Article

Mediterranean non-cultivated vegetables as dietary sources of compounds with antioxidant and biological activity

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Abstract

Non-cultivated vegetables whose basal leaves have been traditionally consumed in Spain were evaluated for their potential in human nutrition, considering vitamin C, organic acids, tocopherols, phenolics and flavonoids, and antioxidant activity. As far as we know, this is the first report on organic acids and vitamin C of Anchusa azurea and Apium nodiflorum, on tocopherols of Aazurea, Beta vulgaris, Chondrilla juncea, Rumex papillaris, Rumex pulcher, Silybum marianum and Taraxacum obovatum, as well as on the antioxidant capacity of most of them. Data revealed that the mentioned non-cultivated vegetables are good sources of bioactive compounds. R. pulcher, R. papillaris and Papaver rhoeas are rich in vitamin C, Sonchus oleraceus and R. papillaris in tocopherols. R. pulcher, P. rhoeas and A. azurea showed promising antioxidant properties, which are related to their high levels of phenolic and flavonoids. Some species presented high levels of oxalic acid. Therefore, people with a trend of developing kidney calculus should avoid eating these greens (especially S. marianum, S. oleraceus and Beta maritima) and choose species with low oxalic acid content such as T. obovatum and Cichorium intybus. The traditional consumption of these species after boiling and rejecting the water may decrease the amount of oxalic acid.

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... 2,5 Among the WEP, wild edible greens represent an extraordinary food source that could be used to diversify and enrich modern diets with many colors and flavors, essential nutrients, minerals, fiber, vitamins, essential fatty acids, and health-promoting compounds. [6][7][8][9] In addition, wild edible greens are very well adapted to the local soil and climatic conditions, and their cultivation should demand lower inputs (e.g., water, fertilizers, and agrochemicals) than domesticated species, a feature that could be found very useful within the context of world climate change and the sustainable use of natural resources. ...
... 23 Although they are considered as noxious weeds, they are also traditional noncultivated vegetables, which can be eaten in salads or as fodder. 8,24,25 Mikropoulou et al. 13 detected the following bioactive components in an aqueous extract (decoction) of S. asper: eight organic acids (gluconic, heptonic, tartaric, quinic, malic, citric, pyroglutamic, and threonic acids); three hydroxycinnamates (caftaric, 3,4-dicaffeoylquinic, caffeoylquinic and chicoric acids); one flavonol glucuronide (luteolin glucuronide); one flavone glucuronide (apigenin glucuronide); and one flavonol (luteolin), besides two trihydroxyoctadecenoic acid metabolites of linoleic acid. Furthermore, Giambanelli et al. 26 reported the presence of sesquiterpene lactones (total content of 0.83 mg kg − 1 , dry matter) and inositol 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid derivatives in S. asper. ...
... maritima constitute a representative source of vitamin E vitamers (α-and γ-tocopherol), vitamin C, and citric and oxalic acid; besides, their relevant amounts of total phenolics and flavonoids (61.91 and 21.55 mg GAE g − 1 extract, respectively) contribute to the overall antioxidant potential verified for this plant. 8 Recently, Gonçalves et al. 100 100 verified significant reductions in both extract's total phenolic content and antioxidant potential after a two-phase simulated digestion process. Also, according to Zardi-Bergaoui et al., 101 B. vulgaris spp. ...
Chapter
Mediterranean basin is abundant with native edible species that have been used in human diet throughout the centuries as an integral part of the so-called Mediterranean diet. Despite their beneficial health effects, consumption of these species was neglected during the last decades due to modern lifestyles and the shift to western diets and ready-to-eat products. However, the surging scientific knowledge about the health benefits of the Mediterranean diet has been the driving force for the recent rekindling of consumers’ and market’s interest for wild edible greens. The present chapter will provide information about the most commonly used wild greens in three Mediterranean countries, Greece, Italy, and Portugal, giving insight into botanical information, common uses, chemical composition, and their health effects. Moreover, considering the increasing market demands for such species, the current trends and future perspectives in the commercial cultivation of wild greens is also highlighted.
... Consumption of the ribs (main veins) of this plant fresh or cooked is recommended for liver and intestinal diseases [8]. Other uses in the traditional medicine of golden thistle have been reported, such as in Malta fever and eye infection [10]; it can also be used as an appetizer and as a hemostatic agent [11]. e antioxidant activity of Scolymus has been reported [10,12]. ...
... Other uses in the traditional medicine of golden thistle have been reported, such as in Malta fever and eye infection [10]; it can also be used as an appetizer and as a hemostatic agent [11]. e antioxidant activity of Scolymus has been reported [10,12]. ...
... e aqueous extract of Scolymus hispanicus showed a high content of total polyphenols and flavonoids compared to other plants [25]. Our extract showed a very important antifree radical activity compared to the reference BHA and BHT. e content of the total polyphenols and flavonoids and the antioxidant activity of our extract are very high compared to the results found by Morales et al. [10] on Scolymus hispanicus in Spain. is variability is linked to the nature of the soil and to the geographical location. ...
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Background. Lipotoxicity is characterized by a metabolic disturbance leading to the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Some medicinal plant extracts exert hepatoprotective activity by modulating oxidative stress, inflammation, and metabolic disorders. Scolymus hispanicus or the golden thistle can be considered an important natural source of antioxidants. In traditional medicine, the consumption of this plant is recommended for diseases of the liver and intestines. Objective. In this study, we aimed to determine the effects of Scolymus hispanicus on a hyperfatty diet- (HFD-) induced metabolic disorders, oxidative stress, and inflammation. Materials and Methods. Our experiment focused on the administration of an HFD (40%) in Rattus norvegicus for 2 months and treatment with the aqueous extract of Scolymus hispanicus at a rate of 100 mg/kg during the last eight days of experimentation. In this context, several aspects were studied: the evaluation of blood biochemical parameters, liver function such as lipids and glycogen, markers of oxidative stress (TBARS, carbonyl proteins, advanced oxidation proteins, catalase, and SOD) and inflammation (NO and NFkB), morphological study of hepatocytes in primary culture, and histological study of the liver. Results. Lipotoxicity induced metabolic disorders, both serum and tissue. HFD induced an increase in the total lipids and a decrease in glycogen reserve and an alteration in the oxidant-antioxidant balance. HFD induced an increase in markers of liver damage, which resulted in NAFLD, confirmed by histological study and hepatocytes cell culture. Scolymus appears to have lipid-lowering, hypoglycemic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. It improved glucose tolerance and the condition of fatty liver disease. Conclusion. Golden thistle improves glucose tolerance and hyperlipidemia and ameliorates hepatic steatosis by reducing oxidative stress, inflammation, and lipid accumulation. Its incorporation into a dietary program or as an aliment supplement would prevent hepatic complications associated with an HFD. 1. Introduction Overweight and obesity have become major global public health problems. Increasing consumption of more energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods with high levels of sugar and saturated fats and the increase in the availability of obesogenic ultraprocessed foods combined with reduced physical activity have increased obesity rates threefold or more since 1980 [1]. Overnutrition leads to excess calories, which induce the installation of obesity, indicating an imbalance in the energy balance, which occurs when the calories ingested are greater than those spent by the body. The intake will be higher and the storage lipids will therefore be increased. The increase in the storage of lipids and lipid derivatives leads to the expansion of adipose tissue (hyperplasia and hypertrophy) and the installation of lipotoxicity, which has harmful effects resulting in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which is associated with obesity [2]. NAFLD was recently redefined as metabolic-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) to reflect better the pathogenesis [2]. NAFLD is the most common chronic liver disease that affects around 25% of the population. NAFLD encompasses a broad spectrum of diseases that include simple fatty infiltration nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), which is defined as the presence of fat leading to inflammatory damage to hepatocytes, fibrosis, and finally cirrhosis. The importance of NAFLD lies in the possibility of its gradual progress to advanced fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) [2, 3]. The overall prevalence of NAFLD is growing in parallel with the global epidemic of obesity [4]. The pathophysiology is complex and involves multiple concurrent mechanisms in the context of abnormal metabolic processes that arise mostly in individuals with risk factors. Comorbidities associated with NAFLD include obesity, type 2 diabetes (T2D), arterial hypertension, and dyslipidemia, as traits of metabolic syndrome (MetS) [3]. MetS is a clinical syndrome that includes obesity, dyslipidemia, arterial hypertension, and T2D [5]. NAFLD is strongly linked with all segments of MetS and it is in fact liver manifestation of MetS. Some authors have suggested that NAFLD could be defined as a fifth component of the MetS [5]. Both conditions were related to insulin resistance (IR), the main pathogenic factor underlying NAFLD and MetS. Abdominal fat overage is a fundamental determinant in NAFLD pathogenesis due to its association with IR and a possible source of free fatty acids (FFA) [3, 6]. Trunk fat was found to be indicative of elevated ALT, supporting the potential involvement of the metabolically active intra-abdominal fat in increased liver injury [2]. Obesity is associated with an increase in adipose tissue lipolysis, secretion of inflammatory, and fibrotic mediators, which can reach the liver. The accumulation of inflammatory/immune cells and the modification of the activities of these cells in the adipose tissue contributed to chronic low-grade inflammation during obesity [2, 3]. This sustained inflammation mediates IR and provides a contributing link between its development and NAFLD [2, 3]. The accumulation of hepatic diacylglycerol and the activation of inflammatory pathways are promoted. Diacylglycerols activate protein kinase ε