generic library objects onto the laser scan-based survey in a BIM
environment. This approach did not include the creation of para-
metric libraries or improved plotting of objects onto the scan sur-
veys. The advantages of HBIM over other modelling approaches is
that the end result provides automated documentation in the form
Fig. 4. Ionic capital.
Fig. 5. Corinthian column.
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Fig. 6. Example of architectural rules in façade plot.
Fig. 7. Point cloud interrogation.
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of engineering drawings for precise conservation of architectural
heritage. This is in contrast to highly sophisticated visualisation
products developed from procedural and other parametric model-
ling approaches whereby the main product is a visualisation tool.
HBIM differs from these approaches, as the product is the creation
of full 3D models including detail behind the object’s surface con-
cerning its methods of construction and material makeup. In addi-
tion 3D documentation is produced which includes orthographic
projections, sections, details and schedules (energy, cost decay
etc.), adding intelligence to point cloud data.
Using historic data to re-create the past or to restore or con-
serve historic artefacts and buildings is common in the wider area
of conservation (ICOMOS, 2011) and is a wide area of research.
Within both research areas of procedural and parametric model-
ling of architectural heritage the use of architectural knowledge
to inform the creation of models is now becoming a common part
of a design approach (Chevrier et al., 2010, 2009; De Luca et al.,
2011; Muller et al., 2006; Wonka et al., 2003). While these works
inform the HBIM approach they differ in their analysis of historic
architectural data. HBIM focuses on the emergence of architectural
pattern books to define architectural rules and detail. In addition a
narrative is presented, which defines the evolution and form of
European classical architecture for computer-based modelling.
The aim of producing conservation documentation as opposed to
sophisticated visualisation models requires different levels of accu-
racy especially in the specification of construction detail behind
the scan surface. Wider and deeper historic sources in addition
to different software tools are therefore required.
2. Architectural 3D modelling – previous work
2.1. Architectural modelling using shape grammars
In documenting the classical orders, renaissance architects for-
mulated a language whereby the rules, which govern the distribu-
tion and combination of parts, resulted in a grammar of ornament
and composition. The elements (mouldings, profiles, symbols, etc.)
become the architectural vocabulary; the whole composition
relates to a linguistic structure, this linguistic analogy offers archi-
tecture a basis for analysis and understanding (Clarke and Crossley,
2000). More recently, linguistics is used for representation and
semantics in the field of computing for procedural modelling of
buildings and virtual environments. Shape grammars (Stiny and
Gips, 1972), introduced in the 1970s is now commonly used for
conceptualising and analysing architectural design for computer
modelling. Buildings are based on different architectural styles
and can be divided and represented by sets of basic shapes, these
shapes are governed by replacement rules where a shape can be
changed or replaced by transformations. Shape grammar therefore
can recognise architectural styles and urban planning configura-
tions. The introduction of procedural modelling, which is based
on shape grammars, can automatically reconstruct and generate
these styles and configurations in a virtual environment. In the
case of the generation of 3D city models, maps and land water
boundaries are used to generate roadways and streets and the
geometry of buildings and their position (Parish and Müller,
2001). Procedural modelling can automatically generate virtual
models of single buildings based on shape grammars. In the case
of applying grammars to architectural styles new rules were de-
vised to improve the automation of the virtual models, for example
split rules, divide up architectural structures and elements into
components, for example facades can be divided vertically into
floors and horizontally into windows and their accompanying pan-
els (Aliaga et al., 2007; Muller et al., 2006; Wonka et al., 2003). In
the case of architectural heritage and archaeology the ‘‘Plastico di
Roma antica’’, a large plaster-of-Paris model of imperial Rome
(16 17 m) created in the last century was scanned and modelled
as a mesh model. The model was then incorporated with other his-
toric and specialist information and with rule-based generation the
reconstruction of the ancient Rome was modelled, entitled ‘‘Rome
Fig. 8. Plotting objects.
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Reborn 1.0’’ (Guidi et al., 2007, 2008) and extended to the whole
city in the following project ‘‘Rome Reborn 2.0’’ (Frischer et al.,
2008). Shape grammar modelling contrasts with using an architec-
tural language to build parametric objects, whereby these objects
are then plotted onto laser/image surveys to build a model, the for-
mer is automatic and the later depends on human interaction com-
bined with automation.
2.2. Parametric modelling onto point clouds
The process of mapping vectors onto a 3D point cloud can be
improved by automatically placing primitive 2D or 3D shapes onto
the point cloud by locating/defining shapes on the point cloud as
primitives. For example a primitive shape of a cylinder can be
mapped onto the point cloud to represent a column, which is then
textured from the associated image data (Abmayr et al., 2005). An
improvement in mapping can be achieved by recognising that
buildings are a set of elements, organised by spatial relationships
determined by an architectural style or language. The architectural
elements can be represented in libraries as parametric objects and
mapped onto point cloud or image-based surveys (De Luca et al.,
2007). In similar work (Deveau et al., 2005), primitive objects are
mapped onto the scan and image data; these are detected through
semi-automatic extraction of the objects where the object localisa-
tion is initialised by user interaction. This is then followed by fully
automatic segmentation of both the image and 3D data where each
object needs to be reconstructed from planar surfaces, general geo-
metric primitives and generalised cylinders. When these models
do not fit with the surface, triangulation is performed similar to la-
ser data editing software (Deveau et al., 2005). A classical column
is made up of a cylindrical shaft to one third of its height and a
tapering shaft for the remainder of the shaft; this subtlety may
not usually be detected by automatic or semi-automatic recogni-
tion of primitives. Parametric libraries of architectural elements
or objects can be built with precision for mapping onto different
survey data sets if they are based on architectural language and
vocabularies. In their work (Chevrier et al., 2009), state, ‘‘only sim-
ple geometrical shapes are automatically adjusted to cloud points’’
and only visible parts of the objects can be modelled and rebuilt.
Hidden parts are often predictable and can be created as paramet-
ric objects based on historic architectural data. In more recent
work Chevrier et al., 2010, develop parametric components for
3D modelling of architectural elements, in a Maya Environment
combined with a Graphical User Interface (GUI), they automati-
cally construct 3D models of the objects based on point cloud
and image survey data. In this study they concentrate on window
openings, which they automatically generate as parametric models
of walls and their openings, further parameters can be added based
on historic and other survey data sources. Historic architectural
and geometrical knowledge is essential in order to create architec-
tural parametric objects or elements.
De Luca et al. (2011, 2006, 2007) have developed a system for
modelling and representing architectural heritage through a soft-
ware platform, called NUBES. They propose a methodology for
Fig. 9. HBIM including automated documentation.
