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Green networks for people: Application of a functional approach to support the planning and management of greenspace

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... Urban planning researchers have used various methods for measuring environmental justice by studying the accessibility and distribution of green spaces (Moseley et al., 2013;Wolch et al., 2014). Green space planning is usually based on quantitative standards that require the availability of a specific area of green space per population (Moseley et al., 2013). ...
... Urban planning researchers have used various methods for measuring environmental justice by studying the accessibility and distribution of green spaces (Moseley et al., 2013;Wolch et al., 2014). Green space planning is usually based on quantitative standards that require the availability of a specific area of green space per population (Moseley et al., 2013). Despite rising literature, there is no agreement among scholars about the methods that measure green spaces accessibility and distribution. ...
... Despite rising literature, there is no agreement among scholars about the methods that measure green spaces accessibility and distribution. The majority of studies have used geographic information systems software (GIS) (Euclidean and Network analysis) (Cetin, 2015;Lindsey et al., 2001;Moseley et al., 2013;Wolch et al., 2014). The accessibility of green spaces can be measured by collecting spatial data on city communities that are served within a ten-minute walk of a park as the basis for the analysis (Meerow & Newell, 2017). ...
... Urban planning researchers have used various methods for measuring environmental justice by studying the accessibility and distribution of green spaces (Moseley et al., 2013;Wolch et al., 2014). Green space planning is usually based on quantitative standards that require the availability of a specific area of green space per population (Moseley et al., 2013). ...
... Urban planning researchers have used various methods for measuring environmental justice by studying the accessibility and distribution of green spaces (Moseley et al., 2013;Wolch et al., 2014). Green space planning is usually based on quantitative standards that require the availability of a specific area of green space per population (Moseley et al., 2013). Despite rising literature, there is no agreement among scholars about the methods that measure green spaces accessibility and distribution. ...
... Despite rising literature, there is no agreement among scholars about the methods that measure green spaces accessibility and distribution. The majority of studies have used geographic information systems software (GIS) (Euclidean and Network analysis) (Cetin, 2015;Lindsey et al., 2001;Moseley et al., 2013;Wolch et al., 2014). The accessibility of green spaces can be measured by collecting spatial data on city communities that are served within a ten-minute walk of a park as the basis for the analysis (Meerow & Newell, 2017). ...
Chapter
Access to green spaces in urban environments promotes social equity and improves the quality of life. In this context, the public good emphasizes the importance of accessibility and the possibility of walking to a public green space for a variety of leisure options. Many researchers focus only on quantitative methods to measure environmental justice. But for more accurate results, a multimethod approach must be used that also integrates qualitative data to get a fuller assessment. No previous research exists on this topic in the Jordanian context. This paper examines environmental justice by measuring the accessibility and fair distribution of public green spaces (active and passive) in Al-Mughayyer town to determine the area served by the existing green open spaces and examine injustice aspects and where they exist. The research questions addressed equitable distribution and accessibility. Using GIS network analysis, the research focused on qualitative data from Al-Mughayyer residents using interviews. The interviews focused on residents’ demands for green open spaces, accessibility, availability, and arising problems. The results detected the unfairness of urban public green space distribution in terms of active recreation, while passive recreation provided by natural green spaces is accessible and distributed equally to all. This necessitated carrying out a suitability analysis to find the best places for new green public spaces. The suitable locations for future green open spaces might support and benefit government officials, developers, and urban planners in determining the requirements for green open spaces, public demands, and accessibility issues.
... Urban planning researchers have used various methods for measuring environmental justice by studying the accessibility and distribution of green spaces (Moseley et al., 2013;Wolch et al., 2014). Green space planning is usually based on quantitative standards that require the availability of a specific area of green space per population (Moseley et al., 2013). ...
... Urban planning researchers have used various methods for measuring environmental justice by studying the accessibility and distribution of green spaces (Moseley et al., 2013;Wolch et al., 2014). Green space planning is usually based on quantitative standards that require the availability of a specific area of green space per population (Moseley et al., 2013). Despite rising literature, there is no agreement among scholars about the methods that measure green spaces accessibility and distribution. ...
... Despite rising literature, there is no agreement among scholars about the methods that measure green spaces accessibility and distribution. The majority of studies have used geographic information systems software (GIS) (Euclidean and Network analysis) (Cetin, 2015;Lindsey et al., 2001;Moseley et al., 2013;Wolch et al., 2014). The accessibility of green spaces can be measured by collecting spatial data on city communities that are served within a ten-minute walk of a park as the basis for the analysis (Meerow & Newell, 2017). ...
Chapter
Valuing public perceptions of biophilia impact on human well-being: 2 sustainable building case studies from India and Greece| This study focusses on valuing the ‘green technologies’ of designing and building with nature to encourage a wider dimension to the current ratings and evaluations of effectiveness of ‘green buildings’, by including the perceived impact on human well-being. We believe that for buildings to offer a ‘sustainable’ way of living, they must also include the technologies and intelligence to provide what all of life needs to thrive beyond just surviving. This paper aims to give a wider understanding of ‘green buildings’ beyond reporting on energy, water and waste, to show a more sophisticated, wider evaluation of sustainable buildings by including the value of subjective perception of individuals’ experience. And, to contribute to changing existing paradigms about how ‘green buildings’ are valued. Other studies conclude that leading bodies for ‘green building’ certification have failed to provide a holistic measure of sustainable buildings. Current environmental measures of ‘green buildings’ conflict with the values of human health and there are conflicting ‘logics’ and technologies with little consensus on what makes a sustainable building. The perceived ‘value’ of the health and well-being benefits of a ‘green building’ appears to be disregarded as a measure of effectiveness. This paper challenges that view. Findings from questionnaires, testimonials and in-depth interviews from the public using 2 green buildings in different countries suggest that people do believe that they experience physical and emotional health benefits from spending time in in green buildings. This suggests that valuing the ’unmeasurable’ perceived benefits of sustainable buildings on health and well-being, equally alongside quantitative audits and environmental measures, could bring combined societal and environmental benefits. More study and evaluation with larger samples in different countries is necessary. Further study could make an important contribution to greater understanding about the positive impacts of biophilia design for healthcare institutions, community spaces, workplaces and homes.
... Urban planning researchers have used various methods for measuring environmental justice by studying the accessibility and distribution of green spaces (Moseley et al., 2013;Wolch et al., 2014). Green space planning is usually based on quantitative standards that require the availability of a specific area of green space per population (Moseley et al., 2013). ...
... Urban planning researchers have used various methods for measuring environmental justice by studying the accessibility and distribution of green spaces (Moseley et al., 2013;Wolch et al., 2014). Green space planning is usually based on quantitative standards that require the availability of a specific area of green space per population (Moseley et al., 2013). Despite rising literature, there is no agreement among scholars about the methods that measure green spaces accessibility and distribution. ...
... Despite rising literature, there is no agreement among scholars about the methods that measure green spaces accessibility and distribution. The majority of studies have used geographic information systems software (GIS) (Euclidean and Network analysis) (Cetin, 2015;Lindsey et al., 2001;Moseley et al., 2013;Wolch et al., 2014). The accessibility of green spaces can be measured by collecting spatial data on city communities that are served within a ten-minute walk of a park as the basis for the analysis (Meerow & Newell, 2017). ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Recent studies have defined the ‘healthy neighborhood’ as the social or socio-economic unit within a healthy district or spatial unit within a human-oriented transportation system. However, those views have failed to notice both standard elements of organic and city transportation policy and other dimensions of organic transportation, excluding spatial one. In this study, the social-ecological system (SES) and human-oriented transportation system (HOTS) frameworks will be compared to each other in terms of structure, application and dynamics to draw a conclusion about the suitability of HOTS in framework to describe the complex socio-technological system such as ‘healthy neighborhood’. Additionally, the structure and the multidisciplinary process that occur within the ‘healthy neighborhood’ will be analyzed in terms of HOTS framework. Finally, the indicators of pattern and size of ‘healthy neighborhood’ in terms of HOTS framework will be suggested. Thus, a healthy interdisciplinary neighborhood will be captured. This research will be the first attempt to shift from the traditional ‘unit’ perspective to the network models capable of unfolding the internal socio-economic and technical processes, uncovering the internal organization and functions of healthy neighborhoods.
... Een aantal studies naar de activiteiten en drijfveren van projectontwikkelaars en stadsplanners suggereert dat groen in de dagelijkse praktijk nog vaak fungeert als een soort sluitpost, die pas wordt ingevuld als de belangrijke (economische) randvoorwaarden zijn vastgesteld (Moseley et al., 2013;Denjean et al., 2017;Vanags en Butane, 2017). In stadsplanning is groen vaak ondergeschikt aan verkeer, wonen en zakelijk (Moseley et al. 2013;Phenton, 2013), wat ook weer doorwerkt in de afwegingskaders van ondernemers bij het ontwikkelen van vastgoed of infrastructuur. ...
... Een aantal studies naar de activiteiten en drijfveren van projectontwikkelaars en stadsplanners suggereert dat groen in de dagelijkse praktijk nog vaak fungeert als een soort sluitpost, die pas wordt ingevuld als de belangrijke (economische) randvoorwaarden zijn vastgesteld (Moseley et al., 2013;Denjean et al., 2017;Vanags en Butane, 2017). In stadsplanning is groen vaak ondergeschikt aan verkeer, wonen en zakelijk (Moseley et al. 2013;Phenton, 2013), wat ook weer doorwerkt in de afwegingskaders van ondernemers bij het ontwikkelen van vastgoed of infrastructuur. Ook welzijn en gezondheid worden door projectontwikkelaars vaak beperkt meegenomen in hun dagelijkse praktijken omdat zij daar maar weinig financieel-economische incentives voor zien (Trowbridge, 2013). ...
... De boodschap is niet zelden gericht op de instrumenten die zij kunnen inzetten voor een meer duurzame praktijk in de vastgoedsector. In diverse papers wordt dan ook gekeken hoe overheden/beleidsmakers bepaalde ontwikkelingen kunnen stimuleren via planning en beleid (Mittal en Byahut, 2017;Xu et al., 2018;Votsis, 2017;Moseley et al., 2013;Ma et al., 2013;Lindholm, 2017). Het gaat daarbij om instrumenten zoals nieuwe regelgeving, incentives voor burgers/bedrijven om de leefomgeving te vergroenen, of manieren om investeerders in beweging te krijgen. ...
Technical Report
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The real estate industry can play a key role in a wider transition to a nature-inclusive living environment that offers social, economic and ecological resilience. In this research, we look explicitly for a pro-active green contribution from the industry to the liveability and resilience of urban areas. To set such practices in motion, we are looking for points of departure in the considerations being made by different actors in the real estate industry. We do this by developing a transition approach for nature-inclusive enterprise. This approach looks at the real estate industry more widely, including landowners, investors, architects, property owners and project developers.
... Urban planning researchers have used various methods for measuring environmental justice by studying the accessibility and distribution of green spaces (Moseley, 2013;Wolch, 2014). Green space planning is usually based on quantitative standards that require the availability of a specific area of green space per population (Moseley, 2013). ...
... Urban planning researchers have used various methods for measuring environmental justice by studying the accessibility and distribution of green spaces (Moseley, 2013;Wolch, 2014). Green space planning is usually based on quantitative standards that require the availability of a specific area of green space per population (Moseley, 2013). Despite rising literature, there is no agreement among scholars about the methods that measure green spaces accessibility -Are public green spaces distributed equitably within city limits? ...
... The Academic Research Community Publication pg. 3 and distribution. The majority of studies have used Geographic Information Systems software (GIS) (Euclidean and Network analysis) (Cetin, 2015;Lindsey, 2001;Moseley, 2013;Wolch, 2014). The accessibility of green spaces can be measured by collecting spatial data on city communities that are served within a ten-minute walk of a park as the basis for the analysis (Meerow, 2017). ...
... Valorizing and exploiting the existing tacit and expert knowledge on NbS of policymakers, policy advisors, urban citizens, researchers, and urban planners is another closelyrelated opportunity [48,49]. The implementation of NbS to enable the urban sustainability transition requires the collective stimulus of transition initiatives and the participation of urban change agents to mediate and catalyze transformation processes [14]. ...