and inhibit insulin signaling, leading to hepatic IR [2, 3]. The dysregulation of insulin-mediated control of hepatic production of glucose and lipids appears to be the main event in the development of NAFLD [3]. Normally, insulin impairs gluconeogenesis while promoting lipogenesis. There is a paradoxical situation in NAFLD, especially in the context of T2D. IR results in a reduced ability to inhibit gluconeogenesis but insulin-driven lipogenesis still occurs and is even enhanced [3]. Varieties of natural products have been proposed as a pharmacological treatment of MetS and T2D. Scolymus hispanicus, the golden thistle species, is food source and can be considered an important natural source of antioxidants. The golden thistle (Scolymus hispanicus), locally known as “Guernina” or “Thaghadiwth,” is one of the most popular plants in Algeria, Spain, and other Mediterranean countries [7]. In Algeria, we eat the petioles (“stems” of the leaf, or more exactly the main vein) cooked in the broth (red sauce with meat) that accompanies couscous. Scolymus hispanicus has been linked to many medicinal properties such as diuretic, depurative, digestive, choleretic, and lithiuretic properties [7]. Moreover, in traditional medicine, consuming this plant in the green or cooked state is recommended for liver and intestines diseases [8]. The flaky stems are used for digestive tract care, bronchitis, and cold and have emmenagogic and antidiarrhoeal properties [9]. The roots in decoction are recommended as an antidiabetic. Consumption of the ribs (main veins) of this plant fresh or cooked is recommended for liver and intestinal diseases [8]. Other uses in the traditional medicine of golden thistle have been reported, such as in Malta fever and eye infection [10]; it can also be used as an appetizer and as a hemostatic agent [11]. The antioxidant activity of Scolymus has been reported [10, 12]. Phytochemical analysis has demonstrated that the plant contains many biologically active compounds and a high content of α-tocopherol and identified 3 flavonoids (catechin, rutin, and tannic acid) and 13 phenolic acids, such as gallic acid, pyrogallol, chlorogenic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, caffeic acid, syringic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, sinapic acid, salicylic acid, and rosmarinic acid resveratrol [13]. In this context, the present study aims to evaluate the effect of the aqueous extract of Scolymus hispanicus on HFD-related metabolic disorders, steatosis hepatic, inflammation, and stress markers. 2. Materials and Methods 2.1. Preparation of Aqueous Extract from Scolymus hispanicus The aerial part of Scolymus hispanicus or the golden thistle was harvested in Algiers in February 2019. The voucher specimen (INA/P/No 54) has been preserved in the herbarium of the Botany Department, National Institute of Agronomy (INA), Algiers, Algeria. The stems and leaves of Scolymus were washed and separated from the roots, cut into small slices, dried, then added to 1000 mL of water, and left to boil for 50 min on a thermostated stirrer. After the cooling, the extract was filtered through muslin. The filtrate was centrifuged at 1500 rpm for 5 min and a second time at 2000 rpm for 10 min to obtain a homogeneous liquid. After the centrifugation, all samples were filtered through filter paper (Whatman with a pore size of 11 μm). The collected aqueous extract was then lyophilized (Cryodos 80, −75°C, 5 m³/h) to find an extract yield of 4.3%. The extract was stored in sealed glass vials at ± 4°C before being tested and analyzed. 2.2. Preparation of the Hyperfatty Diet The hyperfatty diet at 40% was prepared in the cellular and molecular physiopathology team/BPO Laboratory/USTHB. According to the recommended nutritional intake, fats should not exceed 30% of the total daily energy intake to avoid unhealthy weight gain. In our study, we used a rate of 40% of lipids to confirm the installation of obesity with metabolic dysfunctions in the rats. The hyperfatty diet is based on cooked sheep fat; the cooking increases saturated fatty acids. The lipid intake in these rats is represented by 40 g of cooked sheep fat equivalent of 360 kcal; this fat is added to 60 g of the standard laboratory food equivalent of 186 kcal to constitute 100 g of food equivalent of 546 kcal. A daily diet of 20 g of hyperfatty food provides 109.2 kcal/day. 2.3. Animals This study was carried out on 28 female rats of the Rattus norvegicus with average weights of 111.33 ± 27.66 g, which were reared at the animal facility of the Faculty of Biological Sciences, USTHB, with controlled temperature (22 ± 1°C), lighting (12-hour dark/light cycle), and free access to food and water. The animals were divided into 4 groups:(1)Control batch: seven control rats subjected to a standard laboratory diet for 2 months of experimentation. The feed was provided by the National Animal Feed Office; the calories intake contained in 20 g of food is 62 calories.(2)Control batch treated with the aqueous extract of Scolymus hispanicus at a rate of 100 mg/kg of body weight/day during the last eight days of experimentation by intraperitoneal injection (7 animals).(3)Batch subjected to a hyperfatty diet (HFD) at 40% for two months with a daily intake of 20 g per rat. The calorie intake contained in 20 g of food was 109.2 calories.(4)Batch subjected to an HFD and treated with the aqueous extract of Scolymus hispanicus at a rate of 100 mg/kg of body weight/day during the last eight days of experimentation by intraperitoneal injection while maintaining the hyperfatty diet (7 animals). 2.4. Methods 2.4.1. Chemical Study (1) Total Phenolic Content. The content of total polyphenols in the aqueous extract of Scolymus hispanicus was determined using the Folin–Ciocalteu reagent according to the method of Singleton et al., using gallic acid as a reference [14]. An aliquot of the aqueous (0.2 mL) extract contains 1000 μg of Scolymus mixed with 46 mL of distilled water and 1 mL of Folin–Ciocalteu reagent in a volumetric flask. The mixture was incubated for 3 min in the dark. After that, 3 mL of sodium carbonate solution (7.5%) was added to the mixture. After 2 hours of incubation in the dark, the absorbance was measured at 740 nm in a spectrophotometer (Shimadzu 1800, Mulgrave, Victoria, Australia). The total phenolic content was evaluated from a standard calibration curve of gallic acid, and the results were expressed as micrograms of gallic acid (GA) equivalents (E) per milligram of extract (µg GAE/mg). (2) Determination of Total Flavonoids. The total flavonoids were determined according to the modified method described by Lebreton et al. using quercetin as a reference [15]. Four milliliters (4 mL) of dilution solution was mixed with 4 mL of aluminum trichloride solution (2% in methanol). After 15 min of incubation, the absorbance was measured at 415 nm. Quercetin (Q) was used as a reference compound to produce the standard curve. The results were expressed as μg QE/mg. (3) Antioxidant Activity: Scavenging Effect on DPPH Radical. The 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay was carried out as described by Brand-Williams et al. [16]. It is based on the degradation of the DPPH radical dissolved in an 80% methanol/water mixture. An antioxidant will have the ability to donate an electron to the synthetic radical DPPH (purple coloration) to reduce it to nonradical DPPH (yellow-green coloration). The aqueous extract was dissolved in methanol. A sample of 25 μL of each concentration (100, 200, 400, 600, 800, and 1000 μg/mL) was added to the DPPH methanol solution (60 μM, 975 μL). After 30 min of incubation at 25°C, the absorbance at 517 nm was measured by UV spectrophotometer (Jasco, V-530). Ascorbic acid and α-tocopherol were used as compounds reference. The radical scavenging activity was then calculated using the following equation: % of radical scavenging activity = ((Abs control−Abs sample)/Abs control) × 100, where Abs control is the absorption of the blank sample and Abs sample is the absorbance of the tested extract. 2.4.2. Biological Study (1) Analytical Techniques. The animals were bled from the retroorbital venous plexus; this technique eliminates using anesthetic agents affecting measurements of biochemical parameters. Blood, which was collected in dried tubes, was centrifuged at 3000 rpm for 10 min and the sera were stored at −20°C. Blood glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, and transaminase were measured by enzymatic colorimetric method using a test kit of Biosystem. Blood insulin was determined by radioimmunoassay using a CIS test kit (ORIS INDUS). The evaluation of the redox status was performed in the sera and erythrocytes by assaying the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARs) and catalase. (2) Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGGT). The oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) measures the clearance of glucose from the body after its absorption from the intestinal tract. All rats were weighed one day before the test for the calculation of the glucose solution to be administered. The glucose solution (40%) was administered by intraperitoneal injection. Rats received 2 mg of glucose/g of body weight [17, 18]. The rats were fasted for a period of 14 to 16 hours with free access to water. A blood sample was taken from a small incision in the tail using a scalpel to measure basal blood glucose level (=time point 0) with the glucometer vital check [17, 18]. Once basal glucose concentrations were measured in all rats, the glucose solution was given to each animal by intraperitoneal injection. The timer was immediately started after the first administration of glucose to all rats. After 30 min, the blood glucose was measured using a glucometer of each rat in the same order as they were injected. This operation was repeated in 60, 90, and 120 min after glucose administration [19, 20]. (3) Organs Harvesting. At the end of the experiment, animals were sacrificed after anesthesia by intraperitoneal injection of urethane. The liver removed was divided into five fragments, and each fragment was weighed. They were intended for different assays, including total lipids where the fragment is immersed directly in Folch solution. Another fragment was bound in paraformaldehyde at 10%, and the other three fragments were frozen directly in liquid nitrogen to evaluate redox status, inflammatory markers, and hepatic glycogen. Two animals from each batch were kept for the initiation of hepatocyte cell culture. (4) Histology of the Liver. After fixation in paraformaldehyde at 10% for 24 h, the specimens of liver were dehydrated and embedded in paraffin and cut at 5 μm. The sections were stained with Masson’s trichrome [21]. (5) Hepatic Glycogen. The principle of the method consists in hydrolyzing the glycogen extracted from the liver of rats into glucose with an acid and determining the amount of the formed glucose using the Folin and Wu method [22]. Concentrations were deduced from a standard curve prepared with standard glucose solution and the amount of glycogen was expressed per 100 g of liver. (6) Total Lipids. The extraction was carried out according to the method of Folch et al. [23]. The lipids were extracted using chloroform/methanol (2 : 1 ). The total lipids were estimated in mg/100 g of liver. (7) Oxidant and Antioxidant Activity.