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the semantic description of architectural elements based on his-
toric architectural knowledge, which is used to construct a shape
library and is organised spatially as completed structures within
the NUBES framework. They establish their analysis of the classical
language of architecture on historic architectural manuscripts, in
their work they refer to three renaissance manuscripts; Alberti,
Serlio and Palladio. They identify a number of concepts for analys-
ing the geometrical character and make-up of classical buildings
and for the reinstatement of the buildings’ shape within a virtual
environment. As a first step in their modelling pipeline they iden-
tify the dominant surface as the internal and external fabric or
envelope of a structure, which is separated in the modelling pipe-
line from other parts of the artifact or structure. They describe
architectural mouldings as the key building atoms of classical
architecture, which make up and add complexity to the geometry
of larger elements such as walls, columns and beams, windows
doors. Their library of shapes is based on sets of geometric primi-
tives, which form the architectural mouldings, which are described
as basic elements (atoms). The fact that objects in classical archi-
tecture can be linked by intermediate shapes, which allow for tran-
Fig. 10. From scan to HBIM to automated documentation.
Fig. 11. Samples of object library.
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sition between the atoms is essential in describing the behaviour of
architectural elements within their spatial framework. In addition
they identify the use of repetition of architectural elements (colon-
nades, façade symmetry and proportion) that make up the whole.
They state that orthographic plans, elevations and surveys can also
inform the creation of objects (De Luca et al., 2006, 2007) and com-
pliment the knowledge taken from architectural manuscripts. In
their most recent publications they outline a WEB based system
for describing, analysing, documenting and sharing digital repre-
sentations of heritage buildings using their improved methodolo-
gies (De Luca et al., 2011).
2.3. Parametric modelling – Building Information Modelling
The basic parameters, which describe vector objects, are shape
and volume and can be simply expressed as coordinate points
and their orientation as an angular value within a 3D space. The
specification for the materials and texture can accompany the
numerical data. The 3D object as a parametric model can be edited
to revise any or all of its parameters of construction, texture and
orientation. Parametric CAD differs from generic 3D CAD, as
parameters are assigned to an object prior to its use. For example,
AutoCAD is an a C++ written object-oriented program, the objects
which are used to create the lines, arcs, and dimensions that in
turn create architectural elements are not parametric. These ob-
jects exist as graphic entities but they do not have intelligence
(Ibrahim and Krawczyk, 2004; Ibrahim et al., 2003). Parametric
modelling can be described as systems which solve object con-
straints by applying sequential commands to model variables such
as geometry, shape, surface texture or feature (Shah and Mäntylä,
1995). Architectural elements are represented as real world enti-
ties by capturing their characteristics, function and performance
under different conditions. The parametric objects can be adaptive
to wider architectural scenarios reducing their level of detail or
alternatively capture specific knowledge reducing their wider use
(Garba and Hassanain, 2004). Other strategic evolutionary stages
of 3D CAD are Boundary Representation (B-rep) and Constructive
Solid Geometry (CSG) these were both developed in the 1970s
and 1980s; Boundary Representation (B-rep) provides details of
an object’s shape by describing the object’s faces, edges and verti-
ces and their relationships. Constructive Solid Geometry (CSG) rep-
resents objects using primitive shapes and subsequently combines
these in 3D spaces using Boolean operations to create additional
objects. These are low-level operations and intangible in terms of
a designer’s requirements, a further evolutionary stage introduced
the concept of describing the features and characteristics of an ob-
ject. Feature based CAD can refer to geometry, specification of
materials etc., in addition to function which describes the objects
role (e.g. wall, door, window, etc.) and performance which indi-
cates how elements relate to each other; the window can cut an
opening in a wall (Gross, 2001; Van Leeuwen, 1999). Feature based
CAD enables the modification and variation of parameters by the
user, the incorporation of object features (such as openings in ele-
ments) and interactions between elements within a spatial envi-
ronment (Van Leeuwen et al., 1996).
This is now described as Building Information Modelling (BIM)
and differentiates itself as an object intelligent architectural CAD
tool rather than a drafting tool. BIM can be described as the assem-
bling of parametric objects within a virtual environment, these ob-
jects which represent building components are then used to create
or form an entire building. The parametric building objects are not
defined singularly but as systems using interaction with other
objects and their own values (shape, texture, etc.) within a BIM.
Objects are described according to parameters some of which are
user defined and others, which relate to position in a 3D
environment relative to other shape objects (Eastman, 2007). The
visualisation of objects is achieved through viewing 2D and 3D
features, plans, sections, elevations and 3D views. BIM can
automatically create cut sections, details and schedules in addition
to orthographic projections and 3D models (wire frame or textured
and animated). BIM uses building semantics to represent buildings
and their components in a virtual environment (Boeykens et al.,
2008). The evolutionary stages of architectural CAD have moved
from 2D graphic computer representation to parametric modelling
to nD modelling (Tse et al., 2005) and onto feature extraction and
finally more recently to Building Information Modelling.
The leading BIM software platforms are Autodesk Revitt (Auto-
desk, 2011), GraphiSoft ArchiCAD (Graphisoft, 2011) and Bentley
Architecture (Bentley, 2011). ArchiCAD is an architectural design
application, built around the BIM concept as a standalone applica-
tion. In ArchiCAD the modelling of objects can be achieved through
using standard parametric construction elements. These elements
are embedded in the software (such as walls, columns, beams,
slabs, roofs, etc.) or created as new objects using the embedded
scripting language geometric descriptive language GDL. The use
of GDL allows for the creation of any number of rich parametric
BIM objects and for their storage in internal libraries or data bases
for further reuse or modification (Tse et al., 2005). Revit is also a
BIM modelling platform, where the user constructs a mass model
with a combination of solid forms and void forms. The faces of
the mass volume can be turned into building elements and floors
and other architectural elements can be generated inside the mass
model (Boeykens et al., 2008). Bentley differs from Archi-CAD and
Revit in that it exists as a plug-in for other Bentley platforms.
3. Building a library of parametric objects
3.1. Historic framework for building a parametric library of
architectural elements
Data concerning historic construction techniques and architec-
tural details can be found in architectural manuscripts, which have
evolved from Vitruvius to the 17th and 18th century Architectural
Pattern Books. It is essential to identify the correct sources for
describing the rules and cannons of classical architecture. Initially
in this section, the evolution of these manuscripts is summarised
chronologically in order to map and identify significant rules,
which represent a wide range of classical buildings and can be ap-
plied to computer modelling. Secondly the interpretation and
understanding of these rules is essential and can be more easily
adapted from the architectural pattern books which emerged after
the renaissance and beginning in the enlightenment period of the
17th and 18th centuries. The analysis for modelling of architecture
is confined to the classical period in the 17th and 18th centuries in
Ireland and Europe. The classical architecture of this period is
based on ordered components, geometric proportion and a limited
range of material and texture and is an ideal subject for the build-
ing of parametric components for virtual models.
