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Rehabilitative of over-matured Sweet Chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) forests in Tropoja district, Albania

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The chestnuts stand (Castanea sativa Mill.), situated on the foothills of Europe, between forests and agricultural land, are important, both from the scenic and environmental point of view, and for the local economy and culture. These agro-forest ecosystems are threatened by the activity of man, by global change, by fungal diseases and by the poor possibility, at the local level, of the commercialization of their products. The research and appliquéd project comes from a multidisciplinary scientific and applicative experience in agriculture, forestry, biology, genetic improvement, ecology, ecophysiology, pathology, culture and economy, with the aim of giving valid scientific and applicative solutions for the optimization of the management and a correct use of similar ecosystems, for a real sustainable development. So, until the beginning of the last century, chestnut has played an important role as staple food and primary wood source. In many cases it was cultivated at the border of its ecological limits where it was planted by man in place of the original and more site-adapted tree species. Chestnut massive of Tropoja district is between the biggest missives’ in the Balkan region and it forms biggest crown, by total superface of 2408, 5 ha, which is there and covers the city of Bajram Curri that, finds between Alps of our country for this species. This agro-forest type is present mostly in Northern-Eastern of Albania, at altitudes, from 300 (350) - 400 to 1000-1200 (1250) m.a.s. l. and rarely in altitudes in lowland of Albania. It is characterized by the presence of chestnut tree (Castanea sativa Mill.), a species introduced and encouraged by man, mainly for fruit production and after that for timber production. These chestnut surfaces exist on very different types of soils; from poor to mesic or fertile moist soils, mainly of siliceous origin, other important tree species include Fraxninus excelsior, Fagus sylvatica, Betula pendula, Acer pseudoplantanus, Quercus spp. etc. A mayor objective in suitable agro-forest management of chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) and its wise use has been, is and will continue by aims: firstly, to rehabilitee by converting of chestnut massive from forest stands into orchard for fruit and secondly for timber production; and secondly to grow with new orchards by plantations. This means maximizing the productivity and quality of the chestnut trees to be harvested for fruit and wood production and at the same time the numerous services, called “externalities”. Suitable agro-forest management system of chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) and its wise use was realized and is realizing by means of fruit-wood thiningins; physic-mechanical-chemical and biological controls; and other agro-forest processes has increased the quantity of fruit and wood and improved the quality of them, and at the same time the numerous services, called “externalities” in chestnut massive of Tropoja district, Albania.
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Rehabilitative of over-matured Sweet Chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.)
forests in Tropoja district, Albania
a
Arben Petto,
b
Arvjen Lushaj,
c
Giancarlo Bounous,
d
Bashkim Mal Lushaj,
e
Michael
Mussong,
f
Vath Tabaku
a
Instituti i Studimeve dhe Projektimeve Pyjore, Rruga “Sami Frasheri”, Tirane, Shqiperi
b
Faculty of Civil Engineering, Polytechnic University of Tirana, Str. “Muhamet
Gjollesha”, No. 54, P.O.Box No: 74, Tirana, Albania
c
Departmento di Cloture Arborea, Università degli Studi di Torino, Via Leonardo da
Vinci, 44 - 10095 Grugliasco (TO), Italia
d
Institute of Geosciences, Energy, Water and Environment, Polytechnic University of
Tirana, Str. “Don Bosco”, No. 60, P.O.Box No: 244/1, Tirana, Albania;
e
University of Applied Sciences Eberswalde, Faculty of Forestry, Eberswalde, Germany
f
Faculty of Forest Sciences, Agricultural University, Koder-Kamez, Tirana, Albania
Corresponding Author
Prof. Dr Bashkim Mal Lushaj
Faculty of Civil Engineering, Polytechnic University of Tirana, Str. “Muhamet
Gjollesha”, No. 54, P.O.Box No: 74, Tirana, Albania
The chestnuts stand (Castanea sativa Mill.), situated on the foothills of Europe, between
forests and agricultural land, are important, both from the scenic and environmental point
of view, and for the local economy and culture. These agro-forest ecosystems are
threatened by the activity of man, by global change, by fungal diseases and by the poor
possibility, at the local level, of the commercialization of their products. The research and
appliquéd project comes from a multidisciplinary scientific and applicative experience in
agriculture, forestry, biology, genetic improvement, ecology, ecophysiology, pathology,
culture and economy, with the aim of giving valid scientific and applicative solutions for
the optimization of the management and a correct use of similar ecosystems, for a real
sustainable development. So, until the beginning of the last century, chestnut has played
an important role as staple food and primary wood source. In many cases it was
cultivated at the border of its ecological limits where it was planted by man in place of
the original and more site-adapted tree species. Chestnut massive of Tropoja district is
between the biggest missives’ in the Balkan region and it forms biggest crown, by total
superface of 2408, 5 ha, which is there and covers the city of Bajram Curri that, finds
between Alps of our country for this species. This agro-forest type is present mostly in
Northern-Eastern of Albania, at altitudes, from 300 (350) - 400 to 1000-1200 (1250)
m.a.s. l. and rarely in altitudes in lowland of Albania. It is characterized by the presence
of chestnut tree (Castanea sativa Mill.), a species introduced and encouraged by man,
mainly for fruit production and after that for timber production. These chestnut surfaces
exist on very different types of soils; from poor to mesic or fertile moist soils, mainly of
siliceous origin, other important tree species include Fraxninus excelsior, Fagus
sylvatica, Betula pendula, Acer pseudoplantanus, Quercus spp. etc. A mayor objective in
suitable agro-forest management of chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) and its wise use has
Abstract
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been, is and will continue by aims: firstly, to rehabilitee by converting of chestnut
massive from forest stands into orchard for fruit and secondly for timber production; and
secondly to grow with new orchards by plantations. This means maximizing the
productivity and quality of the chestnut trees to be harvested for fruit and wood
production and at the same time the numerous services, called “externalities”. Suitable
agro-forest management system of chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) and its wise use was
realized and is realizing by means of fruit-wood thiningins; physic-mechanical-chemical
and biological controls; and other agro-forest processes has increased the quantity of fruit
and wood and improved the quality of them, and at the same time the numerous services,
called “externalities” in chestnut massive of Tropoja district, Albania.
KEYWORDS: chestnut, chestnut massive, Tropoja, fruit thinning, biological control.
1 Introduction
The Sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill) is a native species of the genus in Europe only
(Conedera et al. 2004). In the past the cultivation of chestnut was important in various
European regions and in Albania too for the survival of rural populations. The chestnut
tree was cultivated for both fruit and timber production up to the ecological limits of the
species (Manetti et al. 2001). Chestnut is a multipurpose tree, valued for its nut, timber,
tannins, as well as forestry landscape. Sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill) stands are
very common around the European areas and in Albania too. Over many centuries,
chestnut fruits had an important role as food for humans and as feed for domestic
animals, while wood chestnut was used for local purposes such as poles, vineyard-stakes,
sticks, pickets, fuel wood, etcwine barrels, vineyard pegs, tool handles and carpentry
(Arnaud & Bouchet 1995). So, in the traditional chestnut culture, the management
practice for timber production was mainly coppicing, i.e. a short rotation (12 to 25 years)
management system aimed at the production of mentioned above. Since the 1960s such
labor-intensive products have lost their economic importance and most of the traditional
coppices have been abandoned or the rotation time has been increased considerably
(Manetti et al. 2001). By the end of the last century, chestnut stand management has been
more or less abandoned owing to rural exodus and diseases (Pitte 1986; Romane et al.
1992; Etienne et al. 1998). Nevertheless, chestnut stands, groves and coppices cover large
areas in Europe and particularly in Portugal, Spain, France, Italy, Albania, Turkey and
Greece. Thus, it is urgent to analyse the effects of abandonment on suitable agro-forest
management in chestnut stands to guide management strategies that will allow the
conservation of biodiversity and at the same time to optimize productivity and
profitability (Gondard et al. 2006). In chestnut massive the great benefits provided not
only by market products, as mentioned above, but also by numerous services, called
“externalities”, offered by ecosystem, have to be considered in the perspective of social
welfare recognition (Brun & Giau, 2003), this and in chestnut massive of Tropoja
district, Albania.
In order to restore and grow the economic, social and environmental importance’s of
chestnut; new silvicultural approaches to produce high quantity and quality of fruit and
timber are needed (Lushaj, 1999; Amorini et al. 2000b). Therefore, basic knowledge of
the productivity of the chestnut in Albania was required. In this paper we present some
considerations about the suitability of stand characteristics as basic indicators of the
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productivity of the chestnut tree on a given site and under given silvicultural options. The
specific objectives of this contribution can be summarized as follows:
- to give a general overview of the situation of forest stands and rehabilitation
techniques applied in chestnut massive of Tropoja district, Albania
- To manage, according to the principles of sustainability of the chestnut forest
stands and new orchards, and to allow proper valorisation and improvement of
quality nut produce and timber production, by Lushaj (1987).
2 Distributions, Ecology and Area
A homogeneous set of data from permanent plots was compiled from the literature and
our experiences, including geographical (state, locality, latitude), environmental (total
annual precipitation, mean annual temperature), management system (high forest,
composed coppice or simple coppice), silvicultural treatment (managed or unmanaged),
and dendrometrical (age, top height, number of shoots or trees, basal area) data. Where
the local climatic information was missing, an average value was taken from annual
precipitation maps of Europe.
2.1 Distribution
The chestnut tree was managed for both fruit and timber production up to the ecological
limits of the species.
Since the Roman and Ottoman times the chestnut tree (Castanea sativa Mill.) was
introduced and cultivated in Europe, and Albania too, mainly for fruit production but also
because of its timber production up to the ecological limits of the species (Manetti et al.
2001). In Tropoja district, North-Eastern Albania, chestnut trees cover today a total area
of 2408.5 ha and form one of biggest Chestnut massive in the Balkan Region. The
District of Tropoja (Albanian: Rrethi i Tropojës) is one of the thirty-six districts of
Albania, part of Kukës County. It has a population of 28,000 (2007 estimated), by
Statistic office (2007), and an area of 1,043 km². It is in the north of the country, and its
capital is Bajram Curri (Lushaj 1981; Lushaj 1987).