(i)Catalase Activity Assay. The enzymatic activity of catalase was determined using the method of Claiborne [24]. The principle was based on the disappearance of H2O2 in the presence of the enzyme source at 25°C. Catalase was evaluated in sera, erythrocytes, and liver of all animal groups. Absorbance was estimated at 240 nm in two time points, t0 and after two min. Erythrocytes and liver were lysed, before all assays, in a lysis buffer [25].(ii)Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) Activity Assay. The evaluation of the SOD activity was performed according to the method of Giannopolitis and Ries [26].(iii)Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances Assay (TBARs). After the reaction with thiobarbituric acid (TBA) (Sigma) [27], the TBARs were measured in sera, erythrocytes, and liver. The MDA contained in the supernatant in the presence of 10% trichloroacetic acid reacted with TBA and caused the formation of a red complex estimated at 532 nm.(iv)Protein Carbonyl Assay. Protein carbonyls (PC) were measured in the liver of all animal groups according to the procedure described by Reznick and Packer [28] using dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) reagent and spectrophotometric method. The absorbance was measured at 370 nm. The results were expressed as nanomoles of carbonyl groups per milligram of protein using a molar extinction coefficient of 22 000M⁻¹ cm⁻¹.(v)Advanced Protein Oxidation Products Assay. The determination of advanced protein oxidation products (AOPP) levels was performed in the liver by modifying the Witko-Sarsat method [29]. The absorbance of the reaction mixture was immediately estimated at 340 nm. AOPP concentrations were expressed as micromoles/L of chloramine-T equivalents [30]. (8) Measurement of Inflammation Markers.(i)Nuclear Factor-Kappa B (NFκB). The assessment was determined by immunoenzymatic assay. Invitrogen ELISA kits were used for measuring the levels of the NF-kB p65 in the liver of all groups. The estimation was made by Elisa reader at 450 nm (BioTek Instruments).(ii)Nitrogen Monoxide Assay (NO). The determination of nitrite and nitrate was evaluated from supernatants of the liver of different groups. The nitrite bearing in all samples, which were deproteinized and regenerated, was quantified after addition of Griess reagent (0.1% N-(1naphthyl) ethylenediamine dihydrochloride, 1% sulfanilamide, and 5% phosphoric acid). Absorbance was measured at 543 nm [31]. (9) Perfusion and Isolation of Hepatocytes. This technique was carried out using the modified method of Severgnini et al. and Edwards et al. [32, 33]. All steps were performed under sterile conditions. After anesthesia of the animals by intraperitoneal injection with urethane, insert the cannula in the portal vein and start the perfusion using a peristaltic pump containing phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) at pH 7.2. As soon as the infusion starts, immediately cut the hepatic vein to allow perfusate to run as waste. The flow was maintained at 5 mL/min for 15 to 20 min thanks to the peristaltic pump to remove the blood completely in each lobe. A second solution at pH 7.4 containing trypsin replaces PBS for tissue digestion. At this stage, the hepatic tissue was rapidly disaggregated. The liver was collected with a curved spatula and was transported in a sterile Petri dish containing DMEM + fetal calf serum (FCS), where we proceeded with the disruption of the tissue proceeded using a scalpel. This step should be fast in order to avoid damage to hepatocytes. The medium containing the cells was recovered, followed by centrifugation at 600 rpm for 5 min at room temperature. The supernatant was subsequently removed and the cells were suspended a second time in 30 mL of Percoll cushion at 37.5% for recovering viable cells. Another centrifugation was effectuated for 3 minutes at 1000 rpm at room temperature.(i)Hepatocyte Culture and Microscopy. The viable cells recovered were suspended again in 2 mL of DMEM; the hepatocytes are observed with an inverted microscope after staining with trypan blue. The cells were distributed in flasks, which were adjusted to 5 mL of DMEM supplemented with FCS, L-glutamine, and antibiotics, and they are incubated in a CO2 incubator (Memmert) (5% CO2, 95% air) for the start of the primary culture. After 48 h of incubation, we noted the confluence of the cells. Trypsinization was necessary to perform the first passage [32, 33]. 2.4.3. Statistical Analysis Data were analyzed with ANOVA using STATISTICA version 6 and completed with HSD Tukey’s test. The results were expressed as the mean ± standard deviation. The differences at were considered to be statistically significant. 3. Results 3.1. Phytochemical Study of Scolymus hispanicus The aqueous extract of Scolymus hispanicus showed a high content of total polyphenols and flavonoids (Table 1). The antioxidant activity of the aqueous extract of Scolymus hispanicus was evaluated using the DPPH free radical scavenging test. Our extract showed a very important antifree radical activity with an IC50 value of 0.0038 µg/ml, which was extremely higher than the reference values BHA and BHT (21.18 ± 0.12 µg/mL and 12.66 ± 0.18 µg/mL, respectively) (Table 1). Extract/standards Total phenolic content (µg GAE/ mg) Total flavonoids (ug QE/mg) DPPH (IC50) (µg/mL) Aqueous extract 270.321 ± 25.44 164.94 ± 9.45 0.00383 BHA n.a. n.a. 21.18 ± 0.12 BHT n.a. n.a. 12.66 ± 0.18 Each value was expressed as means ± standard deviations for triplicate experiments. n.a.: not applied. Q: quercetin; QE: quercetin equivalents; GA: gallic acid; GAE: gallic acid equivalents; BHA: butylhydroxyanisole; BHT: butylhydroxytoluene.
... [168] In Spain, traditional use as a fresh vegetable in salads or consumed boiled and fried has been reported. [169] Whole seed (unprocessed) High amounts in healthy substances such as fibers, and Ca and K levels, even higher than many conventional vegetables, was detected. [170] Seed (processed/fermented) Effective antioxidant and radical-scavenging activity of silymarin from seeds suggests its utilization for minimizing or preventing lipid oxidation in food products. ...
... Different parts are consumed in Sardinia and Spain; for instance, young heads and stems [168]. In Spain, milk thistle has been traditionally used as a fresh vegetable in salads, or eaten boiled and fried [169]. These observations suggest the exploitation of its fresh leaves, without spines, as an interesting commercial opportunity [169]. ...
... In Spain, milk thistle has been traditionally used as a fresh vegetable in salads, or eaten boiled and fried [169]. These observations suggest the exploitation of its fresh leaves, without spines, as an interesting commercial opportunity [169]. The high amount of healthy components such as fibers, as well as the relevant Ca and K levels, even higher than in many conventional vegetables, represent important aspects supporting this opportunity [170]. ...
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Milk thistle (Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn.) is a versatile crop that has adapted to the broadly different soil and environmental conditions throughout all continents. To date, the fruits (“seeds”) of the plant are the only reliable source of silymarin, which, given its recognized therapeutic effects and its many present and potential uses, has led to a significant re-discovery and enhancement of the crop in recent years. Overall, although many studies have been carried out globally on the bioactivity, phytochemistry, and genetics of milk thistle, few and discontinuous research activity has been conducted on its basic agronomy as well as on the farm opportunities offered by the cultivation of this species. However, the multiple potential uses of the plant and its reduced need for external inputs suggest that milk thistle can perfectly fit among the most interesting alternative crops, even for marginal environments. The growing interest in natural medicine, the increasing popularity of herbal dietary supplements, and the multiple possibilities for livestock feeding are all arguments supporting the idea that in many rural areas, this crop could represent a significant tool for enhancing and stabilizing farm income. However, several issues still have to be addressed. The species retains some morphological and physiological traits belonging to non-domesticated plants, which make the application of some common agronomic practices challenging. Furthermore, the lack of reliable field data devoted to the definition of suitable cropping protocols represents a major constraint on the spread of this crop among farmers. This review has therefore focused on updating information on the main morphological and phytochemical traits of the crop and its agronomic characteristics and novel uses. Several gaps in technical knowledge have been addressed, and further goals for experimental activity have been outlined in order to guide farmers eager to cope with the cultivation of such a challenging and resource-rich crop.
... The leaves of Beta vulgaris subsp. Maritima constitute a healthy food against digestive disorders, burns, throat pains and anaemia [191]. Shoots' fresh weight is increased with salinity [192]. ...
... In a comparative study with other halophytes, B. vulgaris subsp. Maritima showed an appreciable content of malic acid (51.36 mg/100 g d.w.) and oxalic acid (581 mg/100 g d.w.) [191]. The four chemical structures of tocopherols were detected, but α-tocopherol (vitamin E activity) was the major component. ...
... The four chemical structures of tocopherols were detected, but α-tocopherol (vitamin E activity) was the major component. Total phenols (62 mg/100 g d.w.), total flavonoids (21.6 mg/100 g d.w.), and vitamin C (20 mg/100 g d.w.) were also present in the leaf extracts, and the antioxidant activity was significantly correlated with the antioxidant compounds [191]. The basal leaves contain fatty acids, such as α-linolenic acid, linoleic acid, and palmitic acid. ...
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Salinity is one of the oldest and most serious environmental problems in the world. The increasingly widespread salinization of soils and water resources represents a growing threat to agriculture around the world. A strategy to cope with this problem is to cultivate salt-tolerant crops and, therefore, it is necessary to identify plant species that are naturally adapted to high-salinity conditions. In this review, we focus our attention on some plant species that can be considered among the most representative halophytes of the Mediterranean region; they can be potential resources, such as new or relatively new vegetable crops, to produce raw or minimally processed (or ready-to-eat) products, considering their nutritional properties and nutraceuticals. The main biological and agronomic characteristics of these species and the potential health risks due to mycotoxigenic fungi have been analyzed and summarized in a dedicated section. The objective of this review is to illustrate the main biological and agronomical characteristics of the most common halophytic species in the Mediterranean area, which could expand the range of leafy vegetables on the market.