3.2. Evolution of manuscripts and rules for classical architecture
The most important classical source for architecture is the trea-
tise ‘‘De architectura’’ by Vitruvius, his treatise was possibly written
before 27 BC, and during the first century AD. The text survived in
various manuscripts during the middle ages. Marcus Vitruvius Pol-
lio was a Roman architect working in the reign of the Emperor
Augustus. Vitruvius observed design and geometry in ancient
architecture of Rome and Greece and documented the classical or-
ders, proportions, methods of construction and materials. Classical
architecture was revived during the renaissance, introducing new
and more scientific rules for the interpretation of Roman and Greek
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buildings and also for the production of drawings and surveys. Al-
berti, published his work ‘‘De re aedificatoria’’ (On the Art of Build-
ing) in 1452. This was as an attempt to interpret the work of
Vitruvius and to improve on its philosophical and intellectual con-
tent. There were no illustrations included in the original and it was
written in Latin. At the same time, Marini, published his interpre-
tations of Vitruvius, unlike Alberti it contained illustrations, pre-
senting the laws of classical proportion. In 1537, Sebastiano
Serlio published ‘‘Regole generali d’architettura’’ (General Rules of
Architecture). In 1562 Vignola published his ‘‘Regola Delli Cinque
Ordini D’architettura’’ (The Five Orders of Architecture) which was
mainly illustration and lacked text, resulting in a more practical
aid for building (Chitham, 2005; Evers and Thoenes, 2003; Jok-
ilehto, 1986). While Andrea Palladio’s 1570 work ‘‘Quattro Libri
dell’Architettura’’ (The Four Books of Architecture) also documented
a succinct account of the rules of classical architecture, his treatise,
set out full design for buildings (in plan, elevation and section), and
influenced greatly architecture in Europe and later its colonies,
(Pain, 1788; Palladio, 2000).
3.3. Adapting design rules from architectural pattern books
In the 17th, 18th and 19th centuries, architectural pattern
books were written and devised by both architects, builders and
theoreticians and were widely available in Europe and its colonies.
The rules of the Renaissance Architects were more comprehen-
sively documented in the Vernacular Pattern books which are spe-
cific to European and colonial regions. Architectural pattern books
are a record of local design. These books contained the historic con-
struction techniques used in the 18th century such as geometry
and principles of the external and internal structure and fabric con-
struction; positioning of openings; proportional relationship of the
building’s elements; and classical detailing (Langley, 1756; Pain,
1788).
3.4. Building a library part – classical orders
Classical proportioning consists of a series of modular relation-
ships, which are based on the diameter of the base of the column,
which represents a single module. Vignola’s manuscripts, which
concentrated on the five orders, introduced additional and more
precise methods for setting up classical proportions. He did this
by dividing the order into a ratio of the pedestal, column and
entablature, see column one in Table 1. Using these ratios for the
larger elements reduced the complexity of calculations that arose
if the whole building was related to the diameter of the base of a
column. The sub-relationships between the column and details
such as mouldings were usually devised using 60 divisions of min-
utes, which represented the diameter of the base of the column as
a single module in Table 1, the measurements and rules for laying
out the five orders are interpreted from a more recent manuscript
(Ware, 1903), the proportions for the component parts are
expressed as fractions of the diameter of the base of the column
(as opposed to minutes). The choice to establish the design of the
parametric columns on Vignola’s proportions relates to the fact
that his illustrations focused on the five orders introducing a
clearer method for setting up the proportions (Evers and Thoenes,
2003; Vignola, 1596; Ware, 1903).
Fig. 1, detail 1 is an illustration from Pain’s 18th century which
gives a description of the geometry of the Doric column capital and
the modular arrangement of the base of the column, dividing it
into 60 units (Pain, 1788). In detail 2, from the 19th century; frac-
tions are introduced as minutes (60 divisions); this approach is
much simpler for calculations (Ware, 1903). In the 20th century
publication, (Chitham, 2005) metric divisions were introduced for
the main elements, using four scales A, B, C and D. Scale A repre-
sents the main elements (pedestal, column and entablature etc.)
ascending and descending from the underside of the column
plinth, but further subdivided into tenths of the column diameter.
Scale B shows the proportions of the principal divisions and subdi-
visions of the order. Scale C shows the proportions of the minor
subdivisions, and scale D repeats these in running or cumulative
figures.
3.5. Building architectural elements using geometric descriptive
language
Geometric descriptive language (GDL) is an open script based
language embedded in Graphisoft ArchiCAD. ArchiCAD software
divides parametric objects into built construction elements (walls,
columns, beams, etc.) and GDL objects. GDL provides access to
modelling of objects through a BASIC like language; these objects
are specifically constructed for one or many uses and carry the re-
quired parametric information for the object’s function. All GDL
objects are created within a three dimensional space, this space
is measured by the x,y, and z-axes, the origin of which is called
the global origin (0,0,0). The global origin and local coordinate sys-
tem prepares the position, orientation and scale of objects, marking
positions of objects or shapes, which can be moved on the x,y, and
z-axis. The local coordinate system can be moved and provides a
reference to the current point of an object with reference to the
global origin. Shapes are scripted, based on primitives that repre-
sent the simplest solid objects; these are the building blocks of
GDL and culminate to create the more complex parts, which are
stored in libraries. The primitives are stored in the computer mem-
ory in binary format, and the 3D engine generates them within 3D
space. The primitives are made up of all the vertices of the object’s
components, all the edges linking the vertices and all the surface
polygons within the edges. The primitives are formed together in
groups known as bodies; these bodies make up the 3D model.
Table 1
Elements according to vignola.
Type of order Tuscan Doric Ionic Corinthian Composite
Entablature Height of cornice 3/4D 3/4D 7/8D 3/4D 3/4D
Height of frieze 1/2D 3/4D 6/8D 1/2D 1/2D
Height of architrave 1/2D 1/2D 5/8D 1/2D 1/2D
Capital Height of abacus 1/6D 1/6D 1/3D 7/6D 7/6D
Height of echinus 1/6D 1/6D
Height of necking 1/6D 1/6D
Shaft Astragal 6D 7D 8D 8 1/3 8 1/3
Height of shaft
Upper diameter of shaft 5/6D 5/6D 5/6D 5/6D 5/6D
Lower diameter of shaft 5/6D 5/6D 5/6D 5/6D 5/6D
Base Height of torrus 1/2D 1/2D 1/2D 1/2D 1/2D
Height of plinth
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For shapes that become more complicated and for transformations,
which are more abstract, additional values are required in their
definition, which may not be found in simple primitives. GDL also
includes Boolean operations, Meshing, NURBS and shape com-
mands for creating organic and non-uniform 3D shapes (Watson,
2009).
3.6. Developing parametric and shape rules using GDL
Although mouldings can be represented through the combina-
tion of cylinders and deformed ellipses and spheres, it is better
to combine these with lathed prisms and revolved poly-lines in or-
der to represent mouldings more accurately. The 2D profile of the
objects are represented on the zand x-axis and then revolved to re-
quired value. An example of shape and parametric rules are illus-
trated in Fig. 2, these shapes represent classical mouldings and
are designed to exploit and maximise the full range of parameters,
deformation of shapes and abstract transformations. The sample
script below is designed to create a series of parametric shapes,
which represent the classical mouldings and their deformations.