The chestnut stands of North-Eastern Albania are located mainly around the city
of Bajram Curri in two ecological zones: in the hilly transition (sub-mountainous) zone
and the mountainous zone (Table 1), where the climatic and soil conditions are favorable
for chestnut growth, by (Lushaj 1981)
2.2 Ecology
The annual precipitation varies considerably between the locations, from about 800
mm/year in the hills to over 2000 mm/year in the mountain ranges. Multiannual average
precipitation during the survey period (1961–2000) for Bajram Curri is 1604 mm,
meantime for Tropoja station is 1522.2 mm (see Fig. 1 & 2). There is a dry period in
summer in the Tropoja district, and in the chestnut massive there is a dry period from
July through September. It is very important during this period to have over 90-mm
precipitation for the chestnut trees (Elezaj 1970; Lushaj 1981; Lushaj 1987; Lushaj 1997;
Lushaj 2008). Multiannual average temperature during the survey period (1965–2000) for
Bajram Curri is 11.5
0
C., meantime for Tropoja station is 11.7
0
C. (see Fig. 3 & 4),
(Elezaj 1970; Lushaj 1981; Lushaj 1987; Lushaj 1997; Lushaj 2008).
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Chestnut stands grow on very different types of soils; from poor to mesie or fertile
moist soils, but mainly of siliceous origin.
Where the management of the stands is extensive, chestnut lose its dominance and
grow in mixed stands together with Fraxninus excelsior, Fagus sylvatica, Betula pendula,
Acer pseudoplantanus, Quercus spp. and other species. Main forest types according to
Country schemes of Albania are Querco-Castanetum, Querco-Fraxinetum (Lushaj 1987;
Larsson 2001).
2.3 Area
The Tropoja Local Phytosanitary Inventory with aim of the two different concepts which
are defined by two different goals: timber production and fruit production, compiled by
staff of the project, by Lushaj (1987), records there are 2408.5 ha of the chestnut in
Tropoja district.
Concretely, based in our data, that provides details of types and location of the
total surface of chestnut in Tropoja district, and it was separated:
- under the administration of the ex-Agricultural Enterprise (now by private
farmes); and
- under the administration of Forest Service of Tropoja district (Lushaj
1999).
2.4 General Phytosanitary situation
Due to the missing, not suitable or too much timber orientated management of the
chestnut stands some 20 years ago the average age of the trees was already more than 100
years. In consequence of the over-maturity, increasingly for long and frequent periods of
diseases, like chestnut blight canker (Cryphonectria parasitica (Murr.) Barr.) and other
abiotic and biotic stress factors were with the big influence in chestnut stands, and the
attack incidence were finding on 28 to 36 % of all trees. In chestnut massive have had an
average age from 100 to more than 100 years, by 150-170 trees for ha, by different
varieties (no economical value), laid in spontaneous and natural distribution (Lushaj
1987). Number of trees was for forest tree, in natural conditions, but no for orchard
conditions, by bad status. Besides the naturally declining, fructification the biotic and
abiotic stress factors had reduced the quality and quantity of fruit production to only 4 to
8 kg per tree, which is approx. 1/10
th
of the regular production of a healthy 50 to 70 year
old chestnut tree (50-60 (70) kg fruits per tree). The ratio of infected fruits was between
12 and 15 %. But the quality and quantity of wood for timber production was reduced as
well (Lushaj 1987; Lushaj 1997; Lushaj 2001).
2.5 Management system of chestnut
The degradation of the chestnut forest stands has accelerated in the last decades, and if
some examples of the political will concerning conservation can be cited, the dominant
impression is one of concern over the increasing threat facing the of chestnut forest
stands. Several things could explain this deteriorating trend:
- Political instability;
- Over-matured chestnut forest stands, as result of not good management of
chestnut forest stands
- Forest fires;
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- Overexploitation and illegal cutting by rural populations;
- Increasing urbanization of rural zones;
- Increasingly for long and frequent periods of diseases, like chestnut blight
canker (Cryphonectria parasitica (Murr.) Barr.) and other abiotic and biotic stress
factors; ect. (Lushaj 1987).
Management system of chestnut forest stands was dealed with two different
concepts, which were defined by two different sub goals, into the principal aim
mentioned above: sustainability of the chestnut forest stands, increasing and improving
the productivity of the fruit and wood (timber). Productivity of the wood (timber) was
reached with three different forest management, and concretely: simple coppice,
composed coppice and high forests. Timber producing chestnut forests in Europe and in
Albania too is generally managed by the coppice system. Otherwise, a fruit production
system was considered as orchards, although in some countries they are considered as
forests or both in mix, orchard-forest, and at the same time creation of new orchards, and
so, to allow proper valorisation and improvement of quality nut produce and timber
production by Lushaj (1981) and Giudici et al. (2005); and at the same time the numerous
services, called “externalities” by Bounous & Beccare (2002); Bounous (2007); Bounous,
G. (2009). To deal with the different aims it was necessary to be clear i) about the
production goal, ii) about the management system. While timber production with
chestnut high forest was described and defined with the traditional and international
widely accepted silvicultural terminology and definitions, this is not the case for coppice
forests, composed coppice forests and orchards, by Lushaj (1987).
Concretely, management system of chestnut was carried out per ago-forest
(complex) treatments, in particular with the fruit thinning (rarefaction) of chestnut trees
on massive for rehabilitation and converting of it, from forest into orchard is easy when
were known: the average age; number of chestnut trees per ha; average of output of fruit
production, varieties of fruit trees; all conditions when the massive is laid; the infection
from diseases and pests by percentage; the level of decline of chestnut plants by
defoliation and discoloration from diseases, pests and other biotic and abiotic factors;
percentage of attacked incidence from diseases, pests, and abiotic or biotic other factors;
damage incidence from diseases; pests and other abiotic or biotic stress factors, etc., by
Lushaj (2001).
2.6 Aim of the study
In the second half of the XX century in the Mediterranean Region, and in Albania
too the chestnut forest stands (high forests (HF), composed coppice forests (CCF) and
simple coppice forest (SCF), orchards and chestnut trees in the park were submitted to a
severe decline due to the abandonment of the groves and at the same time the fast spread
of pest, diseases and other abiotic and biotic stress factors, by Lushaj (1987); Lushaj
(2001); Beccaro et al. (2009). In the recent decades, in several European countries, and in
Albania too to restore the chestnut forest stands, orchards and chestnut trees in the park to
preserve the chestnut tree heritage old groves have been renewed and simple coppices
and composed coppices converted into orchards. The aim of this work is to give an
overview of the rehabilitation techniques applied in chestnut massive of Tropoja district,
Albania and at the same time the possible way to manage, according to the principles of
sustainability of the chestnut forest stands and new orchards, and to allow proper
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valorisation and improvement of quality nut produce, the main management techniques
are described. The rehabilitation techniques include: inventarisation of every tree and
identification of phytosanitary situation of chestnut trees, agro-silvicultural treatments by
fruit thinning (rarefaction) for converting of coppice chestnut forest stand and composed
coppice forest stand into orchard, control against the diseases, in particular the chestnut
blight canker (Criphonectria parasitica Murr. (Barr.), the pests and other abiotic and
biotic stress factors of the chestnut fruit and wood, local germplasm identification and
collection ex situ, study of the bioagronomic and quality traits of the chestnuts, cleaning
of the groves from bush, fern and weed, severe pruning of the chestnut trees, wise use of
chestnut trees, etc.
In consequence, in order to produce too many fruits by big bigger or biggest
dimensions with beautiful and healthy sight and at the same time good and big, bigger or
biggest dimensions as wood for timber production, chestnut massive is necessary to treat
as fruit- tree (fruited), firstly, for fruit production and secondly, for timber production.
3 Materials and methods
3.1 Field survey
3.1.1 Study sites
A homogeneous set of data from permanent plots was compiled from the literature and
our experiences, by Fenaroli (1945); Elezi (1970); Paglietta & Bounous (1979); Bassi &
Marangoni (1984); Lushaj (1987); Giorgo (1989); Monteiro Do Loreto et al. (1990);
Lushaj (1991); Bourgeois (1992); Everard and Christie (1995): Lushaj (1996); Bounous,
Barrel, Pollano, Gyppaz (1998); Oosterban (1998): Lushaj (1999/1); Lushaj et al. (1999)
& Lushaj (2000), Amorini et al. 2000a; Monteiro Do Loreto et al. (2000) including
geographical (state, locality, latitude), environmental (total annual precipitation, mean
annual temperature), management system (high forest or coppice), silvicultural treatment
(managed or unmanaged), and dendrometrical (age, top height, number of shoots or trees,
basal area) data. The local climatic information was taken from Ex-Hydrometrological
Institute, Tirana; an average value was taken from annual precipitation map of Albania
Lushaj (1987&1991).
Based on the distribution and the importance of chestnut trees study sites were
chosen in five areas and at the same time the permanent plots were set up from 1988 to
1995, and concretely on: Selimaj–Lekurtaj (Geghysen); Gri-Velisht; Markaj-Rosuje;
Margegaj-Shoshan: and Kerrnaje-Hoxhaj site, by Lushaj (1987& 1991) & Bourgeois
(1992). Experiments were carried out in these five chestnut areas, in natural zones,
distributed from 300 (350) to 1,000 (1250) m altitudes in the chestnut forest, located
across the Tropoja district, named Tropoja working circle (agro-forest economy), in
northeast of Albania, and the forest is representative of traditional chestnut (Castanea
sativa Mill.) management over many centuries in Albania, but also a model of possible
sustainable management in the future. These plots were being managed according to the
silvicultural models proposed by Bourgeois (1992) and adapted to our conditions Lushaj
(1996). In this forest, chestnut is considered as a paraclimax species and the deciduous
oak (Quercus pubescent) as a climax species (Lushaj 1987; Larsson 2001).