... In contrast to our study, Nemzer et al. [59] reported a higher total and individual organic acids content in cultivated purslane plants compared to wild ones, although different genotypes were tested in both cases which may partially justify this difference [60]. According to the literature, organic acids composition shows a great variability among wild edible species, depending on the edible part and the growing conditions [20,[60][61][62][63]. Special focus is given on oxalic acid content which is undesirable when consumed in high amounts (daily consumption higher than 5 g for adults; [31]), since it reduces Ca availability and induces the formation of kidney stones [64,65]. ...
... Despite the higher oxalic acid content of cultivated C. raphanina spp. mixta plants observed in our study, the detected amounts are lower than those reported on a fresh weight basis in other wild (e.g., Chenopodium album [69], Sonchus oleraceus [61,70], Amaranthus viridis [71], Silybum marianum and Beta maritima [61], and purslane [60,62]) or cultivated species (e.g., spinach [72]) which are considered as rich sources of this anti-nutritional factor. Therefore, based on the set safe limit high amounts of C. raphanina spp. ...
... Despite the higher oxalic acid content of cultivated C. raphanina spp. mixta plants observed in our study, the detected amounts are lower than those reported on a fresh weight basis in other wild (e.g., Chenopodium album [69], Sonchus oleraceus [61,70], Amaranthus viridis [71], Silybum marianum and Beta maritima [61], and purslane [60,62]) or cultivated species (e.g., spinach [72]) which are considered as rich sources of this anti-nutritional factor. Therefore, based on the set safe limit high amounts of C. raphanina spp. ...
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Centaurea raphanina subsp. mixta (DC.) Runemark is a wild edible species endemic to Greece. This study evaluated the chemical composition and bioactive properties of wild and cultivated C. raphanina subsp. mixta plants. Wild plants had higher nutritional value than cultivated ones, whereas cultivated plants contained more tocopherols. Glucose and sucrose were higher in cultivated plants and trehalose in wild ones. Oxalic and total organic acids were detected in higher amounts in cultivated samples. The main fatty acids were α-linolenic, linoleic and palmitic acid, while wild plants were richer in polyunsaturated fatty acids. Two pinocembrin derivatives were the main phenolic compounds being detected in higher amounts in wild plants. Regarding the antioxidant activity, wild and cultivated plants were more effective in the oxidative haemolysis (OxHLIA) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assays, respectively. Moreover, both extracts showed moderate cytotoxicity in non-tumor cell lines (PLP2), while cultivated plants were more effective against cervical carcinoma (HeLa), breast carcinoma (MCF-7) and non-small lung cancer (NCI-H460) cell lines. Finally, wild plants showed higher antimicrobial activity than cultivated plants against specific pathogens. In conclusion, the cultivation of C. raphanina subsp. mixta showed promising results in terms of tocopherols content and antiproliferative effects, however further research is needed to decrease oxalic acid content.
... During the first world war, Mattirolo et al. [5] rendered the term more precise, adding the prefix "phyto" to better define the field of interest. Today, WEP can be considered a great historical and cultural heritage that can improve diets [6] and restore a link with old gastronomic traditions [7] and agro-biodiversity [8]. WEP are a favorite delicacy in many countries and represent an extraordinary source of essential elements for the human health. ...
... Many studies report that WEP are high in nutrients such as carotenoids, vitamins, minerals and other antioxidant compounds [9,17], and in polyphenols with antioxidant and antimicrobial properties [18][19][20][21]. Some WEP may therefore be considered "nutraceuticals" [6]. ...
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Smooth golden fleece (Urospermum dalechampii (L.) F.W. Schmidt) and prickly golden fleece (Urospermum picroides (L.) Scop. ex F.W. Schmid) are two wild edible plants used in traditional cuisine and folk medicine. In this research, the domestication of both species was tested for the first time using a floating system and two plant densities (412 and 824 plants m−2) to evaluate yield and quality. Some quality traits were also compared in cultivated plants and wild ones gathered in grasslands. The results show that both species are suitable for cultivation, although prickly golden fleece showed highest total phenols (132 mg 100 g−1 fresh weight—f.w.) and total antioxidant activity (0.19 mg 100 g−1 f.w.). At low sowing density, smooth golden fleece showed a nitrate content of about 7200 mg kg−1 f.w., 38% higher than plants of the same species grown at high density and plants of prickly golden fleece. These results suggest that high density can be used to optimize yield in two harvests. By permitting modulation of nutrients and a product without soil residues, the floating system used in this study proved suitable for growing U. dalechhampii and U. picroides as new vegetables for the ready-to-eat production chain.
... Although MD is sustainable in its conception, the recently identified social and economic trends make it necessary to reevaluate the whole food chain, including crop production, food production, and consumption, also considering environmental, nutritional, economic, and social aspects [106]. Recently, several reports highlighted the importance of commercial cultivation of wild edible greens within the framework of sustainable management of native Mediterranean species and the exigent need for an increase in agrobiodiversity in farming systems, which is threatened by ongoing climate change and monocropping [108][109][110][111]. According to a recent report published by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, only nine crops contribute 66% of the global total production of food [37]. ...
... The ingredients of the MD contain several antioxidant compounds that have the capacity to protect against cancer, metabolic disorders, aging, and cardiovascular disease, as mentioned in several reports [12,111,141,142]. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC) consists of all of the antioxidants that are present in plasma and body fluids, and provides an integrated measurement rather than the simple sum of measurable antioxidants. ...
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The Mediterranean diet (MD) concept as currently known describes the dietary patterns that were followed in specific regions of the area in the 1950s and 1960s. The broad recognition of its positive effects on the longevity of Mediterranean populations also led to the adoption of this diet in other regions of the world, and scientific interest focused on revealing its health effects. MD is not only linked with eating specific nutritional food products but also with social, religious, environmental, and cultural aspects, thus representing a healthy lifestyle in general. However, modern lifestyles adhere to less healthy diets, alienating people from their heritage. Therefore, considering the increasing evidence of the beneficial health effects of adherence to the MD and the ongoing transitions in consumers' behavior, the present review focuses on updating the scientific knowledge regarding this diet and its relevance to agrobiodiversity. In addition, it also considers a sustainable approach for new marketing opportunities and consumer trends of the MD.
... Mediterranean agro-ecosystems host a rich patrimony of wild edible plants (WEPs) that have always been an important food source for the rural communities (Morales et al. 2014;Pieroni 2017). However, the consumption of WEPs has substantially decreased due to globalization and a shift from a rural, agriculturebased economy to a market-oriented one in certain areas of the Mediterranean basin. ...
... Nowadays, the increasing demand for healthy food and natural antioxidant intake from Central and Northern Europe countries, combined with the development of local cuisine and the search concerning sustainable food, has rekindled the interest for the culinary use of WEPs (Pereira et al. 2011;Sánchez-Mata et al. 2012;Di Gioia et al. 2018b). WEPs represent an extraordinary food source and basic ingredients in the so-called Mediterranean diet that may be used to diversify and enrich modern diet with many colors and flavors, essential nutrients, minerals, fiber, vitamins, essential fatty acids, and health-promoting compounds (Bianco et al. 1998;Bharucha and Pretty 2010;Morales et al. 2013Morales et al. , 2014Petropoulos et al. 2020). In addition, WEPs are very well-adapted to the local soil and climatic conditions, and their cultivation should demand lower inputs (e.g., water, fertilizers, agrochemicals) than domesticated species (Karkanis et al. 2019). ...
Chapter
Mediterranean agro-ecosystems host also a very rich patrimony of wild edible plants that have always represented an important food source for the rural communities of the Mediterranean area, and several studies have demonstrated their relevant role in the traditional Mediterranean diets. Despite worldwide interest in the so-called health foods or super-foods, only a few of these native species have been incorporated in commercial cultivation systems, whereas most of them are usually gathered by hand from self-seeding wild plants. Moreover, Mediterranean agriculture is characterized by small-scale farms, which are considered to be the backbone of farming sector and crop production in the region and are essential to the preservation and development of rural area economies, especially under the ongoing climate change the world is facing. The present chapter will present the most up-to-date information regarding the chemical composition and bioactive properties of the most important wild halophytes of the Mediterranean basin, case studies of their commercial exploitation, as well as future prospects for further exploitation focusing on preservation of native genetic material and improved management of the natural and agricultural environment.
... The Mediterranean basin has a plenty of wild and semi-domesticated plants that have been exploited by rural communities for centuries and even during food crises, thus earning the name of "famine food" [2]. A declining consumption of noncultivated edible plants is occurring due to social factors and the diffusion of the so-called "Western-style diet" [3,4]. Nonetheless, NUS are receiving increased scientific attention due to nutritional benefits, richness of bioactive components, and suitable micronutrient contents [3,5]. ...
... A declining consumption of noncultivated edible plants is occurring due to social factors and the diffusion of the so-called "Western-style diet" [3,4]. Nonetheless, NUS are receiving increased scientific attention due to nutritional benefits, richness of bioactive components, and suitable micronutrient contents [3,5]. Numerous non-cultivated species are considered weeds in intensive crop systems and therefore, are largely ignored by researchers, farmers, and consumers [2]. ...
