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Gluteal Tendon Repair Augmented with a Synthetic Ligament: Surgical Technique and a Case Series

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Abstract

We describe an augmented surgical repair technique for gluteus minimus and medius tears, along with a supportive case series. A consecutive series of 22 patients presenting with clinical and radiological findings consistent with hip abductor tears, who had undergone failed prior conservative treatments, were prospectively recruited. Patients underwent open bursectomy, Y-iliotibial release, debridement of the diseased tendon, decortication of the trochanteric foot-plate and reattachment augmented with a LARS ligament through a trans-osseous tunnel, together with suture anchors. All patients were assessed pre- and postoperatively to 12 months with the Oxford Hip Score (OHS), the Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) and a Visual Analogue Pain Scale (VAS), while a satisfaction scale was employed at 12 months. A statistically significant improvement (p<0.05) was observed for all patient reported outcome measures, while all patients were at least 'satisfied' with the procedure at 12 months. One patient reported some lateral hip discomfort at 10 months, and removal of the LARS interference screw provided immediate relief. One patient had a urological catheter-related complication. With no other complications and no clinical failures of the repair, we believe the technique to be safe and reliable, whilst reducing the incidence of re-tears as reported in the existing literature.
... PRO use varied significantly but the most commonly used were the VAS ( Table 6). The ten studies 5,17,18,28,29,[34][35][36][37][38] that reported on patients' satisfaction with their surgery demonstrated the vast majority of patients had a positive experience with 95% (range, 79%-100%) of patients "very satisfied" or "satisfied" 5,17,18,28,29,[34][35][36][37][38] and 82% (range, 72-93%) explicitly agreeing that they would have the surgery again. 17,29,35,38 Where the MCID is defined as the smallest outcomes difference that patients perceive as beneficial, [39][40][41] Nwa- ...
... PRO use varied significantly but the most commonly used were the VAS ( Table 6). The ten studies 5,17,18,28,29,[34][35][36][37][38] that reported on patients' satisfaction with their surgery demonstrated the vast majority of patients had a positive experience with 95% (range, 79%-100%) of patients "very satisfied" or "satisfied" 5,17,18,28,29,[34][35][36][37][38] and 82% (range, 72-93%) explicitly agreeing that they would have the surgery again. 17,29,35,38 Where the MCID is defined as the smallest outcomes difference that patients perceive as beneficial, [39][40][41] Nwa- ...
... Altogether, open cases produced ten total incidents of complication (range, 0%-11.8%) 26,[34][35][36][37][38] while the arthroscopic cases produced thirty-five (range, 0%-33.3%). 5,[17][18][19][28][29][30][31]33 Rates of failure with descriptions of the reported complications are summarized in Table 8. ...
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Background: While excision of the trochanteric bursae to treat lateral hip pain has increased in popularity, no comparison exists between the surgical outcomes and complications of the open and arthroscopic techniques involving trochanteric bursectomy. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacies and complication rates of arthroscopic and open techniques for procedures involving trochanteric bursectomy. Methods: The terms "trochanteric," "bursectomy," "arthroscopic," "open," "outcomes," and "hip" were searched in five electronic databases. Fifteen studies from 120 initial results were included. Patient-reported outcomes (PRO), pain, satisfaction, and complications were included for analysis. Results: Five hundred-two hips in 474 total patients (77.7% female) were included in this study. The average age was 54. The fourteen distinct PRO scores that were reported by the included studies improved significantly from baseline to final mean follow-up (12-70.8 months for open; 12-42 months for arthroscopic) for both approaches, demonstrating statistically significant patient benefit in a variety of hip arthroscopy settings (P > 0.05). The complication rates of all procedures ranged from 0%-33% and failure to improve pain ranged from 0%-8%. Patient satisfaction with surgery was high at 95% and 82% reported a willingness to undergo the same surgery again. No significant mean differences were found between the open and arthroscopic techniques. Conclusion: The open and arthroscopic approaches for trochanteric bursectomy are both safe and effective procedures in treating refractory lateral hip pain. No significant differences in PROs, pain, total complications, severity of complications, and total failures were seen between technique outcomes.Level of Evidence: IV.