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Thus, selected five managed and five unmanaged stands that representative: high
forests, composed coppice, and simple coppice? Concretely: five managed chestnut
simple coppice by agro-sivicultural treatments and five unmanaged chestnut simple
coppices for control without intervention permanent plots; five managed chestnut
composed coppices by agro-sivicultural treatment and five unmanaged chestnut
composed coppices for control without intervention permanent plots; and five managed
chestnut high forest by agro-sivicultural treatment and five unmanaged chestnut high
forest for control without intervention permanent plots of no different ages under no
differing environmental conditions, in Tropoja district, were selected, during period from
1988 to 1995. These study sites were located in Gashi Region, Tropoja Commune,
Kerrnaje-Hoxhaj site; Krasniqe Region, Margegaj Commune, Margegaj-Shoshan site,
Krasniqe Region, Bujan Commune, Markaj-Rosuje site, Krasniqe Region, Bujan
Commune, Gri-Velisht site; Krasniqe Region, Bujan Commune, Selimaj–Lekurtaj
(Geghysen) site, in Tropoja district, by Lushaj (1987), where the last clear-cutting,
thinning, control of disease and pests and other abiotic and biotic stress factors and other
activities occurred 15 years, respectively, before the study started. The permanent plots
were included in chestnut stands, occupying 2408.5 (550 ha of simple coppice; 1049.5 ha
of composed coppice and 809 ha of high forest), Lushaj (1987&1991); Lushaj & Dini
(2006); Mossong & Beka (2006).
As mentioned above, the permanent plots were established from 1988 to 1995.
These plots were being managed according to the silvicultural models proposed by
Postoli (1981); Lushaj (1981& 1987) and adapted to our conditions. The management
system and agro-silvicultural treatments in sites were: HFM
1
; HFM
2
; HFM
3
; HFM
4
;
HFM
5
; = Model 1: chestnut high forest managed;
CCM
1
; CCM
2;
CCM
3;
CCM
4;
CCM
5
= Model 2: chestnut composed coppice managed;
SCM
1
; SCM
2;
SCM
3;
SCM
4;
SCM
5
= Model 3: chestnut simple coppice managed.
Unmanaged and no agro-silvicultural treatments in sites were: HFU
1
; HFU
2
; HFU
3
;
HFU
4
;
HFU
5
= Control1 = chestnut high forest without intervention (unmanaged); CCU
1
;
CCU
2;
CCU
3;
CCU
4;
CCU
5
= Control 2 = composed coppice without intervention
(unmanaged); and SCU
1
; SCU
2;
SCU
3;
SCU
4;
SCU
5
= Control 3 = simple coppice without
intervention (unmanaged), by Lushaj (1987; Lushaj, 1997). In our study the
randomization scheme is reported in Table 2. At the same time some photography’s were
put in the photography’s in 1, 2, 3... Lushaj (1987&1991).
Our study was carried out based on the repetitions according to forest site, and
concretely:
R
1 =
First Repetition to Selimaj–Lekurtaj (Geghysen) site
R
2
= Second Repetition to Gri-Velisht site
R
3
= Third Repetition to Markaj-Rosuje site
R
4
= Fourth Repetition to Margegaj-Shoshan site
R
5
= Fifth Repetition to Kerrnaje-Hoxhaj site, and at the same time on variant according
to forest management, and concretely:
V
1 =
managed chestnut high forest variant
V
2
= managed chestnut composed coppice variant
V
3
= managed chestnut simple coppice variant
V
4/1
= Control
1
= unmanaged chestnut high forest without intervention variant
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V
4/2
= Control
2
= unmanaged composed coppice without intervention variant
V
4/3
= Control
3
= unmanaged simple coppice without intervention variant
The management system and agro-silvicultural treatments in of each site are
reported in Table 3.
The characteristics of each site are reported in Table 4. Meteorological data were
obtained from the Bajram Curri, in Tropoja district, which is representative of the mean
climatic conditions of the five selected areas. Mean monthly temperature and
precipitation during the investigation period (1988–2004) were recorded (Fig. 1).
In consequence, the parts of working circle (agro-forest sub-economy) of chestnut
massive, in Tropoja district were selected: Kerrnaje-Hoxhaj site, in Gashi Region,
Tropoja Commune; Margegaj-Shoshan site, Krasniqe Region, Bujan Commune; Markaj-
Rosuje site, Krasniqe Region, Bujan Commune; Gri-Velisht site, Krasniqe Region, Bujan
Commune; and Selimaj–Lekurtaj (Geghysen) site, Krasniqe Region, Krasniqe Region,
Bujan Commune, and are reported in Table 2, by Lushaj (1987).
Parts of working circle (agro-forest economy) of Tropoja studied and managed
represents more than 83 % of total surface of chestnut massive by 2101.5 ha (Table 5),
meantime 17 % of it was as an unmanaged study site, by Lushaj (1987; 1991).
3.2 Location, type’s regime (management system) and silvicultural treatment
As mentioned above, based on the Tropoja Local Phytosanitary Inventory, carried out for
every chestnut tree, in all surface of Tropoja massive with aim of the two different
concepts, which are defined by two different goals: fruit production and timber
production, compiled by staff of the project, by Lushaj (1987), records there are 2408.5
ha of the chestnut in Tropoja district by Lushaj (1987); Lushaj (2001); Lushaj & Dini
(2006); Mossong & Beka (2006). Concretely, based in our data, which provides details
of location, type’s regime (management system), and silvicultural treatment and of the
total surface of chestnut in Tropoja district, and it was separated:
- under the administration of the ex-Agricultural Enterprise (now, private farms);
and
- under the administration of Forest Service of Tropoja district. Of these, 550 ha
were classed as high forests, 1049.5 ha as composed coppice and 809 ha as
coppice, (Table 6), by Lushaj (1987&1991).
3.3 Field surveys
In each site, mentioned above, a local phytosanitary inventory was carried out by surveys
for every chestnut tree, in all surface of massive. On each site all trees were examined by
surveys for the decline, caused by diseases; pests, abiotic and biotic stress factors,
presence of them by attack incidence, and the degree of damage incidence, caused by
them to trees was classified in five classes, using method described by Cellerino et al.
(1990) and Lushaj (1987; 1991), as below (Table 7).
During the surveying the impact of chestnut blight was detectable on old
branches, which were completely dead, as a result of old infection, that had occurred a
number years.
Concretely, for calculation of Attack Incidence (Att. In.); Damage Incidence
(D.I.) or Damage Incidence in % (D.I. %) we used formulas, as below:
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Attack Incidence (Att. In.) was calculated based on of our data by formula:
Att. In. x 100 %
Attack Incidence (Att. In.) = ———————
N
Where:
Att. Incidence = Att. In.
N.att = number of attack trees observed
N = n
0
+ n
1
+ n
2
+ n
3
+ n4= total number of forest trees, using method described by
Cellerino et al. (1990) and Lushaj (1987; 1991; 1996).
Damage Incidence (D.I.) was calculated on based of our data by formula:
n
0 X
0 + n
1
x 1 + n
2
x 2+ n
3
x 4 + n
4
x 8
Damage Incidence (D.I.) = ————————————————
N
Where:
DI = Damage Incidence (DI)
n
0
; n
1
; n
2
; n
3
& n
4
= numbers of forest trees according the classes of damage
N = n
0
+ n1 + n
2
+ n
3
+ n
4
= total number of forest trees observed
0 - 1 – 2 – 4 – 8 = Empiric Ponderable Coefficients, using method described by Cellerino
et al. (1990) and Lushaj (1987; 1991; 1996).
Damage Incidence in % (D.I. %) was calculated on based of our data by formula:
n
0 X
0 + n
1
x 1 + n
2
x 2+ n
3
x 3 + n
4
x 4
Damage Incidence in % (D.I. %) = ————————————————
N x 4
Where:
D.I. % = Damage Incidence in %
n
0
; n
1
; n
2
; n
3
& n
4
are numbers of forest trees according the classes of damage
N = n
0
+ n
1
+ n
2
+ n
3
+ n
4
= total number of forest trees observed
0 - 1 – 2 – 3 – 4 = Classes of damage, using method described by Cellerino et al. (1990)
and Lushaj (1987; 1991).
In our study we have treated study site and testimonial study site plots of a certain
size and shape, mentioned above, where we inspected all trees on the 2101.5 ha; there
was a minimum dbh or tree height? Is there a size limit for infections or diseases or is the
smallest spot of cancer the same value like a fully infected tree? Percentage of trees
affected by diseases and other abiotic and biotic stress factors were assessed. The severity
of chestnut blight was determined as a percentage of blighted trees and other abiotic and
biotic stress factors.
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3.4 Accomplished period of study
The accomplished period of applicative study for the project has lasted from 1986 to
1999 and is continuing until now, in some private parcels, by Lushaj (1987); Lushaj et al.
(1999) & Lushaj & Dini (2006).
First activity was carried out stocktaking (a local phytosanitary inventory) of the
chestnut trees in the parcels, so, every tree to records the health status of all chestnut trees
in massive. Determining of health status of every tree and at the same time for all trees of
the chestnut massive of Tropoja district was carried out on basis of data.
Concretely, there are most chestnut stands that were been or were being
transferred into high forests with the agro-silviculture aim of valuable chestnut for fruit
and timber production and at the same time for “externalities”. The situation, structure
and composition of these woods depend strictly on how intensive the human influence
was been, and on the pervious and present wise use of these agro-forest trees. Conditions
differ between pure coppice stands, used mainly for timber production and chestnut
plantation for fruit production.
The decline in importance of both these products and the effects of the chestnut
blight canker (Criphonectria parasitica Murr. (Barr.) and other natural and artificial
disturbances have significantly changed the conditions, structure and composition of
chestnut stands. Where once and litter production were the main goals, old and very big
chestnut trees are now the last remnants of original plantations. Presently, a lot of other
tree species, mainly pioneer species, such as Betula pendula, Populus tremula, Coryllus
avellana, and Rubus spp., are replacing the chestnut trees and making these stands
develop into more natural vegetation types. As a consequence of this process, the old
traditional chestnut plantations are disappearing, and/or are in very bad conditions.