... The city not only possesses infrastructure, but it also possesses knowledge, experience, and local, technical, and community culture, which, despite being tempered by confidence and a false sense of security, nonetheless, continue to be a component of the local identity. This characteristic of the local culture appears to be a possible trigger for valorizing and exploiting the existing tacit and expert knowledge [48,49] but it requires community engagement, empowerment, and participation through collaborative governance approaches [40]. For this, the transition initiatives require sufficient resources to be made available to them, such as time, budget, space, or a political mandate to enable changes toward sustainability [13]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Nature-based solutions (NbS) are currently a priority of international institutions (UN and EU) to improve urban resilience to hydro-climatic risks. However, responsible institutions, such as river basin authorities and local governments, while still prioritizing gray infrastructure, often present resistance to these strategies. This paper analyzes this issue in the case of Seville (Spain). We identify historical and recent institutional practices related to the development of gray infrastructure and the experience of citizens’ movements that demand the implementation of green infrastructure and the naturalization of urban space. Based on the theoretical framework of the sustainability transition, the article contributes to the identification of the factors that hinder or trigger the processes of change, drawing from the results of a case with a long tradition in hydro-climatic disaster management. The research has included an in-depth review of risk planning in the city of Seville, semi-structured interviews with 24 social and institutional actors, and participant observation of both urban planning processes and the practices of citizen movements. Our results show that the generation of shared visions clashes, first with conflicting perceptions of the city’s strengths and weaknesses regarding risks; second, with contradictions between institutional discourses and practices, and finally, with the operational limitations of public participation processes.
... The Nordic Council of Ministries has also recommended this metric as a maximum distance from one's home to the nearest green space (Neuvonen et al., 2007), as has the World Health Organization (Ergen, 2021). Further evidence shows that people's willingness to walk decreases for distances greater than 300 m (Grahn and Stigsdotter, 2003;Moseley et al., 2013;Nielsen and Hansen, 2007). Moreover, people with restricted mobility, elders, and children-and, more recently, people under pandemic lockdown restrictions-are limited in terms of how far they can walk to UGS (Hörnsten and Fredman, 2000;Koppen et al., 2014). ...
... Network analysis was selected as the most appropriate tool for this due to its proven ability to accurately estimate actual walking distances. It considers travel routes instead of Euclidean distances, which are used in overly simplistic buffer analyses and tend to underestimate travel time (Gupta et al., 2016;Koppen et al., 2014;Miyake et al., 2010;Moseley et al., 2013). Once this analysis revealed the service areas for each green space, AGEBs with more than 50% of their area within a service area were given a classification of 1, meaning that people living in that neighborhood had access to UGS within 300 m. ...
Article
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The COVID-19 pandemic has exposed inequalities that are expected to widen if no action is taken to support the most marginalized populations. One such inequality is the distribution of urban green spaces (UGS), which are essential to pandemic recovery. Cities that aim to be inclusive and resilient should assess whether access to their UGS is equitably distributed among the population and identify the areas where these spaces are most needed. This study therefore examines the equity of access to UGS in Mexico City at the neighborhood level using network analysis. First, access to UGS was identified at a threshold of 300 m, regardless of UGS size. Second, access was differentiated by the functional level of the UGS, which primarily depends on their size, with larger UGS having more extensive catchment areas. The results of this study suggest a deficit of access to small green spaces in most of the neighborhoods of Mexico City, with the neighborhoods with higher rates of poverty showing an even lower average of UGS access. The results further highlight which neighborhoods in Mexico City should receive priority attention and funding for UGS to mitigate the disproportionate effects of public health crises. This is critical for future city planning and may be used as a roadmap for identifying priority neighborhoods in other cities with similar segregation patterns.
... Accessibility of green spaces is one aspect through which environmental injustice becomes visible across cities, with high socioeconomic status neighbourhoods usually being closer to and including more green spaces compared to poorer areas (Angotti, 2013;Moseley et al., 2013). ...
... Additionally, there seem to be differences in the degree to which users perceive their proximate green spaces as matching their needs, with a special emphasis on cultural and agedependent aspects (Angotti, 2013). Thus, mere physical proximity might not give a realistic picture of the accessibility of green spaces (Moseley et al., 2013). ...
Chapter
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This chapter casts light on how cities can facilitate good health through urban planning, design and organisation, and collaboration between multiple sectors. The way we organise cities is one aspect of the social determinants of health and can manifest or balance several aspects of social injustice. This chapter focuses on matters of planning and maintaining infrastructure, including transportation systems, green spaces and walkability, as well as matters of environmental justice across cities. Moreover, it is discussed how a Health in All Policies (HiAP) approach can be implemented at the city level, and in which ways the World Health Organization’s (WHO’s) Healthy City Network contributes to this work. We take a closer look at the evaluations of HiAP, as well as the Healthy Cities approach, and to what degree they facilitate long-lasting cross-sector collaboration. Last, it is discussed whether and how a salutogenic orientation can link places and environmental resources to health outcomes, and explore the implications of this approach for salutogenic practice and research.
... Across Europe, 74% of people are living in towns and cities that have had to adapt to rapid development and overcrowding by the hasty construction of often poorly planned new build with inherent environmental problems (Artmann et al., 2017;Bertram & Rehdanz, 2015;Kabisch et al., 2016). Modern functional urban planning across the world operates to a "line and grid" system (Stanislawski, 1946), which includes calculating the proximity and size of open space to residential builds (Moseley et al., 2013;Natural England, 2010). Experts argue that such linear green island models ignore more complex site specific and social factors such as mobility and the distance people are prepared to travel from their homes to communal green spaces (Grahn & Stigsdotter, 2003;Moseley et al., 2013). ...
... Modern functional urban planning across the world operates to a "line and grid" system (Stanislawski, 1946), which includes calculating the proximity and size of open space to residential builds (Moseley et al., 2013;Natural England, 2010). Experts argue that such linear green island models ignore more complex site specific and social factors such as mobility and the distance people are prepared to travel from their homes to communal green spaces (Grahn & Stigsdotter, 2003;Moseley et al., 2013). There has been little scope for integrating much needed green infrastructure into existing urban build (Kasanko et al., 2006), with consequences for towns and cities that require adaptive capacity and resilience to cope with rapid environmental change, such as drought and floods (Koomen & Diogo, 2015). ...
Article
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The global nature-climate crisis along with a fundamental shift in world population towards cities and towns has sharpened the focus on the role of urban green infrastructure. Green infrastructure has the potential to deliver cost-effective, nature-based solutions to help mitigate problems of climate change as well as provide improved human well-being through the ecosystem services inherent in landscapes rich in biodiversity. The absence of underpinning science, specifically complex systems science and ecosystem theory in the design and planning of urban green infrastructure, has limited the capacity of these landscapes to deliver ecosystem services and to effectively demonstrate natural resilience to the impacts of climate change. To meet future challenges of environmental uncertainty and social change, the design of urban green space should embrace an adaptive ecosystem-based approach that includes fully integrated participatory planning and implementation strategies founded on principles of close to nature science. Our article offers two models to inform green space planning: urban green space framework and sustainable urban community network. Both concepts provide the foundation for six ecosystem-based design principles. In a case study on Essex green infrastructure, UK, recommendations made by the Essex Climate Action Commission to transform land management practices are presented as examples of adopting principles of the ecosystem approach and nature-based science. Our article concludes by emphasising the importance of reconnecting society with nature in cities through close-to-nature design of urban green space to secure essential ecosystem services and to build resilience to the impacts of climate change. Keywords ecosystem-based approach; Essex Climate Action Plan; nature-based solutions; sustainable urban community network; urban green infrastructure; urban green space framework Issue
... PGS quality evaluation should focus more on its ability to meet resident needs and attract people to enjoy these spaces, as well as people's perception. According to Van Herzele and Wiedemann (2003); Kabisch and Haase (2014); Moseley et al. (2013), with reference to the official PGS design content (MHURD, 2017b), we set eight quality indicators to comprehensively evaluate the quality of PGS, as shown in Table 1. We used questionnaires to get scores of the 8 indicators for PGSs quality, and questionnaires were published on the WeChat APP. ...
... Thus, it is necessary to estimate the gap in quantity of PGS according to existing per capita standard, to clear the insufficiency of spatial matching between PGS and population distribution, to map PGS deficit levels of communities, and finally to strengthen the cooperation between PGS plan and the works of urban regeneration. Besides, the newly PGS should be able to promote the integrality and connectivity of city eco-network to accelerate urban metabolism; in high density urban area, building new micro-scale PGS for the places that were not served can improve PGS equity, although they may have limited recreational benefits, they can offer ecological and environmental benefits by making up the fabrics of eco-network ( Moseley et al., 2013). ...
Article
Full-text available
Urban public green space (PGS) provides a wealth of ecological and social benefits, and is the key for sustainable urban development and human well-being satisfaction. A comprehensive evaluation is an important basis for PGS refined governance and planning. However, few studies have comprehensively explored the fine dimension of PGS quality, accessibility, and population, for the evaluation of accessible PGS and its spatial equity. Therefore, we evaluated the accessible PUS at the community-scale with the consideration of temporal accessibility and PUS quality. We first evaluated the accessible PGS of communities using the two-step floating catchment area (2SFCA) approach based on road network. Secondly, Gini coefficient was employed to examine the spatial equity of community-scale PGS. Finally, we proposed relevant strategies for improving PGS provision. The main findings of this study were: transportation modes did not change the average PGS level but had a spatial “flattening effect” on the accessible PGS. Transportation modes affected PGS equity as they changed the PGS accessibility, and the equity of accessible PGS progressively increases with walking, riding E-bike, and driving. The spatial imbalance of PGS quality exacerbated PGS inequity, not only existing quantity unfair, but also quality unfair. Comprehensive PGS supply improvement strategies were proposed in terms of quantity increase, accessibility improvement, and quality construction. This study is conducive to the implementation of human-scale green space planning, providing a basis for the refined urban management.
... In the reference situation (scenario I), we considered local uniform flows of 400 m, simulating the walks or short trips of people from their homes to small local parks (Moseley et al., 2013). To simulate an increase in connectivity or proximity, we increased maximum flow to 1200 m (scenario II), which corresponds to longer walks of about 15 min from the residence (Moseley et al., 2013). ...
... In the reference situation (scenario I), we considered local uniform flows of 400 m, simulating the walks or short trips of people from their homes to small local parks (Moseley et al., 2013). To simulate an increase in connectivity or proximity, we increased maximum flow to 1200 m (scenario II), which corresponds to longer walks of about 15 min from the residence (Moseley et al., 2013). In this case, there is a clear increase in service provision in relation to the reference scenario (I). ...
Article
The provision of ecosystem services is inherently spatial. Landscape structure affects service provision through multiple landscape-level processes, such as fragmentation, edge and connectivity effects. These processes can affect areas of ecosystem service supply and demand, and the flows linking those areas. Despite the emergence of sophisticated spatial ecosystem service assessments in the last two decades, we show through a literature review that landscape-level processes are still rarely considered in a comprehensive way. Even when they are considered, landscape effects are mostly limited to landscape composition, and configuration effects are underrepresented. Furthermore, most studies infer ecosystem service provision by only evaluating supply, ignoring demand and flows. Here we present a simple conceptual framework that illustrates how to incorporate landscape-level processes in the assessment of the different components of the service provision chain (supply, demand and flows). Using simulations, we evaluated how estimations of ecosystem service provision change when considering different landscape processes and discussed the implications of disregarding landscape effects. However, to fully implement the framework, a series of challenges linked to mapping and quantifying supply and demand, defining adequate scales of analysis, measuring flows, and parameterizing models for different types of services, still need to be overcome. To promote an adequate use and management of ecosystem services, it is essential to better incorporate landscape processes in ecosystem service assessments. This will lead to more quantitatively accurate and spatially precise estimates.
... The importance of street greenery has been validated in several researches [28][29][30][31]. However, street greenery accounts for only a small proportion of the greenery captured by remote sensing satellite images [19] and it is not always possible to identify and capture street greenery accurately or completely using bird's eye view images [32]. ...
