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Geophagus crocatus, a new species of geophagine cichlid from the Berbice River, Guyana, South America (Teleostei: Cichlidae)

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We describe a new Geophagus from the Berbice River of Guyana, bringing the total number of described species in the genus to 19, and of Guianese species to six.. Geophagus crocatus, new species, is distinguished from all species of Geophagus outside of the G. surinamensis group by the presence of an incomplete suborbital stripe (vs. complete), and the presence of six lateral bars, with bars 2 and 3 slightly sloping toward each other and fusing dorsally at the base of the dorsal fin. Geophagus crocatus is the only Geophagus species known from the Berbice River, and it is present above and below the Itabru Falls.
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... Osteological characters, vertebral counts and pharyngeal tooth plate were taken from a cleared and stained (c&s) specimen (UFRGS 27440, 93.8 mm LS) prepared according to the protocol by Taylor & Van Dyke (1985). Nomenclature and counts of scales in a horizontal row (E1, E2, H1) follow those described in Kullander et al. (1992), Kullander (1996), and Hauser & López-Fernández (2013). Each count is presented with the frequency registered in parentheses; an asterisk indicates holotype counts. ...
... Each count is presented with the frequency registered in parentheses; an asterisk indicates holotype counts. Predorsal scales count follows Hauser & López-Fernández (2013). (2004), , Lucinda et al., (2010), and Hauser & López-Fernández (2013). ...
... Predorsal scales count follows Hauser & López-Fernández (2013). (2004), , Lucinda et al., (2010), and Hauser & López-Fernández (2013). ...
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A new species of Geophagus sensu stricto is described from the Tapajos River basin, Brazil, elevating the number of species of the genus to 21. The new species is of commercial importance and is known in the aquarist trade as Geophagus 'red head'. The new species is diagnosed using an integrative approach, based on mitochondrial DNA analysis along with morphological evidence. The new species is distinguished from all congeners by the absence of markings on the head, the bar pattern composed by nine vertical bars on the flanks and the presence of distinct longitudinal bands in the caudal fin. Additionally, it shows a genetic distance of at least 2.0% in cytochrome b gene sequences from its closest congeners. Molecular analysis including most genera of Cichlidae from South America corroborates that the new species belongs to the group of Geophagus sensu stricto.
... Heckel, 1840;Pellegrin, 1903). From other species examined and from those species that are not listed under 'Material examined', values provided by original descriptions (Kullander & Nijssen, 1989;Kullander, 1991;Kullander et al., 1992;López-Fernández & Taphorn, 2004;Lucinda et al., 2010;Hauser & López-Fernández, 2013) or recent redescriptions (Kullander, 1986;Kullander & Nijssen, 1989) were also included, since they were obtained from a different and much wider set of specimens, better representing the actual variability of each species. Description. ...
... G. camopiensis, G. harreri, and G. surinamensis. Recent taxonomic revisions have resulted in revalidations of the synonyms and new species for a total of 19 species (Kullander, 1986;Kullander & Nijssen, 1989;Kullander, 1991;Kullander et al., 1992;López-Fernandez & Taphorn, 2004;Lucinda et al., 2010;Hauser & López-Fernández, 2013). ...
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Geophagus mirabilis, new species, is endemic to the rio Aripuanã drainage upstream from Dardanelos/Andorinhas falls. The new species is distinguished from all other species of the genus by the presence of one to five large black spots arranged longitudinally along the middle of the flank, in addition to the black midlateral spot that is characteristic of species in the genus and by a pattern of iridescent spots and lines on the head in living specimens. It is further distinguished from all congeneric species, except G. camopiensis and G. crocatus, by the presence of seven (vs. eight or more) scale rows in the circumpeduncular series below the lateral line (7 in G. crocatus; 7-9 in G. camopiensis). Including the new species, five cichlids and 11 fish species in total are known only from the upper rio Aripuanã, and 15 fish species in total are known only from the rio Aripuanã drainage. Geophagus mirabilis, espécie nova, é endêmica da drenagem do rio Aripuanã, a montante das quedas de Dardanelos/ Andorinhas. A espécie nova se distingue de todas as outras espécies do gênero pela presença de uma a cinco manchas pretas grandes distribuídas longitudinalmente ao longo do meio do flanco, em adição à mancha preta no meio do flanco característica das espécies do gênero, e por um padrão de pontos e linhas iridescentes sobre a cabeça em espécimes vivos. Além disso, se distingue de todas as espécies congêneres, exceto G. camopiensis e G. crocatus, pela presença de sete (vs. oito ou mais) séries de escamas na série circumpeduncular abaixo da linha lateral (7 em G. crocatus; 7-9 em G. camopiensis). Com a espécie nova existem cinco ciclídeos, e ao todo 11 espécies de peixe conhecidas somente do alto rio Aripuanã, e ao todo 15 espécies de peixe conhecidas apenas da bacia do rio Aripuanã.