Previously, intensively the coppice stands, which once were used for timber production,
are now becoming older and beginning to suffer from regeneration and stability
problems.
The species composition of these stands has been changing during the last years.
In some regions, in particular for Tropoja region chestnut species is decreasing and is
being replaced by other species, mentioned above.
The most natural disturbances to affect this agro-forest type in recent decades
have been chestnut blight canker (Criphonectria parasitica Murr. (Barr.) and other
abiotic and biotic stress factors, and at the same time the old age (over-matured) of
chestnut trees. This disease caused the disappearance of traditional forms of agro-forest
trees, in many areas of Tropoja region, Albania.
The most important artificial disturbances to affect these agro-forest trees in
recent decades have been illegal cuttings by very negative influence and transformation
into high agro-forest type into chestnut coppice type.
Infection; attack incidence by chestnut blight canker (Criphonectria parasitica
Murr. (Barr.) and other abiotic and biotic stress factors were by average of 32 %.
Traditional agro-forestry practices, regeneration opportunism, and very old trees
(over-matured trees) left from previous agro-forestry massive are now being incorporated
into stands, because of the ex-passions of forests in areas previously occupied fruit
plantations. Traditional silvicultural suitable management system of chestnut coppice
stands is also being abandoned and transformed into new management practices.
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On based of the actual bad condition needed a new concept for period from 1986
to until now, in same parcels, on using of protection, the suitable agro-forestry
management system and its wise use.
The periods of accomplishment of applicative study for the project was divided in
three stages, step by step with an interval of 4-5 years between them, and concretely,
were based: on the average age; number of chestnut trees per ha; average of output of
fruit production, varieties of fruit trees; altitude, in m.a.s.l.; all conditions when the
massive is laid; the infection from diseases, in particular from the chestnut blight canker
(Criphonectria parasitica Murr. (Barr.), pests and other abiotic and biotic stress factors
by percentage; the decline degree with defoliation and discoloration, caused by diseases
and pests or other biotic and abiotic factors; percentage of attack incidence from diseases;
pests and abiotic or biotic other factors; etc. were planned and carried out all activities for
every tree, parcel and in massive.
The main complex activities were undertaken to achieve the objectives,
mentioned above, by rehabilitation techniques, as below: the preliminary work in
designing the rehabilitation and improvement by phytosanitary treatments of damaged
and abandoned chestnut trees in the agro-forest parcels and holding consultations with
relevant stakeholders has taken place; establishment of the foundation of the
rehabilitation and improvement by phytosanitary situation; treatments of damaged and
abandoned chestnut trees started at the beginning of every July; realization, mobilization
and training of the community and the staff of every commune about the carrying out of
the project, mentioned above; improvement of health status of chestnut trees design (by
technicians and engineers, staff and community representative); a timeframe for the
implementation; agreement on the labour that will be provided by the community;
purchase of some materials (spars, scythes, oil-color etc); stocktaking of the chestnut
trees in the parcels, mentioned above; remarking of infected chestnut trees; cleaning of
chestnut surfaces in the parcels; more or less severe pruning of the chestnut plants to the
level of decline of them; grafting of young chestnut trees; physic-mechanical control by
cutting of infected rams and ramules of the chestnut trees and burning of all infected
wood material, and disinfection of wounds after cutting with the copperas; physic-
mechanical control by full cutting of died chestnut trees and burning of all infected wood
material; agro-silvicultural treatments by fruit and wood thinning (rarefaction) for
converting of coppice chestnut forest stand and composed coppice forest stand into
orchard; smoothing down the poverty of all families enter of massive; establishment of
the rehabilitation of damaged and abandoned chestnut trees foundations is under way;
physical-mechanical and little bit biological controls of chestnut blight canker
(Criphonectria parasitica Murr. (Barr.) and other abiotic and biotic stress factors of the
chestnut fruit and wood; local germplasm identification and collection ex situ, study of
the bioagronomic and quality traits of the chestnuts, cleaning of the groves from bush,
fern and weed; preparation of monitoring reports; severe pruning of the chestnut trees;
wise use of chestnut trees; and collection of stories and pictures from community
members; etc.
All activities, mentioned above were carried out for every tree, parcel and in
massive, stage by stage, duration of accomplishment of the project, and concretely by 3
stages as below:
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The first stage was carried out from 1986 to 1990. During this period were
accomplished the management system of chestnut massive by stocktaking, knowing the
phytosanitary (health) status and at the same time all activities for every tree, parcel and
in massive, that are mentioned above were carried out for first stage of the project, and in
particular by the first stage of fruit thinning (rarefaction), at intervals 4-5 years, by aim of
improvement of health status of chestnut massive, by Lushaj (1987).
The second stage was carried out from 1991 to 1994. During this period were
accomplished all activities for every tree, parcel and in massive, that are mentioned
above, and were carried out for second period of the project, and in particular by control
against the chestnut blight canker and other abiotic and biotic stress factors, and at the
same time the second stage of fruit thinning (rarefaction), at intervals 4-5 years, by
principal aim. With this stage were reached the principal aim, gradual and complete
reconstruction of chestnut massive, converting it, from natural forest chestnut massive
into orchard, by Lushaj (1991).
The third stage was carried out from 1995 and it continues until now in some
parcels by farmers or some national or international foundations and companies. During
this period we have accomplished all activities for every tree, parcel and in massive, that
are mentioned above were carried out for third period of the first project, and in particular
by control control against chestnut blight canker and at the same time the third stage of
fruit thinning (rarefaction), at interval 4-5 years by Lushaj (1996; 1999/1; 1999/2;
1999/3; 1999/4; 2000; Lushaj et al. 1999 and Lushaj & Dini, 2006).
In consequence, during of fruit thinning (rarefaction) of the three stages were
controlled the chestnut blight canker (C. parasitica Murr.) Barr. and other diseases and
pests, this in at the same time with above processes, mentioned before.
In full-time the farmers by wise using have protected their private properties
(parcels) from cuttings and illegal cuttings.
3.5 A multiple linear Regression Analysis
The general purpose of multiple linear regression analysis is to learn more about the
relationship between several independent or predictor variables and a dependent or
criterion variable. Multiple linear regression attempts to model the relationship between
two or more explanatory variables and a response variable by fitting a linear equation to
observed data. Every value of the independent variable x is associated with a value of the
dependent variable y. The population regression line for 4 explanatory variables x
1
, x
2,
x
3,
and x
4 ,
in order to get the regression coefficients and to apply statistical analysis to the
defined and adapted model was used for our study to be y = a + b
1
x
1
+ b
2
x
2
+ b
3
x
3
+b
4
x
4
3.5.1 Description of the technique
Generally, one model describe in mathematical way the variability or ongoing of one
variable in correlation with variability of other/s variable/s. For this case was used A
multiple linear Regression Analysis.
In or case were used adapted model in order to describe variability of a dependent
quantitative variable y (average chestnut fruit production), in correlation with the
variability of four independent variables, as well: x
1
average number of chestnut trees
per ha; x
2
average tree age of chestnut; x
3
– average crown dense, by coefficient (0-1);
and x
4
– percentage infection by chestnut canker, in %.
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In our study was used the multiple linear regression analysis. It is a statistical
technique, which identifies the relationship between four quantitative variables: a
dependent variable, whose value is to be predicted, and an independent or explanatory
variable (or variables), about which knowledge is available. The technique is used to find
the equation that represents the relationship between the variables. A regression analysis
show that the relation between an independent variables: x
1
, x
2
, x
3
, and x
4
and a
dependent variable y is multilinear, using the adapted multiple linear regression equation
y = a + b
1
x
1
+ b
2
x
2
+ b
3
x
3
+b
4
x
4,
where there is an adapted model by formula, as below:
y = a + b
1
x
1
+ b
2
x
2
+ b
3
x
3
+b
4
x
4
y – Average chestnut fruit production (a dependent quantitative variable);
x
1
– average number of chestnut trees per ha (an independent variable);
x
2
– average tree age of chestnut (an independent variable);
x
3
– average crown dense, by coefficient, from 0 to 1 (an independent variable);
and x
4
– percentage infection by chestnut canker (an independent variable)
Adapted model is:
y (average chestnut fruit production) = b
1
x
1
(average number of chestnut trees per ha) +
b
2
x
2
(average tree age of chestnut) + b
3
x
3
(average crown dense) + b
4
x
4
(percentage
infection by chestnut canker).
So, we have: a + b
1
x
1
+ b
2
x
2
+ b
3
x
3
+b
4
x
4
3.5.2 Purposes of the technique
Regression analysis was used to understand the statistical dependence of one variable on
other variables. The technique shows what proportion of variance between variables is
due to the dependent variable, and what proportion is due to the independent variables.
The relation between the variables can be illustrated graphically, or more usually using an
equation.
Let’s pass to the Multiple Regression Analysis, and concretely:
3.5.3 Interpreting the Correlation Coefficient R.
Customarily, the degree to which four predictors (independents or x
1
, x
2
, x
3
and x
4
variables) are related to the dependent (y) variable is expressed in the correlation
coefficient R, which is the square root of R-square. In multiple regressions, R assumes
values between 0 and 1. To interpret the direction of the relationship between variables,
one looks at the signs (plus or minus) of the regression or m coefficients. If m coefficient
is positive, then the relationship of this variable with the dependent variable is positive m;
if the b coefficient is negative then the relationship is negative. Of course, if the m
coefficient is equal to 0 then there is no relationship between the variables.
Our equations were available: determinable coefficient R-square is =1, thus these
variables show variability of product value.
On one of multiple regression variables are not equally in important role.
Somebody for them can cut from our model, without deformation of our power
explainace.
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All equations are with value: and the coefficcent of the determination R
2
is 1, so,
have a conclusion that these idependent variables have impact on the determintion of
value of chestnut production.