Article
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In this paper, we measured the amount of urban green space (UGS), defined here as park greenery and street greenery, in the Guangzhou Beltway region using remote sensing image data and the green view index (GVI) based on human visual images. We also evaluated the benefits of UGS comprehensively considering park greenery and street greenery within the Guangzhou Beltway region. We then calculated the urban green space score (UGSS) by assessing the amount of street greenery and park greenery and then juxtaposing the score with the population distribution of the region. The results show inequities in the spatial distribution of UGSS values within the Guangzhou Beltway region. The benefit score of street greenery is low. The service area of parks can’t cover the whole study area. The comprehensive benefit score of UGS is composed of two parts, the park greenery score and the street greenery score, but the spatial distribution of UGSS values remains uneven. The UGS benefits enjoyed by one-half of the population of the study area are low, and the UGSS values of the more densely populated areas are not high.
... Various methods have already been tested in connectivity studies, with the connectivity index, intersection density, and street density being the most popular (Knight and Marshall, 2015;Straatemeier and Bertolini, 2020), but also involving connectivity metrics based on graph theory (Marshall, 2005;Peponis et al., 2007) . In order to better understand street network connectivity, the index of increasing accessibility to urban function is also used, by checking the number of functions available within certain zones (Moseley et al., 2013). GIS containing complex characteristics of urban tissue is another commonly used tool (Higgs, Fry and Langford, 2012). ...
Article
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Urban regeneration, which is increasingly having to include methods of adapting urban areas to escalating climate change, is one of the main challenges for the contemporary development of European cities, especially in densely built-up central areas. This multi-level process requires major financial outlays, which is why it is so important to identify the factors that ensure the effectiveness of implemented projects. This article attempts to define the meaning of the New Urbanism principle of connectivity, ensuring freedom of movement in the urban regeneration process. The conducted research has been intended to verify the hypothesis that improving connectivity is critical for the success of the processes of regenerating and improving resilience in degraded urban fabric. The research was conducted using the area regeneration of the centre of Lodz as an example, being the largest project of this type in Poland. The analyses were made by comparing the current status, based on an inventory of the existing situation, and the planned status on the basis of design documentation. The research demonstrates that increasing connectivity will improve the accessibility of properties located within municipal quarters and will help obtain more attractive public spaces. The planned activities will also help bolster climate change in the location by increasing green areas, improving the use of wasteland, and by developing a network of green infrastructure. The execution of the revitalisation project in the centre of Lodz will not only improve the quality of space, but will also increase the resilience of the intensively urbanised inner-city areas to climate change.
... Regarding the distance to the different greenspace, none of the studies considered network distance to the greenspaces. Using conventional Euclidean distance instead of greenspace network distance could overestimate greenspace accessibility even by a factor of three (by representing the distance to access the greenspace closer than the actual distance) (Moseley et al., 2013). ...
Article
We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the available literature on the association between greenspace exposure and all-sites and site-specific cancer incidence, prevalence, and mortality in adults. We searched PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science for original articles published, without language restriction until September 2021. We assessed the risk of bias in each study and the overall quality of evidence for exposure-outcome pairs that were reported in two or more studies. Out of the 18 included studies, cross-sectional studies were the most common study design (n = 8), and most of the studies were conducted in Europe (n = 8). In terms of risk of bias, the majority of cohorts (four out of six) and case-control studies (three out of four) were of good or very good quality, and cross-sectional studies were mostly (five out of eight) of poor quality. Outcomes (incidence, prevalence, mortality) on different cancer sites were reported: lung cancer (n = 9), prostate cancer (n = 4), breast cancer (n = 4), skin cancer (n = 3), colorectal cancer (n = 2), all-sites cancer (n = 2), brain cancer (n = 1), mouth and throat cancer (n = 1), and esophageal cancer (n = 1). The meta-analyses for the breast, lung, and prostate cancer incidence did not show statistically significant associations (for example for breast cancer: hazard ratio = 0.83; 95% confidence interval: 0.47–1.48). For skin cancer, the available evidence suggests that greenspace could be a potential risk factor. For the other cancers, the evidence was non-conclusive. The overall quality of evidence of all of the exposure-outcome pairs was very low. Given the wide confidence interval of the pooled estimates and very low quality of evidence, the findings should be interpreted with caution. Future large and longitudinal studies are needed to assess the potential association of greenspace exposure with cancers, considering types and quality of greenspace, evaluation of cancer sub-types, and adjustment for a sufficient set of covariates.
... In recent years, the modelling of accessibility to green spaces has evolved substantially thanks to enhanced GIS features, particularly the development of GIS modules such as the ArcGIS Network Analyst Tool and personal computers' computational capabilities. There are two common approaches, including the Euclidean Buffer (simple radius methods) and Network Analysis (Figure 1) (NICHOLLS & SHAFER 2001, OH & JEONG 2007, MOSELEY et al. 2013, LA ROSA 2014. ...
Article
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The aim of this study was to investigate the adequacy of neighbourhood parks services in the Cukurova district in terms of accessibility, parks' spatial distribution, the size of neighbourhood park areas and use intensity. Additionally, the aim was to identify spatial and planning principles to provide an optimum level of utilisation of neighbourhood parks. Firstly, the main determining standards relating to the size of neighbourhood park areas, population density and service areas were determined through literature searches and expert views. Secondly, after service area values had been assessed for every neighbourhood park, the service area was mapped using a GIS-based network analysis. As a result of the network analysis, it was estimated that 79 % of the study area consisted of residential areas, and the neighbourhood parks (34 units) constituted approximately 3 % of these residential areas. Spatial Plan Construction Regulations propose a service area of 500 m for neighbourhood parks, but there is no attention given to the minimum field size with respect to population density. When the assessment took into account this regulatory value of 500 m, neighbourhood parks' accessibility reached 65 % in the Cukurova district. However, this rate dropped to approximately 30 % when the assessment looked at neighbourhood parks' areas and population densities. Finally, it was shown that the Cukurova district form shows uneven distribution of neighbourhood parks in terms of park spatial sufficiency and accessibility potentials, and suggestions to enhance the service areas of neighbourhood were made according to its findings.
... This study has applied network analysis to develop reliable approaches to help urban planners identify optimal locations for transportation, settlements, and green spaces, highlighted by upholding aspects of connectivity [51][52][53]. However, in terms of reducing the adverse impact of PM 2.5 on public health, network analysis-based approaches have generally been confined to PM 2.5 exposure assessments of individual routes between two locations [14,15,45,47]. ...
Article
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Urban plans for pedestrian-friendly environments by reducing exposure to air pollutants and enhancing movement are crucial for public health and accessibility of social infrastructure. Here, we develop a novel network analysis-based approach, which identifies pivotal local walkways that lower exposure risk to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) while improving the urban landscape connectivity. We employ an exponential distance-decay model and partial correlation analysis to estimate traffic-induced PM2.5 and to test the relationship between the proxies and actual PM2.5 concentrations, respectively. We use a proxy for pedestrians’ PM2.5 exposure as a movement cost when conducting network analyses to compute pedestrian network centrality, reflecting both low PM2.5 exposure risk and landscape connectivity. As a result, we found a significant contribution of traffic to the estimated PM2.5 exposure and PM2.5 concentrations. We also found that walkways make a large contribution to regional connectivity regardless of the estimated PM2.5 exposure risk owing to the composition and configuration of urban landscape elements. Regarding the spatial features and planning context, this study suggests four types of pedestrian networks to provide urban authorities with useful practical information in city-wide urban plans for enhancing walkability: PM2.5 reduction required; PM2.5 reduction recommended; optimal areas; and alternatives of optimal areas.
... Accessibility is an important concept in the study of green space equity from a geographical perspective. The current measurement methods of UGS accessibility mainly include the two-step floating catchment area (2SFCA) [30], buffer zone analysis [31], and network analysis [32]. The 2SFCA is used to calculate the accessibility of green space in two steps based on the supply and demand area [33]. ...
Article
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Urban green spaces (UGSs) provide numerous irreplaceable environmental and social benefits to humankind, but the lack of baseline information makes it difficult to propose a reasonable greening strategy so as to achieve an equitable allocation of community green spaces. This paper divides UGSs into three classes using the spatial design network analysis (sDNA) and quantifies the UGS accessibility of communities in central Wuhan. Based on these results and the Gini coefficient, we analyze the UGS equity of the spatial distribution at the community level, then propose future greening strategies both at the city and community levels. The results show that the railway station and old Wuhan city are the core areas of traffic network strength (TNS). UGSs are evenly distributed in the core areas of TNS, but the number of UGSs in non-core areas is small, and their distribution is relatively uneven, and the number of communities with medium UGS accessibility is the largest, carrying the densest residential population. Most communities perform well in terms of UGS equity, but the UGS equity of 163 communities, covering a population of more than one million, remains to be improved. The method and conclusions of this study will contribute to the future greening policy making of 965 communities in central Wuhan, thus promoting the orderly planning and high-quality construction of community living circles.
... Urban green spaces are currently acclaimed as central elements in the promotion of environmental sustainability and quality of life in cities (Madureira et al, 2018). Green space is vital for people to relax and engage with nature and develop suitable biodiversity in the urban system (Moseley et al., 2013). Therefore preserving such green spaces in the physical landscape of urban areas has been identified to enhance the health and well-being of urban dwellers (Wolch et al., 2014;Cohen et al., 2008). ...
... The least-cost approach has also been used for a number of 'generic' and real woodland species (e.g. Stevenson et al. 2013) and to model the movement of people in urban environments to access greenspace (Moseley et al. 2013). ...
Technical Report
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This handbook aims to help the designers of nature networks by identifying the principles of network design and describing the evidence that underpins the desirable features of nature networks. It builds on the Making Space for Nature report of Lawton et al. (2010), outlining some of the practical aspects of implementing a nature network plan, as well as describing the tools that are available to help in decision making. The report is available at: http://publications.naturalengland.org.uk/publication/6105140258144256
... To secure ecological quality by reflecting this trend of the times, discussions on quantitative securing of green space in the city are actively being held [6][7][8]. However, since the quantitative increase in green areas in overcrowded urban spaces leads to realistic limitations, research on green networks is being actively conducted to distinguish between relatively valuable green spaces and areas that require preferential input [9][10][11][12]. ...
Article
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Quantitative securing of green space in already developed cities has many practical limitations due to socio-economic limitations. Currently, South Korea is planning a green network to secure and inject effective green space, but it is difficult to reflect it in the actual space plan due to the abstract plan. This study utilizes circuit theory and least-cost path methods for presenting a green network that is objectified and applicable to spatial planning. First, an analysis of the Least-cost Path revealed 69 least-cost paths between 43 core green areas of the study site. Most least-cost paths have been identified as passing through small green areas and streams in the city. Using the circuit theory, it was also possible to distinguish areas other than least-cost paths from areas with high potential for development, areas where target species are concentrated within corridors. In particular, areas with relatively high green network improvement effects were derived within and around corridors. This study is most significant in establishing and evaluating existing urban green networks, overcoming the limitations discussed at the linear level and expanding to the area level. To increase the utilization of this study in the future, field surveys and monitoring studies on target species need to be supplemented.
... roadsides, green roofs, etc.), land uses of urban environments, etc. (Celesti-Grapow and Blasi, 1998;Celesti-Grapow et al., 2006;Godefroid et al., 2007;Catalano et al., 2016). Numerous studies are focused on city parks and on the quality of green spaces or infrastructures (Tzoulas et al., 2007;Moseley et al., 2013;Hüse et al., 2016). Other studies investigated both floristic and ecological patterns (plant traits, ecological indexes, etc.) of big metropolises (Jakovljević and Jovanović, 2005;Fanelli et al., 2006;Duncan et al., 2011). ...
Article
The investigation of plant assemblages growing in urban ecosystems offers the chance to observe new interactions among biodiversity, urban planning and public health, in the context of a changing world with increasing city surfaces and populations. In this context, the aim of this work is the study of floristic, ecological and functional diversity of land use types of Milan, such as a) Built-up areas (urbanized and productive zones), b) Roads (borders and flowerbed of main boulevards and avenues), c) Railways (tracks borders, stations and ad-jacencies) and d) Green areas (parks, gardens, and orchards). A floristic survey was performed through stratified sampling and a floristic database was built. The following bioecological information was added to each sampling location: species richness, %alien species, %families, %life forms, functional diversity, %Grime's CSR strategies, Ellenberg's indicator values (EIVs), urbanity index and functional diversity estimators. Differences among land use types were detected with linear mixed models. In total, about 300 taxa were recorded, and 34 % of the species surveyed were aliens. The Railways were prominent with regard to several traits such as floristic richness, number of insect-pollinated species, mean EIV for light and soil reaction and functional diversity estimators. On the other hand, the urbanity index was the lowest in Railways. In general, Urban areas and Roads had lower trait values, while Green areas had intermediate performances. Our results showed that despite the expected high presence of ruderal and alien species, typical of disturbed environments, the urban landscapes of Milan are diversified in their ecological functions and included areas rich in uncommon species limited to peculiar habitats. The railway landscape of Milan represents a reservoir and refuge for many native species, incorporating mi-crohabitats not present in other city landscapes. Therefore, railway areas should be included in the planning of green networks to improve connectivity and support the nature in urban landscapes.