The diameter of the base of the column is represented by the cyl-
inder radius (r1) allowing the moulding to deform in proportion
to the column and other elements. The radius of the moulding pro-
file (r2) can vary depending on the profile geometry also negative
values can be inserted to change from convex to concave profiles.
Numeric masking values are attached in the code to establish the
construction of the curve in the profile, these can be radius, tangent
or point and angle based syntax (Capo, 2006).
!!! MOULDING GEOMETRY
MATERIAL ‘‘Paint 02’’
HOTSPOT 0,0,0
variables
r1= 1 !!!Cylind_rad
r2 = .25 !!!curve profile
a = 180 deg !!! profile angle
!!! Transformations
ROTy-90
REVOLVE 3, 360, 3,
Xcoordinate Ycoordinate Masking values
001
0r11
r2 a 2001
!!! Masking values define visibility of edges and appropriate
shape status for curves
A Doric column is represented in Fig. 3, using coordinate transfor-
mations the primitives are stacked on the Z-axis or alternatively
moved on the xand y-axis to form the column. The block represents
the base of the column a cylinder and a cone, are added on the z-
axis to represent the column shaft (the cone represents the tapering
of the column one third up the shaft). The height and width of each
element is represented by a variable expressed in terms of the ob-
jects height, width or diameter, for example cone_ht = the height
of the cone and cone_rad1 = the first radius of the cone, which rep-
resents the upper shaft of the column, these primitives are com-
bined with the mouldings in Fig. 2. The variables used to
represent each value for the primitives are expressed in terms of
the base diameter of the column, for example the cone_rad1 is
equal to the half the diameter of the column base. A series of conical
shapes can be used to represent further deformations in the column
shaft.
The Doric Entablature (see Fig. 3a) consisting of decorated cor-
nices, friezes and architraves are developed using similar moul-
dings and their profiles are achieved using 2D prism shapes,
which are given depth or sent on linear paths. Mouldings whether
used in columns or architraves are based on 2D profiles repre-
sented by the width and height, all of which can be expressed as
variables in terms of the diameter of the base of the column (see
Fig. 3c).
Both primitives and mouldings are combined into a compound
object (Fig. 3a), in this case a Doric column and entablature, addi-
tional transformations can re-scale the subsequent whole or parts
of shapes or rotate the object around any of its axis. Non-geometric
parameters such as texture, pen and fill are introduced to replace
fixed values, making the object more flexible. These variables are
accessible from the library parts settings dialog box within the
software platform. When the object is placed, the variables and
parameters can be changed to match the object it represents in real
world terms; other common parameters are formation level and
rotational transformations. The component or objects are placed
in libraries or databases; the use of flow control, macros, subrou-
tines and loops can re-introduce these objects in repetition or re-
vised state.
3.7. Decoration and non-uniform shapes
Organic shapes such as the Corinthian and Ionic capitol require
more complex design based on NURBS, meshing and Boolean oper-
ations. The scroll in Fig. 4 was formed using NURBS and depth was
added using slab commands, the scroll is based on the pattern book
(see Fig. 4a) (Chitham, 2005; Pain, 1788), which lays out a compli-
cated geometry for establishing the scroll radii.
The Acanthus leaf (from pattern book) in Fig. 5a(Langley, 1756;
Ware, 1903), was formed using NURBS to build a 2D profile and
meshing was then used to add the irregular depth of the leaf.
Group and solid operations were used to create the bend in the leaf
around the column and the bend at the top of the leaf (see Fig. 5c);
the object is bent in two in two directions. The range of parameters
attributed to the Acanthus leaf is limited to its bounding box i.e.
height, width and depth and the radius of the bend around the col-
umn. Finally the leaf is repeated to match the columns diameter
through a looping procedure (see Fig. 5d).
Finally in Fig. 6, the rules of classical architecture are illustrated
in an ensemble of the classical orders combined with the structural
elements of walls, roofs, windows, domes and entrance doorways.
This plot was developed in a HBIM environment using the devel-
oped library and based on reconstruction from original historic
drawings. The plotting process is detailed in the next section of this
paper.
4. Plotting parametric objects onto laser and image-based
survey
4.1. Plotting vectors onto point cloud surveys
The majority of current software platforms for creating engi-
neering drawings from laser scan surveys are created by mapping
vectors onto the point cloud or textured point cloud. This is a com-
plex process as the data size of the point cloud is large and map-
ping in 3D space onto a point cloud is difficult because of point
and edge detection and location. Segmentation of the point cloud
is necessary in order to identify the correct surfaces for plotting
of vectors. Vectors can then be plotted onto both the point cloud
and the ortho-image; this process is largely manual, although addi-
tions to software platforms to automate the mapping process in-
clude profiling and the creation of paths.
M. Murphy et al. / ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing 76 (2013) 89–102 99
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4.2. Plotting parametric objects onto point cloud surveys
Mapping parametric objects as opposed to vectors onto the
point cloud can overcome the slow task of plotting and locating
every vector onto the cloud surface. The use of parametric objects
can also introduce the opportunity to develop detail behind the ob-
ject’s surface concerning its methods of construction and material
make-up. Within Historic Building Information Modelling, the li-
brary of parametric objects is designed as a plug-in for existing
software platforms with the addition of a set of procedures and a
framework for mapping these objects onto point clouds and image
surveys. Before the parametric objects are plotted a range of soft-
ware is required for processing the laser survey data prior to devel-
oping the data as a HBIM. The point cloud survey requires a series
of pre and post processing stages, involving cleaning, sorting and
combining of different sets of point cloud data, which is followed
by surfacing and texturing. The initial processing stage, involves
cleaning and removing erroneous data or artefacts followed by
re-sampling and reducing the density of the data for overly dense
point clouds. Registration is the combination of several point
clouds taken from different observation points or the referencing
of the scanned object in a global or project coordinate system.
Polygonal surface meshing creates a surface on a point cloud; the
created surface is made up of triangles connecting the data points
into a consistent polygonal model. Following the creation of a tri-
angular mesh the results are then textured from associated image
information. The point cloud data can be considered as a skeletal
framework, which is then mapped using parametric architectural
elements to form the HBIM. Ortho-images and segmented point
cloud sections and elevations are the initial data imported as image
and geometric data for further processing within the HBIM plat-
form. Ortho-images are photo realistic models containing width,
breath and height of an object. The point cloud is segmented to
supply floor plans, elevations and sectional cuts as a map for loca-
tion of library objects. Further interrogation of the point cloud sup-
plies numeric values for formation values (for z-axis location) and
parametric values for the library objects themselves, these are re-
corded in data sheets. The dimensions and co-ordinates of open-
ings and elements are calculated from the point cloud and ortho-
image survey and transferred onto data sheets. A specialised
WEB based ortho-photo scaling application has been developed
as integral part HBIM to automatically supply the numeric and
measurement data for adjusting the parameters and plotting the
objects to establish the model, this is summarised in the following
section.