4 Results and discussion
The data set, consisting of 15 managed and 15 unmanaged sites, was analyzed. Of the
managed stands, 5 of high forest stands were more than 100 years old and 5 of the
unmanaged stands were more than 105 years old (generally); of the managed stands, 5 of
composed coppice forest stands were more than 70 years old and 5 of the unmanaged
stands were more than 75 years old (generally); of the managed stands, 5 of simple
coppice forest stands were more than 40 years old and 5 of the unmanaged stands were
more than 45 years old (generally).
The figures 5 and 10 show that the average number of chestnut trees per Ha stage
by stage is in regression, from 150-170 trees to 135-145 trees; from 135-145 trees to 115-
130 trees; and from 115-130 trees to 100-120 trees.
The figures 6 and 11 show that the average age stage by stage is in regression,
from 90 to 100 years to 80-90 years; from 80-90 years to 70-80 years; and from 70-80
years to 50-70 years.
The figures 7 and 12 show that the average dense crow by coefficient from 0 to 1
stage by stage is in regression, from 09-1 to 0.7-0.8; from 0.7-0.8 to 0.6-0.7; and from
0.6-0.7 to 0.5-0.6.
The figures 8 and 13 show that the average infection, in % stage by stage is in
regression, from 28 to 36 % to 23-26 %; from 23-26 % to 18-20 %; and from 18-20 % &
to 10-13 %.
The figures 9 and 14 show that the productivity of the chestnut fruit seems to be
heavily dependent on the sites, (i) management system (high forest or composed coppice
or simple coppice), (ii) agro-silvicultural treatment (managed or unmanaged), (iii)
average number of chestnut trees per Ha stage by stage or (iv) the average infection, in %
stage by stage or (v) average dense crow by coefficient from 0 to 1 stage by stage or (vi)
the average infection, in % stage by stage; meantime the productivity of stands didn’t
measure and so, does not seem to be heavily dependent on the sites, (i) management
system (high forest or composed coppice or simple coppice), (ii) silvicultural treatment
(managed or unmanaged), (iii) geographic position (latitude), or (iv) climate (annual
precipitation, data not shown), (v) average number of chestnut trees per Ha stage by stage
or (vi) the average infection, in % stage by stage or (vii) average dense crow by
coefficient from 0 to 1 stage by stage or (viii) the average infection, in % stage by stage.
The figures 9 and 14 show that the productivity of the chestnut fruit has a
progression and the relationship with (i) average number of chestnut trees per Ha stage by
stage or (ii) the average infection, in % stage by stage or (iii) average dense crow by
coefficient from 0 to 1 stage by stage or (iv) the average age stage by stage.
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After the needed calculations, were the equations, as below:
1. Kerrnaja – Hoxhaj site
coefficents
x
Variable 1
0.48
x
Variabli 2
0.6
x
Variabli 3
0
x
Variabli 4
-4.54
Equation:
1 2 3 4
0,48 0,6 0 4,54
= + + −
2. Margegaj – Shoshaj site
coefficents
x
Variable 1
0.65
x
Variable 2
0.2
x
Variable 3
0
x
Variable 4
-3.45
Equation:
1 2 3 4
0,65 0,2 0 3,45
y x x x x
= + + −
3. Markaj – Resuje site
coefficents
x
Variable 1
1.02
x
Variable 2
-0.27
x
Variable 3
0
x
Variable 4
-3.78
Equacioni:
1 2 3 4
1,02 0,27 0 3,78
y x x x x
= + −
4. Gri – Velisht site
Equation:
1 2 3 4
0,75 0,18 0 4,37
y x x x x
= + + −
5. Selima – Lekurtaj site
coefficents
x
Variable 1
0.8
x
Variable 2
0.02
x
Variable 3
0
x
Variable 4
-4.2
Equation:
1 2 3 4
0,8 0,02 0 4,2
y x x x x
= + + −
coefficents
x
Variable 1 0.75
x
Variable 2 0.18
x
Variable 3 0
x
Variable 4 -4.37
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Based on the five equations, mentioned above the coefficcents near the forth
variables are by negative values. These values mean that forth independent variables have
impact on the dependent variables for every study site. This will be translated: if
increasing of the average of chestnut infection by chestnut cancer occurred, this will
cause a reduction in the chestnut fruit production or inverse, if a reduction of the average
of chestnut infection by chestnut cancer occurred, this will cause an increasing in the
chestnut fruit production.
Impact of other independent variables is about with the same values in four studed
sites for Kernaje - Hoxhaj, Margegaj - Shoshaj, Gri - Velisht and Selima - Lekurtaj,
maentime for the në Markaj- Resuje, the coefficient before the second variable is
negative, this means that increadsing of the average age has negative impact on chestnut
fruit production or inverse, if a reduction of the average age occurred, it will cause an
increasing in the chestnut fruit production.
At the beginning of accomplishment per three stages the aaverage infection
(attack incidence) was from 28 to 36 %, by Lushaj (1987).
After knowledge of health status of every tree through phytosanitary
inventarization on basis of the criterions were accomplished the three stages of fruit tree
thinning (rarefaction) with all other agro-silvicultural activities, at intervals 4-5 years by
Lushaj (1987).
Situation of the chestnut trees in study sites, in massive of the Tropoja district
Based on the data, taken from field observation resulted that the situation of the
chestnut trees in study sites, in massive of the Tropoja district was as below in the Table
8. That is not very scientific in the understanding of a scientific journal. Do you
have more detailed statistics like standard derivation, standard error, etc. Or is it really a
full sampling of all trees on 2000 ha which would result in some 300000 measured and
recorded trees?
The first stage of the project
The first stage of fruit tree thinning (rarefaction) was accomplished during 1986-
1990, by aim of improvement of health status and stimulation of growing of chestnut
crowns.
During this stage more than 10 % of chestnut tree were removed per ha, or 15-17
(25) trees per ha, by Lushaj (1991).
The first stage of the fruit tree thinning (rarefaction) was accomplished more than
95 % of total treated surface of chestnut massive of Tropoja district. Number of trees per
ha have passed from 150-170 to 135-145, with average age between 80-90 years, by
dense crown from 0, 7 to 0, 8 and health status is improved, by Lushaj (1991).
Infection (attack incidence) from chestnut blight canker (C. parasitica (Murr.)
Barr.) and other stress factors were in low from 5 % to 10 % by Lushaj (1991). In the end
of this stage and aaverage infection (attack incidence) was from 23 to 26 %.
After the accomplishment of the first stage of fruit thinning (rarefaction) with all
activities mentioned above, at intervals 4-5 years have shown as below in the Table 9.
The second stage of the project
The second stage of fruit tree thinning (rarefaction) was accomplished during
1991-1994 years. This stage was accomplished more than 80 % of total treated surface of
chestnut massive of Tropoja district.
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Through this fruit tree thinning (rarefaction) was reached the principal aim,
gradual and completely rehabilitation (construction) of chestnut massive, converting it
from natural forest chestnut massive into orchard. By this stage in chestnut massive all of
chestnut trees, that were out of production, non good varieties as fruit and as wood were
removed, by low level of amidon into the fruit, all fruit trees by the thick membrane into
the pulp of fruit, etc., by Bassi & Marangoni (1984); Lushaj (1987); Giorgo (1989).
During this stage more than 10 % of chestnut trees per ha or 15-16 (20) trees per
ha were removed by Lushaj (1996).
Therefore, in this stage 15 - 16 trees per ha were removed. Number of trees has
passed from 135-145 to 115-130 with average age between 70-80 years, by dense crown
from 0.6 to 0.7, and in this stage the health status was improved. Infection from chestnut
blight canker and other strees factors was in low degree, by 5 % - 6 %, by Lushaj (1996).
At the end of this stage the average infection was from 18 to 20 %.
After the accomplishment of the second stage of fruit tree thinning (rarefaction)
with all activities mentioned above, at intervals 4-5 years have shown as below Table 10.
The third stage of the project
The third stage of fruit tree thinning (rarefaction) was accomplished during 1995-
1998 years and it is continuing until now in some parcels. Through this fruit tree thinning
in these parcels was reached the final aim. In this stage changing from collective and state
properties to private property has been started So, the fruit tree thinning began at the
private chestnut parcels, which farmers have accomplished in this stage. The processes
were accomplished at villages (zones) of Markaj, Margegaj, Kerrnaje, Shoshan, Babine,
Gri, Geghysen, etc. by Lushaj (1987).
According to sampling tests, surveys accomplished, by getting of contacts or
visual surveys have that this stage was realized between 35-40 % of total treated chestnut
massive. In the end of this all of elite trees stage were remained, by normal crowns, by
good quality and quantity production of fruit, by good quality and quantity of wood, by
Lushaj (1999/1; 1999/2; 2000).
Uniform and normal distribution, everywhere in the massive, in every parcel or
sub parcel lay remained trees.
Therefore, in this stage about 10 % of chestnut tree or 11-13 trees per ha were
removed. Number of trees has passed from 115-130 to 100-120, with average age
between 50-70 years and dense crown between 0.5-0.6 by Lushaj (1999/1; 1999/2 &
2000). Infection from chestnut blight canker (C. parasitica Murr.) Barr. and other stress
factors were in low degree, from 10 % to 13 % by Lushaj (1991).
After the accomplishment of the third stage of fruit tree thinning (rarefaction)
with all activities mentioned above, at intervals 4-5 years have as below Table 11.
As above mentioned for three stages, parallel accomplishment of fruit tree
thinning (rarefaction), control of chestnut canker and all of silvicultural and agricultural
processes were accomplished, as are pruning, tending, cleaning, mountainous
systematization, using of cutting woods, opening of new roads and etc, which in complex
have reached converting of natural forest chestnut massive into orchard.
Before 2 years the average production of fruit was between 50–60 kg per tree, and
the health status of chestnut massive was for better by Lushaj & Dini (2006).
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In full-time the farmers have protected their private properties (parcels) from
cuttings and illegal cuttings.
