ArticleLiterature Review

Chemistry, Technology, and Nutraceutical Functions of Celery ( Apium graveolens L.): An Overview

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Abstract

Celery is a commercially important seed spice belonging to the family Umbelliferrae. Celery is used in various forms such as fresh herb, stalk, seeds, oil, and oleoresin for flavoring of foods and for medicinal purposes. Celery seed contains 2% volatile oil that finds application for flavoring of foods and also in perfumery industry. Limonene and selinene form about 60% and 20% of the oil, respectively. However, the important flavor constituents of the oil responsible for the typical aroma are 3-n-butyl-4-5-dihydrophthalide (sedanenolide), 3-n-butyl phthalide, sedanolide, and sedanonic anhydride present in very low levels (1-3%). Celery contains 15% fatty oil with the fatty acids: petroselenic (64.3%), oleic (8.1%), linoleic (18%), linolenic (0.6%), and palmitic acids. Phthalides especially sedanenaloide possess many health benefits. Celery extracts are reported to possess many nutraceutical properties, viz., antioxidant, hypolipidemic, hypoglycemic, and anti-platelet aggregation. In the present review, the chemistry, processing, and biological activities of celery and the components responsible are discussed.

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... It also contains undifferentiated oleic acid (0.065 g), total polyunsaturated fatty acids (0.148 g), 18:2 undifferentiated linoleic acid (0.148 g), lutein + zeaxanthin (1 µg), apigenin (2.4 mg), and quercetin (0.18 mg) per 100 g [39]. Furthermore, it contains valuable vitamins and minerals such as vitamin C, potassium, calcium, sodium, and magnesium [103]. ...
... Celery is used against helminth, joint problems [31], stomach problems (relief of griping pains and flatulence), and spasm, as well as sedative, carminative, diuretic, urinary calculus, urinary antiseptic, kidney stones, emmenagogue, laxative, bronchitis, asthma, osteoarthritis, and arthritic pain [15,103,107,113,114]. It also relieves offensive breath and stimulates the production of semen and libido by its protective role against the sodium valproate [15,23,103,114,[124][125][126] and increases breast milk production [127]. ...
... Celery is used against helminth, joint problems [31], stomach problems (relief of griping pains and flatulence), and spasm, as well as sedative, carminative, diuretic, urinary calculus, urinary antiseptic, kidney stones, emmenagogue, laxative, bronchitis, asthma, osteoarthritis, and arthritic pain [15,103,107,113,114]. It also relieves offensive breath and stimulates the production of semen and libido by its protective role against the sodium valproate [15,23,103,114,[124][125][126] and increases breast milk production [127]. Although no experimental investigation explores its effect on female fertility, its abundance of calcium, magnesium, potassium, and sodium might explain the gender determination [128]. ...
Article
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Apium plants belong to the Apiaceae family and are included among plants that have been in use in traditional medicine for thousands of years worldwide, including in the Mediterranean, as well as the tropical and subtropical regions of Asia and Africa. Some highlighted medical benefits include prevention of coronary and vascular diseases. Their phytochemical constituents consist of bergapten, Appl. Sci. 2019, 9, 3547 2 of 39 induction. The present review summarizes data on ecology, botany, cultivation, habitat, medicinal use, phytochemical composition, preclinical and clinical pharmacological efficacy of Apium plants and provides future direction on how to take full advantage of Apium plants for the optimal benefit to mankind.
... A. graveolens owes its characteristic flavor to the presence of an essential oil, composed of terpenes, sesquiterpenes and phthalides [Kokotkiewicz & Luczkiewicz, 2016]. Celery fruits (commonly referred to as 'seeds') are the major source of volatile oil (2-3% on average), which finds use in food flavoring, perfumery, and pharmaceutical industries [Kokotkiewicz & Luczkiewicz, 2016;Malhotra, 2006;Sowbhagya, 2014]. The size of celery oil market is substantial (50 tons/year), and large amounts are produced in India, China, Europe, and United States. ...
... The size of celery oil market is substantial (50 tons/year), and large amounts are produced in India, China, Europe, and United States. India is the major producer of both celery seeds and celery oil, with annual production of 4000 and 25 tons, respectively [Sowbhagya, 2014]. Alkylphthalides, represented by 3-n-butylphthalide, sedanenolide, and sedanolide, are functionally among the most important constituents of A. graveolens, determining its specific spicy aroma [Kurobayashi et al., 2006;Turner et al., 2021] and thus being crucial for flavoring properties of celery. ...
... Taking into account the flavoring and therapeutic properties of the above compounds, there is a good rationale to develop phthalide-enriched celery products for the use in nutraceutical and functional food industries [Sowbhagya, 2014]. Studies have shown that factors such as seed source, hydrodistillation time, and sample pretreatment affect essential oil yield and composition; however, these experiments were either preliminary [Jain et al., 2003] or did not focus specifically on improving the phthalide content of the product [Dąbrowska et al., 2020;El-Beltagi et al., 2020;Sowbhagya et al., 2007Sowbhagya et al., , 2010; Zorga et al., 2020]. ...
Article
The essential oil of celery ( Apium graveolens ) is characterized by exceptionally high content of alkylphthalides. The mentioned compounds exhibit a number of biological effects (including hypotensive, lipid-lowering, neuroprotective, and cytotoxic) and are also responsible for distinctive aroma of the plant. In the current work, parameters of conventional hydrodistillation (HD) and simultaneous distillation-extraction (SDE) were optimized to obtain phthalide-enriched fractions of celery seeds. A positive correlation was shown between hydrodistillation time and improved essential oil and phthalide yields. The 6-h HD of comminuted seeds yielded essential oil (2.9%) with a higher total phthalide content (51%), as compared to the samples collected after 1.5-3.0 h, which gave 2.4-2.7% of oil containing 24.6-39.2% of total phthalides. The oil contained sedanenolide (36.7%), 3- n -butylphthalide (13.1%), and sedanolide (1.1%). A further increase in the total phthalide content was achieved by omitting the size reduction step prior to hydrodistillation (68.8%) and utilization of the salting-out effect (84.3%). Enzyme pretreatment had a negligible effect on essential oil and phthalide yields. The change of distillation mode from HD to SDE significantly increased the oil yield of whole seeds (from 2.8 to 5.8% for 6 h processing) while maintaining its high phthalide content (62.5%), which translated to an increase in the total phthalide yield from 19.4 to 36.0 g/kg.
... The main bioactive compounds in celery (Apium graveolens) are limonene (about 60 %) and selinene (about 20 %) (Sowbhagya, 2014). Additionally, it contains frocoumarin glycosides and flavonoids (Kooti and Daraei, 2017). ...
... The presence of limonene, γ-cadinene, and thymol as the principal compounds in celery, is consistent with previous reports by Sowbhagya (2014) but differs from that reported by Rożek et al. (2016). Thymol was the principal compound in thyme essential oil at 47.6 %, which is more than 38.7 % reported by Al-Asmari et al. (2017). ...
Article
The effects of including thyme, celery or their mixture (as an alternative to salinomycin ionophore) on nutrient utilization and animal performance were evaluated using Barki lambs. Fifty-five lambs weighing 18.5 ± 1.1 kg and about 90 ± 5 days old were stratified into 5 treatment groups and fed: (1) a control diet of concentrates and maize fodder (600:400 on dry matter basis), or the control diet supplemented with (2) 15 g of thyme, (3) 15 g of celery, (4) 15 g of thyme and celery mixture, or (5) 1 g of salinomycin/lamb daily for 288 days. Additives significantly increased (P<0.05) both maize and total intakes, while thyme and thyme-celery significantly increased nutrient digestibility (P<0.05) compared with the control treatment. Celery, thyme-celery and sali-nomycin treatments decreased (P<0.05) serum cholesterol. Celery increased (P<0.05) final body weight, weight gain and average daily gain without affecting shrunk liveweight, hot carcass weight or dressing percent. Thyme-celery mix increased fat thickness of the rib cuts (P<0.001), while thyme, thyme-celery and celery treatments increased (P<0.01) the longissimus muscle area. Salinomycin, celery and thyme treatments increased (P<0.05) the lean proportion and decreased the fat proportion. Thyme, celery and thyme-celery treatments decreased (P<0.001) protein of meat, while thyme and thyme-celery treatments increased (P<0.01) carcass water holding capacity. Salinomycin, thyme and celery treatments decreased (P<0.01) meat brightness score, while celery treatment increased (P<0.05) redness of meat without affecting yellowness, chroma or hue of meat. Overall, results in the present study showed that these natural additives had similar effects to salinomycin, but further studies are necessary to validate the results and their mechanism of action.
... It was introduced to China during the Han Dynasty (second century B.C.), and the current area under celery cultivation is $650,000 hectares, which is almost 3% of the total Chinese vegetable planting area and produces approximately 20 million tons of celery each year. Celery is rich in nutrients, such as vitamins (especially vitamins K and C), apigenin, carotenoids, and cellulose (Fazal and Singla, 2012;Li et al., 2014;Dianat et al., 2015), and is also a good source of flavonoids, volatile oils, and antioxidants (Sowbhagya et al., 2010;Sowbhagya, 2014). In addition, celery can be utilized in the chemical and medical industries (Nagella et al., 2012;Kooti et al., 2014). ...
... However, it was unclear whether they were crossed with Chinese celery before or after they were introduced into China. A similar phenomenon was observed by Wang et al. (2011) and Fu et al. (2013, 2014. Traditionally, celery is classified into China and Western celery based on its origin and morphological features. ...
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Celery is one of the most popular vegetables in the world. The main edible parts of celery are the leaf blade and petiole. The celery petiole is usually green, red, or white, with a hollow or solid pith. However, the loci/genes controlling these petiole-related traits have not been reported. In this study, we present a chromosome-level celery genome assembly with a total size of 3.339 Gb. Simultaneous bursts of long-terminal repeats (78.43%) contributed greatly to the large genome size. Re-sequencing and population structure analysis of 79 celery accessions revealed that they could be divided into Chinese celery and Western celery. By combining genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and mapping data, we located the hollow petiole (hp) loci in an 807.6-kb region on chromosome 11. This study provides valuable resources for genetic research on celery and also helpful for the identification and cloning of genes controlling leaf agronomic traits in celery.
... Celery (Apium graveolens) belongs to family Apiaceae, with anthelmintic, antifungal, and antimicrobial properties. Limonene (about 60 %) and selinene (about 20 %) are the main chemical constituents of its extract (Sowbhagya, 2014), with other constituents such as frocoumarin glycosides, flavonoids, and vitamins A and C (Kooti and Daraei, 2017). Limonene has a wide antimicrobial activity against gram-negative bacteria (Dorman and Deans, 2000). ...
... Chemical analyses indicated that limonene, γ-cadinene, and thymol were the principal compounds in celery, which is comparable with previous reports by Sowbhagya (2014) but differs from that reported by Rożek et al. (2016). Thymol was the principal compound in thyme essential oil, but the concentration is less than those (47.59 and 38.71 %) reported by Al-Asmari et al. (2017). ...
Article
The current study examined the effect of in-feed administration of thyme and celery on lactational performance of Barki ewes. Thirty ewes (38 ± 2.6 kg) were stratified into 3 treatment groups and fed: (1) a basal total mixed control diet of concentrates and fodder maize (Zea mays L.) at 60:40 dry matter basis, (2) the control diet supplemented with 20 g of thyme, and (3) the control diet supplemented with 20 g of celery/ewe daily for 90 days. GC/MS analyses results showed that limonene, γ-cadinene, and thymol were the principal compounds in celery, while thymol, carvacrol, P-cymene, and γ-cadinene were the principal compounds in thyme essential oil. Thyme and celery treatments increased (P < 0.05) final body weight, weight gain, average daily gain, daily energy corrected milk (ECM) production, and milk fat content. Thyme treatment increased (P < 0.05) nutrient intake, nutrient digestibility, and serum glucose and thyroxine concentrations relative to the control, while it decreased (P = 0.005) ruminal ammonia-N concentration and increased (P = 0.013) serum glutamate-pyruvate transam-inase compared with the control and celery treatment. Thyme and celery increased the ruminal concentrations of total volatile fatty acids (P = 0.016) and acetic acid (P = 0.018), without affecting other rumen fermentation parameters. It is concluded that thyme at 20 g/ewe daily enhanced feed intake and nutrient digestibility. Additionally, thyme and celery increased ECM production without affecting feed efficiency. Thyme is, however, recommended relative to celery in the diets of lactating ewes.