... Defined by the synapomorphic presence of caudal ribs surrounding paired swim bladder diverticula (Kullander, 1998), Geophagus Heckel, sensu stricto, comprises 20 valid species (Kullander, 1986;Kullander & Nijssen, 1989;Kullander, 1991;Kullander et al., 1992;López-Fernández & Taphorn, 2004;Lucinda et al., 2010;Hauser & López-Fernández, 2013;Deprá et al., 2014). Of these, fifteen belong in the "G. ...
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Geophagus pyrineusi, new species, is described from the rio Teles Pires drainage, rio Tapajós basin, Brazil. The new species can be diagnosed from the majority of the congeners by presenting a complete infraorbital bar. Additionally, it differs from all other congeners by several coloration-related character states: flank bars 5 and 6-7 as dark as the infraorbital bar, and almost as dark as the midlateral spot; retention of dorsal melanophoric patch 6 as a distinct mark (not connected to any lateral melanophoric patch), and almost as dark as the midlateral spot in adults; retention of lateral melanophoric patch 1p and almost complete absence of dorsal-and caudal-fin color patterns in adults, among other characters. Resumo Geophagus pyrineusi, espécie nova, é descrita da drenagem do rio Teles Pires, bacia do rio Tapajós, Brasil. A nova espécie pode ser diagnosticada da maioria das congêneres por apresentar uma barra infraorbital completa. Adicionalmente, ela difere de todas as outras congêneres por diversos caracteres relacionados à coloração: barras do flanco 5 e 6-7 tão escuras quanto a barra infraorbital e quase tão escura quanto a mancha médio-lateral; retenção da mancha melanofórica dorsal 6 como uma marca distinta (não conectada com nenhuma mancha melanofórica lateral) e quase tão escura quanto a mancha médio-lateral em adultos; retenção da mancha melanofórica lateral 1p e quase completa ausência de padrões de colorido nas nadadeiras dorsal e caudal em adultos, entre outros caracteres. Palavras-chave:
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Geophagus sveni n. sp. and G. neambi n. sp. are described from the Rio Tocantins drainage of Brazil. Geophagus sveni and G. neambi differ from some of its congeners by the lack of head markings. G. sveni is distinguished from the species lacking head markings by the presence of five faint undivided vertical bars, proeminent mid-lateral blotch, and by the caudal fin vertically clear and black barred; G. neambi differs from the species lacking head markings by the possession of eight or nine vertical, parallel bars along the flank, the bar containing mid-lateral spot bifurcate above and below mid-lateral blotch and by the caudal fin bearing rounded white spots. Geophagus sveni differs from the sympatric and syntopic Geophagus neambi by the presence of five faint vertically bars (vs. eight or nine conspicuous dorso-ventral bifurcated vertically bars). Resumo Geophagus sveni sp. nov. e G. neambi sp. nov. são descritas da drenagem do rio Tocantins, Brasil. Geophagus sveni e G. neambi diferem de alguns de seus congêneres pela ausência de marcas na cabeça. Das espécies que não possuem marcas na cabeça, G. sveni se distingue pela presença de cinco fracas barras verticais nos lados do corpo, proeminente mancha lateral e pelas barras verticais claras e escuras da nadadeira caudal; G. neambi difere por possuir oito ou nove barras verticais, paralelas, nos flancos, a barra contendo a mancha lateral bifurcada acima e abaixo da mancha e pela presença de manchas claras arredondas na nadadeira caudal. Geophagus sveni difere da espécie simpátrica e sintópica, G. neambi, pela presença de cinco fracas barras verticais nos lados do corpo (vs. oito ou nove conspícuas barras verticais dorso-ventralmente bifurcadas).