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Neglected and underutilized species (NUS) offer largely unexplored opportunities for providing nutritious plant food, while making agro-ecosystems more diverse and resilient to climate change. The aim of this work was to explore the potential of two typical Mediterranean underutilized species, purslane and borage, as novel vegetable product (microgreens). Micro-scale production of edible plants is spreading due to the simplicity of their management, rapid cycle, harvest index, and phytochemical value of the edible product. Microgreens, therefore, represent an opportunity to link NUS, nutrition, and agricultural and dietary diversification. By analyzing yield, antioxidants activities, mineral composition, and main phenolic acids and flavonoids, our work indicated that the two species provide interesting results when compared with those reported for crops and horticultural species. Specifically, purslane should be considered highly nutritional due to the amount of phenolic compounds and ascorbic acid, and to potential good β-carotene bioavailability. Borage microgreens have a very high fresh yield and a more composite and balanced phenolic profile. In conclusion, our work provided evidence for implementing new ways to expand the NUS market-chains and for developing added-value food products.
... So far, despite the wide diffusion of the mentioned species, the knowledge of nutritional and bioactive compound profile of alimurgical WEPs is scarce and mostly limited to Sonchus spp. [1,3,4,16,17]. In this study Crepis vesicaria L. (s.l.), Sonchus asper (L.) Hill s.l. and Sonchus oleraceus L. have been investigated for their nutritional composition with particular regard to carotenoids, tocols, thiamine and riboflavin, in order to highlight their importance in human diet. ...
... Similar tocol amounts and T. E are found in other green vegetables [33]. For WEPs and some Asteraceae species, tocol contents are of the same or lower order of magnitude [1,16]. Conforti et al. [34], in S. oleraceus and S. asper, found no tocols; this finding could be probably due to the different extraction method used, which does not include a saponification procedure and therefore it is not able to hydrolyze esters and eventually present bound forms of tocols. ...
Article
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Three wild edible plant species belonging to the Asteraceae family, Crepis vesicaria L. (s.l.), Sonchus asper (L.) Hill s.l., and Sonchus oleraceus L., usually consumed in the Mediterranean diet, were tested for their nutritional composition and content of carotenoids, tocols, thiamine and riboflavin. Low amounts of thiamine and riboflavin were found. All species were sources of xanthophylls (violaxanthin, neoxanthin, lutein, zeaxanthin and β-cryptoxanthin) and carotenes (α-carotene, β-carotene, 9-cis-β-carotene and 13-cis-β-carotene). Lutein accounted for the highest content (about 4 mg/100 g). They had good tocol amounts, in particular α-tocopherol (about 2–3 mg/100 g). Taking into account the Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA) established by the EU Regulation, the analyzed plants can be declared as a source of fiber, vitamin A and E. These data could be useful for database on the nutritional and bioactive compound profile of studied plants and can contribute in promoting their use in functional foods.
... The chemical diversity of bioactive compounds and pathways of their biosynthesis is dependent on a broad spectrum of biotic and abiotic factors and their interactions. Sometimes the benefits of plant-derived pharmacological products are controversial despite standard chemical composition with the use of commonly accepted pharmacopeia's methods [43]. Numerous papers have described the pharmacological activity and chemical constituents isolated from plants of the Asteraceae, covering polyphenols, sesquiterpenes, organic and fatty acids which have been associated with the successful treatment of cardiovascular diseases, cancer, microbial and viral infections, inflammation, and other diseases [43]. ...
... Sometimes the benefits of plant-derived pharmacological products are controversial despite standard chemical composition with the use of commonly accepted pharmacopeia's methods [43]. Numerous papers have described the pharmacological activity and chemical constituents isolated from plants of the Asteraceae, covering polyphenols, sesquiterpenes, organic and fatty acids which have been associated with the successful treatment of cardiovascular diseases, cancer, microbial and viral infections, inflammation, and other diseases [43]. Most of the Asteraceae taxa, like Artemisia, are well known for their resistance to herbivores, bacterial and fungal pathogens [44]. ...
Article
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Endophytes are isolated from every plant species investigated to date, so the metabolome coevolution has been affecting the plants’ (microbiota) ethnobotanic, especially therapeutic, usage. Asteraceae fulfill the rationale for plant selection to isolate endophytes since most of the species of this family have a long tradition of healing usage, confirmed by modern pharmacognosy. The present review compiles recent references on the endophyte−Asteraceae spp. interactions, targeting the secondary metabolites profile as created by both members of this biological system. Endophyte fungi associated with Asteraceae have been collected globally, however, dominant taxa that produce bioactive compounds were specific for the plant populations of different geographic origins. Endophytic fungi richness within the host plant and the biological activity were positively associated. Moreover, the pharmacological action was linked to the plant part, so differential forms of biological interactions in roots, stem, leaves, inflorescences were developed between endophytic fungi and host plants. The comparative analysis of the Asteraceae host and/or fungal endophyte therapeutic activity showed similarities that need a future explanation on the metabolome level.
... According to their high cultural relevance, as shown in the previous ethnobotanical review (Chidrawar et al., 2011;Morales et al., 2014;Poonia & Upadhayay, 2015;Avato & Argentieri, 2015;Tardío et al., 2016;Jakubczyk et al., 2018;Panfili et al., 2020), as well as the growing popularity of vegetable salads in the traditional diet of the Valencian coast, five different undervalued wild species were chosen: Stellaria media (L.) Vill, Tropaeolum majus L., Sonchus oleraceus L., Chenopodium album L., Diplotaxis erucoides (L.) DC. The five species studied in this research have in common the temporal coexistence of germinating in the early autumn and reaching optimal vegetative development in the autumn-winter period, on the Valencian coast. ...
... Data obtained from studied plants showed the highest polyphenol contents, without wide variation between species. Italian samples S. oleraceus L. revelated lower phenolic contents (0.061 mg GAE/100 g) than Spanish samples in the study carried out by Morales et al. (2014), which also estimated that this variability could be due to different climatic conditions, as well as genetic differences. Silva et al. (2018) highlighted total phenolic content for the leaves of the Brazilian T. majus L. (167.84 mg GAE/100 g), concluding that it presented one of the high values. ...
Article
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Background Wild edible herbs have historically been used as local nutritional and medicinal sources. These plants grow spontaneously, depending on the season. They adapt well to different edaphoclimatic conditions, generating a diversity constituent beneficial to health. They impart compounds needed in the human diet in regard to macro and micronutrients. When consumed raw, they keep their properties intact and provide health benefits. Five undervalued edible plants: Stellaria media (L.) Vill, Tropaeolum majus L ., Sonchus oleraceus L ., Chenopodium album L. and Diplotaxis erucoides (L.) DC are characteristic of the autumn-winter season in the Valencian coastal region and could have new sustainable agro-ecological potential for the local commercial sector. However, little information is available from the nutritional quality and bioactive composition viewpoint for these species. Concurrently, the volatiles compounds profiles describing the characteristic flavors are unknown. Methods Nutritional characteristics, bioactive compounds, and other chemical components of the fresh leaves were analyzed. In addition, the volatiles composite profile was performed. The analyzed species come from the soil reservoir; their wild growth is adjusted to the autumn season. The proximate analysis was carried out by Association of Official Analytical Chemists methods. Total antioxidants were measured as 2.2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrzyl hydrate (DPPH) and total polyphenols content via the Folin-Ciocalteu procedure. Volatiles profile was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The vegetative part analyzed was the tender leaves with edible potential. Results A high variability has been obtained in the composition of the species studied. The proximate analysis found a considerable content of fiber (1.22–5.4 g·100 g ⁻¹ ), potassium (157.7–1,250.6 mg·100 g ⁻¹ ), iron (0.6–2.0 mg·100 g ⁻¹ ), and a low caloric value (16.1–43.02 kcal·mg·100 g ⁻¹ ). In bioactive compounds analysis, a high level of antioxidants was highlighted (1,604.3–4,874.6 μmol·100 g ⁻¹ ), followed by chlorophylls. Volatiles profile revealed that the species were rich in benzenoids (33.8–89.9%) as the majority family. The pyrazines class was characteristic only in D. erucoides L. Discussion Fresh edible leaves of the undervalued plants show considerable nutritional potential and a high bioactive components level, which highlight the antioxidant capacity. Leaves of C. album L. stand out due to their higher concentration of nutritional compounds, while D. erucoides L. is noted for its higher antioxidant capacity. Aromatic descriptor of pyrazines detected in the leaves of D. erucoides L. is associated with the slightly spicy flavors that characterize this species. Results suggest that studied species could be of great relevance in introducing these five edible herbs as a source of new grown material, postulating them as healthy food ingredients with attractive flavors for the gourmet cuisine industry.
... Aerial parts n.a. Hakim et al. (1961) (Morales et al. 2014). Commission E has written a monograph where it is declared that«corn poppy flower is used for diseases and discomforts of the respiratory tract, for disturbed sleep and as a sedative, and for the relief of pain». ...
... The increasing interest in the consumption of wild edible plants allowed an increasing interest in studies on their chemical composition. Morales et al. (2014), in fact, analysed eleven species traditionally used in Spain (including P. rhoeas) in important nutritional aspects. Vitamin C (as ascorbic acid and dehydroascorbic acid), vitamin E (tocopherols and tocotrienols) and organic acids have been determined in all species analysed. ...
Article
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Papaver rhoeas L. (Papaveraceae), commonly known as corn poppy, is a cosmopolitan weed and edible plant capable of possessing biological properties, thus positive correlating with human health. The plant is also known as field poppy, flanders poppy or shirley poppy. It can be consumed raw or cooked, and has been traditionally used to treat nervousness, insomnia, digestive and respiratory disorders, baldness, eye infections, as well as measles treatment. This paper is aimed to contribute to the knowledge of corn poppy by providing a critical review of the botanic characteristics, the traditional uses, the plant chemistry and pharmacology.