... While celery has been the focal point in a plethora of literature reviews, the majority of these have been general reviews and not focused on collating data from previous studies to identify differences in the aroma profile and what may influence this. For example, a widespread and thorough review completed by Sowbhagya (2014) looked at the chemical, technological and nutraceutical functions of celery, however, there was limited focus on the aroma and the impact of variety or different environmental conditions on aroma. Conversely, Li et al. (2018) published a critical review on the advances in celery research providing an in-depth review discussing the current technologies as well as the developments in genetic breeding, genomics research and function genes in celery. ...
... Furthermore, the colour of the petiole can be manipulated through placement of planting and white celery can be produced by planting seeds in a shaded area. Here, the crop is away from direct sunlight and thus the production of chlorophyll is inhibited, and the crop remains white in colour (Sowbhagya, 2014). ...
Article
Celery (Apium graveolens) is a regularly consumed vegetable, providing strong, distinct flavours to dishes as well as health benefits. Constituents of the aroma profile of celery include a range of volatile compounds (terpenes, phthalides and aldehydes) that contribute to its characteristic odour and flavour. Vast amount of research has been completed on the aroma profile of celery. However, there is limited information stating the cultivar, origin and geographical location, despite that research on a plethora of other crops has indicated that these are key factors driving crop performance and quality attributes. This paper characterises the underlying biochemistry that determines the aroma profile of celery, whilst investigating the genetic and environmental influences leading to its variation. We make recommendations for minimum standards (MIAPAE: Minimum Information About a Plant Aroma Experiment) that should be adopted by the scientific community prior to publication of data relating to flavour and aroma characterisation of crops.
... It also shows helpful sedating effects in nervousness, hysteria, and insomnia (Asif et al., 2011;Fazal and Singla, 2012;Khairullah et al., 2021). As one of the most important functional species in the Apiaceae, different extracts of A. graveolens have been reported to exhibit many nutraceutical properties encompassing hypolipidemic, antihyperglycemic, anti-platelet aggregation, antimicrobial, laxative, spasmolytic, gastroprotective, hepatoprotective, cardioprotective, antioxidant, cytotoxic, and anti-inflammatory effects (A cimovi c, 2017; Khairullah et al., 2021;Sowbhagya, 2014). This meritorious spectrum of health benefits of A. graveolens is mainly ascribed to the presence of several classes of chemical metabolites, including flavonoids, phenolic acids, coumarins, phenols, tannins, isobenzofuranoids (phthalides), terpenoids, fatty acids, organic acids, polyalcohols, amino acids, and polysaccharides that have been primarily described from the leaves, petioles, and seeds of the plant (A cimovi c, 2017;Al-Asmari et al., 2017;Ingallina et al., 2020). ...
... Likewise, many studies have substantiated the nutraceutical and therapeutic properties of various nano-preparations of Apiaceae plants, including celery (Alsalhi et al., 2016(Alsalhi et al., , 2020Hembram et al., 2018). In this regard, the anti-osteoarthritis, antinociceptive, and antihypertensive potential of celery nanoemulsions were formerly reported (Atta, 1998;Sowbhagya, 2014), while those prepared using celery oil were shown to exert strong antibacterial actions against Staphylococcus aureus and to counteract the growth of oral squamous cell carcinoma (SAS cell line) in vitro, with an IC 50 value of 1.4 mL/mL (Nirmala et al., 2020). The biogenic AgNPs containing celery leaf extract was also proven to have noteworthy fungicidal potential against the two pathogenic species, Aspergillus niger and A. wentii (Roy et al., 2015). ...
Article
Apiaceae plants are multipurpose folk remedies and bioactive foods that show a remarkable ability to biosynthesize a large number of secondary metabolites with antitumor and chemopreventive potential. Among the various members of the Apiaceae, celery (Apium graveolens L.) has long been used as a popular edible and medicinal plant owing to its plentiful health benefits and nutraceutical properties; however, the anticancer potential of this important species has been seldom studied, mostly focusing on its seeds. Therefore, this work was designed to delve into the chemical composition and anti-proliferative potential of the total ethanolic extracts of the aerial parts (TEEAGA) and roots (TEEAGR) of A. graveolens var. dulce (Mill.) Pers. as well as their green synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). In general, both TEEAGA and TEEAGR exhibited moderate to potent inhibitory activities against human liver (HepG-2), colon (Caco-2), and breast (MCF-7) cancer cell lines, with interesting IC50 profiles [(41.37 ± 0.12, 27.65 ± 0.27, and 9.48 ± 0.04 μg/mL) and (11.58 ± 0.02, 7.13 ± 0.03, and 6.58 ± 0.02 μg/mL), respectively] as compared with doxorubicin, while more pronounced anti-proliferative effects were observed for their biogenic AgNPs, which showed IC50 values ranging between 25.41 ± 0.16 and 1.37 ± 0.03 μg/mL. Moreover, HPLC‒HESI‒HRMS-based metabolomics analysis of both extracts showed the presence of a varied group of secondary metabolites, including flavonoids, phenylpropanoids, phthalides, coumarins, and sesquiterpenes that further displayed moderate to promising binding affinities to the active site of cyclin G-associated kinase (GAK), particularly graveobioside A, graveobioside B, and celeroside C, suggesting their possible contribution as GAK modulators to the anti-proliferative potential of celery. These findings can help broaden future research on the utilization of different parts of celery and their NPs as functional foods and medicines in cancer chemoprevention and therapy.
... 27 In general, the plant contains 15% of fatty oil with such fatty acids as petroselenic (64.3%), oleic (8.1%), linoleic (18%), linolenic (0.6%) and palmitic. 28 The composition of the essential oil components containing about 28 substances, i.e. about 73% of the total amount of the lipophilic fraction in the plant was identified in A. graveolens leaves by gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). 29 The A. graveolens seeds contain about 2% of essential oil, with limonene and selenene making about 60% and 20%, respectively. ...
... However, many important components are 3-n-butyl-4-5-dihydrophthalide (sedanenolide), 3-n-butylphthalide, sedanolide and sedanonic anhydride, occurring in very low amounts (1-3%). 28 The A. graveolens roots contain essential oil, aspagarin, mucus, mannitol, citrine, K, Ca, P, Na, Cu, Mn, and Zn salts. 30 When analyzing dichloromethane extraction, falcarinol, falkarindiol, panaxiol and previously unknown polyacetylene 8-O-methylfalkarindiol were isolated. ...
Article
Phytochemical composition data of various parts of celery (Apium graveolens L.) and pharmacological activity thereof are analyzed herein. Flavonoids, organic acids, hydroxycinnamic acids, ether oil terpenoids, tannins, vitamins and microelements are A. graveolens biologically active substances (BAS). Rich composition of BAS causes multiple both biological and pharmacological effects of herbal raw materials extracts mainly due to antioxidant activity. Furthermore, the extracts have neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory, hypolipidemic, antihypertensive and antibacterial effects. A. graveolens possesses wide spectrum of pharmacological activities and is a nontoxic plant; A. graveolens-based medicines will have high margin of safety. The results obtained provide opportunities for making herbal pharmaceutical celery-based substances and introduction thereof into the academic medicine.
... Their antimicrobial activity against food pathogens has been extensively reported [10][11][12][13]. Oleoresins (OR), in contrast, are viscous mixtures of essential oils and resins that are extracted from spices through organic solvents [14,15]. ORs can be found in liquid form when adding solvents such as propylene glycol, which also facilitates their use in food products [14]. ...
... Oleoresins (OR), in contrast, are viscous mixtures of essential oils and resins that are extracted from spices through organic solvents [14,15]. ORs can be found in liquid form when adding solvents such as propylene glycol, which also facilitates their use in food products [14]. ORs contain both volatile and non-volatile components and present a high shelf life since they are practically absent of water, thus reducing oxidative degradation, flavor loss and microbial contamination [16]. ...
Article
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Foodborne diseases (FBD) are a great problem worldwide, leading millions of people to seek medical help and to significant economic losses for industry. Among the agents implicated in FDB is Bacillus cereus, a Gram-positive, toxigenic and endospore-forming bacterium. In this study, rhamnolipid (RL) biosurfactant, celery oleoresin (OR) and limonene (LN) were evaluated as bio-based alternatives for controlling the growth of vegetative cells and endospores of B. cereus. To address their antimicrobial activity, the compounds were tested separately and in combination. Results demonstrate that, when combined with RL, both OR and LN have lower minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values and increased endospore inhibition potential. A percentage of endospore inhibition from 73% to 98%, corresponding to a 2.8–3.6 log reduction in spore outgrowth, was observed. RL inhibited B. cereus growth and endospore germination and potentially enhanced the antimicrobial efficacy of the natural hydrophobic compounds tested.
... It is popular among the urban and rural residents for its rich nutrients and minerals. In addition to its nutraceutical functions, celery is also an excellent source of industrial materials [3]. White celery (Baiqin) is a wellreceived vegetable in southern Jiangsu Province with crisp and tender taste, and with white petioles. ...
Article
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White celery (Apium graveolens L.), a variety of common celery, is an important leafy vegetable in the Apiaceae family and is famous for its nutritional value. However, limited work has been devoted to quality formation and regulation in white celery. In this study, four white celery varieties, ‘Xuebaiqincai’, ‘Saixue’, ‘Baiganshiqin’ and ‘Ruixue’, were selected and analyzed for the comparison of ascorbic acid (AsA) and lignin levels, which are two important quality evaluation indicators in celery. The expression levels of the genes involved in AsA and lignin metabolic pathways were also detected. In the leaf blades, the AsA content was highest in ‘Xuebaiqincai’ compared with other varieties, whereas the most abundant AsA levels in the petioles were observed in ‘Baiganshiqin’ and ‘Ruixue’. The expression levels of AsA-related genes varied among the studied varieties. The highest level was detected in ‘Xuebaiqincai’, whereas other varieties exhibited relatively lower levels. The lignin content in the leaf blades was lower than that in the petioles. Correspondingly, the transcript profiles of genes involved in lignin biosynthesis were in accordance with the different levels in the petioles and blades. The results of this study provide potentially useful information for white celery breeding aimed at quality improvement and regulation.
... The family has a wide distribution but most of its members are confined to Northern temperate regions and high altitudes in the tropics because they thrive better in the cool weather of temperate regions (1). The family Apiaceae is one of the many families within the vegetable plants which are rich in phytochemicals such as essential oils, flavonoids, coumarins, polyacetylenes, phthalides and consists of numerous genera of high economic and medicinal value (2,3). Celery is used as a vegetable and spice in soups, salads, and as a garnish in certain dishes. ...
Article
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Phthalides are important bioactive constituents of celery plants. The medicinal uses of celery and their characteristic aroma have been linked to the phthalides. In this report, the leaf and stalk oils of celery were extracted either by hydrodistillation or maceration in water and the phthalide constituents of the oils were characterized by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. The leaf oil consists mainly of dihydroxyphthalides while the volatile phthalides are the main phthalides in the stalk oil. The phthalide content of the leaf oil and the stalk oil are 39.8% and 29.95% respectively. The phthalides identified in the leaf oil are the isomeric compounds of senkyunolide I and senkyunolides (J & N), while the major phthalide constituents of the stalk oil include 3-n- butylphthalide, sedanolide, neocnidilide and sedanenolide/senkyunolide A. The results suggest that the Nigerian celery plant could be considered a good source of phthalides which are known for their nutraceutical properties such as anti-oxidant, antitumor, anti- platelet aggregation, hypotensive, hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic properties. Further phytochemical and pharmacological evaluation of the locally cultivated celery are required in order to exploit the medicinal potentials of the plant for applications in pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries.
... It has been reported that pea pod can be used as sustainable biomass for the production of biofuels such as bioethanol since it contains cellulose (26%) and hemicellulose (20.5%) together with crude protein (20.2%), lignin (3.92%), and ash (8.5%) [30]. Celery (Apium graveolens L.) grows wild and is also cultivated throughout the world as a vegetable, which is produced for seeds extensively in India, France, and the USA [31]. The annual celery production amount of Turkey in 2018 was determined as 21.603 tons [32]. ...