... 4,14 Outcome Measures A variety of outcome measures was used across the included studies to assess treatment success. Pain was most commonly assessed using a visual analog scale (VAS; 16 studies {{ ) or numeric rating scale (NRS; 2 studies 10,42,51 8,9,17 ), and Patient Acceptable Symptom State (3 studies 4,25,26 ). Rarely used measures for the determination of outcomes were the Lower Extremity Functional Scale, 10,18 Nonarthritic Hip Score, 29,53 and Merle D'Aubigné-Postel score 17,55 in 2 studies each. ...
... However, the mHHS scores obtained from this References 8,9,17,18,21,22,29,31,38,[40][41][42]50,51,53,55. {{ References 4,8,9,14,17,22,23,29,31,33,36,38,39,42,50,53. ## population at 52 and 104 weeks from baseline were at the same level as those at the 6-week mark and were significantly higher than were baseline values. ...
... The retear rate was 2.7%, and the overall complication rate was 6.3% (revision surgery in 1.8%). Bucher et al 8 ...
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Background: Gluteal tendinopathy is the most common lower limb tendinopathy. It presents with varying severity but may cause debilitating lateral hip pain. Purpose: To review the therapeutic options for different stages of gluteal tendinopathy, to highlight gaps within the existing evidence, and to provide guidelines for a stage-adjusted therapy for gluteal tendinopathy. Study design: Systematic review; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: We screened Scopus, Embase, Web of Science, PubMed, PubMed Central, Ovid MEDLINE, CINAHL, UpToDate, and Google Scholar databases and databases for grey literature. Patient selection, diagnostic criteria, type and effect of a therapeutic intervention, details regarding aftercare, outcome assessments, complications of the treatment, follow-up, and conclusion of the authors were recorded. An assessment of study methodological quality (type of study, level of evidence) was also performed. Statistical analysis was descriptive. Data from multiple studies were combined if they were obtained from a single patient population. Weighted mean and range calculations were performed. Results: A total of 27 studies (6 randomized controlled trials) with 1103 patients (1106 hips) were included. The mean age was 53.7 years (range, 17-88 years), and the mean body mass index was 28.3. The ratio of female to male patients was 7:1. Radiological confirmation of the diagnosis was most commonly obtained using magnetic resonance imaging. Reported treatment methods were physical therapy/exercise; injections (corticosteroids, platelet-rich plasma, autologous tenocytes) with or without needle tenotomy/tendon fenestration; shockwave therapy; therapeutic ultrasound; and surgical procedures such as bursectomy, iliotibial band release, and endoscopic or open tendon repair (with or without tendon augmentation). Conclusion: There was good evidence for using platelet-rich plasma in grades 1 and 2 tendinopathy. Shockwave therapy, exercise, and corticosteroids showed good outcomes, but the effect of corticosteroids was short term. Bursectomy with or without iliotibial band release was a valuable treatment option in grades 1 and 2 tendinopathy. Insufficient evidence was available to provide guidelines for the treatment of partial-thickness tears. There was low-level evidence to support surgical repair for grades 3 (partial-thickness tears) and 4 (full-thickness tears) tendinopathy. Fatty degeneration, atrophy, and retraction can impair surgical repair, while their effect on patient outcomes remains controversial.
... Future studies are necessary to better define the etiology of these sleep disturbances in these patients. Multiple studies have shown that open hip abductor repair is linked with statistically significant improvements in functional and pain scores as well as in PROMs [14,[39][40][41]. Davies and Davies described significant improvements in Lower-Extremity Activation Score and mHHS at an average follow-up of 71 months [39]. ...