... Fresh poppy leaves contain 25.86 mg GAE/g extract of total phenolics and 1.87 mg/100 g FW of total tocopherols [32]. Scholars also measured the total polyphenol content in the poppy flower extract, obtaining 19.9 mg of gallic acid from a gram of fresh flowers. ...
... Poppy is a very good source of vitamin C. According to Vardavas et al. [31], the content of ascorbic acid in fresh poppy greens amounts to 17 mg/100 g of fresh weight. In another study, the amount found in leaves was similar, reaching 14.11 mg/100 g of fresh weight [32]. The values observed in this study (15-16 mg/100 mL of infusion) indicate that a considerable proportion of vitamin C is transferred into the infusion. ...
Article
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The flowers of the common poppy are used for medicinal purposes, both internally and externally. They are reported to have antispasmodic and antitussive properties, to alleviate inflammatory conditions and soothe anxiety-related digestive problems. The aim of the study was to determine the antioxidant potential and the content of vitamin C, polyphenols, and minerals in infusions made from the petals of the common poppy at different temperatures. The infusions were made at various temperatures (25 °C, 70 °C, 80 °C, and 90 °C). The antioxidant potential and the content of polyphenols and vitamin C were determined by spectrophotometric methods. The mineral content was determined using the ICP-OES method. The total polyphenol content ranged from 135.2 to 137.24 ppm and that of vitamin C—from 15.47 to 15.78 mg/100 mL. The temperature of the water used to make the infusions did not appear to have a significant effect on these parameters. The temperature did, however, significantly affect the antioxidant potential of the infusions—the highest antioxidant activity (71.21% DPPH inhibition) was observed in the infusion prepared using water at 80 °C. The infusions included in the study contained a number of minerals. No significant effect of temperature was found for the content of K, Zn, Cu, Fe, and Ni in the infusions. On the other hand, the content of Ca in the infusions was significantly correlated with the increasing temperature of the water. It was concluded that poppy petal infusions may serve as a valuable dietary supplement, providing antioxidants and minerals required by the human body to function properly.
... mg GAE/g fresh petals) [25]. In addition, approximately similar values to our LE and FE results were found in the methanolic extract of basal leaves of Spanish P. rhoeas (25.86 mg GAE/g extract) [26]. Another Turkish study shows that the TPC in the hydro-ethanolic leaf extract of P. rhoeas is 100 mg GAE/g extract, while the TPC in acetone extract is 78 mg GAE/g extract [18]. ...
... In another Serbian study, the TFC in fresh petal extract of P. rhoeas is 9.07 mg QE/g fresh petals, using the ultrasound procedure in an aqueous-ethanolic medium [25]. A Spanish study shows that TFC in a methanolic extract of basal leaves of P. rhoeas is 12.00 CE mg/g extract [26]. The TFC values in these cited studies are higher than our results obtained. ...
Article
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The objective of this study is to valorize Papaver rhoeas L. from the Taounate region of Morocco by determining the total polyphenol content (TPC), the total flavonoid content (TFC) and the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of four organs. The quantification of TPC and TFC in root, stem, leaf and flower extracts (RE, SE, LE and FE, respectively) was estimated by the Folin–Ciocalteu reaction and the aluminum trichloride method, respectively. Two tests were used to assess antioxidant power: the DPPH test and TAC assay. The antimicrobial activity was studied against five pathogenic bacteria and yeast, using two methods: disk diffusion and microdilution. The TPC in LE and LF was twice as high as that in RE and SE (24.24 and 22.10 mg GAE/g, respectively). The TFC values in the four extracts were very close and varied between 4.50 mg QE/g in the FE and 4.38 mg QE/g in the RE. The LE and FE showed low DPPH values with IC50 = 0.50 and 0.52 mg/mL, respectively. The TAC measurement revealed the presence of a significant amount of antioxidants in the studied extracts, mainly in LE and FE (6.60 and 5.53 mg AAE/g, respectively). The antimicrobial activity results revealed significant activity on almost all of the tested strains. The MIC of FE and SE against E. coli 57 was 1.56 and 0.78 mg/mL, respectively, while against the S. aureus it was 50 and 25 mg/mL, respectively. The low MLC value (1.56 mg/mL) was recorded against E. coli 57 by RE and SE.
... The active roles of several MAPs upon disease prevention, control, or reduction have been attributed to the antioxidant features of lypossoluble constituents (such as vitamins A and E), water-soluble components (such as vitamin C and organic acids), and phenolic compounds [3][4][5][6]. The antioxidant activity of phenolic compounds is mainly due to their redox properties, which allow them to act as reducing agents and hydrogen donators [7]. ...
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The chemical composition and biological properties correlation in several medicinal and aromatic plants is still underexplored, especially in its most common form of consumption as tisane. The present study aims to characterize the organic acids and vitamin E composition of five tisanes and their extracts by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled to a diode-array detector (HPLC-DAD) and HPLC coupled to a fluorescence detector techniques, respectively, and the phenolic composition by HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS (mass spectrometry by electrospray ionization). It also focuses on their bioactive properties, namely antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, cytotoxic, anti-tyrosinase, and anti-diabetic activities. A Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was performed in order to understand the correlation between the chemical composition and bioactive properties of the tisanes. The tisane 5 (T5) composed by lemon thyme, tutsan, cloves, and cinnamon, was the most promising mixture, presenting the lowest values for the lipid peroxidation inhibition, anti-inflammatory, and anti-diabetic activity. It also presented the highest concentration of phenolic acids (caffeoylquinic acids derivatives), and flavan-3-ols (catechin derivatives). Only the dry plants presented tocopherols. For the antihemolytic, antimicrobial, and cytotoxic activity, T2 and T4 (with lemon thyme) were highlighted as the best herbal mixtures. The PCA proved to be a valid tool to select the most promising tisane according to the bioactivity. These results suggest that the studied tisanes can be source of high added-value bioactive compounds with health-promoting effects and potential for application in the food and nutraceutical industries, among others.
... Taha et al. (Taha et al., 2015)reported that the antioxidant potential of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of S. marianum aerial parts was significantly different in the DPPH assay with IC 50 value of 36 and 44 μg/mL, respectively. Morales et al. (2014)investigated the antioxidant mechanism of methanolic extracts of S. marianum leaves, including the reducing power, DPPH radical scavenging activity, β-carotene bleaching inhibition (BCLB) and lipid peroxidation assay. The IC 50 value of S. marianum leaves in the reducing power, β-carotene, DPPH radical scavenging and lipid peroxidation tests was respectively 1.82, 13.09, 0.44 and 0.02 mg/ml. ...
Article
Ethnopharmacological relevance Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn. or Milk thistle is a medicinal plant native to Northern Africa, Southern Europe, Southern Russia and Anatolia. It also grows in South Australia, North and South America. In traditional knowledge, people have used S. marianum for liver disorders such as hepatitis, liver cirrhosis and gallbladder diseases. The main active compound of the plant seeds is silymarin, which is the most commonly used herbal supplement in the United States for liver problems. Nowadays, S. marianum products are available as capsules, powders, and extracts. Aim of study The aim of our study is to draw a more comprhensive overview of the traditional heritage, pharmacological benefits and chemical fingerprint of S. marianum extracts and metabolites; as well as their metabolism and bioavailability. Materials and methods An extensive literature search has been conducted using relavant keywords and papers with rationale methodology and robust data were selected and discussed. Studies involving S. marianum or its main active ingredients with regards to hepatoprotective, antidiabetic, cardiovascular protection, anticancer and antimicrobial activities as well as the clinical trials performed on the plant, were discussed here. Results S. marianum was subjected to thousands of ethnopharmacological, experimental and clinical investigations. Although, the plant is available for use as a dietary supplement, the FDA did not yet approve its use for cancer therapy. Nowadays, clinical investigations are in progress where a global evidence of its real efficiency is needed. Conclusion S. marianum is a worldwide used herb with unlimited number of investigations focusing on its benefits and properties, however, little is known about its clinical efficiency. Moreover, few studies have discussed its metabolism, pharmacokinetics and bioavailability, so that all future studies on S. marianum should focus on such areas.
... This is in agreement with the data of Hadjichambis et al. [126] showing that leaves are the most used plant parts, followed by shoots and other plant parts. It has already been reported that edible leafy vegetable Asteraceae species contain valuable dietary phytochemicals, mainly carotenoids, tocopherols and high content of ascorbic acid, [121,130] in addition to various phenolic compounds and sesquiterpene lactones. [131] Therefore, wild fresh leafy vegetables might constitute significant functional food components. ...
Article
Herbal drugs are a useful source of different bioactive compounds. Asteraceae species, as the most widespread vascular plants can be used both as food and as medicine due to the great diversity of recorded chemical components – different phenolic compounds, terpenes, carotenoids, vitamins, alkaloids, etc. The Balkan Peninsula is characterized by great diversity of plants from Asteraceae family, including presence of rare and endemic species. In this review, results of the survey of chemical composition and biological activity, mainly focusing on antioxidant, antimicrobial and anticancer effects of selected Balkans’ Asteraceae species were provided. In addition, information on edible plants from Asteraceae family is presented, due to growing interest for the so‐called “healthy diet” and possible application of Balkans’ Asteraceae species as food of high nutritional value or as a source of functional food ingredients.
... It is a common ingredient of many dishes and food products due to the exceptional nutritional value and the important bioactive properties of its leaves [31][32][33]. Apart from beneficial compounds content, spinach may be also rich in antinutrients such as nitrates and oxalates with severe implications on human health that have to be considered, and proper cultivation practices are usually applied to limit the content of such compounds [34][35][36][37]. The beneficial effects of biostimulants application on the yield and quality of spinach through the increase of bioactive compounds' content and nutritional value were reported in several recent studies [19,27,[38][39][40][41]. ...