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Currently, recycling and reuse of wastes to obtain high value-added products are substantial issues for development of sustainable and economic processes. Among these wastes, evaluation of food waste has been received significant attention due to scarcity in undeveloped countries, food security, and environmental problems. In general, this study focused on the investigation of cheap carbon sources and re-utilization of food waste for the production of bacterial cellulose (BC). Therefore, pea pod, celery root peel, and mixed-vegetable peel were evaluated to produce BC from Komagataeibacter hansenii (waste-based Kh-BC) in the present work. Subsequent to the BC production from specified wastes, chemical structure, thermal properties, scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis, water uptake, and antibacterial activity of BC were analyzed. Among all wastes studied, mixed-vegetable peel and pea pod were positive influencers on BC synthesis and Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra of BC membranes produced from wastes were very similar to that obtained from mannitol as a control. Additionally, waste-based Kh-BC has higher biodegradability and thermal stability than the Kh-BC produced from the control medium. Although it has a fragile structure, its water holding capacity and porous structure appear similar to standard BC. Moreover, waste-based Kh-BC could be impregnated with antibiotics to obtain the antibacterial BC membrane. Therefore, the present work showed that vegetable wastes could be valorized for BC production and waste-based Kh-BC is a promising biopolymer candidate for medical and pharmaceutical applications according to its properties.
... Masa panennya tergantung dari tipe, dan permintaan pasar, tetapi bervariasi dari 2-3 bulan. Seledri tumbuh dengan baik di tanah lempung berpasir yang sangat lebat serta di bawah kondisi iklim yang ringan (Sowbhagya, H. B, 2014). Tanaman mint (Mentha piperita) merupakan salah satu tanaman herbal aromatik penghasil minyak atsiri yang disebut minyak permen (peppermint oil). ...
... botrytis) 2-Propenyl isothiocyanate, dimethyl trisulphide, dimethyl sulphide, and methanethiol "Sulphur", "cauliflower", "putrid" [138,139] Carrot (Daucus carota L. subsp. sativus) α-Pinene, sabinene, myrcene, limonene, β-ocimene, γ-terpinene, p-cymene, terpinolene, β-caryophyllene, αhumulone, (E)-γ-bisabolene and β-ionone, 3-sec-butyl-2-methoxypyrazine "Earthy", "fruity", "citrus-like", "woody", and "sweet" [134] Celery (Apium graveolens L.) 3-Butylphthalide and 3-butyltetrahydrophthalide (sedanolide), (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol, myrcene, limonene, αpinene, γ-terpinene, 1,4-cyclohexadiene, 1,5,5-trimethyl-6-methylene-cyclohexene, 3,7,11,15-tetramethyl-2hexadecen-1-ol, and α-humulene "Herbal" [140,141] Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) ...
Article
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Polyphenols, as well as volatile compounds responsible for aromatic features, play a critical role in the quality of vegetables and medicinal, and aromatic plants (MAPs). The research conducted in recent years has shown that these plants contain biologically active compounds, mainly polyphenols, that relate to the prevention of inflammatory processes, neurodegenerative diseases, cancers, and cardiovascular disorders as well as to antimicrobial, antioxidant, and antiparasitic properties. Throughout the years, many researchers have deeply studied polyphenols and volatile compounds in medicinal and aromatic plants, particularly those associated with consumer's choices or with their beneficial properties. In this context, the purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the presence of volatile and nonvolatile compounds in some of the most economically relevant and consumed vegetables and medicinal and aromatic plants, with an emphasis on bioactive polyphenols, polyphenols as prebiotics, and, also, the most important factors that affect the contents and profiles of the volatile and nonvolatile compounds responsible for the aromatic features of vegetables and MAPs. Additionally, the new challenges for science in terms of improving polyphenol composition and intensifying volatile compounds responsible for the positive characteristics of vegetables and medicinal and aromatic plants are reported.
... Celery (Apium graveolens L.), a plant from the Apiaceae family, is known by the public as a spice or flavor enhancer for food. With a slightly spicy taste and distinctive aroma, celery is widely used in seasoning various food products (Sowbhagya, 2014). In Indonesia, celery is added for more flavors to traditional foods like bakso, soto, and soup in several cities. ...
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In this study, the inoculation effect of earthworms Pontoscolex corethrurus on celery growth (Apium graveolens L.) has been carried out in red-yellow podzolic (RYP) soils. The research studied in a pot experiment using a completely randomized design (CRD) with 6 (six) treatments and 3 (three) replications. One-pot consists of 4 (four) plants. The treatments carried out were as follows: I 0 (without inoculum of earthworm), I 1 (inoculum of 5 earthworms pot-1), I 2 (inoculum of 10 earthworms pot-1), I 3 (inoculum of 15 earthworms pot-1), I 4 (inoculum of 10 earthworms pot-1) and I 5 (inoculum of 25 earthworms pot-1). Observation parameters were the number of tillers clumps-1 , fresh biomass clumps-1 (g clump-1), and root volume (mL). The observations were statistically analyzed using variance (one-way ANOVA) and followed by the Duncan Multiple Range Test (DMRT) with a level of 5%. Treatment I 5 gave the best results on celery crop in all parameters, i.e., 20.33 tillers per hill; fresh biomass per clump 113.93 g; and a root volume of 10 mL. The results showed that earthworms' inoculation into RYP soils significantly affected all parameters. There was also an increase in pH in each treatment that was inoculated with earthworms.
... Celery seed oil inhibits liver tumor by cell proliferation inhibition, apoptosis upregulation, and downregulation of inflammatory markers. 42 Although studies have been conducted to substantiate the therapeutic properties of celery nanoemulsion for treating chronic osteoarthritic diseases, 43 for antihypertensive activity 44 and for its anti-nociceptive effects, 45 no in-vitro studies have been conducted on the anticancer properties of celery nanoemulsions. This study, therefore, focuses on the anticancer and antibacterial effects of celery oil-based nanoemulsion. ...
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Introduction: Plants have always been a significant source of natural active components with biological properties. Celery seed oil (extracted from Apium graveolens) has several potential applications, but its therapeutic uses in the form of nanoemulsion formulation need to be investigated further in order to meet the demand in cancer treatment, and to alleviate the prevailing crisis arising from increased antimicrobial resistance. Methods: The therapeutic potential of celery seed oil was investigated through the formulation and testing of a nanoemulsion developed with Tween 80 (a non-ionic surfactant) and the utilization of an ultrasonication technique. Anticancer and apoptotic properties of the formulation were evaluated through MTT and Annexin V-FITC assays. The clonogenic assay aided in the identification of the antiproliferative properties of the formulation on oral squamous cell carcinoma. The antimicrobial study was supported by agar well diffusion assay, membrane integrity test and scanning electron microscopy. Results: Experiments identified relevant parameters, including optimal surfactant concentration and emulsification time. GC-MS analysis identified various components in the celery oil, but not their biological activities. A sonication time of 20 min resulted in a droplet diameter of 23.4 ± 1.80 nm. The IC50 concentration of the optimal nanoemulsion formulation against SAS cells was 1.4 µL/mL. At this concentration, cell proliferation was significantly reduced through inhibition of the anchorage-independent cell growth by disrupting colony formation and inducing cell death (apoptosis) of cancer cells. The nanoemulsion was also treated with a microbial suspension of S. aureus, and displayed antibacterial properties through lipid membrane fusion, causing cytoplasmic leakage as verified through agar well diffusion and membrane permeability assays. Scanning electron microscopy revealed complete distortion of the bacterial pathogen. Conclusion: The results in this study present celery as a possible constituent for cancer therapeutics and as a candidate for aggressive, yet safe cancer treatment. The celery-based nanoemulsion has the potential to act as a key alternative to standard antibiotic therapy.
... Last but not least celery also known under the scientific name of Apium graveolens L. as well as the previous species is considered a nutraceutical plant, the most studied part of the plant because of the complex chemical composition being the seeds and the leaves [11]. In a comprehensive review Kooti et al., have described various biological activities like cardioprotective effect, anti-inflammatory, anticoagulant, gastroprotective, diuretic, anti-cancer, antimicrobial potential [12]. ...
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Background This study was designed as a continuation of a complex investigation about the phytochemical composition and biological activity of chamomile, parsley and celery extracts against A375 human melanoma and dendritic cells. Objective The main aim was the evaluation of the antimicrobial potential of selected extracts as well as the in vitro anticancer activity against MCF7 human breast cancer cells. Methods In order to complete the picture regarding the phytochemical composition molecular fingerprint was sketched out by the help of FTIR spectroscopy The activity of two enzymes (acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase) after incubation with the three extracts was spectrophotometrically assessed. The antimicrobial potential was evaluated by disk diffusion method. The in vitro anti-cancer potential against MCF7 human breast cancer cells was appraised by MTT, LDH, wound healing, cell cycle, DAPI, Annexin-V-PI assays. Results Results showed variations between the investigated extracts in terms of inhibitory activity against enzymes such as acetyl- and butyrilcholinesterase. Chamomile and parsley extracts were active only against tested Gram-positive cocci, while all tested extracts displayed antifungal effects. Among the screened samples at the highest tested concentration, namely 60 µg/mL parsley was the most active extract in terms of reducing the viability of MCF7 - human breast adenocarcinoma cell line and inducing the release of lactate dehydrogenase. On the other hand chamomile and celery extracts manifested potent anti-migratory effects. Furthermore, celery extract was the most active in terms of total apoptotic events, while chamomile extract induced the highest necrosis rate. Conclusion The screened samples containing phytochemicals belonging in majority to the class of flavonoids and polyphenols can represent candidates for antimicrobial and anticancer agents.
... Celery contains limonene (about 60%) and selinene (about 20%) as the prominent chemical constituents. 9 Like thymol, limonene and selinene have a wide range of antimicrobial activities against Gram-negative bacteria. 10 The concentration of phenolic compounds in celery is greater compared with thyme. ...
Article
The study investigated the effect of in-feed administration of dried thyme leaf and celery seed mixture (at 1 : 1 DM basis) compared with salinomycin ionophore on milk production and milk nutritive value of Barki ewes. Thirty ewes (37.5 ± 1.8 kg), divided into 3 treatment groups, were fed: (1) a complete control diet comprising concentrates and fodder maize (Zea mays L.) at 60 : 40 dry matter basis, (2) the control diet plus 20 g of thyme and celery mixture supplementation and (3) the control diet supplemented with 1 g of salinomycin per ewe daily for 90 days. Inclusion of thyme-celery treatment increased (P < 0.05) weight gain, average daily gain, milk yield, milk component yields, and feed efficiency, without affecting milk composition. In addition, the thyme-celery treatment enhanced (P < 0.05) nutrient intake and digesti-bility, total ruminal volatile fatty acids, branched chain fatty acids, and acetate proportions and decreased ammonia-N concentration. Thyme-celery treatment increased (P < 0.05) serum glucose, thyroxine, and glutamate-pyruvate transaminase concentrations. It is concluded that the thyme and celery mixture (1 : 1 DM basis) at 20 g per lactating ewe daily can replace the salinomycin ionophore. Enhanced feed utilization and lactational performance as well as milk nutritive value for human consumption were observed with the natural additive mixture supplementation.
... Fuss), members of the Apiaceae family, are commonly known and used as culinary herbs, mostly due to their flavoring properties that originate mainly from the essential oils in the plant. One of the main compounds responsible for the characteristic aroma of celery is sedanolide [8,9], while two others, sedanenolide and 3-n-butylphthalide, both phthalides, can also be present in high concentrations [10][11][12][13]. Parsley seed essential oil is composed mainly of allylpolyalkoxybenzenes, myristicin, apiole, and 2,3,4,5tetramethoxyallylbenzene, which give parsley its distinct odor and flavor [4,14]. ...
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Supercritical fluid extraction as an environmentally friendly technology was applied to isolate biologically active extracts from celery and parsley fruits for potential applications in the food industry. The extractions were performed under mild temperature conditions of 39.85 °C and at pressures of 10 and 30 MPa. The extracts were analyzed regarding their chemical composition, antibacterial activity, and cytotoxic effect. Sedanolide was the dominant component of the celery fruit extracts, comprising more than 70% of the obtained fraction, while the content of apiole in the parsley fruit SC CO2 extracts exceeded 85%. The celery fruit extracts showed strong and moderately strong antibacterial activity against tested Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus (B.) cereus, B. subtilis, B. circulans, Listeria (L.) greyi, L. seeligeri and L. welshimeri, with minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values between 160 and 640 µg/mL, and weak activity against the selected Salmonella isolates with a MIC of 2560 µg/mL. The parsley extract obtained at 10 MPa showed strong and moderately strong antibacterial effects against Bacillus strains with obtained MICs of 160–640 µg/mL, and weak activity against Staphylococcus, Listeria, and Salmonella with a MIC of 2560 µg/mL. Cytotoxicity investigation showed that the extracts with proven antibacterial activity had no cytotoxic effect on rabbit kidney cells at concentrations of up to 640 µg/mL.