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Purpose: To (1) describe the prevalence of abnormal sleep quality in patients with hip abductor tears (HAT), to (2) determine whether sleep quality improves after open HAT repair, and to (3) to report clinical short-term outcomes in patients undergoing open HAT repair. Methods: The data of 28 patients (29 hips) who underwant open HAT repair were prospectively analyzed at midterm follow-up. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), modified Harris Hip Score (mHHS), the University of California, Los Angeles activity scale (UCLA), and Visual Analog Scale (VAS) for pain were determined via questionnaire. Paired t-tests were applied to compare preoperative and post-operative Patient-reported Outcome Measures (PROMs). Logistic regression was performed to determine the association between PSQI improvement achievement and demographic variables (laterality, sex, age, body-mass-index (BMI), and preoperative mHHS). The minimal clinically important difference (MCID) was calculated for the mHHS. Results: A total of 28 patients were included. Four patients (14.3%) suffered post-operative complications after open HAT repair. The predominance of patients was female (77.4%), with a mean age of 60 ± 13 years. The average follow-up was 30.35 ± 16.62 months. Preoperatively, 27 (96.4%) patients experienced poor sleep quality (PSQI > 5); at follow-up, 7 (25%) patients experienced poor sleep quality. Univariate logistical regression analysis demonstrated no significant association between preoperative demographic data and achieving postoperative PSQI < 5. The MCID of mHHS was calculated to be 12.5. Overall, 90% of patients achieved MCID for mHHS. Conclusion: Preoperative sleep quality was impaired in 96.4% of HAT patients (PSQI > 5). However, these patients showed an improvement in sleep disturbances after open HAT repair in the early postoperative period. Ninety percent of patients showed significant improvements in mHHS and achieved the corresponding MCID. Level of evidence: Case series; Level IV.
... Several studies have demonstrated that open hip abductor repair is associated with statistically significant improvements in PROMs, functional scores, and pain scores. 3,8,9,16,26 Walsh et al 26 However, these studies did not address the proportion of patients achieving MCID for their PROMs, precluding conclusions regarding clinical significance. ...
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Background Open repair for gluteus medius and minimus tears is a common surgical treatment for patients with lateral hip pain associated with abductor tears; however, clinically meaningful outcomes have not been described after open surgical treatment. Purpose To define the minimal clinically important difference (MCID) in patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) in patients undergoing open gluteus medius or minimus repair, and to identify preoperative patient characteristics predictive of achieving MCID postoperatively. Study Design Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods A retrospective review of prospectively collected data from a consecutive series of patients undergoing open abductor repair between July 2010 and April 2019 was conducted. Perioperative patient data collected included patient characteristics and preoperative and postoperative modified Harris Hip Score (mHHS) and International Hip Outcome Tool (iHOT-33) score. Paired t tests were utilized to compare preoperative and postoperative PROMs and MCID was calculated for both PROMs. Multivariate logistical regression analysis was used to assess the association between preoperative variables and the likelihood for achieving MCID. Results A total of 47 patients were included in the study. The majority of patients were female (78.7%), with an average age of 63 ± 10.7 years. The average follow-up for both the mHHS and the iHOT-33 surveys was 37.8 ± 27.9 months (range, 10-102 months). Patients demonstrated statistically significant improvements on the mHHS and iHOT-33 postoperatively ( P < .001 for both). The MCIDs of mHHS and iHOT-33 were calculated to be 9.9 and 14.3, respectively. Overall, 82.9% of patients achieved MCID for mHHS and 84.1% of patients achieved MCID for iHOT-33 postoperatively. Multivariate logistical analysis demonstrated younger patients were less likely to achieve MCID for both outcome measures. Four patients (8.5%) suffered postoperative complications after open repair. Conclusion This study defined MCID for mHHS and iHOT-33 for patients undergoing open repair of hip abductor tears, with a large percentage of patients (>80%) achieving meaningful outcomes for both outcome measures. There was a low complication rate. Younger patients were less likely to achieve MCID compared with older patients.
... 6,12,13,15 On the other hand, some other studies show high retear rates, which led to exploring alternative strategies to enhance structural healing, including biological growth factors such as platelet-rich plasma, grafts, and sutureaugmentation techniques. 4,8,9,11,16,19 The American Journal of Sports Medicine 1-8 DOI: 10.1177/0363546521999678 Ó 2021 The Author(s) Single-row repair with microfracture (SRM) of the greater trochanter could be an option as it is a confirmed procedure in rotator cuff surgery that has gained popularity because of the simplicity of the technique. The biology of gluteus medius and minimus tendon repair could be enhanced with bone marrow vents created by microfracture of the greater trochanter, forming a ''crimson duvet'' or bone marrow superclot, which will envelop the repair site, similar to that seen with rotator cuff repair. ...