... Studies conducted to method comparisons (e.g. Handley et al., 2003;Moseley et al., 2013) suggest an overestimation of provision using Euclidian distance that is supported by this analysis (mean difference 67%). Based on the chosen distance, BA assumes that destinations can potentially be reached from all around a given polygon boundary of a GBA or a building irrespective of constrains such as fences, walls or location of entrances. ...
Article
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Accessibility to green and blue areas (GBA) is one of the crucial factors in complex human-environmental systems, particularly in cities. Their quantification and mapping helps planners to reduce uncertainties in providing equal access to GBA or detect mismatches between supply and demand. Although a variety of GIS methods has been used, less attention has been paid to the pitfalls, merits, and potential of the way GBA accessibility is conceptualized and measured. This paper seeks to uncover differences between methods used for measuring two ways of conceptualizing GBA accessibility: provision and population pressure. Building on the trade-offs of these methods, this study suggests network characteristics as an approach to combine the two perspectives, and discuss the relevance of all methods for spatial planning. Network analysis can be well applied for measuring provision while buffer analysis is a good proxy for population pressure. Being of advantage compared to the polygon generation of network and buffer analysis, distance-decay analysis reports good results for both provision and population pressure. The paper demonstrates that all three methods have potentials which can be included for advancing the measurement of GBA accessibility using network characteristics. Measuring the complexity of the network and the connectivity of its nodes allows us to systematically combine provision and pressure perspectives that are relevant for planning. In particular, the suggested Local Significance in combination with the Detour Index are flexible and powerful proxies for connecting edges indicating how well people can actually walk along these routes and how spatial barriers might constrain this potential flow along service connecting areas. Using network characteristics for a proper monitoring of GBA accessibility emphasized the walkable environment surrounding GBA areas and resident’s homes what is even more challenging in ever growing and densifying urban environments.
... It has been suggested that urban planning of coastal cities can tap the cooling power of sea breeze to mitigate the UHI effect (Emmanuel & Johansson, 2006;Tan, Lau, & Ng, 2017). A strategic plan can be developed to install waterfront parks connected by promenades to form a linear green open-space network across the city (Ahern, 1995;Moseley, Marzano, Chetcuti, & Watts, 2013). The cooling benefits of sea breeze, a valuable natural endowment of coastal cities, can be factored effectively into spatial-environmental urban planning of new development or redeveloped urban areas. ...
Article
Urban park patronage is intimately linked to the thermal comfort level perceived by visitors. This study quantified the effects of nine park-design and urban-landscape parameters on air temperature and relative humidity in summer by deploying 100 sensors in 14 urban parks in Hong Kong. The field data were compared with a reference weather station and analysed with multiple regression. The sampled parks were on average 0.2 °C warmer and 1.7% less humid than the reference. A notable temperature reduction (mean = 0.6 °C and max. = 4.9 °C) was only observed in the largest park in Hong Kong. The daily variations in cooling and humidifying magnitudes were strongly dependent on background temperature. The distance from sea, shrub cover, tree cover and sky view factor were significant parameters that controlled temperature and relative humidity. Mean temperature could be predicted to cool by 0.6 °C if the park was 1 km closer to the sea. For every 10% increase in shrub and tree covers, mean temperature would drop by 0.07 and 0.04 °C respectively. Larger parks with good coverage of woody vegetation should be developed to improve urban microclimate within parks and mediate the warming effect of nearby built-up areas.
... Furthermore, Kabul's urban governing body can use the results of this study to direct the city development course to a more equitable one. The park-deprived city regions which are recognized in this study can be addressed through the application of different urban initiatives such as land readjustment, urban redevelopment, urban upgrading, and land acquisition methods based on the precincts' urban character with the residents' and their communities' cooperation, which also requires further future research [72][73][74][75]. Moreover, providing public transport routes to the existing city parks can also ease accessibility problems while adding to the residents' quality of life [65]. ...
Article
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Accessibility, the size of the land area, the design and build quality, and the number of parks and their correlation with population density are key elements in fostering ecological spatial equity within cities. This study analyzed different spatial equity attributes of existing parks in Kabul City using onsite observations, measurement analyses, and mapping and buffering of satellite imagery using computer-aided design methods. The results revealed that, presently, 309 ha of urban land is covered by parks, which accounts for 0.78% of the total land area of 394.78 km2. On average, a quarter of city residents can access a park with basic amenities within 300 to 600 m of their residence, and parks currently provide a land coverage distribution per resident of 0.69 m2. However, the majority of parks lack certain amenities like playground and sports facilities desired by different user groups. This article also explored the inequitable distribution of parks at the city scale, underlining the scarcity or concentration of parks in certain areas and stressing the importance of allocating additional land for park provision.
... In addition to the quantity of UGBI, this study went one step further to consider the attractiveness, depending on each UGBI patch's size and its aesthetic quality. Green space size is often considered important in affecting people's maximal travel distance for NBR (Moseley et al., 2013). In general, if a green space is larger, it has better capacity and more opportunities to attract people from farther places, which means a higher distance threshold of accessibility. ...
Article
Although assessing green space provisions is essential to understand environmental justice, few studies have focused on the age perspective and the inequality in access regarding elderly people. This study aims at understanding the spatial disparity in access to urban green and blue infrastructure (UGBI), with a special focus on the elderly. An enhanced “2SFCA” approach was applied to measure the per capita UGBI area by considering different vegetation types and water elements, natural attractiveness, street network, and the many-to-many relationship between the supply and demand locations. Using a case study in Hannover, Germany, this study applied two different “assumptions” of distance thresholds (the near proximity assumption and the far proximity assumption) of UGBI. Our case study showed that in Hannover, elderly people are generally not disadvantaged in their access to UGBI compared with other age groups, but that the degree of accessibility differs between neighborhoods considered. The study also showed that access limitations can be partly compensated by increasing the mobility of the elderly so that they can reach high quality green spaces located further away. The findings recommend key locations for allocating green spaces and improving the connection between residential areas and UGBI.
... This research measured accessibility by using the conventional Euclidean buffer approach, with a simple radius of 300 m or 800 m [33,86,87]. We used this method instead of applying other approaches, such as network analysis, because the study set out to measure accessibility for the whole city without focusing on the level of accessibility in each district. ...
Article
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Public open spaces (POS) have an essential positive impact on cities and their residents. These spaces play a critical role in enhancing users' physical, mental, and social wellbeing. In addition, POS improve city resilience and economic value, and act as part of the city's visual amenities. The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is taking many approaches to enhance quality of life in all its cities through initiatives such as increasing the POS area per capita. Several studies have examined the importance of the accessibility of POS in addressing users' needs. In this study, we measured the per capita area and accessibility of POS in the three megacities Riyadh, Dammam, and Jeddah. We also collected data on user preferences for the use of POS through semi-structured interviews, observations, and an online questionnaire. This study suggests that the country needs to establish its own POS planning approach based on users' desires and behaviors when using POS, as well as the country's social characteristics, and to depend not only on standard international planning approaches. The paper recommends considering the possibility of increasing POS by creating typologies of these spaces based on each city's landscape characteristics. This proposal will have a major impact on city planning and design in Saudi Arabia. In addition, it will make the Saudi cities livable and have a positive impact on the physical, mental, and social wellbeing of the population.
... Many past GIS studies of service availability focus on Euclidean distance or container-based approaches, which involve the use of straight-line buffers (McLafferty, 2003; Moseley et al., 2013;Nicholls & Shafer, 2001). Such linear approaches only identify units that are within set distances, while container-based approaches (e.g. ...
Article
Lay abstract: Autism spectrum disorder and co-occurring symptoms often require lifelong services. However, access to autism spectrum disorder services is hindered by a lack of available autism spectrum disorder providers. We utilized geographic information systems methods to map autism spectrum disorder provider locations in Michigan. We hypothesized that (1) fewer providers would be located in less versus more populated areas; (2) neighborhoods with low versus high socioeconomic status would have fewer autism spectrum disorder providers; and (3) an interaction would be found between population and socioeconomic status such that neighborhoods with low socioeconomic status and high population would have few available autism spectrum disorder providers. We compiled a list of autism spectrum disorder providers in Michigan, geocoded the location of providers, and used network analysis to assess autism spectrum disorder service availability in relation to population distribution, socioeconomic disadvantage, urbanicity, and immobility. Individuals in rural neighborhoods had fewer available autism spectrum disorder providers than individuals in suburban and urban neighborhoods. In addition, neighborhoods with greater socioeconomic status disadvantage had fewer autism spectrum disorder providers available. Finally, wealthier suburbs had good provider availability while few providers were available in poorer, urban neighborhoods. Knowing autism spectrum disorder providers' availability, and neighborhoods that are particularly poorly serviced, presents the opportunity to utilize evidence-based dissemination and implementation strategies that promote increased autism spectrum disorder providers for underserved individuals.
... Urban green spaces are currently acclaimed as central elements in the promotion of environmental sustainability and quality of life in cities (Madureira et al, 2018). Green space is vital for people to relax and engage with nature and develop suitable biodiversity in the urban system (Moseley et al., 2013). Therefore preserving such green spaces in the physical landscape of urban areas has been identified to enhance the health and well-being of urban dwellers (Wolch et al., 2014;Cohen et al., 2008). ...
Conference Paper
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Geospatial Distribution’s Pattern and People’s Perception of Green Spaces in Bauchi, Nigeria SUMMARY Provisions of green spaces are integral parts of urban environmental planning and are related to the quality of the city’s image, its environment, and its livability status. Knowledge about the distribution, pattern and perceptions of urban dwellers in respect of these urban green infrastructures (G.I) in urban centers of both developed and the developing world cities is important. Despite the numerous benefits of urban green space to cities, studies have shown that these spaces are declining in several cities of the world. The absence of geospatial data of these infrastructures in a usable form are challenges facing urban planners and managers, particularly in Nigeria. This paper investigated the geospatial distributions, trends and peoples’ perception of green spaces on the image of Bauchi city to provide the required geospatial information for policy and informed decision making. Descriptive analysis was used in assessing the obtained data and its presentations in forms maps and charts. The results show a respective progressive green spaces decline from 24% in 1976 to 14% in 2018 of the total area of the city This erodes the scenic image as well as the aesthetic, and quality status of the city. There is an absence of a green space plan and a lack of a distinct policy for green Infrastructure development. There was limited or absence of awareness of the long-term benefits of green space planning and development among the city dwellers. These create gaps between Statutory Planning and Urban Greening Practice. Recommendations include the setting up and development of Bauchi city Green System Plan through collaboration between the statutory departments for urban planning and other relevant stakeholders, and the promotion of green space development through the restoration of green areas with a view to improving the city’s image. __________________________________________________________________________________________ Geospatial Distribution’s Pattern and People’s Perception of Green Spaces in Bauchi, Nigeria (10583) Isah Funtua Abdulkadir, Y.Y Babanyara and Mustapha Kyari Manga (Nigeria)
... Some of the main research fields cover the identification of areas suffering from a lack of accessibility due to many reasons. In recent years, the modelling of accessibility to green spaces has evolved substantially thanks to enhanced GIS features, particularly the development of GIS network analysis modules such as the ArcGIS Network Analyst Tool and personal computers' computational capabilities (Nicholls 2001;Oh and Jeong 2007;Moseley and 2013;La Rosa 2014;Unal and 2016). ...
... The natural world is increasingly viewed as being salutogenic, with good numbers of studies linking aspects of nature (Fuller et al. 2007;McMahan and Estes 2015;Wood et al. 2018) and green spaces (Wheeler et al. 2015;Markevych et al. 2017;Brindley et al. 2018;Tost et al. 2019) to human health and well-being. In a world that is rapidly urbanising, however, access to nature and green spaces can be restricted owing to densification or urban sprawl (Haaland and van den Bosch 2015), and provision of green space not being prioritised within city planning (Moseley et al. 2013;Sanesi et al. 2017;Douglas et al. 2019). More generally, urbanisation is associated with habitat loss, reduction in native biodiversity, greater disturbance to wildlife, and problems aligned to pollution and ecosystem degradation (Seto et al. 2012). ...