... The results were also similar to the two previously studied Iranian fennel populations (Rezaei Chiyaneh et al., 2020;Sayed Ahmad et al., 2018). It was reported that petroselinic and oleic acids were two of the major fatty acids in other Apiaceae species, such as dill, celery, cumin, coriander, and carrot (Gao et al., 2016;Uitterhaegen et al., 2016;Sowbhagya, 2014;Amin et al., 2010;Saleh et al., 2009). It seems that the landraces with higher petroselinic and oleic acids, all originated in regions with dry/warm climates (eastern Zagros Mountains, and southern Alborz Mountains), while landraces with higher linoleic acid (linoleic acid chemotypes) all originated in regions with humid/cool climates (the western Zagros Mountains, and northern Alborz Mountains) ( Table 3). ...
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Article type: In this study, 50 Iranian fennel landraces from different phenological types were evaluated for their oil content and fatty acid profile. Landraces were categorized into three phenological groups: late (180 days), medium (140 days) and early maturing habits (110 days). The highest fatty acid content among the early, medium, and late maturity types were detected in Hamedan (19.5%), Marvdasht (23%), and Sari (21%), respectively. The highest yield of oil per square meter among the early, medium, and late maturing types were detected in Fasa (65.3 ml/m 2), Meshkin Shahr (92.5 ml/m 2), and Sari (71.4 ml/m 2), respectively. The main components of fatty acid profile were petroseli nic/oleic acid (52-64%), linoleic acid (26-39%), palmitic acid (0.3-4.1 %), stearic acid (1.3-2.4%), linolenic acid (0.6-3.6%), and myristic acid (0.35-1.07%). It was observed that landraces with high petroselinic and oleic acid content originated from areas with dry and warm environments, while landraces with high linoleic acid content originate d from regions with a humid and cool climate. This pattern shows potential evolutionary adaption of biochemical pathways to the environmental condition. Our data showed that fennel oil contains a lower ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids, and a higher ratio of monouns aturated to polyunsaturated and saturated fatty acids. In conclusion, our results indicated that bitter fennel, as a medicinal plant, has a high potential for oil production and a high percentage of unsaturated fatty acids.
... Celery seed oil (CsO), an aromatic oily liquid, is extracted from celery (Apium graveolens Linn) seed and commonly used in the flavor and fragrance industries. It provides a floral-like odor to oriental perfumes imparting warm and clinging notes [11]. Besides, celery seeds or CsO possess good antioxidant, antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activities, and exhibit soothing effect in hypertension, hyperlipidemia and hyperuricemia [12,13]. ...
Article
This study aimed to overcome the current challenges of active oil encapsulation, such as the complex preparation process, low encapsulation efficiency, and poor water solubility. Using mechanochemical method prepared celery seed oil/methyl-β-cyclodextrin nanocapsule (CsNIs). The entrapment efficiency was determined by UV–vis spectrophotometry, and characterized by DLS, FT-IR, XRD, SEM and TEM. A mouse model of hyperuricemia induced by potassium oxate (PO) was used to investigate the antihyperuricemia and nephroprotective effects of the CsNIs. CsNIs formed by hydrogen bonding of Celery Seed Oil (CsO) with MeβCD had high encapsulation efficiency (98.39%), and had more stable antioxidant activity under sunlight exposure. The water solubility was improved by 30-fold. CsNIs will self-assemble into nano-spheres in aqueous solution and be slowly released to 77.2% in 48 h. Uric acid levels and the degree of renal injury were significantly lower in hyperuricemia (HUA) mice. In this study, the water solubility and stability of celery seed oil were improved. And it provides a green, simple, and efficient encapsulation strategy for the encapsulation of active oils.
... Although sesquiterpenes belonging to the selinene family were widely reported in different plants, there are limited studies investigating the insecticidal activity of β-selinene. However, this compound was detected in corn only in the context of pathogen attack [181,182]. Ding et al. [111] reported β-selinene synthase (ZmTps21) in maize being transcribed after fungal elicitation, long-term root herbivory, and combined field pressures. Its products β-selinene and its nonvolatile acid derivative, β-costic acid inhibited the growth of pathogenic fungi and corn root larvae (Diabrotica balteata). ...
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Sesquiterpenes (SS) are secondary metabolites formed by the bonding of 3 isoprene (C5) units. They play an important role in the defense and signaling of plants to adapt to the environment , face stress, and communicate with the outside world, and their evolutionary history is closely related to their physiological functions. This review considers their presence and extensively summarizes the 156 sesquiterpenes identified in Vitex taxa, emphasizing those with higher concentrations and frequency among species and correlating with the insecticidal activities and defensive responses reported in the literature. In addition, we classify the SS based on their chemical structures and addresses cyclization in biosynthetic origin. Most relevant sesquiterpenes of the Vitex genus are derived from the germacredienyl cation mainly via bicyclogermacrene and ger-macrene C, giving rise to aromadrendanes, a skeleton with the highest number of representative compounds in this genus, and 6,9-guaiadiene, respectively, indicating the production of 1.10-cyclizing sesquiterpene synthases. These enzymes can play an important role in the chemo-systematics of the genus from their corresponding routes and cyclizations, constituting a new approach to chemotaxonomy. In conclusion, this review is a compilation of detailed information on the profile of sesquiterpene in the Vitex genus and, thus, points to new unexplored horizons for future research.
... Celery varieties are classified into four types (red, green, white, and yellow) according to the petiole color. Celery is rich in various beneficial bioactive constituents, including flavonoids, phenolic acids, furocoumarins, terpenoids, and phthalides [1]. Phthalides contribute to the characteristic celery odor [2]. ...
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Celery juice is rich in bioactive constituents, has good health properties, and is becoming much more popular, with its demand continuing to rise. The results of this study show that celery juice from Chinese cultivars contains more bioactive constituents, whereas celery cultivars from the United States and European countries have a higher juice yield. Compared with the other juices, the juices of five cultivars may taste sweeter, and the juices of three cultivars had a higher antioxidant capacity. The juices of six cultivars (three with the highest antioxidant capacity and three with the lowest antioxidant capacity) were selected to analyze bioactive constituents by LC/MS and GC/MS. A total of 71 phenolic acids, 38 flavonoids, 18 coumarins, 41 terpenoids, and 11 phthalides were detected in the juices of the six celery cultivars. The contents of 14 compounds had a more than 10-fold difference among these celery juices. This study first evaluated the comprehensive quality of the juices made from 26 celery cultivars and then analyzed the differences in bioactive constituents in the juices of6 celery cultivars. These findings provide information for the further study on the health functions of celery juice and can also guide celery juice production and celery breeding.
... Apigenin is abundant in celery and has diverse pharmacological properties, including anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, and anti-bacterial properties, and the ability to lower blood pressure (Tan et al., 2017). Coumarin, another antioxidant in celery, can reduce cell canceration, and coumarin compounds can lower blood pressure and enhance the vascular system (Sowbhagya, 2014). Previous studies also found that celery is rich in volatile oil, which has potent effects on immunotoxicity and antioxidant activity (Nagella et al., 2012;Patil et al., 2015). ...
Article
Plant metabolites are important for plant development and human health. Plants of celery (Apiumgraveolens L.) with different-colored petioles have been formed in the course of long-term evolution. However, the composition, content distribution, and mechanisms of accumulation of metabolites in different-colored petioles remain elusive. Using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS), 1159 metabolites, including 100 lipids, 72 organic acids and derivatives, 83 phenylpropanoids and polyketides, and several alkaloids and terpenoids, were quantified in four celery cultivars, each with a different petiole color. There were significant differences in the types and contents of metabolites in celery with different-colored petioles, with the most striking difference between green celery and purple celery, followed by white celery and green celery. Annotated analysis of metabolic pathways showed that the metabolites of the different-colored petioles were significantly enriched in biosynthetic pathways such as anthocyanin, flavonoid, and chlorophyll pathways, suggesting that these metabolic pathways may play a key role in determining petiole color in celery. The content of chlorophyll in green celery was significantly higher than that in other celery cultivars, yellow celery was rich in carotenoids, and the content of anthocyanin in purple celery was significantly higher than that in the other celery cultivars. The color of the celery petioles was significantly correlated with the content of related metabolites. Among the four celery cultivars, the metabolites of the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway were enriched in purple celery. The results of quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) suggested that the differential expression of the chalcone synthase (CHS) gene in the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway might affect the biosynthesis of anthocyanin in celery. In addition, HPLC analysis revealed that cyanidin is the main pigment in purple celery. This study explored the differences in the types and contents of metabolites in celery cultivars with different-colored petioles and identified key substances for color formation. The results provide a theoretical basis and technical support for genetic improvement of celery petiole color.
... The family has a wide distribution but most of its members are confined to Northern temperate regions and high altitudes in the tropics because they thrive better in the cool weather of temperate regions (1). The family Apiaceae is one of the many families within the vegetable plants which are rich in phytochemicals such as essential oils, flavonoids, coumarins, polyacetylenes, phthalides and consists of numerous genera of high economic and medicinal value (2,3). Celery is used as a vegetable and spice in soups, salads, and as a garnish in certain dishes. ...
... Celery and celeriac are generally considered as vegetable with low calorie and are well known medicinal plants. They are rich in fibres, various minerals like calcium, phosphorus, iron, potassium, and magnesium, numbers of vitamins viz., B1, B2, B3, A, and C and flavonoids (Sowbhagya, 2014). There are very few reports available regarding the development and characterization of cultivars with increased nutritional quality. ...
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All about CELERY
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Oleoresin is a mixture of volatile and nonvolatile components available in whole extract of natural herb or spice. It principally comprises essential oils and resin. Lemongrass oleoresins come from the Cymbopogon species, which grow in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Oleoresin of lemongrass is a dark green-colored viscous liquid having a characteristic lemon aroma and flavor and is mostly used as a flavoring ingredient. The lemon prefix in the lemongrass specifies the characteristic lemon-like odor, which is due to the availability of citral content (mixture of two isomeric aldehydes, geranial and neral). It has been utilized in synthesizing flavors, perfumes, cosmetics, detergents, and in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Different methods are used to extract the lemongrass essential oil, but steam distillation is the most suitable method as it doesn’t alter the quality of the obtained oil. The chemical composition of lemongrass oil varies depending on its extraction methods, genetic differences, harvest period, photoperiod, plant age, farming practices, and geographical origin. Lemongrass essential oil has shown several biological activities, including antimicrobial, antifungal, antiprotozoan, antioxidant, antidiarrheal, antimutagenic, antiinflammatory, antimalarial, antinociceptive, antihepatotoxic activities, etc. Lemongrass oil is a potent food preservative because of its extraordinary antifungal and antibacterial activities.
Article
For the first time, this research introduces a new analytical method specialized for the analysis of some pesticides in celery and tomato juices based on MIL-88B(Fe) which is matrix-effectless (relative recoveries in the range of 95-103 %) and highly linear (r²=0.998-0.999). Achieving low limits of detection (0.24-0.53 µg L⁻¹) and quantification (0.79-1.75 µg L⁻¹) in this method is also amazing. Moreover, the wide linearity of the method (1.75-1000 µg L⁻¹), high enrichment factors (277-379), and reasonable extraction recoveries (55-75%) are the highlights of the developed method. Initially, the sorbent was synthesized using an autoclave-based approach. Then the resulted sorbent was subjected to Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry, X-ray diffraction, energy-dispersive X-ray, scanning electron microscopy, and nitrogen adsorption/desorption analyses to infer the accuracy of the obtained phase. Subsequently, it was subjected to the studied juices for the analysis of the surveyed pesticides. In dispersive micro solid phase extraction, which is for the adsorption of the analytes on the sorbent and performing the cleanup step to reduce the matrix effect, the sorbent was dispersed in the solution of analytes and after the accomplishment of the adsorption, the analytes were desorbed using acetonitrile. In dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction, which was done for the aim of preconcentration, the acetonitrile phase (eluate) was mixed with µL-level of carbon tetrachloride and injected into deionized water. After centrifugation an aliquot of it was injected into a gas chromatograph equipped with a flame ionization detector. According to the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses, haloxyfop-R-methyl with a concentration of 23±2 µg L⁻¹ was detected in tomato juice. It is confessed that confident safety assessment analysis of celery and tomato juices is available using the introduced highly-reliable analytical method.