4.3. Overview of photo scaling application for creating data sheets
The photo scaling application is a web-based application used
for plotting and measuring distances between two point and angu-
lar values using two-dimensional images (see Fig. 7a). The applica-
tion is developed using Ruby on Rails and Javascript and is
designed to be scalable allowing for further improvements in the
future. The objective is to create an application that is easy to ac-
cess and portable for use on any operating system and browser. Fu-
ture work will include for working with three-dimensional data
also extending the application to work on mobile devices.
4.4. Implementation and design
Ruby on Rails is used on the server side for creating users, data-
base storage and using special libraries called gems for uploading
the images, for the image manipulation HTML, Javascript and JQue-
ry are used. When a user uploads an ortho-image or segmented
point cloud, it is displayed on screen with the same dimensions as
the original image, this is important to maintain so as not to dis-
tort the width or the height. Once the image is uploaded and dis-
played the user is asked to begin selecting two points. These
initial are true coordinate values for these points based on survey
data. Using javascript the position of the mouse is located in the
window, and using JQuerys offset method the position of the image
element is determined. To locate the point in the image the user is
selecting, a HTML div which is over-layed on that particular point
with the size of 1 pixel. Using Javascript in this manner, means that
correct values will be determined regardless of the users screen
resolution or for example if the browser is set a certain zoom level.
The code sample below locates the current xand yposition when
the image is clicked at any point or location.
$(‘img’).click(function(e) {
var offset = $(this).offset();
alert(e.clientX – offset.left);
alert(e.clientY – offset.top);
});
The ortho-images and segmented point clouds are interrogated
to automate linear and angular measurements which are contained
in data sheets and used to establish the require parameters of li-
brary objects. These parameters are all numerical values and range
from length, breath, height, formation level, diameters, radii and
angular displacement position for the objects.
4.5. Adjusting parameters and plotting objects
Before placing a construction element, or GDL object, in a HBIM,
the default parameters can be edited, changing the parameters of
shape, size or other properties to correspond with the survey data,
the parameters for objects are calculated from data sheets. The ob-
jects are then positioned onto the segmented plan and ortho-
graphic image in elevation and adjusted in side elevation and
section using segmented data for angular displacement (see
Fig. 7b). All of these data sets represent the information for a par-
ticular plane on the x,y, and z-axis; this can therefore represent
elevation, plan, or section of an object. The position of elements
in the co-ordinate system relative to other objects is located by
mapping directly onto segmented point cloud plan and section
and into position in elevation onto the ortho-image. When a library
part or parametric object is placed into the HBIM, it is placed as an
icon in 2D in the floor plan position (separated by height or forma-
tion levels) and determined along the x,y-axis and in section and in
elevation, on the z-axis (see Fig. 8a). The library objects are not
plotted directly in 3D environments, with the result that the ob-
jects are not placed within the 3D point cloud. Upon completion
of the mapping of objects in 2D the completed 3D model auto-
mates a full set of drawings and documentation and virtual nD
models. In Fig. 8b, the sequence and process for mapping objects
onto point clouds and image-based surveys of a façade is
illustrated.
5. Creating engineering drawings from laser scan surveys
Where conservation or restoration work is to be carried out
on an object or structure, conventional orthographic or 3D sur-
vey engineering drawings are required. To a large extent current
research concerning automated surveying systems for cultural
heritage objects has concentrated on the identification of suit-
able hardware and software systems for the collection and pro-
cessing of data, as a result, the output is the accurate 3D model
mainly suitable for visualisation of a historic structure or arte-
fact. The laser scan survey of the Cathedral of Saint Pierre de
Beauvais carried out by the University of Columbia Robotics
Lab (Allen et al., 2003) is an example of an accurate 3D record
100 M. Murphy et al. / ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing 76 (2013) 89–102
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of a historic structure. As part of the scan results elevation, plan
and section are based on the point cloud colour intensity. If the
scan results are used to represent conservation or re-construc-
tion detail, there are then two significant limitations with this
data. Firstly, upon close inspection of the point cloud, edges
and planes, which define the construction elements that make
up the structure, are not easily identified. Secondly, the survey
data details the outer fabric or the surface of the structure and
does not contain detail behind the surface. Part of the laser scan
results for Beauvais are available on CyArc digital archive (CyArc,
2007) which is a cultural heritage archive providing access to
data created by laser scanning, digital modelling, and other 3D
technologies. The production of engineering drawings from laser
and image survey data can be described as a reverse engineering
process; whereby an object’s physical dimensions, geometry, and
material properties are captured to produce orthographic plans,
elevations, sections and 3D models (Cheng and Jin, 2006). The
objects in this case are historic structures brought through the
design process in the opposite direction, revealing information
about the original design and construction. In the final stage of
the HBIM process full engineering drawings orthographic, sec-
tional and 3D models can then be automatically produced from
the Historic Building Information Model, this is illustrated in
Fig. 9.
6. Conclusion
6.1. Incorporating international standards for recording architectural
heritage
Early research concerning accuracy of laser scanning and digital
photo modelling concentrated on smaller cultural objects, which
require very high scan resolution. This is best illustrated by Stan-
ford University and the University of Washington (Levoy et al.,
2000) in the digitising of the sculpting of the Renaissance artist
Michelangelo. The triangulation scanner at a resolution of
1/4 mm captured detail of the geometry of the artist’s chisel marks.
The current commercial recording systems which combine laser
scanning with digital photo-modelling have been proven to meet
with accuracy requirements for recording and surveying and mod-
elling historic structures and artefacts (Beraldin et al., 1997; Ber-
nardini and Rushmeier, 2002; Jacobs, 2000).
6.2. Evaluation of HBIM as a conservation documentation and
recording tool
International and national standards for producing conservation
documentation other than remote sensing, for historic structures
are detailed in international guidelines such as the Historic Amer-
ican Building Surveys (HABS) (National Park Service, 2005) and
English Heritage Metric Survey Practice (Bryan and Blake, 2000).
An evaluation process for HBIM is now under-way, it is intended
that as part of this process, the final product which is the auto-
mated models, documents and engineering drawings will meet
the international and national standards for surveying and record-
ing of historic structures as outlined in English Heritage documen-
tation and the Historic American Building Surveys. The accuracy of
the HBIM depends on requirements such as level of detail and end
user application. While the end user requirements can be identi-
fied using scenario testing, geometric accuracy can be evaluated
using conventional approaches. The required quality in the detail
of elements and the definition of shape and texture of scan data
will depend on the accuracy required for each survey. A sample
of live survey data was utilised as ground truths to evaluate the
accuracy of the mapped parametric data both as individual models
and integrated models (El-Hakim et al., 2007). The accuracy of
mapped detail behind the surface of the structure, which is based
on historic detail, can be compared for accuracy with existing sur-
vey data of the surveyed structure where detail is available from
previously carried out surveys and openings of building elements.