Article
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Urban green space can help mitigate the negative impacts of urban living and provide positive effects on citizens’ mood, health and well-being. Questions remain, however, as to whether all types of green space are equally beneficial, and if not, what landscape forms or key features optimise the desired benefits. For example, it has been cited that urban landscapes rich in wildlife (high biodiversity) may promote more positive emotions and enhance well-being. This research utilised a mobile phone App, employed to assess people’s emotions when they entered any one of 945 green spaces within the city of Sheffield, UK. Emotional responses were correlated to key traits of the individual green spaces, including levels of biodiversity the participant perceived around them. For a subsample of these green spaces, actual levels of biodiversity were assessed through avian and habitat surveys. Results demonstrated strong correlations between levels of avian biodiversity within a green space and human emotional response to that space. Respondents reported being happier in sites with greater avian biodiversity (p < 0.01, r = 0.78) and a greater variety of habitats (p < 0.02, r = 0.72). Relationships were strengthened when emotions were linked to perceptions of overall biodiversity (p < 0.001, r = 0.89). So, when participants thought the site was wildlife rich, they reported more positive emotions, even when actual avian biodiversity levels were not necessarily enhanced. The data strengthens the arguments that nature enhances well-being through positive affect, and that increased ‘engagement with nature’ may help support human health within urban environments. The results have strong implications for city planning with respect to the design, management and use of city green spaces.
... Given the potential for urban greenspace to improve population health and well-being, it is desirable that analyses are focused on producing clear implications for planning and policy (Lee et al., 2015;Moseley et al., 2013;Sugiyama et al., 2018). This requires studies using population level data at ine spatial scales (to minimise loss of information associated with aggregation; Weigand et al., 2019) and for large geographic areas (to include a wide range of socioeconomic and environmental conditions), which also capture nuances of the types, features and locations of urban greenspaces (Bedimo-Rung et al., 2005;Brindley et al., 2019;Ekkel and de Vries, 2017). ...
Article
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Exposure to greenspace in urban environments is associated with a range of improved health and well-being outcomes. There is a need to understand which aspects of greenspace influence which components of health. We investigate the relationship of indicators of greenspace quantity (total and specific types of greenspace), accessibility and quality with poor general health, depression, and severe mental illness, in the city of Sheffield, UK. We find complex relationships with multiple greenspace indicators that are different for each health measure, highlighting a need for future studies to include multiple, nuanced indicators of neighbourhood greenspace in order to produce results that can inform planning and policy guidance.
... With a sizeable harbour located in the heart of the city bestowing an exceptionally long urban coastline, the opportunities to capitalize on this natural blue asset to create more coastal parks should be realized as far as possible. A master landscape plan can be developed to install waterfront parks to be connected by promenades as linear parks to provide a water-edge greenway type of open-space network (Ahern, 1995;Bruns & Schmidt, 1997;Moseley, Marzano, Chetcuti, & Watts, 2013). The greenbelt network can be further extended to the city centre, preferably with cycling path, to facilitate the access to waterfront parks. ...
Article
Thermally comfortable urban parks can attract more visitors and promote the delivery of health benefits to citizens. High tree cover (TREE) and low sky view factor (SVF) are known to reduce air temperature and improve thermal comfort. However, the temperature effects of other landscape parameters are less clear, such as building volume ratio (BV), distance from sea (SEA), park area (AREA), pavement cover (PAVEMENT), road cover (ROAD), shrub cover (SHRUB), turf cover (TURF) and water body (WATER). This study aimed to identify landscape parameters that were significantly associated with air temperature in urban parks and estimate their cooling potentials through empirical models. One hundred precision sensors were installed in 14 urban parks in Hong Kong in summer 2018 to collect air temperature data. ROAD, SEA, TREE and SHRUB had the strongest impacts on temperatures. Considering a circular area with a 20-m radius, a 50% decrease in ROAD, 50% increase in TREE and SHRUB could reduce daytime mean air temperature by 0.3, 0.4 and 0.2 °C respectively. The same landscape changes would reduce nighttime mean air temperature by viz. 0.3, 0.2 and 0.2 °C. Compared to an inner-city park (500 m from sea), the empirical model suggested that daytime and nighttime mean air temperature in a waterfront park (10 m from sea) is expected to be 0.4 and 0.2 °C lower respectively. Urban parks should be sufficiently large to buffer the warming effect of roads. Very high tree cover (>90%) is recommended for an effective interception of solar radiation.
... This means that if we create roadside vegetation and sufficiently vegetated verges along road networks, we can mitigate its adverse effects on nature and biodiversity and enhance its potential for biodiversity. In addition, roadside vegetation together with paths and pavements can constitute the backbone of functional accessibility routes for people since they are generally accessible to the public and provide linear connections in between urban green and open spaces (Moseley et al., 2013). Hence, we can safely claim that roads and road networks can be used as a crucial component in the landscape to create much more liveable landscapes for wildlife and people. ...
... Corridors can decline urbanization and pollutions, and beneficial for the agriculture activities, for example, protect soil loss by the wind and torrential rains (Curcic & Durdic, 2013). Green connecting gives opportunities for citizens for pedestrians` movement with clear access and providing the highest quality of living requirements to relax, significant physical (Moseley et al., 2013). The green corridor provides Sustainable environment solutions while increasing the safety with friendly elements with nature and environment (Hunke & Prause., 2013). ...
Article
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The expansion of urban areas leads the loss of green spaces causing many environmental and economic problems. The infrastructure has been carried to the rural areas to deal with the needs of populations, reducing the green vegetation. This isolates one habitat area from other habitats and increases the fragmentation. A green corridor can connect fragmented habitats. Thus, this research aims to analyze and provide a green corridor in four different cities of Jordan. Through study some case studies, review of articles, researches, data collection, GIS, observations and maps derived from Jordanian ministries were used for the analysis of a green corridor in four cities in the northwest of Jordan. This research provides a comprehensive planning of the biogeographically areas, ecotourism sites and variety of vegetation in the protected areas of namely, Ajloun Forest Reserve and Dibben Forest Reserve, to link them in the biodiversity and conservation regions of the Al-Salt and north Amman, after identifying these diverse areas of vegetation cover and wildlife in each governorate. In addition, the research discusses ecological, environmental and economic effects of applying a green corridor as a sustainable city approach in Jordan. In other words, the purpose of this study is to suggest a sustainable proposal by analyzing green area zones and green corridor axes to improve the nature and the environment in Jordan. This proposal adapts urban areas with the establishment of green corridor connecting conservation areas in Jerash and Ajloun to Al-Salt and north of Amman. Such a green corridor can lead an increase of local and international tourism which may improve the economic strength and can increase the job opportunities for citizens to live in a more ecological urban environment.
... In methodological terms, network analysis is argued to provide a detailed evaluation of accessibility since it includes real walking distances and considers physical obstacles which inhibit traversing (e.g., buildings, highways) ( Handley et al., 2003;Oh and Jeong, 2007;Sander et al., 2010;La Rosa, 2014;Richter et al., 2016;Grunewald et al., 2017). Thus, the body of work applying network analysis to assess accessibility to UGS is growing (Oh and Jeong, 2007;Comber et al., 2008;Moseley et al., 2013;La Rosa, 2014). That a range of recent studies also deals with more simple methods such as green space per capita or distances by buffer analysis (Hillsdon et al., 2006;Kabisch et al., 2016;Grunewald et al., 2017;Wüstemann et al., 2017) can be due to high demand on data and the resolution thereof, technical know-how and work load to establish a network analysis in a GIS ( Handley et al., 2003;La Rosa, 2014;Richter et al., 2016). ...
Article
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Urban green spaces (UGS) are crucial providers of cultural ecosystem services such as recreation. So that urban residents can benefit from UGS recreation, there is a need for good access to these, in particular for elderlies with reduced mobility. Recent research on accessibility has often neglected to consider real distances to green spaces and emerging barriers as well as the demand by specific user groups for UGS accessibility. In the light of demographic aging and ongoing urbanization, this study investigates in an explorative case study the potential and actual access to UGS for elderlies living in care facilities in Salzburg (Austria). By connecting a GIS network-analysis with a survey among elderlies of four care facilities, the results give insights into the supply and demand concerning UGS accessibility. The supply analysis showed that the majority of UGS are situated between 500 and 1,000 m. Due to barriers identified by the elderlies hindering the pathways to the UGS, time losses occur and the security of the old-aged is under risk. The demand side showed that despite the supply of UGS within 1,000 m, elderlies mostly visit UGS outside the service area. More research is needed to include elderlies' supply and demand regarding UGS qualities when analyzing UGS accessibility by considering greater sample sizes.
... Lessons learned from less successful projects are proved to be instrumental for an effective integration of NBS in urban planning. [9] [11] [25] [26] ...
Article
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The implementation of urban Nature Based Solutions (NBS) projects is deeply determined by the novelty of the concept. Its innovation is both an opportunity and a challenge: as a new concept, it generates uncertainty due to lack of technical and operational preparedness, but it also allows to deploy innovative approaches, new ways to address old problems and more inclusive practices. Nature4Cities project has systematically conceptualized the barriers and drivers on NBS projects implementation by a review of the state of the art. To see how these barriers can be overcome by governance strategies, different urban and environmental governance models have been mapped and characterized to assess their suitability for different NBS projects. Five clusters have been identified where models are grouped according to the involved actors, their position in the spectrum from high to low government involvement and their level of participation. This theorical model has been applied to real cases to check the incidence of the different clusters. Results show that urban and environmental governance is a map where the different models coexist in different degrees regarding some key axes such as level of innovation, polycentric vs. monocentric, involved sectors, level of participation and scale. Collaborative, multisector, polycentric and adaptive governance models address significant number of previously identified cross-domain barriers showing their suitability. The work presented in this paper can be the basis to define new institutional and governance arrangements that will foster multi-stakeholder involvement, citizens’ engagement, leveraging both public and private funding of NBS in cities
... This is also the distance recommended by a review paper as an indicator of greenspace accessibility [41]. While some studies use this buffer distance [42][43][44][45], others use distances ranging between 400 m (0.25 miles) and 3200 m (2 miles) [13,14,26,28,29,32,33,38,39]. Yet other studies avoid assuming an appropriate neighbourhood size by simply using distance to nearest greenspace [13,26,[29][30][31][34][35][36]. ...
Article
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Urban greenspace can provide physical and mental health benefits to residents, potentially reducing health inequalities associated with socioeconomic deprivation. The distribution of urban greenspace is an important social justice issue, and consequently is increasingly studied. However, there is little consistency between studies in terms of methods and definitions. There is no consensus on what comprises the most appropriate geographic units of analysis or how to capture residents’ experience of their neighbourhood, leading to the possibility of bias. Several complementary aspects of distribution equity have been defined, yet few studies investigate more than one of these. There are also alternative methods for measuring each aspect of distribution. All of these can lead to conflicting conclusions, which we demonstrate by calculating three aspects of equity for two units of aggregation and three neighbourhood sizes for a single study area. We make several methodological recommendations, including taking steps to capture the relevant neighbourhood as experienced by residents accurately as possible, and suggest that using small-area aggregations may not result in unacceptable levels of information loss. However, a consideration of the local context is critical both in interpreting individual studies and understanding differing results.
Chapter
This paper about sustainable urban development from an ecological perspective. With increasing urbanization and the degradation of green infrastructure, the concept of ecosystem services helps to assess the services people receive from their interaction with nature. Cultural ecosystem services refer to intangible goods that play an important role in improving quality of life and environmental sustainability. There are major efforts around the world to incorporate ecosystem services and their value into policy, finance, and governance. This paper considers the concept of using dispersed parks as a tool for the implementation of cultural ecosystem services in the existing urban planning context and analyzes its effectiveness. The management system of a dispersed park makes it possible to realize a sustainable UGI facility at the neighborhood scale under current urban planning conditions. The paper contains a representation of the potential dispersed park.KeywordsUrban green infrastructureCultural ecosystem servicesDispersed parkConnected green network
Article
Purpose In this study, we describe the impact of the Environmental Education (EE) projects for environmental regeneration conducted by the Group of Research and Studies in Environmental Education and Sustainability (GEPEASA) in Brazil. Methods EE programs have been conducted in National Parks and public schools in urban cities with the objective to include EE in the school curriculum, with school farms, classes of sustainability, food security and environmental health, and recover local green areas. Results In the areas where EE programs have been applied, there are increases of green areas, ecological consciousness and social engagement, and well-being of students and communities. Conclusions Lack of ‘nature’ contact is critical in urban areas, where reduced green areas and outdoor activities have created an artificial lifestyle and a false perception of natural reality, increasing the risk of chronic diseases and mental disorders. EE carries the main responsibility to reestablish the connection between nature and children and communities, re-educating them to be the future's conscious Earth's citizens.