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Geophagus gottwaldi sp. n. is described from the drainage of the upper río Orinoco in the Estado Amazonas in southwestern Venezuela. It can be distinguished from all other described Geophagus species by the following combination of characters: a prominent dark infraorbital stripe, caudal fi n with a pattern of roundish light spots, a rectangular midlateral spot, 34–36 scales in a lateral line and total length of more than 20 cm. Resumo. Geophagus gottwaldi, espécie nova, é descrita da drenagem do alto rio Orinoco (Estado Amazonas, Venezuela). Geophagus gottwaldi é distinta das demais espécies descritas do gênero Geophagus pela combinação das seguintes caracteristicas: faixa intraorbital completa, nadadeira caudal com manchas claras arredondadas, uma grande mancha rectangular preta no meio de corpo, 34–36 escamas no linha lateral e tamanho grande (TL > 20 cm). Resumen. Se describe una nueva especie de cíclido, Geophagus gottwaldi, de la cuenca del alto río Orinoco (Estado Amazonas de Venezuela). La nueva especie se distingue de todas las demás especies del género Geophagus por la siguiente combinación de carácteres diagnósticos: una banda oscura conspicua intraorbital que extiende desde el ojo hasta el ángulo del preopérculo, aleta caudal con manchas blancas redondas, una grande mancha rectangular en el centro del cuerpo, 34–36 escamas en la serie longitudinal y tamaño grande (TL >20 cm). Kurzfassung. Geophagus gottwaldi sp. n. wird aus Zuflüssen des oberen Orinoko im Estado Amazonas in Venezuela beschrieben. Dieser Cichlide unterscheidet sich von allen anderen bisher beschriebenen Geophagus-Arten durch die Kombination folgender diagnostischer Merkmale: kräftiger, vollständig ausgebildeter Intraorbitalstreifen, Schwanzflosse mit einem Muster von hellen rundlichen Flecken, ein großer rechteckiger dunkler Seitenfleck, 34–36 Schuppen in der Längsreihe und eine maximale Gesamtlänge von über 20 Zentimeter.
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Geophagus sveni n. sp. and G. neambi n. sp. are described from the Rio Tocantins drainage of Brazil. Geophagus sveni and G. neambi differ from some of its congeners by the lack of head markings. G. sveni is distinguished from the species lacking head markings by the presence of five faint undivided vertical bars, proeminent mid-lateral blotch, and by the caudal fin vertically clear and black barred; G. neambi differs from the species lacking head markings by the possession of eight or nine vertical, parallel bars along the flank, the bar containing mid-lateral spot bifurcate above and below midlateral blotch and by the caudal fin bearing rounded white spots. Geophagus sveni differs from the sympatric and syntopic Geophagus neambi by the presence of five faint vertically bars (vs. eight or nine conspicuous dorso-ventral bifurcated vertically bars).
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López-Fernández, H., Honeycutt, R. L., Stiassny, M. L. J. & Winemiller, K. O. (2005). Morphology, molecules, and character congruence in the phylogeny of South American geophagine cichlids (Perciformes, Labroidei). —Zoologica Scripta, 34, 627–651. Phylogenetic relationships among the Neotropical cichlid subfamily Geophaginae were examined using 136 morphological characters and a molecular dataset consisting of six mitochondrial and nuclear genes. Topologies produced by morphological and combined data under parsimony were contrasted, congruence among different partitions was analysed, and potential effects of character incongruence and patterns of geophagine evolution on phylogenetic resolution are discussed. Interaction of morphological and molecular characters in combined analysis produced better resolved and supported topologies than when either was analysed separately. Combined analyses recovered a strongly supported Geophaginae that was closely related to Cichlasomatinae. Within Geophaginae, two sister clades included all geophagine genera. Acarichthyini (Acarichthys+Guianacara) was sister to the ‘B clade’, which contained the ‘Geophagus clade’ (‘Geophagus’steindachneri+Geophagus sensu stricto, and both sister to Gymnogeophagus) as sister to the ‘Mikrogeophagus clade’ (Mikrogeophagus+‘Geophagus’brasiliensis), and in turn, the Geophagus and Mikrogeophagus clades were sister to the crenicarine clade (Crenicara+Dicrossus) and Biotodoma. The second geophagine clade included the ‘Satanoperca clade’ (Satanoperca+Apistogramma and Taeniacara) as sister to the ‘Crenicichla clade’ (Crenicichla+Biotoecus). Several lineages were supported by unique morphological synapomorphies: the Geophaginae + Cichlasomatinae (5 synapomorphies), Geophaginae (1), Crenicichla clade (3), crenicarine clade (1), the sister relationship of Apistogramma and Taeniacara (4) and of Geophagus sensu stricto and‘Geophagus’steindachneri (1), and the cichlasomine tribe Heroini (1). Incorporation of Crenicichla in Geophaginae reconciles formerly contradictory hypotheses based on morphological and molecular data, and makes the subfamily the most diverse and ecologically versatile clade of cichlids outside the African great lakes. Results of this study support the hypothesis that morphological differentiation of geophagine lineages occurred rapidly as part of an adaptive radiation.