Article
Due to its rich porous structure, high specific surface area, and stable chemical characteristics, hierarchically biomass-derived porous carbon is considered to be the most potentially effective material for CO 2 capture. Herein, a green self-activating synthesis system (SASS) has been introduced for the synthesis of porous carbons. In this system, there is no external reagent for the activation process, and the activating agents are the circulating gases such as CO 2 , CO, and H 2 O released during the pyrolysis treatment. As a typical case, this system was used for the synthesis of hierarchical porous carbons from celery wastes in hydroponic greenhouses. Based on the adsorption-desorption results, the optimal porous carbon was synthesized at 700 • C, providing a surface area as high as 1126 m 2 g − 1 and a micropore volume of approximately 0.7 cm 3 g − 1. The existence of graphitic-pyridinic nitrogen in the synthesized porous carbon structure was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The synthesized porous carbons were applied as an adsorbent for CO 2 uptake. Under low pressures (0-1 bar), the synthesized carbons adsorbed 5 mmolg − 1 at 0 • C and 2.03 mmolg − 1 at 25 • C. The sorption capacity of the synthesized carbon at 25 • C and relatively high pressure of 9.5 bar was 9.57 mmolg − 1. Based on the thermo-dynamic and kinetic models, it was clarified that the sorption process can be regarded as physisorption with an adsorption enthalpy of 23.2 kJmol − 1. The fractional-order kinetic model was also shown to be the best fit in the kinetic curves. The presented synthesis system is a promising strategy for manufacturing green porous carbon from various waste organic precursors.
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In the present work, the antihypertensive effects of celery seed extract (Apium graveolens) with active ingredients, such as 3‐n‐butylphthalide, were studied as a drug supplement in the treatment of hypertension. This study was a randomized, triple‐blind, placebo‐controlled, cross‐over clinical trial. Fifty‐two patients were divided into two groups (celery and placebo) and completed the two‐step clinical trial. Four celery seed extract capsules (totally 1.34 g per day) or 4 placebo capsules per day were administered to the patients during a 4‐week clinical trial. The blood pressure was assessed using a 24‐hr ambulatory blood pressure monitoring method. In celery group, systolic blood pressure changed from 141.2 ± 5.91 to 130.0 ± 4.38 mmHg (p < .001) while diastolic blood pressure changed from 92.2 ± 5.74 to 84.2 ± 4.87 mmHg (p < .001). Moreover, the mean arterial blood pressure changed from 108.5 ± 5.76 to 99.5 ± 4.66 mmHg (p < .001), and pulse pressure decreased from 49.0 ± 6.21 to 45.8 ± 6.01 mmHg (p < .01). However, no significant changes were observed in placebo group in terms of the above‐mentioned parameters (p > .05). Furthermore, no significant side effect was reported in the celery group, compared to the placebo group (p > .05). The results were promising and indicated the therapeutic effects of celery seed extract as a supplement in the management of hypertension.
Chapter
Apium graveolens Linn. (Apiaceae) is a plant widely used to treat various ailments such as rheumatism, gout, asthma, bronchitis, liver, and spleen diseases; it has diuretic, carminative, sedative, and antiseptic properties. The therapeutic potential of this plant is due to the presence of diverse bioactive compounds such as apigenin, luteolin, quercetin, α-tocopherol, glucosides, phylloquinone, l-tryptophan, 3-n-butylphthalide (NBP), and 3-n-butyl-4-5-dihydrophthalide. However, most biological studies on A. graveolens are restricted to crude extracts, and many biologically active compounds are not yet identified; a closer look is needed in order to base the traditional uses of A. graveolens on evidence-based data. The current trend toward the use of natural preservatives has triggered research on enhanced memory and neuroprotection, gastroprotection, and the anti-inflammation, anti-hypertention, anti-cancer, anti-microbial, and anti-oxidant properties of A. graveolens and its active compounds. This chapter presents morphological characteristics, vegetation compounds, and an evaluation of the therapeutic and toxic properties of this valuable medicinal plant. The chapter also provides an overview of anti-oxidant activity and the factors influencing the anti-oxidant content of this plant.
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Medicinal plants have been known for thousands of years and are highly esteemed throughout the world as a rich source of therapeutic agents for the prevention and cure of diseases. Nowadays, a large number of population suffers from gall stone. Gall stones problem is now being increased significantly due to changes in living style and conditions i.e. industrialization and malnutrition. Medicinal plants are used from centuries due to its, cultural acceptability, efficacy, safety and lesser side effects as compared to synthetic drugs. The aim of the review is to gather the information of the plants utilized in various parts and societies of the world against gallstones. The information not only useful for common people but also for the scientific community to carry out further phytochemical, pharmacological and toxicological studies for the discovery of new, effective and safer molecules against gallstones.
Article
Celery (Apium graveolens L.) is a leafy vegetable of Apiaceae, which is greatly popular because of its rich nutrients. Lutein and β-carotene are two important carotenoids. Lycopene epsilon cyclase (LCY-ε) is a key branch point enzyme in the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway. In this study, we cloned the AgLCY-ε gene from celery and overexpressed it in Arabidopsis. The results showed that both lutein and β-carotene accumulation increased significantly in transgenic Arabidopsis hosting AgLCY-ε gene, compared with wild type (WT) plants. The transcription levels of AtPSY and AtCRTISO genes involved in carotenoids biosynthesis also increased in transgenic lines. One-month-old transgenic Arabidopsis seedlings were treated with 200 mM NaCl. The malondialdehyde (MDA) content in transgenic Arabidopsis plants after salt treatment was significantly lower, and the activities of the two antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD), were significantly increased than that of WT plants. Overexpression of AgLCY-ε gene showed increased lutein and β-carotene accumulations, and enhanced salt tolerance in transgenic plants.
Article
Ascorbic acid, known as vitamin C, is an important antioxidant and food ingredient, and highly sensitive to environmental conditions, which makes its incorporation into food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical products more difficult. The evaluation of its nano/microencapsulation enables the improvement of its stability and controlled release. There are various investigations regarding ascorbic acid encapsulation; however, a deep study related to the scale-up of encapsulation process, its application into food products and digestibility study are still needed. This review highlights the main physicochemical and health properties of vitamin C, recent advances of its encapsulation into micro/nanocarriers, and application in food products. Also, the controlled release and bioavailability of encapsulated forms within different carriers is underlined. The results of published studies clearly show that vitamin C can be successfully protected within micro/nanoencapsulation systems and it can be applied as an efficient ingredient in the formulation of various food products such as bakery goods.
Article
Considering the well-being cognizance of masses, the microgreens have emerged as the potential therapeutic functional foods for improving the overall health by dietary supplementation. Microgreens have delicate texture, distinctive flavors and exceptional volume of various nutrients accounting for higher neutraceutical benefits compared to their mature counterparts. Mounting interest in microgreens owes not only to their nutritional significance but also to their fascinating organoleptic traits. Many factors like rapid shrinkage of the land resources, lifestyle modification, healthy diet habits, the functional importance of food etc. cumulatively have resulted in increased interest in the microscale production of vegetables for the ready-to-eat market. Augmenting the production of secondary metabolites could provide more nutritional benefits, sensory attributes, and resistance to pests while, sharing many characteristics with sprouts, they are not associated with any foodborne illness. Their production by manipulation of agronomic practices like seeds, growing media, and light quality and biofortification with nutrients may result in nutrient-rich produce. These high-value crops typically characterized by short postharvest life and several pre a-harvest treatments can effectively maintain the shelf life of microgreens. Further, several genetic improvement tools can enhance the availability of bioactive compounds with minimum antinutritional factors. In this review, the comparative overview of the nutritional significance of microgreens with sprouts and their mature counterparts has been discussed. Further, the advances or manipulations in production technologies, the involvement of breeding programmes, and efficient post-harvest technologies to promote cost-effective production and future strategies for maintaining the shelf life and quality of microgreens have been argued.
Chapter
Since times immemorial, spices play an imperative part in the lifestyle of local inhabitants throughout the world. Spices have provided frequent role all the way through history, including as coloring and flavoring agents, preservatives, food additives, and medicine. Spices are also familiar for ample range of therapeutic potentials, like antiseptics, antibiotics, anti-oxygenic utilized by human race throughout the world. Many spices, such as Cardamom, Pepper, Turmeric, Clove, Coriander, Mustard, Ginger, Onion, Garlic, etc. are used in daily food preparations. All of these daily used spices have medicinal properties, such as purgative, laxative, expectorant, carminative, diuretic, etc. However, since last few decades, modern agricultural practices have resulted in decline in production of large varieties of spice crops. Apart from underutilization, few spice crops have been overexploited without employing any conservation strategies. Various environmental factors like local cultivation practices and genetic erosion have threatened diversity of spice crops. In this chapter, we first describe the importance of spice crops and the backdrops of underutilizations. We then explore the utility of biotechnological tools for improving production and cultivation of spice crops.
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Textural properties of celery and best texture analysis
Article
Considering the well-being cognizance of masses, the microgreens have emerged as the potential therapeutic functional foods for improving the overall health by dietary supplementation. Microgreens have delicate texture, distinctive flavors and exceptional volume of various nutrients accounting for higher neutraceutical benefits compared to their mature counterparts. Mounting interest in microgreens owes not only to their nutritional significance but also to their fascinating organoleptic traits. Many factors like rapid shrinkage of the land resources, lifestyle modification, healthy diet habits, the functional importance of food etc. cumulatively have resulted in increased interest in the microscale production of vegetables for the ready-to-eat market. Augmenting the production of secondary metabolites could provide more nutritional benefits, sensory attributes, and resistance to pests while, sharing many characteristics with sprouts, they are not associated with any foodborne illness. Their production by manipulation of agronomic practices like seeds, growing media, and light quality and biofortification with nutrients may result in nutrient-rich produce. These high-value crops typically characterized by short postharvest life and several pre a-harvest treatments can effectively maintain the shelf life of microgreens. Further, several genetic improvement tools can enhance the availability of bioactive compounds with minimum antinutritional factors. In this review, the comparative overview of the nutritional significance of microgreens with sprouts and their mature counterparts has been discussed. Further, the advances or manipulations in production technologies, the involvement of breeding programmes, and efficient post-harvest technologies to promote cost-effective production and future strategies for maintaining the shelf life and quality of microgreens have been argued.
Article
Seed essential oils (EO) yield and composition were studied in twelve populations of Apium graveolens L. collected from Iran. Variations in antioxidant activity were also studied with two bioassay methods including 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). Clustering was performed by hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and studied samples classified into three main groups (or chemotypes) with higher limonene, limonene/apiol/myristicin/and apiol/myristicin. Antioxidant activity of EOs varied among studied seeds, that amounts ranging from 6.4 to 34.4 (mg AAE/50 μl EO) for the DPPH method and 1070 to 3315 (μM Fe⁺²/50 μl EO) for FRAP method. Based on antioxidant assay methods, the highest value of antioxidant activity was found in Urmia (P12) and Sanandaj (P1) EOs. Celery EOs showed strong antioxidant activity. Based on canonical correspondence analysis environmental conditions were highly correlated with the distribution of compounds among the populations. Lower elevation and higher temperature correlated with higher limonene content. Results showed that total phenols ranged from 10.4 to 14.57 mg Gallic acid/g DW and TFC ranged from 2.2 to 8.1 mg QUE/g DW.
Article
Obesity is one of the world's largest health problems, and 3-N-butylphthalide (NBP), a bioactive compound in celery, has been used in dieting and weight management programs. In this study, NBP prevented high-fat-diet-induced weight gain, reduced the food efficiency ratio, altered the blood biochemical profile, and reduced the obesity-related index. NBP reduced adiposity, white fat depots, liver weight, and hepatic steatosis in obese mice. NBP ameliorated the diabetic state by decreasing glucose levels and improving glucose and insulin tolerance. NBP increased uncoupling protein-1 expression in white adipose tissue and upregulated thermogenesis by enhancing mitochondrial respiration. NBP inhibited white adipocyte development by prohibiting lipid accumulation in human adipose-derived stem cells. NBP increased free fatty acid uptake and the oxygen consumption rate in beige adipocytes. Our results suggest that NBP could be used as functional natural supplement against obesity and its associated disorders.