Article
Background Endoscopic surgical repair has become a common procedure for treating patients with hip abductor tendon tears. Considering that retear rates are high after the repair of gluteus medius and minimus tendons, exploring alternative strategies to enhance structural healing is important. Purpose/Hypothesis The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of adding microfracture to single-row repair (SR) on outcomes after the surgical repair of gluteus medius and minimus tendons and compare with SR and double-row repair (DR) without microfracture. We hypothesized that microfracture of the trochanteric footprint with SR would lead to superior clinical outcomes and lower clinically evident retear rates compared with SR and DR without the addition of microfracture. Study Design Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods A total of 50 patients who underwent primary arthroscopic repair of hip gluteus medius and minimus tendon tears were investigated. Patients were divided into 3 groups: DR, 16 patients; SR, 14 patients; and SR with microfracture (SRM), 20 patients. Patients were evaluated with a visual analog scale (VAS) for pain as well as the Hip Outcome Score–Activities of Daily Living (HOS-ADL), Hip Outcome Score–Sport Specific (HOS-SS), and modified Harris Hip Score (mHHS) both preoperatively and at a minimum 2-year follow-up (mean, 30 months). Results Among the SR, SRM, and DR groups, the greatest decrease in VAS scores and increase in mHHS, HOS-ADL, and HOS-SS scores were seen in the SRM group, and all the differences were significant ( P < .001 to P = .006). The abductor tendon retear rates were 31.3%, 35.7%, and 15.0% in the DR, SR, and SRM groups, respectively. Retear rates were lower in the SRM group compared with the SR and DR groups ( P = .042); however, there was no significant difference between the SR and DR groups ( P = .32) in terms of retear rates. Conclusion Endoscopic SR with microfracture was a safe, practical, and effective technique and had the potential advantage of enhancing biological healing at the footprint. The addition of microfracturing the trochanteric footprint significantly lowered the retear rate and provided better functional outcomes than SR and DR without microfracture.
... Available evidence suggests that surgical repair of GTT with either open [2,5,17,18,[20][21][22][34][35][36][37][38][39][40][41][42][43][44][45] or endoscopic techniques [6,[46][47][48][49][50][51][52][53] can lead to very good to excellent results with a significant improvement in pain. However, risk factors such as fatty degeneration (FD), muscle atrophy (MA) and tear morphology (TM) may impact negatively the surgical results. ...
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Background Gluteal tendon tears (GTT) can cause pain and weakness of the hip. We analyze the impact of gluteal muscle fatty degeneration, atrophy and tear morphology on clinical outcomes of surgical repair. Methods All sequential patients receiving surgical repair of GTTs via anchor sutures between 1/2015 and 11/2018 were retrospectively identified. MRIs were reviewed by a radiologist for tendon retraction, muscle atrophy and tear size. The Goutallier-Fuchs Classification (GFC) was used to quantify fatty degeneration as < 2° or ≥ 2°. Demographic and clinical variables were abstracted from the electronic records. The surveys HHS Section 1 and HOOS Jr. were obtained at last follow-up. The Pearson correlation and one-way ANOVA tests served for statistical analysis of clinical variance. Results 38 patients were identified, 29 (76.3%) were female. The average age was 67. Of the 11 (28.9%) patients with a prior hip arthroplasty 87.5% of primary THAs had a direct lateral approach. 29 (76.3%) patients were treated open and 9 (23.7%) arthroscopically. At an average follow-up of 20.9 months, patients reported a significant improvement in pain (97%), analgesic use (85.7%), limp (52.6%) and abduction strength (54.2%) (all: P ≤ 0.01). GFC ≥ 2° were associated with significantly worse outcomes in terms of limp (0.19/3 vs. 1.2/3, P = 0.05), HHS-S1 (58.19 vs. 71.68, P = 0.04) and complication rates (37.5% vs. 0%, P = 0.02). There was a strong correlation between tear retraction (P = 0.005), tear size (P = 0.009) and muscle atrophy (P = 0.001) with GFC ≥ 2° but not with clinical outcomes. GFC ≥ 2° was strongly related to lateral THA exposures (P < 0.001). Surgical approach had no impact on clinical outcomes. Conclusion While fatty degeneration can negatively impact functional outcomes, pain relief is reliably achieved. Tear morphology and muscle atrophy did not correlate with outcomes in this patient cohort. Patients should be counseled to expect a residual limp after surgery if they have GFC ≥ 2° on MRI.