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Water scarcity is the most significant challenge facing semi-arid and arid areas because fresh water is often transferred from other areas to these regions, and then discharged as wastewater. Irrigating agricultural lands and green spaces with treated wastewater (TWW) can be thus regarded as a way to reduce pressure on fresh water resources and lead to the utilization of ecosystem services, such as regulating and cultural ones. The most important factor affecting the expansion and sustainability of these areas is people's participation. Therefore, this study reflected on the weight of locals' willingness and attitudes as one of the most effective factors in the development of irrigation with TWW in peri-urban areas and ecological buffer zones. The main indicators were accordingly extracted from previous research and examined through a survey questionnaire, and then analyzed by structural equation modeling (SEM) in the AMOS and LISREL software packages. The indicators were related to individuals' health in product consumption (health), people's activities in farmlands and green spaces (assurance), and users' distance from farmlands (accessibility). The study results revealed that accessibility was the most important factor, and then health and assurance were effective in people's participation in agricultural activities in farmlands irrigated with TWW in peri-urban areas and increasing green-space buffer zones. HIGHLIGHT The difficulty of water supply has intensified as a result of this water transfer, as has the challenge of supplying green space and food to residents. The growth of green spaces and agricultural spaces with TWW leads to the utilization of ecosystem services such as regulation and cultural services. Results indicate that accessibility is the most critical factor.;
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The new frontiers of sustainable cities should focus on urban planning tools and strategies that are able to integrate ecosystem services in urban development. An important step could include the design of nature-based solutions (NbSs) for introducing important ecological functions aiding human well-being and mitigating the loss of soil. In this study, we propose a methodology to analyse, in a spatial way, the effect of land use scenarios generated by urban planning in the provision of ecosystem services. The methodology analyses the variation of ecosystem services, considering the ecosystem services of the study area and their potential roles in changing the functions of planned urban actions as the starting point. One scenario of analysis includes the integration of NbSs into urban planning. The case study is that of a peri-urban area, characterized by an agroecosystem, which is intended for urban development in the municipality of Gallipoli, Southern Italy. The analysis highlights a low provision of ecosystem services by the agroecosystem, which has had the effect of important olive trees being destroyed by Xylella fastidiosa bacteria. Thus, the integration of NbSs and reducing the construction of buildings in the urban neighbourhood plan could improve the quantity of ecosystem services in the area. Moreover, the ecological design of ecosystem services could improve the typology of ecosystem services provision in the area in consideration of the starting points. Therefore, the analysis of the capacity to integrate ecosystem services in urban planning at the neighbourhood scale could be a tool of ecological urban design, useful to support the decision-making processes.
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Climate change has recently emerged in the scientific dialogue as an important environmental issue. Several policies from the global to the local level have been formulated to frame the actions and measures that will enhance the resilience of societies and space. The focus is on outlining goals, objectives, and strategies both for mitigating climate change impacts and for adapting to reduce its effects and ameliorate vulnerability. The Greek National Strategy for Adaptation to Climate Change (2016) includes certain adaptation measures that relate to the design, increase and integration of open / green spaces, and recognises spatial planning as a framework for the effective coordination of adaptation policies. This work focuses on the recording and evaluation of relevant policies that are formed at the metropolitan level in Greece, with emphasis on the organisation of green networks, as provided by strategic spatial planning. The study reveals that the effective contribution of spatial planning lies largely in the way it is utilised as a governance tool for policy coordination and management and the efficient integration of the planning system, from the national to the local level.
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Egyptian cities have faced several challenges since the start of this new millennium; rapid population growth, urban decay at the expense of available shelter, and services, degradation of infrastructure and land, the downgrade of the environment, social structure and the economy in general, are all factors that have led to unsustainable living. The Burullus region, located in the Northern part of the Egypt delta, is an active commercial and administrative hub. It is one of the five protectorate lakes of Egypt which accommodates both a recreational summer resort and a poorer all year residence. The lake has faced, across time, several changes in respect to the surrounding cities, which in turn impacted dramatically the shore. The changes that happened to the land use and land footprint have changed the shoreline, and will, eventually, lead to many environmental and urban problems as well. Many actions should be taken when thinking about future extensions of cities that have natural edges like Lake Burullus and huge agricultural lands, the aforementioned challenges will face existing communities, as well as, extend with respect to the surrounding areas leading consequently to the change of the identity of the area at large. This paper focuses on the importance of urban development and urban solutions of the cities surrounding Lake Burullus as well as the shoreline protection and implementation policies to optimize deterioration of shoreline, taking into consideration the importance of rural regeneration and its impact on this area. It also highlights a list of actions for successful lake upgrading steps based on the experiences reviewed and concludes that the success of the development of shoreline depends on several factors and that metropolitan planning should cover problems across urban and peri-urban areas and address multijurisdictional issues.
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Jordan suffered from a shortage in low-income housing. Jordan faces a surplus in other housing stock. Factors of imbalance included funding, land, and construction process. Despite the diagnosis of this imbalance, the government could not address the issue. Empowerment of the private sector through partnership potentially bridges housing needs for the growing segment of low income. Further challenges of the proposed study area included cultural values, living needs, and necessary services, in addition to provision of livelihood sources. This study examines the possibility of providing adequate and low-cost housing for the group of Al-Noaim tribe at Al-Mansoura town. This social group still inhabits Bayt Asha’ar housing typology so as to match their low income pressures. The study was based on field survey and interviews with of 27 families and householders. Outcomes proposed a project to be built in two stages during 15 years, 100 residential units distributed on 27 families. The suggested reduction of the total cost of the project was based on: (1) Site selection, (2) Identifying areas and patterns of housing units, and (3) Identification of multiple typologies for construction of the wall section to be used in construction with the retention of social meanings and psychological impact on such low income social groups.
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Recently, it has been proven that access to green spaces provide people with better health conditions and help in enhancing general public health and well-being for urban residents. Therefore, there is a need to assess the quality of green spaces to ensure that they are in good quality in terms of accessibility for example. This paper aims to assess the quality of green spaces in terms of accessibility in the city of Dundee, Scotland, based on employing GIS network analysis. The results showed that nearly two thirds of Dundonians have access to 2–20 ha green spaces within 300 m distance while nearly half of them have access to 20–100 ha and 100–500 ha green spaces within 2000 m and 5000 m distance, respectively. The findings of this research provide valuable evidence for public policy makers and urban planners in addition to the general public for framing future urban plans in a manner that enhance accessibility to green spaces. The employed methodology in this research can be used in other urban areas within and even beyond Scotland, if the required datasets are available and accessible.
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Small-scale urban greening projects such as green roofs are changing the urban landscape, shifting our experience from more manicured lawns to rooftop native gardens, prairie medians, and elevated post-industrial parks. Despite increasing interest in the benefits of urban nature, there is little research on what people think about these new small-scale urban greening projects, if they influence their health or sense of place, or how they may link to current discussions climate change adaptation and mitigation strategies. Furthermore, the dominance of a few fields of research on the benefits of nature on public policy have failed to explain why similar urban greening projects have been fraught with disagreements: are naturalized lawns ecological models or weedy eyesores? Is urban greening helpful or does it just lead to green gentrification? This book argues that using both on-the ground examinations of public perceptions of these projects, along with the integration of less-well known fields of research on the human relationship with nature, can help us create places that nurture ecological and human health and promote successful urban communities. Using new research and case studies on perceptions small-scale urban greening projects such as green roofs, vacant lots, green infrastructure, and elevated rails parks in North America, this book explores how small-scale urban greening projects can impact our sense of place, health, creativity and concentration while also being part of a successful urban greening program that balances social equity and sustainability. Key questions include how we measure tricky concepts like sense of place, wild nature and disinvested communities, and emotional connection to nature, and how this knowledge fits into current nature-health debates, implementation strategies, and successful urban greening policies. Arguing that wildness, emotion, and sense of place are key components of our human-nature relationship, this book will be of interest to designers, academics and municipal policy makers.
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The development of policies concerned with urban greenspace can be related to two areas of land use planning: one based in the tradition of recreation planning; the second concerned with an emerging understanding of need to conserve important wildlife habitats and geological features in sites. Rather less success has been achieved in developing policies which acknowledge that an improvement in the quality of life for the people who live and work in cities comes from the direct experiences of a variety of natural landscapes. There remains a question mark over whether natural greenspace will be identified in development plans and over the willingness of professionals in the field to pursue acceptable standards of provision for the kinds of accessible natural greenspaces which people demand. We address these issues first, before turning to the question of minimum targets for the provision of these landscapes. -from Authors
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Since the social values of urban woodlands are not always sufficiently taken into account in decision-making on urban land-use and green space planning, new means of collecting the experienced values of urban green areas and integrating this information into the planning processes are needed. The main aim of this study was to develop a simple method to describe the experienced qualities of green areas for strategic green area planning purposes. In a postal survey conducted in Helsinki, Finland, general attitudes towards and benefits felt to be derived from green areas as well as site specific information about the experience values were gathered. Local residents were asked to identify, those areas on a map of the study area that had particular positive qualities, such as beautiful scenery, peace and quiet and the feeling of being in a forest as well as those areas with negative features. These results were compiled in map form using GIS software. The results highlight the most valued sites as well as problem areas within the study area. The most important features associated with favourite places were: tranquillity, the feeling of being in a forest, and naturalness. The results suggest that the method is communicative and relatively easy to use in both collaborative green area planning and land-use planning.
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Every day, we make decisions on topics ranging from personal investments to schools for our children to the meals we eat to the causes we champion. Unfortunately, we often choose poorly. The reason, the authors explain, is that, being human, we all are susceptible to various biases that can lead us to blunder. Our mistakes make us poorer and less healthy; we often make bad decisions involving education, personal finance, health care, mortgages and credit cards, the family, and even the planet itself. Thaler and Sunstein invite us to enter an alternative world, one that takes our humanness as a given. They show that by knowing how people think, we can design choice environments that make it easier for people to choose what is best for themselves, their families, and their society. Using colorful examples from the most important aspects of life, Thaler and Sunstein demonstrate how thoughtful "choice architecture" can be established to nudge us in beneficial directions without restricting freedom of choice. Nudge offers a unique new take-from neither the left nor the right-on many hot-button issues, for individuals and governments alike. This is one of the most engaging and provocative books to come along in many years. © 2008 by Richard H. Thaler and Cass R. Sunstein. All rights reserved.
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This paper reviews two contrasting approaches governments use to engage the citizen to promote better public policy outcomes: nudging citizens using the insights of behavioural economics, as summarised by Thaler and Sunstein (2009) or giving citizens the space to think through and debate solutions, as indicated by proponents of deliberative democracy. The paper summarises each approach, giving examples; then it compares and contrast them, illustrating their relative strengths and weaknesses. The paper concludes by suggesting that the approaches share some common features and policy-makers could useful draw upon both.