Conference Paper
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Virgin Coconut Oil (VCO) merupakan minyak kelapa murni yang diekstraksi dari daging buah kelapa yang bermanfaat untuk kesehatan. Tidak semua orang menyukai konsumsi VCO secara langsung dengan meminumnya. Untuk mengatasinya, VCO dapat ditambahkan ke dalam ice cream, sedangkan kolang-kaling bermanfaat sebagai pengental maupun penstabil. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh penambahan VCO yang dibuat dari proses basah (VCOB) dengan metode pemanasan bertahap dan proses kering (VCOK) dengan metode Direct Micro Expelling (DME) terhadap evaluasi sensori dan menganalisis pengaruh penambahan kolang-kaling terhadap kualitas es krim dari segi warna, aroma, rasa dan tekstur. Penelitian dilakukan pada bulan Oktober-November 2020 di Unit Pengolahan Minyak dan Laboratorium Pascapanen, Balai Penelitian Tanaman Palma. Uji sensori dan emosi menggunakan 20 orang panelis semi terlatih. Formula yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah IC1 : VCOK, IC2 : VCOK + Kolang-Kaling Potong, IC3 : VCOB + Kolang-Kaling halus, IC4 : VCOB + Kolang-Kaling Potong, IC5 : VCOB, dan IC6 : VCOK + Kolang- Kaling halus. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa nilai sensori terbaik pada produk IC6 dengan nilai warna 5,75 (suka), aroma 5,25 (agak suka), tekstur 5.40 (agak suka), rasa 5,95 (suka) dengan hasil uji profil emosi didominasi oleh perasaan senang, puas, dan menarik. Kata Kunci: VCO, proses basah, proses kering, kolang-kaling, ice cream
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Este libro es el resultado de un estudio de evaluación de tres mejoradores de suelo sobre la salinidad del suelo, el crecimiento, el estado nutricional, el índice SPAD y el rendimiento en el cultivo de apio (Apium graveolens L. var. Dulce (Mill.) Pers). Se estudiaron cuatro tratamientos distintos y se compararon antes del trasplante y al final del ciclo del cultivo. Se determinó la salinidad, la reacción del suelo y las concentraciones de aniones y cationes. Durante el experimento se midió el ancho de cuello, ancho de tallo, número de hojas y altura de planta. Se determinaron las concentraciones nutrimentales de nitratos, potasio, calcio y sodio. Además, se determinó el índice SPAD. Finalmente, se analizaron los resultados obtenidos por efecto de los distintos mejoradores así como sus variables. Los resultados encontrados permitieron aportar las conclusiones del estudio.
Article
Metabolic syndrome caused obesity has long been recognized as a risk of health. Celery and celery extracts have various medicinal properties, such as anti-diabetes and anti-inflammatory properties and blood glucose and serum lipid reduction. However, the effect of probiotic fermentation on celery juice and the association between fermented celery juice (FCJ) and obesity were unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the beneficial effects of FCJ on high-fat diet (HFD) induced obesity and related metabolic syndromes. C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into six groups (n = 15 per group) fed either a normal diet (ND) or HFD with or without CJ/FCJ (10 g kg-1 day-1) by oral gavage for 12 weeks. Here we demonstrated that the probiotic fermentation of celery juice (CJ) could enhance the active ingredients in celery, such as total polyphenols, flavonoids, vitamin C and SOD. Compared to the slight improvement induced by CJ ingestion, FCJ intake significantly inhibited body weight gain, prevented dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia, and suppressed visceral fat accumulation. Furthermore, 16S rRNA sequencing analysis revealed that FCJ intake altered the composition of gut microbiota, increasing the ratio of Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes and the relative abundance of beneficial bacteria (Lactobacillus, Ruminococcaceae_UCG-014, Faecalibaculum and Blautia), and decreasing the relative abundance of harmful bacteria (Alloprevotella and Helicobacter). These findings suggest that FCJ can prevent HFD-induced obesity and become a novel gut microbiota modulator to prevent HFD-induced gut dysbiosis and obesity-related metabolic disorders.
Chapter
Aroma and flavor compounds play a critical role in the quality of vegetables, medicinal and aromatic plants (MAPs), being two of the most important sensory attributes for consumer‘s preferences. Throughout the last decades, many studies have correlated the presence of bioactive compounds with consumer‘s choices or with their beneficial health properties. The purpose of this review is to provide an updated overview regarding the presence of volatile and non-volatile compounds in some of the most economically relevant vegetables and MAPs. Particular emphasis is placed on bioactive polyphenols, polyphenols as prebiotics, and discuss the most important factors that affect the content and profile of the volatile and non-volatile compounds responsible for the aromatic features of vegetables and MAPs. The new challenges and future perspectives for science will also be reported in improving and intensifying the aroma and flavors of vegetables and MAPs.
Article
Celery (Apium graveolens L.) seeds have a unique aroma and can be used in the pharmaceutical industry. Terpenoids are the main volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of celery seed essential oil, and phthalides are the source of its aroma. However, thus far, no studies have been conducted on the metabolism of terpenoids and phthalides in celery. In this study, 195 VOCs were detected in celery seeds by using headspace injection combined with gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). The content of 85 VOCs, including 20 terpenoids and 6 phthalides, was found to be significantly different during the five stages of celery seed development. Based on the pattern of changes in the concentrations of terpenoids and phthalides, an integrated transcriptome and metabolome analysis of three developmental celery seed stages was performed. The results showed that 11 differentially expressed structural genes involved in the metabolism of terpenoids have a positive correlation coefficient with 16 terpenoids, while 103 differentially expressed transcription factor genes are correlated with these 11 differentially expressed genes (DEGs). Among these differentially expressed transcription factor genes, two basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) genes are similar with Arabidopsis thaliana bHLH gene (MYC2), which has already known to be involved in the regulation of terpenoid metabolism. The results of the integrated analysis also revealed that 88 differentially expressed transcription factor genes are related to 6 phthalides, and one myeloblastosis (MYB) gene is similar with petunia MYB gene (ODORANT1), which is involved in the regulation of the metabolism of volatile benzene compounds in petunia (Pharbitis nil) flowers. Therefore, this study has laid a foundation for further research related to the identification of key genes that regulate the metabolism of terpenoids and phthalides in celery. Moreover, these results can contribute significantly to the improvement in the quality of celery seed essential oil.
Article
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In this research, the effect of temperature and foam thicknesses on the characteristics of a novel powder manufactured from celery pulp using foam mat drying was investigated. We investigated water dispersibility, hygroscopicity, density, color, microstructure, and glass transition temperature (Tg) of the powder, besides analyzing its drying kinetic using 10 various models. With increasing drying temperature from 50 to 70°C and decreasing thickness from 8 to 4 mm, both dispersibility and hygroscopicity increased (from 78.4 to 84.8% and from 2.95 to 6.29%, respectively). A rise was also seen in Tg with increasing foam thickness, due to direct relationship between moisture content and thickness. Wang and Singh and Jena and Das models (R2≥0.975) could describe the drying behavior of the foams for all drying processes. Hence, the best conditions for foam mat drying of celery pulp were known to be the foam thickness of 4 mm and drying temperature of 70°C.
Article
IntroductionPlant tissues are plentiful, diverse, and due to convergent evolution are structurally similar to many animal tissues. Decellularized plant tissues feature microtopographies that resemble cancellous bone (porous parenchyma) and skeletal muscle (fibrous vascular bundles). However, the use of plant tissues as an inexpensive and abundant biomaterial for controlling stem cell behavior has not been widely explored.Methods Celery plant tissues were cut cross-sectionally (porous parenchyma) or longitudinally (fibrous vascular bundles) and decellularized. Human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were then cultured atop plant tissues and confocal imaging of single cells was used to evaluate the early effects of microtopography on MSC adhesion, morphology, cytoskeletal alignment, Yes-associated protein (YAP) signaling, and downstream lineage commitment to osteogenic or myogenic phenotypes.ResultsMicrotopography was conserved post plant tissue decellularization and MSCs attached and proliferated on plant tissues. MSCs cultured on porous parenchyma spread isotropically along the periphery of plant tissue pores. In contrast, MSCs cultured on vascular bundles spread anisotropically and aligned in the direction of fibrous vascular bundles. Differences in microtopography also influenced MSC nuclear YAP localization and actin anisotropy, with higher values observed on fibrous tissues. When exposed to osteogenic or myogenic culture medium, MSCs on porous parenchyma had a higher percentage of cells stain positive for bone biomarker alkaline phosphatase, whereas myoblast determination protein 1 (MyoD) was significantly upregulated for MSCs on fibrous vascular bundles.Conclusions Together, these results show that plant tissues are an abundant biomaterial with defined microarchitecture that can reproducibly regulate MSC morphology, mechanosensing, and differentiation.
Conference Paper
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The biological, chemical and physical properties of dietary fibers are associated with physiologic actions in the small and large intestine that have important metabolic implications for health. These properties of fiber include dispersibility in water, bulk, viscosity, adsorption and binding of compounds and fermentability. Dietary fructans share some of the properties of dietary fiber and thus are likely to have similar metabolic effects. Within the small intestine, properties such as dispersibility in water, bulking and viscosity are associated with slowing the digestion and absorption of carbohydrate and lipid and promoting nutrient absorption along a greater length of the small intestine. Both of these actions are related to cholesterol reduction and blunting of alimentary gylcemia. Although fructans are dispersible in water and will provide some bulk because they are nondigestible in the small intestine, they do not appear to be associated with significant increases in viscosity. Thus one would predict that any immediate effects on alimentary glycemia or on cholesterol reduction are likely to be modest compared with more viscous polysaccharides. Fermentability and bulking capacity of nondigestible carbohydrates define an essential role of fiber in maintaining gastrointestinal health. Within the large intestine, carbohydrates that are not digested in the small intestine are available for fermentation by the microflora present. Carbohydrates that are dispersible in the aqueous phase are more readily digested by microbes; A large body of evidence indicates that dietary fructans are digested in the large intestine, resulting in an increase in microbial mass and production of short-chain fatty acids.
Article
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In the present study, the hepatoprotective activity of methanolic extract of Apium graveolens L. (celery) seeds was tested against Di-(2- ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Oral administration of DEHP (1000 mg/kg b.wt/day) for 6 weeks in rats caused a significant increase in the levels of serum marker enzymes like serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), alkaline phosphatases (ALP) and the levels of total bilirubin and hepatic lipid peroxidation (TBARS). The levels of serum protein, hepatic glutathione (GSH) and ascorbic acid were decreased, administration of A. graveolens seeds extract (300 mg/kg b.wt./day p.o.) for 6 weeks results in a significant recovery of these biochemical parameters toward normalcy compared with the DEPC treated and control rats.
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Sodium valproate (VPA), a common treatment of epilepsy and other diseases, is known to have severe toxic effects on testis both in experimental animals and in humans. The present study was designed to investigate the protective effect of Apium graveolens (AG) against the VPA-induced testis injury. Testicular toxicity was induced by the administration of VPA (500 mg/kg/day) once daily for 7 consecutive days. Protective group received daily doses (200 mg/kg/day) of AG crude extract for 23 days prior to VPA administration. VPA-induced reproductive toxicity was assessed based on the weight of testes, sperm analysis, and serum concentrations of sexual hormones. The relative weights of testes and epididymes and the sperm numbers viability were all decreased following the valproate administration. Testosterone levels dropped while follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) level increased following the drug administration. Severe histopathological changes in testis were observed such as degeneration of seminiferous tubules and depletion of germ cells. These biochemical and histological changes were also associated with alterations of oxidative stress markers. Levels of malondialdehyde have increased, while superoxide dismutase activity has decreased. Pretreatment with A. graveolens extract has effectively alleviated most of the VPA-induced effects suggesting a protective role of A. graveolens extract against experimental VPA-induced toxicity. Apigenin content was estimated and was shown as a major fraction of the A. graveolens extract.
Article
Apigenin, a constituent of Apium graveolens, was found to be a potent antiplatelet agent. It inhibited the aggregation of washed rabbit platelets induced by collagen, ADP, arachidonic acid and PAF, but not that induced by thrombin or ionophore A23187. The IC50 on collagen-induced platelet aggregation was about 50 μg ml-1. Apigenin also inhibited the release of ATP from platelets induced by all aggregants used. Thromboxane B2 formation was almost completely inhibited by apigenin in platelets challenged by collagen and arachidonic acid. Less inhibition was observed in the aggregation of platelet-rich plasma. Apigenin also inhibited collagen- and ADP-induced aggregation in whole blood, measured by impedance method.