In addition to testing for geometric accuracy, the prototype is now
being evaluated through a number of end user conservation sce-
narios identified by an expert group working within conservation.
The user group will evaluate the new methodology using simu-
lated conservation scenarios. From this, a series of historic building
case studies have been identified; a sample of these studies is illus-
trated in Fig. 10.
6.3. Historic Building Information Model HBIM
In conclusion, the evaluation process, which is now under-way
indicate the potential for HBIM for use in the conservation of his-
toric structures and environments. Initial results from conducting
the conservation scenarios and end user groups have established
its relevance for producing engineering survey drawings for archi-
tectural heritage conservation and its ease and speed in use in
comparison to plotting vectors onto laser surveys for the creation
of engineering drawings. The main improvements identified relate
to the accuracy and content of the library of parametric objects,
which represent the architectural elements and also in coding
non-uniform geometric shapes. There is a need to introduce
improvements into the plotting and mapping stage through further
improving the automation process for creating data sheets from
point cloud data in order to define the parameters of the architec-
tural objects prior to their mapping onto the laser scan survey. The
range of library objects need to be expanded and existing objects
improved in their parameters, a sample of library parts is detailed
in Fig. 11.
A new methodology for the HBIM for historic structures and
environments is proposed, this process involves the following
stages: collection and processing of laser/image survey data; iden-
tifying historic detail from architectural pattern books; building of
parametric historic components/objects; correlation and mapping
of parametric objects onto scan data and the final production of
engineering survey drawings and documentation. The product is
the creation of full 3D models including detail behind the object’s
surface concerning its methods of construction and material make-
up. The HBIM automatically produces full engineering drawings for
the conservation of historic structure and environments; this in-
cludes 3D documentation, orthographic projections, sections, de-
tails and schedules (energy, cost decay, etc.), adding intelligence
to point cloud data.
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... Despite recent research and HBIM case studies, there is currently a lack of parametric object libraries applicable to 20th century Neo-Classical Revival buildings such as the Old Polk County Courthouse. Typical metric survey techniques used in the application of HBIM include photogrammetry, terrestrial laser scanning (TLS), and 360-degree photography [12]. ...
... Point clouds are then processed using supportive software, as shown in Figure 2 (b), to generate highly accurate and precise 3D models. TLS has direct pertinence in the application of HBIM, providing facility managers and researchers the ability to initially capture the current condition of built structures and detect degradation over time with the completion of multiple scans [12]. ...
... The most extensive method for HBIM segmentation of raw data into parametric objects is manual, requiring labour-intensive inputs to model non-standard heritage architectural and structural elements [18]. Another continued constraint for HBIM is the limited ability to use standardized parametric objects in BIM libraries to accurately model complex geometries typical of historic structures [12]. ...
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Nestled in the historic district of the small Central Florida town of Bartow, the Old Polk County Courthouse (OPCC) served the citizens of Polk County from 1909 to 1987. Eventually replaced by a high-rise courthouse to accommodate population growth, the OPCC underwent major restorations between 1993 and 1996 and now serves as the Polk County History Center, which houses a historical museum and genealogical library. Due to its historical value within local and regional contexts, it was deemed important to archive the courthouse in a manner that can be utilized from a practical standpoint of preservation, operations, and maintenance and an academic standpoint for research of early 20th century buildings in the southeastern U.S. A research project has been done to use Historic Building Information Modeling (HBIM) technology to digitally preserve and reconstruct the OPCC building. The findings of this project can be implemented to help digitally document and recreate other historic structures. This paper presents the work flow and technologies that were utilized to capture data for developing HBIM models of the OPCC, including conventional field surveys, LiDAR scanning, photogrammetry, and 360-degree photography.
... The accuracy of the replication of the historic object in the model space in the case of modelling a monument proves not only the quality of the geometric base, but is often the basis for the expertise on the degree of damage and degradation. In this context, Murphy et al. [13] propose the use of remote sensing methods for capturing data, enabling the creation of exact digital replicas of the building and its unique, age-related features. In the capturing of the 3D data process, however, one should take into account such technological solutions that will complement each other, not only duplicating the acquired geometry of the object. ...
... High-quality measurement data is the absolute basis for a good-quality HBIM model. Researchers from all over the world agree on this aspect, led by Murphy et al. [13], indicating capturing of 3D data as a starting point, preferably using ground and air techniques [10]. The integration of geospatial data from various sources ensures the complexity of 3D information about the object; however, it requires the use of GCP points as a basis for connecting two data sources and controlling their synergy. ...
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Currently, Building Information Modeling (BIM) is increasingly entering the operational level in terms of creating a model for newly constructed facilities. For existing objects, and objects of Culture Heritage (CH), the creation of coherent and qualitative BIM models depends on the quality of the data constituting the basis for modelling. What’s more, BIM of CH is not only a challenge to obtain high-quality three-dimensional data, but also a time-consuming study of object documentation and photographic documentation in order to create a faithful library of parametric objects. In the article, the authors presented the synergy of spatial data with TLS and UAV as the basis for creating a BIM model for two CH objects. The aim of the article was to make such a synergy of TLS and UAV data that the geospatial database, developed for the needs of modelling historic objects in the HBIM trend, would have a specific amount of information without the frequently used redundancy. In principle, the acquired 3D database should be expressed in a global reference system with the degree of georeferencing accuracy for situational and altitude measurements and should be consistent to provide comprehensive information about the object. The analyses led to conclusions in which the authors assign superior importance to the accuracy of measurement information and the integration of individual data groups in the process of developing the HBIM model with the desired accuracy in opposition to the appropriate selection of the level of detail, which is usually assigned a superior role, which in turn results from the quality of the data geospatial modelling.
... The BIM (building information modelling) approach and the HBIM (Heritage BIM), which refers to built and cultural heritage, and the generation from cloud-based 3D survey techniques (scan-to-BIM approach), owe their most interesting aspects to object-based modelling [34]. The literature has focused a lot on the geometric discretization methods of the built heritage and the quality of the models and their reliability in representing the hierarchy and morphological complexity of many components [35]. ...
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The complexity of historical urban centres progressively needs a strategic improvement in methods and the scale of knowledge concerning the vulnerability aspect of seismic risk. A geographical multi-scale point of view is increasingly preferred in the scientific literature and in Italian regulation policies, that considers systemic behaviors of damage and vulnerability assessment from an urban perspective according to the scale of the data, rather than single building damage analysis. In this sense, a geospatial data sciences approach can contribute towards generating, integrating, and making virtuous relations between urban databases and emergency-related data, in order to constitute a multi-scale 3D database supporting strategies for conservation and risk assessment scenarios. The proposed approach developed a vulnerability-oriented GIS/HBIM integration in an urban 3D geodatabase, based on multi-scale data derived from urban cartography and emergency mapping 3D data. Integrated geometric and semantic information related to historical masonry buildings (specifically the churches) and structural data about architectural elements and damage were integrated in the approach. This contribution aimed to answer the research question supporting levels of knowledge required by directives and vulnerability assessment studies, both about the generative workflow phase, the role of HBIM models in GIS environments and toward user-oriented webGIS solutions for sharing and public use fruition, exploiting the database for expert operators involved in heritage preservation.