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In the present study, the effect of biostimulants application on the nutritional quality and bioactive properties of spinach cultivated in protected environment under water stress conditions was evaluated. For this purpose, four commercially available biostimulant products (Megafol (MEG), Aminovert (AM), Veramin Ca (V), Twin Antistress (TA), and two spinach genotypes (Fuji F1 and Viroflay) were tested under two irrigation regimes (normal irrigation (W+), and water-holding (W–). Fat and carbohydrates content was favored by water stress when Megafol (MEGW+) and Veramin (VW+) were applied on Fuji plants, while calorific value was also increased by MEGW+ treatment. In contrast, protein and ash content increased when AMW– and TAW+ were applied on Viroflay plants. Raffinose and glucose were the most abundant sugars, followed by sucrose and fructose, with the highest contents recorded for Fuji plants when AMW+ (fructose, glucose and total carbohydrates), CW– (sucrose), and TAW– (raffinose) treatments were applied. Regarding organic acids, oxalic and malic acid which had the highest contents for the TAW– (Viroflay plants) and AMW– (Fuji plants) treatments, respectively. α- and γ-tocopherol were the only isoforms detected with MEGW– and VW– inducing the biosynthesis of α-tocopherol, while AMW+ increased γ-tocopherol content in Fuji plants. The main fatty acids were α-linolenic and linoleic acids which were detected in the highest amounts in AMW–, AMW+, and TAW+ the former and in AMW–, VW–, and CW+ the latter. Regarding phenolic compounds content, peak 12 (5,3′,4′-Trihydroxy-3-methoxy-6:7-methylenedioxyflavone-4′-glucuronide) was the most abundant compound, especially in Viroflay plants under normal irrigation and no biostimulants added (CW–). The antioxidant and cytotoxic activity of the tested samples did not show promising results when compared with the positive controls, while a variable antibacterial activity was recorded depending on the tested biostimulant, irrigation regime and genotype. In conclusion, a variable effect of the tested biostimulants and irrigation regimes was observed on bioactive properties and chemical composition of both spinach genotypes which highlights the need for further research in order to make profound conclusions regarding the positive effects of biostimulants under water stress conditions.
... Recently, some of them have been considered for cultivation, and changes in biochemical parameters have been studied in relation to agronomic techniques [9,10]. Indeed, they are known as a rich source of antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, diuretic, and antimicrobial compounds [4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16]. Moreover, phenolic extracts from some wild edible species proved to be active ...
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The study aimed to assess the influence of three cooking methods (boiling, steaming, and microwave-cooking) on (i) composition in individual phenolic compounds, (ii) total phenolic content (TPC), and (iii) total antioxidant activity (TAA) of eight Mediterranean wild edible species (Asparagus acutifolius, Asphodeline lutea, Beta vulgaris, Helminthotheca echioides, Sonchus oleraceus, Taraxacum officinale, Urospermum picroides, Urtica dioica). In raw greens, several caffeic acid derivatives (chicoric, caftaric, chlorogenic, neochlorogenic, 1,5-and 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acids) and flavonoids (glycosides of apigenin, luteolin, quercetin, isorhamnetin, kaempferol) were identified. Cooking treatments did not affect qualitative phenolic composition, while quantitative changes were recorded in some phenolic compounds and in TPC. Generally, boiling decreased TPC and TAA, while chicoric, caftaric, chlorogenic acids and quercetin-3-rutinoside increased in some species after steaming and microwave-cooking, showing positive correlation with TAA. Results confirmed steaming and microwave-cooking as mild procedures able to increase antioxidant capacity of some species, producing beneficial effects on their nutraceutical properties.
... Since ancient times, many wild edible plants have been used in cooking. Recently, their value has improved thanks to their proven nutraceutical properties [1][2][3]. In fact, some researchers have recognized wild edible plants as functional foods and as a new source of bioactive compounds that are beneficial to human health for their anti-inflammatory, antimicrobic, anticarcinogenic, cytotoxic and antiproliferative properties [4][5][6][7][8][9]. ...
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Wild edible plants have been used in cooking since ancient times. Recently, their value is improving thanks to scientific evidence of their nutraceutical properties. Plants of Sanguisorba minor Scop. (salad burnet) were hydroponically grown and two consecutive cuts took place 15 (C1) and 30 (C2) days after the sowing. An untargeted metabolomics approach was utilized to fingerprint phenolics and other health-related compounds in this species; the approach permits to unveil differences between the two cuts during the growth. S. minor showed a different and complex secondary metabolite profile, which was influenced by cut. In fact, flavonoids increased in leaves obtained from C2, especially flavones. Other secondary metabolites were, however, downregulated in leaves from C2 as compared to those detected in leaves deriving from C1, as evidenced by the combination of VIP score (VIP > 1.3) and the Fold-change (FC > 2). The storage of S. minor leaves for 15 days as fresh-cut products did not induce remarkably changes in the phenolic content and antioxidant capacity, a positive aspect for the maintenance of the nutraceutical value. The only differences evidenced during storage were the lower constitutive content of nutraceutical compounds in leaves obtained from C2 than in leaves obtained from C1, except for chlorophyll and carotenoid contents. In conclusion, the cut represented the main factor in inducing the modulation of secondary metabolites in leaves, independently to the storage.
... The structure of benzylisoquinoline alkaloid is similar to isoquinoline alkaloid with the addition of carbon bridge connecting aromatic ring (ring C) to ring B. We screened 12 benzylisoquinoline alkaloids isolated Papaver bracteatum Narcotics and analgesics, sedative and cytotoxic properties [44] Increase fertilization [45] Papaver dubium Antibacterial [43] Papaver dubium subsp. laevigatum Aerial Cytotoxic [46] Papaver libanoticum Aerial Analgesic [47] Papaver pseudocanescens Antiviral effects against the replication of poliovirus 1 and human rhinovirus 14 [48] Papaver radicatum Coloring agent [49] Papaver rhoeas Aerial Antibacterial [43,50], cytotoxic [51] Fruit Antioxidant [52][53][54] Petals Sedative effect [14], tonic [55] Plant Anodyne, emmenagogue, emollient, expectorant, hypnotic, sedative [55] Scavenging activity [56] Pancreatic lipase inhibitory [57] Increases the quality of ovulated oocytes [58] Anti-influenza [59], antidepressant [60] Antimicrobial activities [61] Root Anti-ulcerogenic [62] Decrease morphine withdrawal symptoms [63][64][65] Anti-inflammatory [66] Papaver lacerum Arial Antidepressant, cytotoxic [51,67] from Papaver genus. Results show that benzylisoquinoline alkaloids such as armepavine, reticuline, and miltanthaline could possess neuroactivity by targeting dopamine and adrenaline receptor and transporter. ...
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With its high level of phytochemical and botanical variability, Papaver genus contains several species with many subspecies yielding more than 170 alkaloids. Papaver species have been used as sedative, hypnotic, analgesic, and antidepressant. The aim of this study is to shed light on the structure-activity relationship of alkaloids isolated from Papaver genus. All alkaloids isolated from Papaver genus are listed according to their plant source. We identified the molecular targets of the 92 alkaloids from 10 different types of Papaver alkaloids (simple isoquinoline, benzylisoquinoline, proaporphine, aporphine, morphinane, promorphinane, protoberberine, phthalideisoquinoline, protopine, and rhoeadine) by using cheminformatic approach (Swiss Model). Hierarchical clustering heatmaps were generated by R programming language to visualize the in silico results. The research finding of this study could act as a guiding source for future natural product-based drug discovery.
... C. intybus plant possess a wide variety of bioactivities and multiple research papers have been published describing the phytochemical composition and several health properties of C. intybus, including antidiabetic, hyperglycemic, wound healing and antioxidant capacities of different parts of C. intybus plant [11][12][13][14][15]. Change in antioxidant potential of chicory leaves after treatment with different drying method is recently reported by Li et al. [12]. ...
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Research on the bio-activities and chemical composition of roasted C. intybus roots from India is very little. In present studies GC-MS analysis of volatile components of roasted C. intybus roots, phenolics and flavonoid content estimation and antioxidant potential of roasted C. intybus roots was carried out. Antioxidant potential was also evaluated using FRAP, DPPH, hydroxyl radical, nitric oxide and superoxide free radical scavenging method. Extracts were prepared by sequential Soxhlet extraction. GC-MS analysis of volatile components of roasted C. intybus root extracts revealed that 5-hydroxymethyl furfural was major volatile component in dichloromethane and methanol extract whereas lupeol and its derivative compounds were major constituents of hexane extract. Quantitative estimation for total phenols and flavonoids showed that the methanol extract of C. intybus roots contained highest phenolic and flavonoid content as compared to other extracts and also showed strong radical scavenging activities which were comparable with ascorbic acid used as standard. All extracts showed IC50 values less than 0.6 mg/mL furthermore, extracts of roasted C. intybus showed the high total antioxidant potential for the reduction of Fe3+ to Fe2+. The C. intybus roots possess good antioxidant capacity even after roasting and all the extracts showed good activities.
... rhoeas also contains avonoids, phenols, organic acids and vitamin C [41][42][43]. Flavonoids may reduce the oxidative stress and enhance immunity, so they are selected by different bird species, presumably as a prophylactic drug [44] against pathogens. Polyphenols regulate immune and in ammatory responses during enteric bacterial and parasitic infections in livestock [45], and organic acids can signi cantly reduce microbial contamination in turkeys [46]. ...