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Maintaining biodiversity requires a wise combination of protection, management and recreation of habitats to secure representative and functional habitat networks. As urbanisation is increasing worldwide, town and cities are becoming the most common habitat for humankind. Accordingly, the urban landscape is becoming increasingly important for maintaining biodiversity on site, as well as for understanding the concept of biodiversity in general, and its maintenance in urban landscapes.We evaluated the extent to which Swedish urban planners experience barriers when using comprehensive planning as a tool for the maintenance of biodiversity through the provision of sufficient quantity and quality of green space. All of the six large Swedish cities, having had constant relative population growth since the beginning of the 19th century were chosen as case studies. We first defined a normative model for planning urban biodiversity and operationalised this concept by using landscape ecological principles. Structured in-depth interviews were then carried out with three planners in each city. The respondents were asked about their interest, ability, and knowledge concerning planning for functional networks of green spaces in relation to the normative model.The in-depth interviews with 18 urban planners indicated that legislation was an important driver for green space planning, that they paid attention to new knowledge concerning recreation values and public health, but that biodiversity maintenance was not a high priority. There was a general agreement that local governments lack necessary resources to plan for biodiversity. A majority of the respondents mentioned geographical information systems (GIS) as an important tool to integrate knowledge about biodiversity in the planning process, and to evaluate likely consequences caused by deviations from current structure plans related to an efficient use of urban green spaces to maintain biodiversity. However, an evaluation of the answers revealed that the respondents had actually overestimated their capacity to implement the normative model. To conclude, the unanimous view was that planners were interested in the maintenance of biodiversity, but were limited by knowledge and by personnel lacking suitable qualifications, as well as by inadequate organisations. Only a minority of the respondents thought that local governments should have resources for biodiversity conservation planning. Finally, we discuss how the implementation of biodiversity policies could be improved by better integration of natural and social sciences in education and policy implementation.
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Urban areas can contain rich flora that contribute significantly to biodiversity, but loss and isolation of habitats due to urban sprawl threaten biodiversity and warrant limits on development. The connectivity provided by urban green spaces offers habitats and corridors that help conserve biodiversity. Researchers and planners have begun using landscape ecology principles to develop green space networks and increase connectivity to preserve and restore biodiversity. In this paper, potential corridors were identified in Jinan City, China, using the least-cost path method, and green space networks were developed and improved based on graph theory and the gravity model. Spatial analysis revealed that the proposed plan decreased fragmentation and increased connectivity. Plaza and roadside green spaces were the main types of green space that increased, but they only weakly improved networks and biodiversity. Identifying potential corridors using least-cost path analysis made the results better approximate the real landscape by including impedance along links. The potential networks revealed problems in the current greening plan. The green space network developed based on graph theory and the gravity model simplified and systematized the complex landscape, helping to identify the significance of each green space and guiding urban planning for biodiversity conservation.
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The growing awareness of the adverse effects of habitat fragmentation on natural systems has resulted in a rapidly increasing number of actions to reduce current fragmentation of natural systems as well as a growing demand for tools to predict and evaluate the effect of changes in the landscape on connectivity in the natural world. Recent studies used ‘least-cost’ modelling (available as a toolbox in GIS-systems) to calculate ‘effective distance’, a measure for distance modified with the cost to move between habitat patches based on detailed geographical information on the landscape as well as behavioural aspects of the organisms studied. We applied the method to a virtual landscape and a small scaled agricultural system subject to different scenarios in a land re-allotment project. We discuss the importance of technical aspects and ecological assumption underlying this modelling method. The model is shown to be a flexible tool to model functional connectivity in the study of the relation between landscape and mobility of organisms as well as in scenario building and evaluation in wild life protection projects and applied land management projects. Since ‘effective distance’ has the same units as Euclidean distance (m), this effective distance may be a straightforward way to include landscape and behavioural aspects in other models which include distance as a measure for isolation. We show the importance of the ‘ecological’ quality of the input maps and the choice of relevant landscape features and resistance values.
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Greenspace access in an English city was analysed using a network analysis in a geographical information system (GIS). Access for different religious and ethnic groups was compared with benchmark standards that form part of the UK government guidance on greenspace provision. Despite having nearly more than twice the recommended amount of accessible greenspace per capita, its distribution and pattern show considerable variation especially when spatially analysed with respect to ethnic and religious groups. Whilst the specific results are locally important (Indian, Hindu and Sikh groups were found to have limited access to greenspace in the city), the study shows how a GIS-based network analysis in conjunction with statistical analysis of socio-economic data can be used to analyse the equity of access to community goods and services. The results can be used to inform the local planning process and the GIS approach can be expanded into other local authority domains. The approach presented in this paper offers a generic method for quantifying the differences in the provision of community goods and services (e.g. educational, health, environmental, etc.) for a range of different societal groups (e.g. related to deprivation, disability, occupation, economic activity, household tenure and types, age and health).
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Europe is a highly urbanised continent. The consequent loss and degradation of urban and peri-urban green space could adversely affect ecosystems as well as human health and well-being. The aim of this paper is to formulate a conceptual framework of associations between urban green space, and ecosystem and human health. Through an interdisciplinary literature review the concepts of Green Infrastructure, ecosystem health, and human health and well-being are discussed. The possible contributions of urban and peri-urban green space systems, or Green Infrastructure, on both ecosystem and human health are critically reviewed. Finally, based on a synthesis of the literature a conceptual framework is presented. The proposed conceptual framework highlights many dynamic factors, and their complex interactions, affecting ecosystem health and human health in urban areas. This framework forms the context into which extant and new research can be placed. In this way it forms the basis for a new interdisciplinary research agenda.
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Parks provide ideal open spaces for leisure-time physical activity and important venues to promote physical activity. The spatial configuration of parks, the number of parks and their spatial distribution across neighborhood areas or local regions, represents the basic park access potential for their residential populations. A new measure of spatial access to parks, population-weighted distance (PWD) to parks, combines the advantages of current park access approaches and incorporates the information processing theory and probability access surface model to more accurately quantify residential population's potential spatial access to parks. The PWD was constructed at the basic level of US census geography - blocks - using US park and population data. This new measure of population park accessibility was aggregated to census tract, county, state and national levels. On average, US residential populations are expected to travel 6.7 miles to access their local neighborhood parks. There are significant differences in the PWD to local parks among states. The District of Columbia and Connecticut have the best access to local neighborhood parks with PWD of 0.6 miles and 1.8 miles, respectively. Alaska, Montana, and Wyoming have the largest PWDs of 62.0, 37.4, and 32.8 miles, respectively. Rural states in the western and Midwestern US have lower neighborhood park access, while urban states have relatively higher park access. The PWD to parks provides a consistent platform for evaluating spatial equity of park access and linking with population health outcomes. It could be an informative evaluation tool for health professionals and policy makers. This new method could be applied to quantify geographic accessibility of other types of services or destinations, such as food, alcohol, and tobacco outlets.
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Active transportation to school is an important contributor to the total physical activity of children and adolescents. However, active school travel has declined over time, and interventions are needed to reverse this trend. The purpose of this paper is to review intervention studies related to active school transportation to guide future intervention research. A systematic review was conducted to identify intervention studies of active transportation to school published in the scientific literature through January 2010. Five electronic databases and a manual search were conducted. Detailed information was extracted, including a quantitative assessment comparing the effect sizes, and a qualitative assessment using an established evaluation tool. We identified 14 interventions that focused on active transportation to school. These interventions mainly focused on primary school children in the United States, Australia, and the United Kingdom. Almost all the interventions used quasi-experimental designs (10/14), and most of the interventions reported a small effect size on active transportation (6/14). More research with higher quality study designs and measures should be conducted to further evaluate interventions and to determine the most successful strategies for increasing active transportation to school.
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The authors investigate whether the percentage of green space in people’s living environment affects their feelings of social safety positively or negatively. More specifically they investigate the extent to which this relationship varies between urban and rural areas, between groups in the community that can be identified as more or less vulnerable, and the extent to which different types of green space exert different influences. The study includes 83 736 Dutch citizens who were interviewed about their feelings of social safety. The percentage of green space in the living environment of each respondent was calculated, and data analysed by use of a three-level latent variable model, controlled for individual and environmental background characteristics. The analyses suggest that more green space in people’s living environment is associated with enhanced feelings of social safety—except in very strongly urban areas, where enclosed green spaces are associated with reduced feelings of social safety. Contrary to the common image of green space as a dangerous hiding place for criminal activity which causes feelings of insecurity, the results suggest that green space generally enhances feelings of social safety. The results also suggest, however, that green space in the most urban areas is a matter of concern with respect to social safety.
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To investigate the strength of the relation between the amount of green space in people's living environment and their perceived general health. This relation is analysed for different age and socioeconomic groups. Furthermore, it is analysed separately for urban and more rural areas, because the strength of the relation was expected to vary with urbanity. The study includes 250 782 people registered with 104 general practices who filled in a self administered form on sociodemographic background and perceived general health. The percentage of green space (urban green space, agricultural space, natural green space) within a one kilometre and three kilometre radius around the postal code coordinates was calculated for each household. Multilevel logistic regression analyses were performed at three levels-that is, individual level, family level, and practice level-controlled for sociodemographic characteristics. The percentage of green space inside a one kilometre and a three kilometre radius had a significant relation to perceived general health. The relation was generally present at all degrees of urbanity. The overall relation is somewhat stronger for lower socioeconomic groups. Elderly, youth, and secondary educated people in large cities seem to benefit more from presence of green areas in their living environment than other groups in large cities. This research shows that the percentage of green space in people's living environment has a positive association with the perceived general health of residents. Green space seems to be more than just a luxury and consequently the development of green space should be allocated a more central position in spatial planning policy.
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Research and development in textiles have gone beyond the conventional applications as clothing and furnishing materials; for example, the convergence of textiles, nanotechnologies, and energy science opens up the opportunity to take on one of the major challenges in the 21st century -energy. This presentation addresses the development of high-energy lithium-ion batteries using electrospun nanofibers.
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The paper investigates the influence of gender-related differences in home range experience upon cognitive mapping ability. The sample constituted 166 children aged between 6 and 11 from a suburban school. Each child was asked to draw a map of their journey to school and home area. Three different methods of stimulus presentation were used: free-recall sketching and the interpretation of either a large scale plan or an aerial photograph. A structured interview with every individual provided information on home range behaviour. The study confirms a growing differential between the activity spaces of boys and girls within their home area during early childhood. Strong positive relationships are found between home range behaviour and information on place and awareness of space. Discernible sex-differences are revealed in both the quantitative accretion of environmental knowledge and in the qualitative manner that children are able to externalize their mental imagery. Contrasts first appear around the middle years of early schooling at a time when boys begin to enjoy greater parental granted rights within their locality. By the age of 11 boys were able to draw maps broader in conception and more detailed in content than correspondingly aged girls. In terms of both mapping ability and map accuracy a significantly higher proportion of boys managed to depict places in a spatially coherent manner. Generalization is complicated by the method of stimulus presentation and the nature of the environment. The educational significance of the results are discussed.
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Background Well-designed public open space (POS) that encourages physical activity is a community asset that could potentially contribute to the health of local residents. Methods In 1995–1996, two studies were conducted—an environmental audit of POS over 2 acres (n =516) within a 408-km2 area of metropolitan Perth, Western Australia; and personal interviews with 1803 adults (aged 18 to 59 years) (52.9% response rate). The association between access to POS and physical activity was examined using three accessibility models that progressively adjusted for distance to POS, and its attractiveness and size. In 2002, an observational study examined the influence of attractiveness on the use of POS by observing users of three pairs of high- and low-quality (based on attractiveness) POS matched for size and location. Results Overall, 28.8% of respondents reported using POS for physical activity. The likelihood of using POS increased with increasing levels of access, but the effect was greater in the model that adjusted for distance, attractiveness, and size. After adjustment, those with very good access to large, attractive POS were 50% more likely to achieve high levels of walking (odds ratio, 1.50; 95% confidence level, 1.06–2.13). The observational study showed that after matching POS for size and location, 70% of POS users observed visited attractive POS. Conclusions Access to attractive, large POS is associated with higher levels of walking. To increase walking, thoughtful design (and redesign) of POS is required that creates large, attractive POS with facilities that encourage active use by multiple users (e.g., walkers, sports participants, picnickers).
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Assessment of landscape functional connectivity is increasingly important for planning landscape scale conservation measures. However, measuring the functional connectivity of landscapes is challenging due to the lack of data on species landscape interactions and because connectivity is species-specific. We developed parameters for a connectivity indicator using Delphi analysis, and critically examine the use of Delphi analysis in this context. To calculate the connectivity indicator we used the following parameters: maximum dispersal distance, negative edge effects of different land cover, and relative permeability of different land cover. Delphi is a technique designed to numerically synthesise expert opinion in data-poor environments and is based on repetitive questionnaires interspersed with controlled feedback. Three panels of experts were assembled, one covering each of three habitats of interest. Experts found the process challenging especially fixing exact numbers given the potential range of values. However, panels generally assigned higher permeability and low edge effects to semi-natural land cover classes, assigning low permeability and high edge impacts to more modified land cover. During the Delphi process we found that experts were prepared to alter their answers in response to feedback from the previous round. Participants’ answers which did change between rounds generally changed to approach the group median, and when they did, the associated confidence score was more likely to rise than to fall. After three rounds, answers were generally stable. Delphi proved a useful method to use to generate parameter values for the connectivity indicator, with the method particularly acceptable to stakeholders of the indicator project.