By carrying out of the all activities, mentioned above in the chestnut surfaces
about 300 ha were removed and are removing about 10 % of chestnut tree or 11-13 trees
per ha. Number of trees has passed from 115-130 to 100-120, with average age between
50-70 years and dense crown between 0.5-0.6 by Lushaj & Dini (2006).
8 Conclusions
This research proves that there is a relationship between the variability of four
independent variables, as well: x
1
– average number of chestnut trees per ha; x
2
– average
tree age of chestnut; x
3
– average crown dense, by coefficient (0-1); and x
4
– percentage
infection by chestnut canker, in % with the dependent quantitative variable y (average
chestnut fruit production), so, there are in correlation between then.
In all parcels when were accomplished the three fruit thinning (rarefaction) stages,
all needed silvicultural and agricultural processes, the control chestnut blight canker, etc,
and at the same time protection of these private properties, from cutting or illegal
cuttings, the health status is improved.
In the end of accomplishment of the three projects were carried out the three fruit
thinning (rarefaction) stages, all needed silvicultural and agricultural processes, the
control chestnut blight canker, etc,, where were removed about 10 % of chestnut tree or
11-13 trees per ha. Number of trees has passed from 115-130 to 100-120, with average
age between 50-70 years and dense crown between 0.5-0.6, and at the same time
protection of these private properties, from cutting or illegal cuttings, the health status is
improved by Lushaj & Dini (2006).
The infection from chestnut blight canker and other stress factors was in low 13-
15 % and excpecially is that output of fruit production is increased 7-8 times by Lushaj &
Dini (2006).
Non-linear functions are very risky (especially in the following chart)
Therefore, general and completely reconstruction, normalization of age between 50-70
years, by number of trees between 100-120 per ha, these in relation with the natural
conditions and accomplishing all of indispensable agro-silvicultural treatments is given
the possibility that in chestnut massive of Tropoja to have stability and innovitation, and
at the same time the increasing of quantity and quality of chestnut stands, and the output
of the fruit production is increased 7-8 time by Amorini et al. (2000a); Manetti et al.
(2001); Amorini et al. (2001); Sacchetti et al. (2005); Lushaj & Dini (2006), and at the
same time were growing of the numerous services, called “externalities” by Bounous &
Beccare (2002); Bounous (2007); Bounous (2009).
So, the aim of the study was arrived by means of the suitable agro-forest
management and wise use of chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) in the chestnut massive of
Tropoja district, in order that have increasing and improving of chestnut fruit and wood.
For that reason, we think that this experience will be needed and for other
districts, as are Malesia e Madhe, Shkoder, Mat, Puke, Mirdite, Tirane, Elbasan,
Librazhd, Pogradec and etc, where laid and other chestnut massifs, in natural conditions
by Lushaj & Dini (2006).
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9 Acknowledgements
The authors express their gratitude for financial support from the following institutions:
Ex-Enterprise of Agriculture in Tropoja district, Ex-Forest and Pasture Research Institute
of Tirana, Ex-Istituto per la Patologia degli Alberi Forestali di Firenze del Consiglio
Nacionale delle Ricerche. The help of staffs in these institutes was greatly appreciated.
The authors are grateful to Prof. Ass. Dr. Tulio Turchetti, Dr. Giorgio Maresi and Dr.
Ignacio Santa Regina for periodical consultations and critical reading of early drafts of
this manuscript.
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11 Photography’s, tables and figure
11.1 Photography’s
Photo 1 A part of the third repetition to Markaj-Rosuje site by unmanaged chestnut
composed coppice without intervention variant (R
3
V
4/2
)
Photo 2 A part of the third repetition to Markaj-Rosuje site by chestnut single coppice
unmanaged variant (R
3
V
4/3
)
Photo 3 A part of the third repetition to Markaj-Rosuje site by chestnut composed
managed variant (R
3
V
2
)
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Photo 4 A part of the third repetition to Markaj-Rosuje site by chestnut simple coppice
managed variant (R
3
V
3
)
Photo 6 A part of the third repetition to Markaj-Rosuje site by managed chestnut high
forest variant (R
3
V
2
)
Photo 5 A part of the second repetition to Gri-Velisht site by unmanaged chestnut high
forest without intervention variant (R
2
V
4/1
)
Photo 7 A part of the third repetition to Markaj-Rosuje site by managed chestnut simple
coppice variant (R
3
V
3
)
Photo 8 A part of the third repetition to Markaj-Rosuje site by managed chestnut simple
coppice variant (R
3
V
3
)
R
1 =
First Repetition to Selimaj–Lekurtaj (Geghysen) site
R
2
= Second Repetition to Gri-Velisht site
R
3
= Third Repetition to Markaj-Rosuje site
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R
4
= Fourth Repetition to Margegaj-Shoshan site
R
5
= Fifth Repetition to Kerrnaje-Hoxhaj site, and at the same time on variant according
to forest management, and concretely:
V
1 =
managed chestnut high forest variant
V
2
= managed chestnut composed coppice variant
V
3
= managed chestnut simple coppice variant
V
4/1
= Control
1
= unmanaged chestnut high forest without intervention variant
V
4/2
= Control
2
= unmanaged composed coppice without intervention variant
V
4/3
= Control
3
= unmanaged simple coppice without intervention variant
11.2 Figures
Map of Albania showing distribution of chestnuts and district (location) of study sites
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11. 4 Graphics
Reshjet ne qytetin B. Curri
0
100
200
300
400
500
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Muajt
Reshjet (mm)
Mes Shumevjecare viti 1976
Fig. 1 Multiannual average precipitation and distribution of it during of the year for the
survey period (1961–2000). Data from Tropoje Hydro-Meteorological Station, Tropoje
Reshjet ne qytetin Tropoje
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Muajt
Reshjet (mm)
Mes Shumevjecare viti 1976
Fig. 2 Multiannual average precipitation and distribution of it during of the year for the
survey period (1961–2000). Data from Tropoje Hydro-Meteorological Station, Tropoje
Temperatura ne qytetin B. Curri
0
5
10
15
20
25
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Muajt
Temp. (0C)
Mes.Sumvjecare 1977
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Fig. 3 Multiannual average temperature precipitation and distribution of it during of the
year for the survey period (1965–2000). Data from Bajram Curri Hydro-Meteorological
Station, Tropoje
Temperatura ne qytetin Tropoje
0
5
10
15
20
25
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Muajt
Temp. (0C)
Mes.Sumvjecare 1970
Fig. 4 Multiannual average temperature precipitation and distribution of it during of the
year for the survey period (1970–2004). Data from Tropoja Hydro-Meteorological
Station, Tropoja
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
180
Kerrnaje-Hoxhaj
Margegaj-Shoshan
Markaj-Rosuje
Gri-Velisht
Selimaj–Lekurtaj (Geghysen)
Average number of trees per ha
Situation Stage I Stage II Stage III
Fig. 5 Average number of chestnut trees per Ha stage by stage
0
20
40
60
80
100
120 Kerrnaje-Hoxhaj
Margegaj-Shoshan
Markaj-Rosuje
Gri-Velisht
Selimaj–Lekurtaj (Geghysen)
Average age, in years
Situation St age I Stage II Stage III
Fig. 6 Average age, in years stage by stage
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0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
1234
Kerrnaje-Hoxhaj
Margegaj-Shoshan
Markaj-Rosuje
Gri-Velisht
Selimaj–Lekurtaj (Geghysen)
Avarage dense crow
Situation Stage I Stage II Stage III
Fig. 7 Average dense crow stage by stage
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40 Kerrnaje-Hoxhaj
Margegaj-Shos han
Markaj-Rosuje
Gri-Velisht
Selimaj–Lekurtaj (Geghysen )
Avarage infection, in %
Situation Stage I Stage II Stage III
Fig. 8 Average infections, in % stage by stage
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
Kerrnaje-Hoxhaj
Margegaj-Shos han
Markaj-Rosuje
Gri-Velisht
Selimaj–Lekurtaj (Geghysen )
Average of fruit production, in kg/tree
Situation Stage I Stage II Stage III
Fig. 9 Average of fruit production stage by stage
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Average number of tree per ha
y = -17x + 167.5
R
2
= 0.9966
100
110
120
130
140
150
160
170
180
1234
Periods
Number of tree
Kerrnaje-Hoxhaj
Margegaj-Shoshan
Markaj-Rosuje
Gri-Velisht
Selimaj–Lekurtaj
(Geghysen)
Linea r (Kerrnaje -Hoxhaj)
Situation Stage I S tage II Stage I II
Fig. 10 Average number of chestnut trees per Ha stage by stage
The figures 5 and 10 show that the average number of chestnut trees per Ha stage
by stage is in regression, from 150-170 trees to 135-145 trees; from 135-145 trees to 115-
130 trees; and from 115-130 trees to 100-120 trees.
Average age
y = -16x + 115
R
2
= 0.9846
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
120
1 2 3 4
Periods
Years
Kerrnaje-Hoxhaj
Margegaj-Shoshan
Markaj-Rosuje
Gri-Velisht
Selimaj–Lekurtaj
(Geghysen)
Linea r (Kerrnaje -Hoxhaj)
Situation
Stage I Stage II Stage III
Fig. 11 Average age stage by stage
The figures 6 and 11 show that the average age stage by stage is in regression,
from 90 to 100 years to 80-90 years; from 80-90 years to 70-80 years; and from 70-80
years to 50-70 years.
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Average dense crow
y = -0.13x + 1
R
2
= 0.9657
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
1.1
1 2 3 4
Periods
Dense crow in %
Kerrnaje-Hoxhaj
Margegaj-Shoshan
Markaj-Rosuje
Gri-Velisht
Selimaj–Lekurtaj (Geghysen)
Linear (Kerrnaje-Hoxhaj)
Situation Stage I Stage II Stage III
Fig. 12 Average dense crow by coefficient from 0 to 1 stage by stage
A figure 7 and 12 show that the average dense crow by coefficient from 0 to 1
stage by stage is in regression, from 09-1 to 0.7-0.8; from 0.7-0.8 to 0.6-0.7; and from
0.6-0.7 to 0.5-0.6.