Chapter
Greater trochanteric pain syndrome has recently gained traction in the literature, with gluteus medius and minimus tears being a prevalent source of lateral hip and thigh pain. Typically, patients present with chronic tears and are treated conservatively with rest, oral nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID’s), physical therapy, and injections. Gluteus medius and minimus tears can also be associated with femoral neck fractures, osteoarthritis, or avulsion after total hip arthroplasty. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is beneficial in determining the extent of the tear size and retraction, as well as amount of greater trochanteric bursitis. The focus in this chapter is on an open repair technique for large, retracted gluteus medius and minimus tears utilizing suture anchors.
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Background Hip abductor complex tears remain an injury without clear consensus on management. Surgical treatment has been recommended after unsuccessful non-operative management. This study evaluates both tenodesis and bone trough techniques, with treatment choices guided by previously described tear classification. Methods This is a retrospective cohort study of 45 hips in 44 patients who underwent surgical treatment for symptomatic, chronic hip abductor tear unresponsive to non-operative treatment. Demographics and pre- and post-operative values (including visual analog pain scores, gait assessment and muscle strength) were evaluated. Type I tears were treated using tendon tenodesis. Type II tears were treated through a bone trough repair. Results Forty-five hips (44 patients) were operated on with minimum of 6 months follow-up. There were 27 Type I and 18 Type II tears. Eighty-seven percent of patients were female. Twenty-eight percent of Type II patients (5/18) had a pre-existing arthroplasty in place. Significant improvements in pain (p<0.001), gait (p<0.001) and muscle strength (p<0.001) were achieved in both tear types. Type I repairs showed superior results to Type II. However, both showed significant improvement. Post-operative MRI at 6 months showed healed tenodesis in 81% (17/21) of Type I tears, and 50% (5/10) in Type II. Conclusion Our study shows improvement in pain and function after surgical repair of hip abductor tendon injuries in both simple and complex tears. This improvement is seen even during ongoing surgical site healing. MRI findings may remain abnormal for upwards of 1 year after surgery and do not clearly denote repair failure.
Article
The hip trochanteric bursa, tendinous insertions of the gluteal muscles, and the origin vastus lateralis make up the main structures of the peritrochanteric space. Greater trochanteric pain syndrome (GTPS) refers to pain generated by one or multiple disorders of the peritrochanteric space, such as trochanteric bursitis, gluteus medius and minimus tendinopathy or tear, and disorders of the proximal iliotibial band. Patients with GTPS might present with associated intra-articular hip pathology, which requires further investigation and appropriate management. Successful midterm outcomes have been reported in patients undergoing surgical treatment of GTPS using an open or endoscopic approach.
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We describe an apparently unreported finding during hip operations: a tear at the insertion of gluteus medius and gluteus minimus. This defect may well be known to many surgeons with experience of hip replacement and hemiarthroplasty for fractures of the neck of the femur, but a Medline search has failed to find a previous description. We made a prospective study of 50 consecutive patients with fractures of the neck of the femur to quantify the incidence of this condition: 11 (22%) had such a tear.