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In this thesis, I evaluate the extent to which biodiversity is affected, and taken into consideration by, urban planning. Based on landscape ecology, I apply an interdisciplinary approach. In addition to natural science, I have included social and political sciences, as methods from these two disciplines were required to study issues dealing with both biodiversity and urban planning. Urbanisation affects biodiversity in several ways. For example, changes in vegetation structures as well as an increased fragmentation of natural habitats will take place. In a fragmented environment an increased nest predation rate occurs. In the smaller spatial scale, predation rate was found to be higher closer to the edge of natural habitat patches than further inside. I also carried out research in order to identify the local and regional effects that cities have on compositional and structural elements of biodiversity. The amount and quality of green space and natural vegetation increased from the centre to the periphery of the city. Avian species richness showed the same trend with the exception of avian generalists, which showed the opposite trend. Certain qualities such as old-growth trees and dead wood, as well as availability of green space, were identified as being important for avian diversity. These findings emphasise the importance of urban green space with natural structures to maintain high ecological diversity. Based on analyses of policy documents, I examined whether Swedish local authorities and planners take urban green spaces into consideration as potential multifunctional systems, including the maintenance of biodiversity. The result showed that Swedish planners and local decision-makers have not fully understood the multiple uses of urban green space, for example, the same area can act as a recreation area, improve the local climate, and maintain biodiversity. A normative model for conservation planning in urban landscapes was defined and operationalised by using landscape ecological principles. Urban planners were interviewed about their interest, ability, and knowledge with respect to planning for functional networks of green spaces in relation to the normative model. The unanimous view was that planners were interested in the concept of biodiversity. However, they were restricted by the extent of their knowledge, by personnel lacking suitable qualifications, and by inadequacies within their organisations. To deal with this, better integration of natural, social, and political sciences in education, as well as policy implementation should be developed.
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This paper presents results from research that identified and analysed barriers to accessing British woodlands and forests. This paper aims to contribute to an understanding of access and accessibility and to inform the design of policy and management interventions to encourage increased access by under-represented social groups. A brief review of policy and academic literature places the issue of inclusive woodland and forest access in the context of contemporary debates surrounding public health, well-being, diversity and the perceived role of public green space. There follows an analysis of quantitative and qualitative research findings, informing the presentation of a working typology of barriers. The typology is structured around the access needs of various social groups, allowing an analysis of the social distribution of barriers. The findings indicate the deep-seated psychological, emotional and socio-cultural nature of some barriers and highlight the need for carefully designed interventions that may lie outside the conventional remit of woodland management. This paper will be of particular interest to decision-makers and practitioners and to those involved in the design and delivery of policies, programmes and projects aimed at encouraging inclusive use of woodlands, forests and other types of green space.
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The focus of biodiversity conservation is shifting to larger spatial scales in response to habitat fragmentation and the need to integrate multiple landscape objectives. Conservation strategies increasingly incorporate measures to combat fragmentation such as ecological networks. These are often based on assessment of landscape structure but such approaches fail to capitalise on the potential offered by more ecologically robust assessments of landscape function and connectivity. In this paper, we describe a modelling approach to identifying functional habitat networks and demonstrate its application to a fragmented landscape where policy initiatives seek to improve conditions for woodland biodiversity including increasing woodland cover. Functional habitat networks were defined by identifying suitable habitat and by modelling connectivity using least-cost approaches to account for matrix permeability. Generic focal species (GFS) profiles were developed, in consultation with stakeholders, to represent species with high and moderate sensitivity to fragmentation. We demonstrated how this form of analysis can be used to aid the spatial targeting of conservation actions. This 'targeted' action scenario was tested for effectiveness against comparable scenarios, which were based on random and clumped actions within the same landscape. We tested effectiveness using structural metrics, network-based metrics and a published functional connectivity indicator. Targeting actions within networks resulted in the highest mean woodland area and highest connectivity indicator value. Our approach provides an assessment of landscape function by recognising the importance of the landscape matrix. It provides a framework for the targeting and evaluation of alternative conservation options, offering a pragmatic, ecologically-robust solution to a current need in applied landscape ecology.
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Information about park infrastructure such as trail networks is not only useful for visitors to plan trips that meet their own needs, but it is also important for park and open space managers to monitor their assets and direct trail use patterns to achieve management objectives. This study aims at applying and evaluating dynamic segmentation and network analysis techniques in a GIS to gather elevation data on trail routes and generate travel time and energy consumption information. The method was applied to a network of 16 trails in a well-visited forest recreational area in central Taiwan Island. Results show that it is feasible and efficient to use GIS methods to integrate multiple data sets and derive advanced trail information. Optimal routes based on the least time cost and the most energy cost were identified. Combining indoor, GIS-based and outdoor field work of trail surveys is likely to produce information that is reliable and useful for visitors and managers to make travel and management decisions.
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Urban greenspaces are universally valued as amenity-recreation venues, wildlife refuges and essential livable-city ingredients. Western strategies of urban greenspace provision are difficult to implement or retrofit in most Asian cities, commonly constrained by a high-density compact form. With recent rapid urbanization and associated brown and green field developments, ample opportunities arise to overhaul greenspace standards and patterns. The case study of the ancient city of Nanjing in China permits planning for an integrated greenspace network, aiming at flexibility for future urban expansion, green field acquisition, recreational functions, wildlife habitats and environmental benefits. It consists of green wedges, greenways and green extensions that incorporate urban green areas at three landscape scales. At the metropolis scale, through normative and substantive analyses of urban form and urban expansion, and assessment of suburban uplands, five green wedges are demarcated to generate a star urban form. The green wedges link the extensive countryside to the central city, and define elongated finger-like spaces between them for urban expansion to avoid conflicts with green fields. At the city scale, three major greenways, including city-wall circular greenway, Inner-Qinhuai River greenway, and canopy-road greenway, are designed as a permeating framework to guide new greenspace location, configuration and continuity, and to link existing parks. These greenways are equipped with a comprehensive trail system to foster pedestrian and cycling movements that are preferred by the public and the government. At the neighborhood scale, a greenspace organization, consisting of residential public open spaces, shaded sidewalks and riparian strips, conforms to the network geometry. As well-connected entities, these small proximate enclaves provide opportunities for residents to have day-to-day contact with nature. They also serve to resist undue urban influences and intrusions. Overall, the three-tiered greenspace system provides an alternative mode for urban development to the conventional transport-dominated one, to usher substantial improvement in landscape-environmental quality and to augment the sustainable-city notion.
Article
Cultural services provided by green space networks and in particular leisure and recreational opportunities are central to the quality of life of those living in urban areas. However, the literature concerned with green space networks has mainly focused on planning aspects rather than on recreational use. The aim of this study was to evaluate the recreational use of, and concerns about, a naturalistic green space network. The case study location was the naturalistic woodland framework in Birchwood, Warrington, UK, known as Birchwood Forest Park. Non-participant observation and content analysis of local archives were used to collect quantitative and qualitative data. Birchwood Forest Park was used more for leisure activities (52.8%, N=1825; i.e. recreation, sports or play) than for utilitarian purposes (47.2%, N=1825; i.e. as walking or cycling thoroughfare). However, utilitarian walking (30%, N=1825) was the most frequent type of activity observed. The maintenance of the naturalistic woodland framework was the most frequent concern mentioned in the local archives (33.3%, N=234). This case study suggests that the recreational patterns in, as well as peoples' concerns about, naturalistic urban landscapes may be a factor of high-quality maintenance and associated local aesthetic and cultural perceptions. In developing, planning or managing comprehensive urban green space networks it is important to ensure that natural looking scenes are well maintained and that the local community is culturally connected to such scenes.
Article
The greenway movement in Singapore began in the late 1980's as a proposal for an island-wide network of green corridors. The paper traces the conceptualization, planning strategy and implementation of this greenway network. The capitalization of under-utilized land along drainage channels and beside carriageways for pilot greenway projects ensured government backing for the projects. The challenges faced in implementing the projects and the solutions taken to advance the greenway concept are discussed. Garnering public support for the completed sections generated resources and conferred additional flexibility to the land allocation process, allowing the concept to evolve. Strategic partnership with key land-use agencies and the overview of a national Garden City Action Committee for conflict resolution facilitated the process. Lessons are drawn from the implementation of the pilot projects to inform subsequent greenway development efforts, enhancing the usage and multi-functional capacity of the greenways. The Singapore experience provides a model for greenway planning and implementation for other rapidly urbanizing cities in Asia.
Article
This paper is concerned with the relationship between the planning of settlements and health. It gives a brief introduction to the issues before summarising the evidence in relation to a range of topics, concluding with some more speculative thoughts on likely future findings.Modern planning was invented in response to inhumane living conditions in 19th century cities. But in the last century the connection was lost. Only now, with concerns over climate change and obesity, is there beginning to be the realisation that the physical environment is an important determinant of health.The paper uses a particular model of this relationship based on eco-system and health determinants theories to structure the review of evidence. The review covers: lifestyle choices in relation to physical activity and diet, mental well-being and community, the local economy and income, health inequalities and strategic land use transport planning, pollution and urban form, and finally impacts on global ecology.There is now a growing consensus that while personal factors are critical in determining health, the urban environment exacerbates or mitigates health and well-being outcomes.The level of active travel (walking and cycling) and outdoor recreational activity is strongly affected by accessibility to local facilities. Access to green, natural environments, and to local social networks, are factors in mental well-being. The wider sub-regional pattern of housing, economic development, land use and transport is a determinant of social exclusion and therefore health inequalities. It also affects health-damaging pollution, adaptability in the face of climate change and the level of carbon dioxide emissions.We have literally been building unhealthy conditions into many of our towns and cities. But comparisons with the best cities in Europe indicate that it is possible to reverse the less desirable trends. Success depends, however, on more radical policies of local authority control over land and finance than any political party has yet advocated. It also requires collaboration between the full range of powerful public and private organizations that influence the built environment.Future research is likely to further strengthen these conclusions. It will become much more obvious that planning for health and well-being is not only the NHS, but about creating a health-promoting physical, social and economic environment.
Article
Green spaces play a crucial role in supporting urban ecological and social systems, a fact recognised in public policy commitments in both the UK and Europe. The amount of provision, the distribution of green space and the ease of access to such spaces are key contributors to social and ecological function in urban environments. We measured distance along the transport network to public green space available to households in Sheffield, and compared this with the distribution of private garden space. In addition, we used a geodemographic database, Mosaic UK, to examine how access to green space varies across different sectors of society. Public green spaces are chronically underprovided relative to recommended targets. For example, 64% of Sheffield households fail to meet the recommendation of the regulatory agency English Nature (EN), that people should live no further than 300 m from their nearest green space. Moreover, this figure rises to 72% if we restrict attention to municipal parks recognised by the local council. There is an overall reduction in coverage by green space when moving from neighbourhoods where green space is primarily publicly provided to those where it is privately provided. While access to public green space varies significantly across different social groups, those enjoying the greatest access include more deprived groups and older people. This study highlights the need for additional green space to be created and existing green space to be protected in light of increasing development pressure.
Article
The work identifies and attempts to value urban woodlands according to their social significance to the user. Using questionnaires, interviews and focus groups, it examines the usage patterns and perceptions of the public to an urban forest complex. Results point towards the high social value of urban woods providing that they meet specific requirements and raise some fundamental issues regarding the location, size and structure of urban woodlands for everyday public use, the relationship between the communities and the woodlands that serve them and major differences between professional and public attitudes to woodlands. Findings point to a severe undervaluing of the social importance of woods by professionals in favour of general nature conservation guidelines which fail to recognise the nature of urban woodland/community interaction. Key parameters are that woodlands should be 5–10 min walk from the home, be of a suitable size to create a woodland environment (minimum of 2 ha) and have an open structure. Species was not a significant factor. Woodland interaction is highly personal where even 25-year old plantations are regarded as static long-term structures. As such, they are used as a context for a variety of life events and functions, where the relationship is defin