... En la misma línea hay que destacar el proyecto H-BIM, orientado en la creación de una biblioteca de objetos paramétricos interactivos. El resultado es una serie de modelos tridimensionales que contienen información detallada de los sistemas de construcción y materiales de elementos arquitectónicos históricos; metodología utilizada para la creación de objetos paramétricos por medio del empleo del software Archicad y el lenguaje GDL en los proyectos de modelado de Four Courts en Dublín (Dore et al., 2015) y la biblioteca de objetos creados a partir de los manuscritos de Vitruvio (Murphy et al., 2013). ...
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Los avances tecnológicos que se han venido produciendo gracias al desarrollo de las herramientas de captura y procesado de datos referentes al patrimonio arquitectónico han modificado la metodología de trabajo. La incorporación de modelos tridimensionales complejos en los Sistemas de Información, favorece el procesamiento y análisis de los datos en un soporte común que facilita la accesibilidad y consulta, así como la adopción de decisiones relacionadas con el modelo. Se han analizado las distintas tecnologías y metodologías que permiten administrar la información en un mismo modelo como el HBIM (Historic Building Information Modelling), la tecnología WebGL o los Sistemas de Información Geográfica (SIG), con el fin de establecer las posibilidades que cada una de ellas aportan a la documentación gráfica del patrimonio como medio para preservar sus valores culturales. La evaluación ha permitido establecer sus necesidades esenciales de interoperabilidad y accesibilidad mediante el empleo de la estandarización y normalización.
... The authors observe that HBIM pursues the modeling documentation of architectural elements according to artistic, historical, and constructive typologies. In addition, the HBIM library begins with the 3D modeling of parametric objects, employing point cloud integration, photogrammetry, historical documentation, and Graphisoft Archicad software, according to [22] and [23]. ...
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Heritage buildings are of great importance to the human perception of the culture of a community. HBIM (Historic Building Information Modelling) tools offer a possibility of an improved data set of information related mainly to the restoration and preservation of historical buildings. This work aims to assess the damage to the historic house by employing integrated HBIM tolls and experimental procedures. The historic house was assessed by visual inspection of the historic house, 3D modeling with REVIT, and 3D modeling based on point cloud data. The comparison between the two 3D modeling techniques showed a level of damage consisting of a difference between the levels of the roofs. In addition, the visual inspection detected cracks in the walls which agrees with the damage observed from the 3D models comparison. Results indicate that HBIM tools significantly contribute to damage assessment in heritage constructions.
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The Post-2015 UN Development Agenda includes culture and links the preservation of cultural heritage (CH) to sustainable development. In principle, sustainable redevelopment of CH should preserve historical qualities and ensure the financial profitability of the asset. Still, being a construction process, it has to be under constant change monitoring. Bearing in mind the quality of data achieved by measurement systems, TLS instruments can be used to capture 3D spatial data for cultural heritage. The authors analyse the usefulness of TLS data as the spatial database for the redevelopment and functional reuse of a historical granary. Following measurements on various stages of the redevelopment of the CH asset, TLS data undergo principally simple and rapid analyses (shape analysis, determination of the pace and scope of redevelopment, detection of conservation effort results, HBIM) to improve decision-making capabilities within the project. Contrary to the universal approach, periodic CH redevelopment scanning involves the entire structure, not merely its most valuable heritage components. As a result, not only doesthe remote-sensing data acquisition for monitoring of sustainable redevelopment of cultural heritage record the state of the revitalised building, but it also demonstrates the potential of periodic measurements as the primary source of insight into the heritage asset and the directions and quality of changes it undergoes.
Conference Paper
İşlevsel olarak günümüzün şartlarına uyum sağlayamayan, kültür varlığı olarak geçen tarihi yapılar, kentin hafızasında önemli rol oynarlar ancak zamanla hasar gören ve atıl hale gelen tarihi yapılara gerekli bakım ve onarımın yapılması, değişen zamanın koşullarının etkisiyle işlev kaybına uğrayan binalarda yeni işlev seçimlerinin zamanın şartlarına uygun olarak yapılması gerekmektedir. Tarihi yapıların uygun yeni işlevlerle yeniden kullanıma adaptasyonları, bu yapıların kent hafızasındaki yerlerinin korunmasına, kentin tarihi ve kültürel sürekliliğinin sağlanmasına ve yeni döneme değer sağlarken, kentlinin geçmişle fiziksel bağ kurmasına imkân verir. Yapı bilgi modellemesi (YBM); mimarlar, mühendisler, tarihçiler ve yöneticiler gibi farklı uzmanların bir tesisin planlanması, tasarlanması, inşa edilmesi, kullanım ve yönetim aşamalarında ortak olarak çalışabilmelerini sağlayan 3 boyutlu modelleme ve bilgi paylaşım sürecidir. Tarihi ve kültürel miras binalarında kullanımlarında ise "Tarihi Yapı Bilgi Modellemesi (TYBM)" olarak adlandırılmaktadır. Tarihi yapıların yeniden kullanıma adaptasyon süreçlerinde bakım onarımlarının yapılması aşamasında TYBM kullanımı sürecin daha doğru, daha planlı ve sistematik bir şekilde ilerlemesini sağlar. Bu çalışma, TYBM'nin, yeniden kullanıma adaptasyon süreçlerinde kullanımının yaygınlaştırılması ihtiyacından yola çıkılarak yürütülmüştür. Bu doğrultuda eski işlevini kaybetmiş binaların yeniden kullanıma adaptasyonunda TYBM kullanımı üzerine literatür taraması yapılmıştır. Yapılan bu kapsamlı literatür taraması sonucunda çeşitli vaka çalışmaları üzerinden incelemeler yapılmıştır. Başlangıçta çalışmanın amacı tarihi yapıların yeniden kullanıma adaptasyonları kapsamında yapılar için en uygun yeni işlevi seçme sürecinde TYBM kullanımlarını incelemek, bu doğrultuda vakalar üzerinden detaylı inceleme ve karşılaştırma yapmak olsa da, literatürde bu konuda yapılan çalışmaların yeterli olmadığı fark edilmiş ve bu nedenle literatürdeki doldurulması gereken boşluklar vurgulanmıştır. Var olan çalışmalar üzerinden TYBM ile ilgili çalışmalar incelenmiş, tarihi binaların yeniden kullanıma adaptasyonları süreçlerinde vaka çalışmaları üzerinden TYBM'nin hangi seviyede kullanıldığı irdelenmiştir. TYBM'nin yeni işlev karar alım süreçleri dışında tarihi yapılardaki restorasyon süreçlerinde, dokümantasyon, veri yakalama ve görselleştirme süreçlerinde de kullanıldığı tespit edilmiştir. Yeniden kullanıma adaptasyon potansiyeli, TYBM potansiyeli ve vaka çalışmalarıyla bir arada çalışıldığında ortaya çıkacak faydalar üzerinde odaklanılmıştır. Ayrıca çalışma sonunda literatürdeki bu konuda yapılacak yeniden kullanıma adaptasyon çalışmalarındaki işlev karar aşamasında paydaşları TYBM kullanımına yönlendirmek ve bu konuda daha çok araştırma yapılması gerekliliğine dikkat çekmek çalışmanın yürütülme amaçlarındandır.