Avarage infection in %
y = -5.9x + 34.5
R
2
= 0.9847
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
1 2 3 4
Periods
Infection in %
Kerrnaje-Hoxhaj
Margegaj-Shoshan
Markaj-Rosuje
Gri-Velisht
Selimaj–Lekurtaj
(Geghysen)
Linea r (Kerrnaje -Hoxhaj)
Situation Stage I Stage II Stage III
Fig. 13 Average infection, in % stage by stage
The figures 8 and 13 show that the average infection, in % stage by stage is in
regression, from 28 to 36 % to 23-26 %; from 23-26 % to 18-20 %; and from 18-20 % &
to 10-13 %.
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Fig. 15 Average fruit production stage by stage
The figures 9 and 14 show that the productivity of the chestnut fruit seems to be
heavily dependent on the sites, (i) management system (high forest or composed coppice
or simple coppice), (ii) agro-silvicultural treatment (managed or unmanaged), (iii)
average number of chestnut trees per Ha stage by stage or (iv) the average infection, in %
stage by stage or (v) average dense crow by coefficient from 0 to 1 stage by stage or (vi)
the average infection, in % stage by stage; meantime the productivity of stands didn’t
measure and so, does not seem to be heavily dependent on
the sites, (i) management system (high forest or composed coppice or simple coppice),
(ii) silvicultural treatment (managed or unmanaged), (iii) geographic position (latitude),
or (iv) climate (annual precipitation, data not shown), (v) average number of chestnut
trees per Ha stage by stage or (vi) the average infection, in % stage by stage or (vii)
average dense crow by coefficient from 0 to 1 stage by stage or (viii) the average
infection, in % stage by stage.
The figures 9 and 14 show that the productivity of the chestnut fruit has a
progression and the relationship with (i) average number of chestnut trees per Ha stage by
stage or (ii) the average infection, in % stage by stage or (iii) average dense crow by
coefficient from 0 to 1 stage by stage or (iv) the average age stage by stage.
y = 3x
2
-
5.8x + 7
R
2
= 0.9983
y = 4.5x
2
-
8.7x + 10.5
R
2
= 0.9983
y = 4.5x
2
-
5.9x + 10.5
R
2
= 0.9837
y = 4.75x
2
-
6.65x + 8.25
R
2
= 0.9984
y = 4x
2
- 6.8x + 9
R
2
= 0.9991
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
1 2
3
4
Kerrnaja-Hoxhaj
Margegaj
-
Shoshan
Markaj
-
Rosuje
Gri
-
Velisht
Selimaj
-
Lekurtaj
Fruit production in Tropoja District
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11.3 Tables
Table 1 Chestnut stand area (%), according to altitude (Lushaj 1981; 1987)
Altitude (m.a.s.l.) Area (%)
>300 (350) – 600
600-1000
>1000 (< 1250)
48
50
2
Table 2 Randomization scheme
No. District Region Commune
Site Repetition Variant Management
treatment
1
Tropoja
Krasniqe
Bujan
Selimaj
Lekurtaj
(Geghysen)
First
Repetition
(R
1
)
R
1
V
2
-
-
-
Managed
2
Tropoja
Krasniqe
Bujan
Selimaj
Lekurtaj
(Geghysen)
First
Repetition
(R
1
)
-
R
1
V
3
-
-
Managed
3
Tropoja
Krasniqe
Buj
an
Selimaj
Lekurtaj
(Geghysen)
First
Repetition
(R
1
)
-
-
-
R
1
V
1
Managed
4
Tropoja
Krasniqe
Bujan
Selimaj
Lekurtaj
(Geghysen)
First
Repetition
(R
1
)
-
-
R
1
V
4/1
-
Unmanaged
5
Tropoja
Krasniqe
Bujan
Selimaj
Lekurtaj
(Geghysen)
First
Repetition
(R
1
)
-
R
1
V
4/3
-
-
Unmanaged
6
Tropoja
Krasniqe
Bujan
Selimaj
Lekurtaj
(Geghysen)
First
Repetition
(R
1
)
R
1
V
4/2
-
-
-
Unmanaged
7
Tropoja
Krasniqe
Bujan
Gri
-
Velisht
Second
Repetition
(R
2
)
R
2
V
3
-
-
-
Managed
8
Tropoja
Krasniqe
Bujan
Gri
-
Velisht
Second
Repetition
(R
2
)
-
R
2
V
1
-
-
Managed
9
Tropoja
Krasniqe
Bujan
Gri
-
Velisht
Second
Repetition
(R
2
)
-
-
-
R
2
V
2
Managed
10
Tropoja
Krasniqe
Bujan
Gri
-
Velisht
Second
Repetition
(R
2
)
-
-
R
2
V
4/1
-
Unmanaged
11
Tropoja
Krasniqe
Bujan
Gri
-
Veli
sht
Second
Repetition
(R
2
)
-
R
2
V
4/2
-
-
Unmanaged
12
Tropoja
Krasniqe
Bujan
Gri
-
Velisht
Second
Repetition
(R
2
)
R
2
V
4/3
-
-
-
Unmanaged
Tropoja
Krasniqe
Bujan
Markaj
-
Third
R
3
-
-
-
Managed
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13
Rosuje
Repetition
(R
3
)
V
1
14
Tropo
ja
Krasniqe
Bujan
Markaj
-
Rosuje
Third
Repetition
(R
3
)
-
-
R
3
V
2
-
Managed
15
Tropoja
Krasniqe
Bujan
Markaj
-
Rosuje
Third
Repetition
(R
3
)
-
R
3
V
3
-
-
Managed
16
Tropoja
Krasniqe
Bujan
Markaj
-
Rosuje
Third
Repetition
(R
3
)
-
-
-
V
41
R
3
Unmanaged
17
Tropoja
Krasniqe
Bujan
Markaj
-
Rosuje
Third
Repetition
(R
3
)
-
-
R
3
V
4/2
-
Unmanaged
18
Tropoja
Krasniqe
Bujan
Markaj
-
Rosuje
Third
Repetition
(R
3
)
-
R
3
V
4/3
-
-
Unmanaged
19
Tropoja
Krasniqe
Margegaj
Margegaj
-
Shoshan
Forth
Repetition
(R
4
)
-
-
-
R
4
V
1
Managed
20
Tropoja
Krasniqe
Margegaj
Margegaj
-
Shoshan
Forth
Repetition
(R
4
)
R
4
V
2
-
-
-
Managed
21
Tropoja
Krasniqe
Margegaj
Margegaj
-
Shoshan
Forth
Repetition
(R
4
)
-
-
R
4
V
3
-
Managed
22
Tropoja
Krasniqe
Margegaj
Margegaj
-
Shoshan
Forth
Repetition
(R
4
)
-
R
4
V
4/1
-
-
Unmanaged
23
Tropoja
Krasniqe
Margegaj
Margegaj
-
Shoshan
Forth
Repetition
(R
4
)
-
-
R
4
V
4/2
-
Unmanaged
24
Tropoja
Krasniqe
Margegaj
Margegaj
-
Shoshan
Forth
Repetition
(R
4
)
-
-
-
R
4
V
4/
3
Unmanaged
25
Tropoja
Gashi
Tropoja
Kerrnaje
-
Hoxhaj
Fifth
Repetition
(R
5
)
-
R
5
V
2
-
-
Managed
26
Tropoja
Gashi
Tropoja
Kerrnaje
-
Hoxhaj
Fifth
Repetition
(R
5
)
-
-
R
5
V
1
-
Managed
27
Tropoja
Gashi
Tropoja
Kerrnaje
-
Hoxhaj
Fifth
Repetition
(R
5
)
-
-
-
R
5
V
3
Managed
28
Tropoja
Gashi
Tropoja
Kerrnaje
-
Hoxhaj
Fifth
Repetition
(R
5
)
R
5
V
4/1
-
-
-
Unmanaged
29
Tropoja
Gashi
Tropoja
Kerrnaje
-
Hoxhaj
Fifth
Repetition
(R
5
)
-
R
5
V
4/2
-
-
Unmanaged
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30
Tropoja
Gashi
Tropoja
Kerrnaje
-
Hoxhaj
Fifth
Repetition
(R
5
)
-
-
R
5
V
4/3
-
Unmanag
ed
R
1 =
First Repetition to Selimaj–Lekurtaj (Geghysen) site;
R
2
= Second Repetition to Gri-Velisht site;
R
3
= Third Repetition to Markaj-Rosuje site;
R
4
= Fourth Repetition to Margegaj-Shoshan site;
R
5
= Fifth Repetition to Kerrnaje-Hoxhaj site, and at the same time on variant according
to forest management, and concretely:
V
1 =
managed chestnut high forest variant;
V
2
= managed chestnut composed coppice variant;
V
3
= managed chestnut simple coppice variant;
V
4/1
= Control
1
= unmanaged chestnut high forest variant without intervention;
V
4/2
= Control
2
= unmanaged chestnut composed coppice variant without intervention;
V
4/3
= Control
3
= unmanaged chestnut simple coppice variant without intervention.