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BACKGROUND:Severe chronic lateral epicondylitis (LE) is associated with degenerative tendon changes, extracellular matrix breakdown, and tendon cell loss. On the basis of positive outcomes from preclinical studies, this study is the first clinical trial of autologous tenocyte injection (ATI) on severe tendinopathy associated with chronic LE. HYPOTHESIS:Autologous tenocyte injection is a safe and effective procedure that enables a reduction in pain and improvement in function in resistant LE. STUDY DESIGN:Case series; Level of evidence, 4. METHODS:Patients with severe refractory LE underwent clinical evaluation and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) before intervention. A patellar tendon needle biopsy was performed under local anesthetic, and tendon cells were expanded by in vitro culture. Tenocytes used for the injection were characterized by flow cytometry and real-time polymerase chain reaction. Autologous tenocytes were injected into the site of tendinopathy identified at the origin of the extensor carpi radialis brevis tendon under ultrasound guidance on a single occasion. Patients underwent serial clinical evaluations and repeat MRI at 12 months after intervention. RESULTS:A total of 20 consecutive patients were included in the study. Three patients withdrew consent after enrollment and before ATI. No adverse event was reported at either biopsy or injection sites. Furthermore, no infection or excessive fibroblastic reaction was found in any patient at the injection site. Clinical evaluation revealed an improvement in mean visual analog scale scores, for a maximum pain score from 5.94 at the initial assessment to 0.76 at 12 months (P < .001). Mean quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (QuickDASH) and grip strength scores also significantly improved over the 12-month follow-up (QuickDASH score, 45.88 [baseline] to 3.84; grip strength, 20.17 kg [baseline] to 37.38 kg; P < .001). With use of a validated MRI scoring system, the grade of tendinopathy at the common extensor origin improved significantly by 12 months (P < .001). One patient elected to proceed to surgery 3 months after ATI following a reinjury at work. CONCLUSION:In this study, patients with chronic LE who had previously undergone an unsuccessful full course of nonoperative treatment showed significantly improved clinical function and structural repair at the origin of the common extensor tendon after ATI. This novel treatment is encouraging for the treatment of tendinopathy and warrants further evaluation.
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Abductor tendon tears are an increasingly recognized clinical entity in patients with lateral thigh pain and weakness. These "rotator cuff tears of the hip" typically result from chronic, nontraumatic rupture of the anterior fibers of the gluteus medius. Although the abductor tendon typically tears from the osseous insertion, the case discussed here ruptured at the musculotendinous junction. This is the first report of this abductor tear subtype and its endoscopic repair.
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Morphologic similarities between the abductor mechanisms of the hip and shoulder have given rise to the term rotator cuff tear of the hip. Although the true incidence of gluteus medius and minimus tears in the general population is unknown, the association between these tears and recalcitrant lateral hip pain has been described as greater trochanteric pain syndrome. Historically, tears of the gluteus medius and minimus have been thought to be attritional, and associated with chronic peritrochanteric pain, found incidentally during fracture fixation or hip arthroplasty, or with failure of abductor repair following arthroplasty utilizing the anterolateral approach. The literature supports favorable clinical outcomes with operative repair utilizing either endoscopic or open techniques. To our knowledge, there has never been a reported case of an acute traumatic tear of the gluteus medius and minimus that occurred without antecedant peritrochanteric hip pain. In this case, the patient was treated with acute open repair of the gluteus medius and minimus tendons within 3 weeks of injury and excellent clinical results were obtained at 6-month follow-up. Of note, the patient was notified and gave consent for his case to be used in publication.
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Greater trochanteric bursitis is a relatively common presentation at hip clinics. It presents with pain around the greater trochanter. Diagnosis is usually made on clinical grounds when other hip and spinal pathologies are ruled out and there is tenderness present over the trochanteric region. Rheumatoid arthritis (1), athletic injury (2), total hip arthroplasty (3) and idiopathic disease (4) are some of the known causes of trochanteric bursitis. Treatment is mainly non-operative and expectant; however various operative interventions have been described in the literature. We present a series of 16 patients who had recalcitrant trochanteric bursitis following failed non-operative treatment and were treated with bursectomy and Z-lengthening of the iliotibial band. All 14 patients who answered the questionnaire were happy with the outcome of operation and 13/14 patients would undergo a similar procedure again. To the best of our knowledge, this is the only series in the literature describing this particular procedure for treatment of trochanteric bursitis.