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Historic Building Information Modelling (HBIM) is a process applied to existing buildings which enable the creation of a model that can simulate the actual construction of the existing building by starting up with a digital survey using laser scanner or camera for photogrammetry. The implementation of HBIM in Malaysia construction industry is relatively low. However, the studies in Malaysia regarding HBIM implementation rarely focus on the technical information in implementing HBIM. Therefore, this research is aimed to develop a guideline of implementing HBIM in Malaysia heritage building by identifying the methods of data capturing and modelling. The research method adopted was quantitative approach via questionnaire survey. The research found that terrestrial laser scanner, photogrammetry and combination of image-based and range-based method are the data capturing’s method while the processing of survey data will be data cleaning, data registration, surface meshing, texturing, and creation of orthographic image. The contribution of this research is that it can serve as a reference for the heritage architect in managing the heritage building by adopting HBIM.
Chapter
The term HBIM (Heritage Building Information Modelling) refers to recording, modelling and managing monuments and buildings of cultural interest and so far gathers more academic interest than practical application. HBIM models of architectural elements can be fully parametric, meaning that typologies can be produced by them. Those elements can be integrated in digital libraries, which is a systematic way of capturing and storing architectural elements as “smart” data. In this paper, photogrammetry and laser scanning is used to capture primitive data of Greek neoclassical architecture elements. Subsequently, the way of designing, parameterizing and documenting of these elements is presented, through the creation of HBIM models. These models are integrated in a digital library consisted of neoclassical period typologies, ideal for their digital conservation. Additionally, the parameterization of a standard neoclassical facade which includes the library elements is investigated, based on the synthetic principles that define its architectural period. This research leads to conclusions in relation to the advantages of the HBIM methodology, setting the basis of a parametric HBIM library to be extended over other parts of the building or architectural periods.
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Entity-based modelling and Object-based modelling have been two distinct lines of products since the introduction of Computer-Aided Design (CAD) in the marketplace some twenty years ago. Although the majority of practitioners have opted for entity-based modelling, the enhancement of object-based modelling has continued. In line with the increasing capabilities of computer hardware and software, most CAD vendors have launched more powerful object-based CAD software in recent years. These software are now commonly known as Building Information Modelling (BIM), Virtual Building, Parametric Modelling, or Model-Based Design. The move is considered revolutionary in the world of the construction CAD market, and would enable seamless downstream applications of the rich information generated by the model. Research such as the 3D to nD modelling project at the University of Salford has been started to explore other design dimensions using BIM. In addition to technical considerations, there are other soft factors, such as people, cultural and process factors, that fundamentally affect the uptake of BIM. Based on hands-on testing and a questionnaire survey administered in Hong Kong, this paper addresses these factors and recommends ways of making improvements. The use of BIM is revealed to still be quite low and conventional entity-based CAD software remain the de-facto drafting tools. The core barriers include the spilt between architecture design and drafting, inadequate objects and object customisation capability, a complicated and time-consuming modelling process, a lack of training and technical support, a lack of requirements from clients, extra file acquisition costs and the unavailability of free trial software. Obviously, the separation of design and drafting has been a common practice and may be the most salient obstacle to the widespread use of BIM and the future of nD modelling.
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In many countries, the Architecture/Engineering/Consulting (AEC) industry is characterised by poor performance reflected in project delays and cost overruns. A contributor to the problem is the traditional approach to handling building information and its communication in life cycle management (LCM). Recent developments in Object Oriented Computer Aided Architectural Design (OO CAD) have provided the opportunity for improving building information modelling and its communication for more effective LCM. The aim of the paper is to review the potentials of OO CAD for building information modelling (BIM) and LCM. The paper reviews building information in the life cycle process, identifying the various actors and activities and the need for communication and information flow to support life cycle management. The paper also reviews the concept of OO CAD, highlighting its potential to improve building information and its flow and communication in life cycle management. The paper then goes on to review the potentials and limitations of OO CAD implementation in the AEC industry. The paper concludes by pointing out that the widespread adoption of OO CAD and the anticipated associated improvement in life cycle management will only be encouraged when the building industry is able to agree on a widely acceptable, interoperable standard for encoding building objects.
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Digitally documenting complex heritage sites such as castles is a desirable yet difficult task with no established framework. Although 3D digitizing and modelling with laser scanners, Photogrammetry, and computer aided architectural design (CAAD) are maturing, each alone is inadequate to model an entire castle in details.We present a sequential approach that combines multiple techniques, each where best suited, to capture and model the fine geometric detail of castles.We provide new contributions in several areas: an effective workflow for castle 3D modelling, increasing the level of automation and the seamless integration of models created independently from different data sets.We tested the approach on various castles in Northern Italy and the results demonstrated that it is effective, accurate, and creates highly detailed models suitable for interactive visualization. It is also equally applicable to other types of large complex architectures.
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Purpose – The purpose of this research is to outline in detail the procedure of remote data capture using laser scanning and the subsequent processing required in order to identify a new methodology for creating full engineering drawings (orthographic and 3D models) from laser scan and image survey data for historic structures. Design/methodology/approach – Historic building information modelling (HBIM) is proposed as a new system of modelling historic structures; the HBIM process begins with remote collection of survey data using a terrestrial laser scanner combined with digital cameras. A range of software programs is then used to combine the image and scan data. Findings – Meshing of the point cloud followed by texturing from the image data creates a framework for the creation of a 3D model. Mapping of BIM objects onto the 3D surface model is the final stage in the reverse engineering process, creating full 2D and 3D models including detail behind the object's surface concerning its methods of construction and material makeup, this new process is described as HBIM. Originality/value – The future research within this area will concentrate on three main stands. The initial strand is to attempt improve the application of geometric descriptive language to build complex parametric objects. The second stand is the development of a library of parametric based on historic data (from Vitruvius to 18th century architectural pattern books). Finally, while it is possible to plot parametric objects onto the laser scan data, there is need to identify intermediate software platforms to accelerate this stage within the HBIM framework.
Chapter
FormWriter is a simple and powerful programming language for generating three-dimensional geometry, intended for architectural designers with little programming experience to be able to generate three dimensional forms algorithmically without writing complex code. FormWriter’s main features include a unified coding and graphics environment providing immediate feedback and a “flying turtle” - a means of generating three dimensional data through differential geometry.