Table 3 The management system and agro-silvicultural treatments in sites
No. of
site
Study
site
Management System/
Agro-Silvicultural
Treatment
Repetition
and
variant
Unmanaged
Repetition
and
variant
1
Selimaj–
Lekurtaj
(Geghysen)
high forest/maneged
(HFM
1
)
R
1
V
1
high
forest/unmaneged
(HFU
1
)
R
1
V
4/1
composed
coppice/maneged
(CCM
1
)
R
1
V
2
composed
coppice/unmaneg
ed
(CCU
1
)
R
1
V
4/2
simple
coppice/maneged
(SCM
1
)
R
1
V
3
simple
coppice/unmaneg
ed
(SCU
1
)
R
1
V
4/3
2
Gri-Velisht
high forest/maneged
(HFM
2
)
R
2
V
1
high
forest/unmaneged
(HFU
2
)
R
1
V
4/1
co
mposed
coppice/maneged
(CCM
2
)
R
2
V
2
composed
coppice/unmaneg
ed
(CCU
2
)
R
1
V
4/2
simple
coppice/maneged
(SCM
2
)
R
2
V
3
simple
coppice/unmaneg
ed
(SCU
2
)
R
1
V
4/3
3
Markaj-
Rosuje
high forest/maneged
(HFM
3
)
R
3
V
1
high
forest/unmaneged
(HFU
3
)
R
1
V
4/1
com
posed
coppice/maneged
(CCM
3
)
R
3
V
2
composed
coppice/unmaneg
ed
R
1
V
4/2
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(CCU
3
)
simple
coppice/maneged
(SCM
3
)
R
3
V
3
simple
coppice/unmaneg
ed
(SCU
3
)
R
1
V
4/3
4
Margegaj-
Shoshan
high forest/maneged
(HFM
4
)
R
4
V
1
high
forest/unmaneged
(HFU
4
)
R
1
V
4/1
comp
osed
coppice/maneged
(CCM
4
)
R
4
V
2
composed
coppice/unmaneg
ed
(CCU
4
)
R
1
V
4/2
simple
coppice/maneged
(SCM
4
)
R
4
V
3
simple
coppice/unmaneg
ed
(SCU
4
)
R
1
V
4/3
5
Kerrnaje-
Hoxhaj
high forest/maneged
(HFM
5
)
R
5
V
1
high
forest/unmaneged
(HFU
5
)
R
1
V
4/1
compos
ed
coppice/maneged
(CCM
5
)
R
5
V
2
composed
coppice/unmaneg
ed
(CCU
5
)
R
1
V
4/2
simple
coppice/maneged
(SCM
5
)
R
5
V
3
simple
coppice/unmaneg
ed
(SCU
5
)
R
1
V
4/3
Table 4 Environmental characteristics of the investigation sites studied
Working
circle
(agro-
forest
economy)
Sub
-
working
circle
(agro-
forest
sub-
economy
)
Region
Commune
Site
Altitude
,
in
m.a.s.l.
Exposure
Morphol
ogy
Slope
,
in %
Type
of
soil
Chest.
surface
, in ha
Tropoja
Kerrnaje
Gashi
Region
Tropoja
Kerrnaje
-Hoxhaj
700
1100
(1200)
So
uth
Slope
18
poor
to
mesie,
by
siliceo
us
origin
484
Bajram
Curri
Krasniqe
Region
Margegaj
Margeg
aj-
Shoshan
350
900
(1100)
North
-
East
Slope
18
mesie,
by
siliceo
us
origin
462.5
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Bajram
Curri
Krasniqe
Region
Bujan
Markaj
-
Rosuje
350
900
(1100)
East
-
South
Slope
17
mesie,
by
siliceo
us
origin
355
Bajram
Curri
Krasniqe
Region
Bujan
Gri
-
Velisht
400
1100
(1250)
North
-
East
Slope
20
mesie,
by
siliceo
us
origin
430
Bajram
Curri
Krasniqe
Region
Bujan
Selimaj
Lekurtaj
(Geghys
en)
400
1100
(1250)
East
-
South
Slope
21
poor to
mesie,
by
siliceo
us
origin
370
2101.5
Table 5 Location, surface and type’s regime (management forest system)
No.
Location
(Commune)
type’s regime (management
system) of forest,
in ha
Surface under
the
administration
of
Forest Service,
in ha
Surface
under the
administration
of the ex-
Agricultural
Enterprise,
in ha
Total
surface,
in ha
Studied
part/
not
studied
part
high forest
(HF)
composed
coppice
(CC)
simple
coppice
(SC)
1
Bujan
Commune
289
577
289
-
1155
1155
studied
part
2
Tropoje
Commune
121
242
121
-
484
484
studied
part
3
Tropoje
Commune
-
-
60
60
-
60
studied
part
4
Margegaj
Commune
116
230.5
116
-
462.5
462.5
studied
part
Sub
-
total 1:
526
1049.5
586
60
2101.5
2161.5
5
Lekbibaj
Commune
( Lekbibaj)
-
-
220
220
-
220
unstudied
part
6
Lekbibaj
Commune
( Curraj)
-
3
3
-
3
unstudied
part
7
Fierze
(Dushaj)
Commune
20.5
-
-
20.5
-
20.5
unstudied
part
8
Bytyç (Pac+
Berishe)
Commune
3.5
-
-
3.5
-
3.5
unstudied
part
Sub
-
total 2:
24
-
223
247
-
247
Total:
550
1049.5
809
307
2101.5
2408.5
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Table 6 State of tree, according to class and percentage of damage
State of tree
Class
of
damage
Percentage
of
damage
Healthy
None
0
0
10 %
Damaged
slight
1
> 10
20 %
moderate
2
> 20
50 %
se
vere
3
> 50
90 %
dead
4
> 90
-
100 %
Table 7 Situation of the chestnut trees in study sites
No.
Study
site
Management
System/
Agro-
Silvicultural
Treatment
Average
number
of trees
per ha
Average
age, in
years
Average
dense
crown,
by coeff.
Average
infection,
in %
Altitude,
in
m.a.s.l.
Average
of fruit
production,
in ton/ha
Surface,
in ha
1
Kerrnaje-
Hoxhaj
high
forest/
maneged
(HFM
5
)
150
100
0.9
28
700
1100
(1200)
4/0.6
97
composed
coppice/
maneged
(CCM
5
)
65
0.8
38
700
1100
(1200)
218
simple coppice/
maneged
(SCM
5
)
40
0.8
45
700
1100
(1200)
97
2
Kerrnaje-
Hoxhaj
high
forest/
unmaneged
(HFU
5
)
152
100
0.9
29
700
1100
(1200)
4/0.608
24
composed
coppice/
unmaneged
(CCU
5
)
65
0.8
38
700
1100
(1200)
24
simple coppice/
unmaneged
(SCU
5
)
40
0.8
48
700
1100
(1200)
24
Subtotal
1
484
3
Margegaj
-Shoshan
high
forest/
maneged
(HFM
4
)
161
105
0.95
36
350
900
(1100)
6/0.966
92
composed
coppice/
maneged
70
0.8
44
350
900
(1100)
206
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(CCM
4
)
simple coppice/
maneged
(SCM
2
)
45
0.8
53
350
900
(1100)
92
4
Margegaj
-Shoshan
high
forest/
unmaneged
(HFU
2
)
162
105
0.95
37
350
900
(1100)
6/0.972
24
composed
coppice/
unmaneged
(CCU
4
)
70
0.8
47
350
900
(1100)
24.5
simple coppice/
unmaneged
(SCU
4
)
45
0.8
54
350
900
(1100)
24
Subtotal
2
462.5
5
Markaj-
Rosuje
high
forest/
maneged
(HFM
3
)
163
105
0.95
36
350
900
(1100)
6/0.978
71.25
composed
coppice/
maneged
(CCM
3
)
70
0.8
46
350
900
(1100)
142.5
simple coppice/
maneged
(SCM
3
)
45
0.8
54
350
900
(1100)
71.25
6
Markaj-
Rosuje
High
forest/
unmaneged
(HFU
3
)
162
105
0.95
36
350
900
(1100)
6/0.972
23.5
composed
coppice/
unmaneged
(CCU
3
)
70
0.7
47
350
900
(1100)
23.5
simple coppice/
unmaneged
(SCU
3
)
45
0.7
53
350
900
(1100)
23
Subtotal
3
355
7
Gri-
Velisht
high
forest/
maneged
(HFM
2
)
170
110
1
32
400
1100
(1250)
8/1.36
89.5
composed
coppice/
maneged
(CCM
2
)
70
0.8
42
400
1100
(1250)
179
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Page 124
simple coppice/
maneged
(SCM
2
)
45
0.8
50
400
1100
(1250)
89.5
8
Gri-
Velisht
high
forest/
unmaneged
(HFU
2
)
168
110
1
31
400
1100
(1250)
8/1.344
24
composed
coppice/
unmaneged
(CCU
2
)
70
0.8
42
400
1100
(1250)
24
simple co
ppice/
unmaneged
(SCU
2
)
45
0.8
49
400
1100
(1250)
24
Subtotal
4
430
9
Selimaj–
Lekurtaj
(Geghyse
n)
high
forest/
maneged
(HFM
1
)
165
105
1
31
400
1100
(1250)
6/0.99
75
composed
coppice/
maneged
(CCM
1
)
70
0.8
41
400
1100
(1250)
15
0
simple coppice/
maneged
(SCM
1
)
45
0.8
48
400
1100
(1250)
75
10
Selimaj–
Lekurtaj
(Geghyse
n)
high
forest/
unmaneged
(HFU
1
)
164
105
1
32
400
1100
(1250)
6/0.984
23
composed
coppice/
unmaneged
(CCU
1
)
70
0.8
42
400
1100
(1250)
23.5
simple coppice/
unmaneged
(SCU
1
)
45
0.8
49
400
1100
(1250)
23.5
Subtotal
5
370
11
managed
study site
high
forest/
maneged
(HFM)
150
-
170
(162)
100
-
110
0.9
-
1
28
-
36
6/0.972
425
composed
coppice/
maneged
(CCM)
65
-
70
0.8
895.5
simple coppice/
40
-
45
0.8
424.5
Online International Interdisciplinary Research Journal, {Bi-Monthly}, ISSN2249-9598, Volume-III, Issue-VI, Nov-Dec2013
w w w . o i i r j . o r g I S S N 2 2 4 9 - 9 5 9 8
Page 125
maneged
(SCM)
Subtotal
I
1745
12
unmanag
ed study
site
high
forest/
unmaneged
(HFU)
152
-
168
(162)
100
-
110
0.9
-
1
29
-
37
6/0.972
118.5
composed
coppice/
unmaneged
(CCU)
65
-
70
0.8
119.5
simpl
e coppice/
unmaneged
(SCU)
40
-
45
0.8
118.5
Subtotal
II
356.5
Total 2101.5
Table 8 Situation of the chestnut trees in study sites, in massive of the Tropoja district after first
stage
No.
Study