Article
An arabinogalactan isolated from celery (Apium graveolens) consists of L-arabinose, D-galactose, and D-glucose residues in the molar ratio of 2.53:1.00:0.12. Sedimentation analysis data indicate that the polysaccharide is homogeneous to the extent of 96%. Methylation studies show a statistical unit of 78 sugar residues with 27 terminal, nonreducing end groups (20 L-arabinosyl, 7 D-galactosyl). There are also 19 residues of L-arabinose involved in branching including 12 through positions 3, 5, and 7 through positions 2, 3, and 5. The remaining 32 nonterminal residues consist of eighteen (1→5)-linked L-arabinosyl residues, nine (1→4)-linked D-galactosyl residues, and five (1→3)-linked D-galactosyl residues.
Article
The hypotensive and vasorelaxant effects of 3-n -butylphthalide (BuPh) and its possible mechanisms of action were investigated in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) for the first time. A 13-day intraperitoneal infusion of BuPh at doses of 2.0 and 4.0 mg/day produced a transient hypotensive effect while a dose of 0.5 mg/day showed a significant hypotensive effect only on day 12. BuPh at 0.5 mg/day had no effect on the plasma and tissue angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activities, or on the tissue lipid peroxidation index. BuPh relaxed endothelium-intact and denuded aortic rings precontracted with phenylephrine and KCl. NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, did not attenuate the vasorelaxant activity of BuPh. The cumulative concentration response curves of phenylephrine and Ca2+ (in CaCl2-free, high KCl medium) were non-competitively inhibited by BuPh. However, BuPh did not interfere with the caffeine-induced release of intracellular Ca2+. It appears that the vasorelaxant effect of BuPh could be attributed to the blockade of Ca2+ entry, possibly through voltage- and receptor-operated Ca2+ channels, thereby lowering the systolic blood pressure of SHR. © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
A HPLC procedure was developed to separate the phthalides extracted from celery, celeriac and lovage. This method provided the complete separation of sedanenolide and sedanolide. Concentrations of the phthalides found in various cultivars of celery varied over a ten-fold range. The relative ratios of butyl phthalide, sedanenolide and sedanolide were generally consistent within a species. Celeriac exhibited relatively high levels of phthalides while lovage contained predominantly butyl phthalide. Sensory evaluation of the samples showed significant correlation with the individual and total phthalides.
Article
Celery trimmings, primarily leaves, from Fraser Valley and Okanagen vegetable packinghouses, which are normally not utilized for human consumption, yielded upon macerating and pressing 70-80% of a dark-green, bitter-tasting juice. Removal of the chloroplast fraction by low centrifugal fields resulted in a clear, yellow, celery-flavored juice, of acceptable taste. This refined celery leaf juice contained 5-6% of total solids, 0.8% of total crude protein, 0.1% of heat-precipitable proteins and amino acids, peptides, and proteins not preciptitated by heat. It also contained the vitamins, niacin, riboflavin, thiamin, and ascorbic acid at 0.45, 0.05, 0.01, and 2 mg/100 g, respectively. The major mineral constituents were Ca, 0.30%; Na, 0.20%; 0.15%; Mg, 0.02%; P, 0.01%; trace amounts of Fe, Cu, Mn, Al, Ni, Cr, Ba, and Sr were also present. Most of the lipid material, which contained some thiodan I, II, and malathion from agricultural practices, was removed from the juice with the chloroplast fraction during centrifugation. Rat feeding trials with the refined celery leaf juice solids (LJS) over a period of 8 weeks showed no growth inhibition or gross abnormalities of the major organs. Taste panels preferred tomato-celery leaf juice blends over commercially available V-8 type vegetable juices.
Article
Celery seed had a total dietary fiber (TDF), 56.0%; insoluble dietary fiber (IDF), 49.0%; soluble dietary fiber (SDF), 7.0%, while celery spent residue (CSR) after oil and oleoresin extraction contained 61% TDF, 53.5% IDF, 7.5% SDF, 19% protein, 7.9% starch and 5% fat. The hydration properties of fiber increased with decrease in particle size of CSR. The CSR exhibited 6.8 g/g water-holding capacity, 6.0 g/g water-retention capacity and 5.2 mL/g swelling capacity. Scanning electron microscopic studies revealed that IDF of CSR had coiled rod type structure with a rugged surface, while SDF had an uneven porous surface. Use of CSR decreased the spread ratio and increased the hardness of biscuits. Addition of CSR above 7.5% adversely affected the taste and texture of biscuits. Use of sodium stearoyl-2-lactylate significantly improved the overall quality of biscuits with 7.5% CSR. Incorporation of 7.5% CSR resulted in 7.8% dietary fiber as against 3.5% in control biscuits. The possibility of utilizing celery spent residue (CSR), a by-product from spice industry to enrich the nutritional characteristics of biscuits in terms of dietary fiber, protein and minerals, was studied. Results of the study indicated the possibility of utilizing the CSR up to 7.5% without affecting the texture and quality of the biscuits. Addition of an emulsifier improved the quality of the biscuits containing 7.5% CSR. The results of the study reported in this paper will have a practical application in bakery industries and will provide an effective way for the utilization of the spice industry waste. CSR also has potential as a source of dietary fiber in other food formulations.
Article
The isolation and identification of the volatile compounds of celery are described. Non-linear temperature-programmed gas chromatography was found to give resolution superior to that of either isothermal operation or linear temperature programming. The identification of 24 compounds from celery is reported. Of the 38 compounds thus far identified from celery distillates, the following six compounds are primarily responsible for the characteristic flavor and aroma of celery: 3-isobutylidene-3a,4-dihydrophthalide; 3-isovalidene- 3a,4-dihydrophthalide; 3-isobutylidene phthalide; 3-isovalidene phthalide; cis-3-hexen-l-yl pyruvate; and diacetyl. The phthalide derivatives are also implicated in the occurrence of certain celery off-flavors reported in the literature.
Article
SUMMARY– The carbonyl compounds in celery essential oil obtained from celery leaves and stalks by two essence recovery methods were separated by gas chromatography and identified by chemical and spectroscopic methods. Two epoxides, five ketones, five esters, three acids and three phthalides, 3, n-butylphthalide, sedanolide, and 3, n-butylhexahydrophthalide, were reported as constituents of the essential oil from fresh celery. 3, n-Butylphthalide and sedanolide possess the characteristic odor and flavor of celery. Sixteen of the 18 compounds have not been reported as constituents of the essential oil from fresh celery. Semiquantitative relationships were established for each carbonyl and the carbonyl fractions.
Article
The alcohols in celery essential oil obtained from fresh celery by two essence recovery methods were separated by gas chromatography and identified by spectroscopic methods. Thirteen alcohols were reported. Twelve of the 13 alcohols have not been previously reported as constituents of celery essential oil. A semiquantitative estimation of each constituent was made.
Article
The hypotensive and vasorelaxant effects of 3-n -butylphthalide (BuPh) and its possible mechanisms of action were investigated in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) for the first time. A 13-day intraperitoneal infusion of BuPh at doses of 2.0 and 4.0 mg/day produced a transient hypotensive effect while a dose of 0.5 mg/day showed a significant hypotensive effect only on day 12. BuPh at 0.5 mg/day had no effect on the plasma and tissue angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activities, or on the tissue lipid peroxidation index. BuPh relaxed endothelium-intact and denuded aortic rings precontracted with phenylephrine and KCl. NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, did not attenuate the vasorelaxant activity of BuPh. The cumulative concentration response curves of phenylephrine and Ca2+ (in CaCl2-free, high KCl medium) were non-competitively inhibited by BuPh. However, BuPh did not interfere with the caffeine-induced release of intracellular Ca2+. It appears that the vasorelaxant effect of BuPh could be attributed to the blockade of Ca2+ entry, possibly through voltage- and receptor-operated Ca2+ channels, thereby lowering the systolic blood pressure of SHR. © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
Vegetable by-products have mainly been utilized as a source of dietary fiber and natural antioxidants, but residual vegetables could also be used as a raw material for soluble sugar and polyol extraction. Therefore, two celery residues from the food industry, composed either of stalks alone or stalks plus leaves, were extracted with hot 85% ethanol to solubilize soluble sugars and mannitol. Low-molecular-weight carbohydrates in the extracts were identified and quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography. Both celery residues contained similar amounts of sucrose (5.7-5.9%), but different ratios of hexose (glucose and fructose) to mannitol. Total sugar content and mannitol were higher in the stalks (45.5% and 15.2%, respectively) than in the stalk plus leaf residues (33.9% and 13.3%, respectively). Mannitol represented 33.5-39.3% of the total carbohydrate in celery wastes. The alcoholic extracts from celery residues are proposed as a natural source of mannitol and soluble sugars, which might be used by the food industry. The alcohol-insoluble residue from celery by-products could be further used for the preparation of dietary fiber-rich food supplements.
Article
Celery (Apium graveolens L.), belonging to the family Apiaceae, is widely used as a spice, in perfumery and pharmaceutical applications. It is reported to possess several nutraceutical attributes, such as anticoagulation activity of blood plasma and prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Effects of various enzymes on the extraction of volatile oil of celery are reported in the present study. The oil yield, after cellulase, pectinase, protease and viscozyme pretreatment, was in the range 2.2–2.3% as against 1.8% in a control sample, by steam distillation. Profiling of the celery oil thus obtained by GC–MS showed that limonene, the major terpene, increased from 63% to 82% with enzyme treatment. The other major flavour compounds identified were β-selinene (16–17%), butyl phthalide and sedanolide. The study demonstrated that enzymes facilitated the extraction of celery oil with increase in oil yield with little change in either flavour profile or physicochemical properties of the oil.
Article
The effect of grinding/flaking with and without pre-cooling of celery seeds on the yield and physical and chemical characteristics of volatile oil was evaluated. For smaller batches (200 g) with pre chilling and flaking, yields of oil were marginally but consistently higher (2.20%), compared to grinding celery at ambient temperature using a mini plate mill (1.9%) and with waring blender (1.8%). With flaking at room temperature the yield of oil was 2.0%. However, in large batches (10 kg), with steam distillation the yield of steam distilled oil was significantly higher for flaking (1.76%) as compared to the hammer mill powdering (1.4%), both at room temperature. Extraction of volatile oil from celery powder or flakes follows first order kinetics with an variance value of 0.04. Gas chromatograph (GC) and gas chromatograph–mass spectra (MS) analysis showed that in case of flaking, the volatile oil had higher levels of limonene, the major volatile compound and sedanenolide, the major character impact compound being present in almost equal quantities in both the cases of flakes and powder. Selective collection of volatile oil at different intervals of time of distillation gave products of different flavour profiles. Flaking had the advantage of higher yields of the volatile oil with better flavour quality. It was also observed that flaking of celery helped in overcoming the problem of clogging and choking which is associated with the conventional grinding.
Article
Five plants (Myrtus communis, Apium graveolens, Matricaria chamomilla, Withania somnifera and Achillea santolina) grown in Iraq were assessed for their anti-inflammatory activity on intact rats by measuring the suppression of carrageenan-induced paw edema produced by 1/10 of the intraperitoneal LD50 doses for the respective 80% ethanol extracts. Acetylsalicylic acid was used as the standard drug. Results showed that the plants possessed varying degrees of anti-inflammatory activity and were classified in the following descending order of activity: W. somnifera greater than A. graveolens greater than A. santolina greater than M. chamomilla greater than M. communis.
Article
The present study was carried out to elucidate a centrally acting muscle relaxant effect of chloroform soluble fraction and its component, namely, ligustilide, cnidilide and senkyunolide obtained from the rhizome of Cnidium officinale Makino. These three compounds were isolated from the chloroform soluble fraction by column chromatography on silica gel. The centrally acting muscle relaxant effect was investigated on the crossed extensor reflex in anesthetized rats and these samples were suspended in 0.5% carboxymethyl cellulose solution and administered i.p. These three compounds as well as the chloroform soluble fraction depressed the reflex response. The depressive potencies among them were almost the same and their potencies were also the same or somewhat weaker as that of mephenesin. As a curare-like action was not observed, a muscle relaxation induced by these phthalide compounds is considered to be due to central origin.
Article
The antihyperlipidemic property of aqueous celery extract was studied in rats. Two groups of Wistar rats were fed a high fat diet for eight weeks to induce hyperlipidemia. One group was supplemented with aqueous celery extract in the diet while the other group served as control. At the end of the experiment, a significant reduction was found in the serum total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and triglyceride (TG) concentrations in the celery-treated rats. However, the concentration of hepatic TG was significantly higher in the celery-treated group than in the control group. Hepatic triacylglycerol lipase (HL) activity was found to be significantly lower in the celery-treated rats while the reverse was observed for the hepatic microsomal P450 content. Analysis of an ethereal extract of the aqueous extract of celery by thin layer chromatography (TLC) with two different solvent systems showed that the extract did not contain 3-n-butylphthalide (BuPh), a unique compound in celery that has previously been reported to have lipid-lowering action. Our study indicates that other active principle(s) could be responsible for the observed effects of aqueous celery extract on serum and hepatic lipid levels.