Article
The purpose of this study was to assess the surgical outcomes of endoscopically repaired full-thickness abductor tendon tears using validated outcome measures. After institutional review board approval was obtained, clinical outcome data were retrospectively collected from patients who underwent endoscopic gluteus medius and/or minimus repair by a single surgeon between August 2009 and September 2011. With a minimum follow-up of 1 year, patients were evaluated using the modified Harris Hip Score and the validated Hip Outcome Score (HOS). The HOS questionnaire included 2 subsections: HOS-Activities of Daily Living and HOS-Sports. Physical examination data were gathered during routine clinic visits, 1 year postoperatively. Statistical analysis was descriptive. The change in strength testing postoperatively was assessed with the Wilcoxon signed rank test, with significance set at P ≤ .05. Twelve patients were identified, 1 of whom was excluded; 10 of 11 patients (91%) completed the study requirements. The mean patient age was 65.9 years (range, 60 to 74 years), 70% were women, and the mean follow-up period was 23 months (range, 13 to 38 months). The mean postoperative scores were 84.7 (SD, 14.5) for the modified Harris Hip Score and 89.1 (SD, 11.3) for the HOS-Activities of Daily Living, with 90% patient satisfaction. All patients had clinically and statistically improved abductor tendon strength (P = .004). Patients with good to excellent outcomes were younger (P < .001). There were no complications identified. In our small series, endoscopic abductor tendon repair was an effective surgical intervention after failed conservative management at short-term follow-up. Patients had reliably good to excellent outcomes with improved strength during hip abduction, were at low risk of complications, and were satisfied with the outcome. In addition, younger patients achieved better outcomes. Level IV, therapeutic case series.
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Partial-thickness tear of the gluteus medius and minimus muscles has recently been recognized as a cause of chronic trochanteric pain resistant to medical treatment. The present article reports an original endoscopic technique of identification and repair. It uses a standard arthroscope at 30°, with the patient in lateral decubitus, without fluoroscopy. In case of partial-thickness undersurface tear, careful hook palpation followed by bursa exploration enables the pathological tendon to be diagnosed. A trans-tendinous approach then allows debridement, with systematic resection of the bone structures implicated in the impingement, followed by side-to-side tendon suture. Level IV (case series).
Article
Greater trochanteric pain syndrome is a common orthopaedic condition related to underlying bursitis, but it may reflect gluteal tendinopathy with tendon disruption from the greater trochanter. Our goal was to evaluate our clinical experience with surgical repair of these tears. We retrospectively evaluated a consecutive series of twenty-two patients (twenty-three hips) with a tear of the hip abductor tendons who underwent surgical reconstruction and were followed for a minimum of five years. The preoperative evaluation revealed chronic lateral hip pain, a positive Trendelenburg sign, and a tear documented by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The tears were defined intraoperatively with a four-tiered scheme that accounted for the dimension of the tear ranging from partial-thickness undersurface tears to complete tears of the gluteus muscle tendon insertion. The mean Harris hip score improved from 53 points preoperatively to 87 points at one year and 88 points at five years. The mean Lower-Extremity Activity Scale score improved from 6.7 points preoperatively to 8.9 points at one year and 8.8 points at five years. With the numbers available, no significant difference in the degree of clinical improvement was found on the basis of the severity of the tear. However, the three patients with poor results were in the group with the largest tears. Overall, sixteen of nineteen patients were satisfied with their surgical result and were willing to undergo the procedure again if necessary. Surgical repair of torn abductor tendons of the hip is a viable option when MRI and clinical findings are consistent with tendon disruption and weakness. There was substantial and durable improvement in strength and clinical performance in most cases. Therapeutic Level IV. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
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Lateral hip pain is a common problem in middle-aged women. This pain is usually attributed to trochanteric bursitis and treated as such. This study reports the results of investigation, the findings at surgery, the operative technique, the histopathologic findings, and the results of gluteal tendon repair in 72 patients with long-standing trochanteric pain and reports a classification of the operative findings. Six patients (7%) in the original study cohort of 89 patients were lost to follow-up, but of the remaining patients, 65 of 72, or 90%, were pain-free or had minimal pain (P < .00001). Surgical reconstruction of detached gluteal tendons causing chronic lateral hip pain addresses the problem directly and reliably relieves the symptoms of so-called “trochanteric bursitis.”
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A review of the literature suggests there are two major aspects of responsiveness. We define the first as “internal responsiveness,” which characterizes the ability of a measure to change over a prespecified time frame, and the second as “external responsiveness,” which reflects the extent to which change in a measure relates to corresponding change in a reference measure of clinical or health status. The properties and interpretation of commonly used internal and external responsiveness statistics are examined. It is from the interpretation point of view that external responsiveness statistics are considered particularly attractive. The usefulness of regression models for assessing external responsiveness is also highlighted.