Article
Bioassay-directed fractionation of celery seed oil from the plant Apium graveolens (Umbelliferae) led to the isolation of five natural products, including d-limonene, p-mentha-2,8-dien-1-ol, p-mentha-8(9)-en-1,2-diol, 3-n-butyl phthalide, and sedanolide. Of these compounds p-mentha-2,8-dien-1-ol,3-n-butyl phthalide, and sedanolide exhibited high activities to induce the detoxifying enzyme glutathione S-transferase (GST) in the target tissues of female A/J mice. 3-n-Butyl phthalide and sedanolide (20 mg/dose every two days for a total of 3 doses) increased GST activity 4.5-5.9 and 3.2-5.2 times over the controls in the mouse liver and small intestinal mucosa, respectively. At the same dose, p-mentha-2,8-dien-1-ol induced GST activity about 3.7-fold above that of the controls. Thus, these compounds were further tested for their ability to inhibit benzo[a]pyrene- (BP) induced tumorigenesis in mice. After treatment with 3-n-butyl phthalide and sedanolide, the tumor incidence was reduced from 68% to 30% and 11%, respectively. About 67% and 83% reduction in tumor multiplicity was also observed with 3-n-butyl phthalide and sedanolide. p-Mentha-2,8-dien-1-ol produced only a small or no significant reduction of forestomach tumor formation. The data indicating that 3-n-butyl phthalide and sedanolide were both active in tumor inhibition and GST assays suggested a correlation between the inhibitory activity and the GST-inducing ability. The phthalides are known to determine the characteristic odor of celery. The results suggest that phthalides, as a class of bioactive natural products occurring in edible umbelliferous plants, may be effective chemopreventive agents.
Article
Seeds of Apium graveolens L. (Apiaceae) and Hygrophila auriculata (K. Schum.) Heine (Syn. Astercantha auriculata Nees, Acanthaceae) are used in Indian systems of medicine for the treatment of liver ailments. The antihepatotoxic effect of methanolic extracts of the seeds of these two plants was studied on rat liver damage induced by a single dose of paracetamol (3 g/kg p.o.) or thioacetamide (100 mg/kg, s.c.) by monitoring several liver function tests, viz. serum transaminases (SGOT and SGPT), alkaline phosphatase, sorbitol dehydrogenase, glutamate dehydrogenase and bilirubin in serum. Furthermore, hepatic tissues were processed for assay of triglycerides and histopathological alterations simultaneously. A significant hepatoprotective activity of the methanolic extract of the seeds of both the plants was reported.
Article
The anti-nociceptive effect of ethanolic extract of 11 traditionally used Jordanian plants was studied by using the acetic acid-induced writhing and hot-plate test in mice. The anti-inflammatory effect of these plants was determined by xylene-induced ear oedema in mice and cotton pellet granuloma test in rats. Mentha piperita, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Apium graveolens, Eucalyptus camaldulentis, and Ruta graveolens possess an anti-nociceptive effect against both acetic acid-induced writhing and hot plate-induced thermal stimulation. M. piperita, Jasminum officinale, Commiphora molmol, and Beta vulgaris possess an anti-inflammatory effect against acute (xylene-induced ear oedema) and chronic (cotton-pellet granuloma) inflammation. The anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects were dose dependent. These data affirm the traditional use of some of these plants for painful and inflammatory conditions.
Article
Structurally diverse plant phenolics were examined for their abilities to inhibit lipid peroxidation induced either by Fe(II) and Fe(III) metal ions or by azo-derived peroxyl radicals in a liposomal membrane system. The antioxidant abilities of flavonoids were compared with those of coumarin and tert-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ). The antioxidant efficacies of these compounds were evaluated on the basis of their abilities to inhibit the fluorescence intensity decay of an extrinsic probe, 3-(p-(6-phenyl)-I,3,5-hexatrienyl)phenylpropionic acid (DPH-PA), caused by the free radicals generated during lipid peroxidation. All the flavonoids tested exhibited higher antioxidant efficacies against metal-ion-induced peroxidations than peroxyl-radical-induced peroxidation, suggesting that metal chelation may play a larger role in determining the antioxidant activities of these compounds than has previously been believed. Distinct structure-activity relationships were also revealed for the antioxidant abilities of the flavonoids. Presence of hydroxyl substituents on the flavonoid nucleus enhanced activity, whereas substitution by methoxy groups diminished antioxidant activity. Substitution patterns on the B-ring especially affected antioxidant potencies of the flavonoids. In cases where the B-ring could not contribute to the antioxidant activities of flavonoids, hydroxyl substituents in an catechol structure on the A-ring were able to compensate and become a larger determinant of flavonoid antioxidant activity.
Article
The biological, chemical and physical properties of dietary fibers are associated with physiologic actions in the small and large intestine that have important metabolic implications for health. These properties of fiber include dispersibility in water, bulk, viscosity, adsorption and binding of compounds and fermentability. Dietary fructans share some of the properties of dietary fiber and thus are likely to have similar metabolic effects. Within the small intestine, properties such as dispersibility in water, bulking and viscosity are associated with slowing the digestion and absorption of carbohydrate and lipid and promoting nutrient absorption along a greater length of the small intestine. Both of these actions are related to cholesterol reduction and blunting of alimentary gylcemia. Although fructans are dispersible in water and will provide some bulk because they are nondigestible in the small intestine, they do not appear to be associated with significant increases in viscosity. Thus one would predict that any immediate effects on alimentary glycemia or on cholesterol reduction are likely to be modest compared with more viscous polysaccharides. Fermentability and bulking capacity of nondigestible carbohydrates define an essential role of fiber in maintaining gastrointestinal health. Within the large intestine, carbohydrates that are not digested in the small intestine are available for fermentation by the microflora present. Carbohydrates that are dispersible in the aqueous phase are more readily digested by microbes. A large body of evidence indicates that dietary fructans are digested in the large intestine, resulting in an increase in microbial mass and production of short-chain fatty acids.
Article
Drinking aqueous celery extract for 8 weeks caused a significant reduction in serum total cholesterol (TC) level in growing genetically hypercholesterolaemic (RICO) rats. In addition, administration of butanol fraction (Fbu) and aqueous fraction (Faq) of celery extract for 7 days by intraperitoneal (i.p.) infusion effectively decreased the serum TC and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels of adult RICO rats. The 8-week study showed that oral intake of celery extract could enhance the 14C-cholesterol/metabolites excretion. The liver and small intestinal sterol synthesis were not affected. Also, long term drinking of aqueous celery extract did not lead to any undesirable side effects on liver functions. The Fbu and Faq lowered serum TC level mainly through increased bile acid excretion but not by modulating the activity of the rate-limiting enzyme for cholesterol biosynthesis, HMG-CoA reductase. Hence, the mechanism elucidated supports that suggested by the 8-week study. A preliminary chemical characterisation of Fbu and Faq fractions by thin layer chromatography (TLC) showed the presence of sugars and amino acids. There is a possibility that polar compounds with sugar or amino acid side chains(s) could contribute to the hypocholesterolaemic action of celery extract.
Article
In this paper, an alternative base-catalyzed methodology for the facile derivatization in mild conditions of lipid TAG prior to FA analysis is proposed. Reagents were prepared by proton exchange between potassium tert-butoxide and either ethanol, n-propanol, n-butanol, or 2-methoxyethanol and used for the synthesis, at 40 degrees C for 15 min, of the corresponding derivatives, which were directly analyzed by GC. This methodology can be used on a routine basis and has been applied to standard and complex natural lipid samples. Tripalmitin was used to determine optimal reaction conditions; and bovine milk fat, containing C4 to C22 acids, and celery (Apium graveolens) seed oil, characterized by a high level of petroselinic acid, were comparatively analyzed as their ethyl, n-propyl, n-butyl, and 2-methoxyethyl esters.
Article
Cyclooxygenase inhibitory and antioxidant bioassay-directed extraction and purification of celery seeds yielded sedanolide (1), senkyunolide-N (2), senkyunolide-J (3), 3-hydroxymethyl-6-methoxy-2,3-dihydro-1H-indol-2-ol (4), L-tryptophan (6), and 7-[3-(3,4-dihydroxy-4-hydroxymethyl-tetrahydro-furan-2-yloxy)-4,5-dihydroxy-6-hydroxymethyl-tetrahydro-pyran-2-yloxy]-5-hydroxy-2-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-phenyl)-chromen-4-one (7). The structures of compounds 1-7 were determined using spectroscopic methods. Compound 4 is reported here for the first time. At 250 pg ml(-1), compounds 1-4, 6 and 7 displayed prostaglandin H endoperoxide synthase-I (COX-I) and prostaglandin H endoperoxide synthase-II (COX-II) inhibitory activities at pH 7. The acetylated product (5) of compound 4 also inhibited COX-I and COX-II enzymes when tested at 250 microg ml(-1). Compounds 6 and 7 exhibited good antioxidant activity at concentrations of 125 and 250 microg ml(-1). Only compounds 1-3 exhibited topoisomerase-I and -II enzyme inhibitory activity at concentrations of 100, 200 and 200 microg ml(-1), respectively.
Article
The purpose of this review is to examine the relationship between glycemic carbohydrate and its effect on body weight regulation. By contrast to fat, carbohydrate has a positive impact on energy intake, energy expenditure, and body weight control. Despite some debate about the role of the carbohydrate-to-fat ratio in the diet and the prevalence of obesity, metabolic studies show that diets high in fat are more likely to result in body weight gain than diets high in carbohydrate. So far there are no indications that carbohydrate classes differ greatly with respect to energy expenditure and energy balance. However, the impact of carbohydrate source and class, as well as the form in which carbohydrate is consumed (i.e., solid or liquid) on body weight control requires further consideration.
Article
This review provides an update of recent studies of dietary fiber and weight and includes a discussion of potential mechanisms of how dietary fiber can aid weight loss and weight maintenance. Human studies published on dietary fiber and body weight were reviewed and summarized. Dietary fiber content of popular low-carbohydrate diets were calculated and are presented. Epidemiologic support that dietary fiber intake prevents obesity is strong. Fiber intake is inversely associated with body weight and body fat. In addition, fiber intake is inversely associated with body mass index at all levels of fat intake after adjusting for confounding factors. Results from intervention studies are more mixed, although the addition of dietary fiber generally decreases food intake and, hence, body weight. Many mechanisms have been suggested for how dietary fiber aids in weight management, including promoting satiation, decreasing absorption of macronutrients, and altering secretion of gut hormones. The average fiber intake of adults in the United States is less than half recommended levels and is lower still among those who follow currently popular low-carbohydrate diets, such as Atkins and South Beach. Increasing consumption of dietary fiber with fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and legumes across the life cycle is a critical step in stemming the epidemic of obesity found in developed countries. The addition of functional fiber to weight-loss diets should also be considered as a tool to improve success.
Article
Extracts of celery leaves and roots in ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and water were evaporated to dryness and dissolved in 50% ethanol to make 10% (w[sol ]v) solutions. The potential protective action of the extracts was assessed by the corresponding in vitro and in vivo tests. In the in vitro experiments crude methanol extracts were tested as potential scavengers of free OH* and DPPH* radicals, as well as inhibitors of liposomal peroxidation (LPx). Analogous experiments were also carried out with the extracts of celery root, for comparison. The results obtained show that both the extracts of root and leaves are good scavengers of OH* and DPPH* radicals and reduce LPx intensity in liposomes, which points to their protective (antioxidant) activity. In vivo experiments were concerned with antioxidant systems (activities of GSHPx, GSHR, Px, CAT, XOD, GSH content and intensity of LPx) in liver homogenate and blood of mice after their treatment with extracts of celery leaves, or in combination with CCl4. On the basis of the results obtained it can be concluded that the examined extracts showed a certain protective effect. Of all the extracts the n-butanol extract showed the highest protective effect. Combined treatments with CCl4 and extracts showed both positive and negative synergism - inducing or suppressing the impact of CCl4 alone. The differences observed in the action of particular extracts are probably due to the different contents of flavonoids and some other antioxidant compounds.
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