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Background: Diets combine food types according to some trade-offs, as for example maximising nutrients and minimising toxins. But some diets include elements because of their activity against the host parasites and other pathogens. This so-called medicinal role of food is under-reported in the literature, either because toxic elements in diets of livestock and wildlife are infrequent, or because their activity against parasites and pathogens has not been fully documented. We contribute to fill this knowledge gap by testing the activity of extracts and essential oils from Papaver rhoeas and Echium plantagineum against a selection of laboratory pathogens. These plants are strongly selected by great bustards Otis tarda during the mating season. Results: During this season we found a significantly higher frequency of P. rhoeas in male than in female faeces. The activity of different extracts of these plants against some laboratory models including a flagellated protozoan (Trichomonas gallinae), a nematode (Meloidogyne javanica) and a fungus (Aspergillus niger) was evaluated. We found activity against nematodes and trichomonads in non-polar and polar extracts of the aerial parts of P. rhoeas, especially the extracts of flowers and capsules, and E. plantagineum, especially the extracts of leaves and flowers. Conclusions: Both plants showed anti-parasitic activity, a result compatible with the hypothesis that great bustards eat plants for non-nutritional purposes, likely to assist them in coping with parasites and other pathogens, and P. rhoeas could be especially helpful for males during the mating season, when their immune system is weakened by the investment in secondary sexual characters and sexual display. The self-medication properties of plants and animals included in diets should be considered in studies of foraging behaviour, habitat selection, and even conservation biology of wildlife.
... Furthermore, alkaloids such as allocryptopine, potopine and berberine were nematicidal against Strongyloides stercolaris larvae (Satou et al., 2002). P. rhoeas also contains flavonoids, phenols, organic acids and vitamin C (Sanchez-Mata et al., 2012;Morales et al., 2014;Sanchez-Mata and Tardío, 2016). Flavonoids may reduce the oxidative stress and enhance immunity (Hmamou et al., 2022), so birds eat them presumably as a prophylactic drug (Catoni et al., 2008) against pathogens. ...
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Plants are not only used as energy and nutrient resources for herbivores. Plants can be ingested because of their activity against host parasites and other pathogens. This so-called medicinal role of plants is well reported in ethnopharmacology and under-reported in wild animals. More studies on wild animals are needed because any plant in the world contains bioactive compounds, and probably all plants, no matter how toxic they are, experience herbivory. For example, we tested the activity of extracts and essential oils from Papaver rhoeas and Echium plantagineum against a selection of laboratory pathogens because Great bustards Otis tarda preferred these plants during the mating season, with male fecal droppings showing a higher frequency of P. rhoeas particles than the fecal droppings of females. We hypothesized that P. rhoeas could be helpful for males in the mating season if any part of this plant harbors bioactivity against parasites and other pathogens. Males’ immune system is weakened during the mating season because of their investment in secondary sexual characters and sexual display. As a first exploration of the bioactivity of these plants, we evaluated extracts of both plants against a sample of laboratory models, including a flagellated protozoon (Trichomonas gallinae), a nematode (Meloidogyne javanica) and a fungus (Aspergillus niger). Non-polar and polar extracts of the aerial parts of P. rhoeas, especially the extracts of flowers and capsules, and the extracts of leaves and flowers of E. plantagineum showed activity against nematodes and trichomonads. The bioactivity of plants against parasites could explain the foraging behavior of stressed animals. The chemical communication underpinning the capacity of fauna to recognize those plants is far less known.
... This contradiction could be explained by the differences in the experimental conditions, since several other factors could be involved in the biosynthesis of organic acids, such as the developmental stage, the nutrient solution composition, the harvesting stage, or abiotic stressors, which hinder the direct comparison with the observed recordings [17,20,48,49]. In any case, special attention is needed regarding the oxalic acid content, which is considered an antinutritional factor, and high daily intake could have negative health effects [14,15,50]. Therefore, despite the beneficial health effects that wild edible species may have, commercial cultivation could allow the production of final products with known composition and according to health safety regulations [1]. ...
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The Mediterranean basin is abundant in wild edible species with numerous health beneficial effects due to the presence of various bioactive phytochemicals. In the present work, the effect of nitrogen fertilization rates (0 ppm, (N0), 200 ppm (N1), 400 ppm (N2), and 600 ppm (N3) of total N) and growth substrate composition (soil or peat/perlite (2/1; v/v)) on the chemical composition and bioactive properties of Centaurea raphanina ssp. mixta plants was evaluated. The results of the study showed that both the tested factors affected nutritional value of the edible leaves, with the soil × N1 treatment being the most beneficial for fat, protein, and carbohydrate content and energetic value. On the other hand, the peat/perlite-grown plants that received 200 ppm of N had the highest content in α-, γ-, and total tocopherols, while the control treatment of soil-grown plants was the richest in individual and total sugars. Oxalic, citric, and total organic acids were the highest in the N2 × soil treatment, while malic acid was the highest in control treatment of the same substrate. The main fatty acids were palmitic, α-linolenic, and linoleic acids, with the highest contents being observed in the N0 × soil, N3 × soil, and N3 × peat/perlite treatments, respectively. The major phenolic compounds were pinocembrim neohesperidoside and pinocembrim acetyl neohesperidoside isomer II, with the highest content being observed in the N1 × soil treatment. The highest antihemolytic activity was observed in the N3 × peat/perlite treatment, while the most effective treatments against lipid peroxidation were N0 (in both soil and peat/perlite combinations) and N1 × peat/perlite. Lastly, all the tested extracts (except for N1 × soil) showed promising cytotoxic effects against HeLa (cervical carcinoma), HepG2 (hepatocellular carcinoma), MCF-7 (breast carcinoma), and NCI-H460 (non-small-cell lung cancer), while all the tested extracts exhibited better antifungal activities (lower minimal inhibition concentration (MIC) values) against Trichoderma viride than the positive controls. Overall, the present results suggest that the application of cost-effective practices such as the nitrogen application and the selection of growth substrate may regulate the chemical composition and the bioactive properties of C. raphanina ssp. mixta species and increase its added value under commercial cultivation conditions.
... The mixture for salad extract showed an IC 50 value higher than that of Trolox, but it was also the only extract revealing the capacity to delay the oxidative hemolysis for 120 min. In general, all extracts revealed a great antioxidant capacity, which, according to several authors, in plants, is mainly associated with the molecules like phenolic compounds, organic acids, and tocopherols [7,29,46]. Other authors also correlate the antioxidant activity found in plant extracts with apigenin, in this case present as apigenin-O-malonylpentoside-hexoside in all the extracts, in high concentrations. ...
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Medicinal and aromatic plants (MAPs), worldwide appreciated and used as condiments, dyes, and preservatives, possess several biological properties that justify their continuous application in the food industry. In the present study, the nutritional and chemical profiles, as well as the bioactive properties of four combinations of condiments, sold for seasoning poultry, meat, fish, and salads, were evaluated. Twenty-five phenolic compounds (HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS) were identified, with apigenin-O-malonyl-pentoside-hexoside as the major compound detected in all extracts. Oxalic and citric acids were identified in all mixtures (UFLC-PDA), as well as all the four tocopherol isoforms (HPLC-fluorescence). Regarding bioactivities, the mixtures for meat and salads (TBARS) and meat and poultry (OxHLIA) stood out for their antioxidant potential, whereas for the anti-inflammatory and antitumor properties, the mixtures revealing the greatest results were those for poultry and salad, respectively. In terms of antimicrobial activity, all the mixtures revealed the capacity to inhibit the growth of some bacterial strains. In brief, condiment mixtures showed to be a good source of bioactive compounds, as they confer health benefits, validating the importance of their inclusion in the human diet as a good dietary practice.
... Flores et al. (2012) indicated that leafy vegetables showed a high concentration of malic acid that varied between 0.190, 0.083, 0.081, 0.575 and 0.233 g/100 g fresh weight in green pepper, red pepper, tomato, lettuce and lamb's lettuce, respectively. The values reported by Morales et al. (2014) in non-cultivated vegetables, were 51.36 ± 7.41 mg/100 g fresh weight for Beta marítima L. and 147.19 ± 92.49 mg/100 g fresh weight for Papaver rhoeas L. Uusiku et al. (2010) collected data of oxalic acid content on fresh weight basis present in the edible portion of many African leafy vegetables such as E. hirta (1.115 g/100g), Ipomoea involucrata (0.913 g/100g), Xanthosoma sp. (0.654 g/100g), Amaranthus sp. ...
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The Water 616/626 HPLC was used as a tool for identifying and quantifying the organic acids, glycosides and phenolic compounds of Telfairia occidentalis pumpkin leaves grown in hydroponic and geoponic media. Standard procedures were adopted for the determination of these secondary metabolites. The study showed that the organic acids, glycosides and phenolic compounds of T. occidentalis leaves grown in hydroponic and geoponic media varied in composition and concentration. Also, the total organic acids, total glycosides and phenolic compounds were more in the T. occidentalis leaves grown in hydroponic condition compared to geoponic medium. The T. occidentalis leaves had total organic acids (6.880 g/100g; 6.508 g/100g), total glycosides (6.762 g/100g; 4.549 g/100g) and phenolic compounds (2.032 g/100g; 1.387 g/100g) for hydroponic and geoponic media, respectively. However, individual components of organic acids, glycosides and phenolics revealed variation in concentration between the media. Shikimic acid was the predominant organic acid among the organic acids assessed in both hydroponic (28.76%) and geoponic (44.73%) media while E-strophanthin acid (21.37%; 23.92%) was the most abundant glycoside out of the total glycosides in that order. Phenolic profiles of T. occidentalis leaves showed 45 phenolic compounds, which had some important phenolics such as ferulic, cinnamic acid and p-coumaric acid. To effectively harness these secondary metabolites, the study recommends the use of hydroponic system for cultivation of T. occidentalis.
... Hexadecanoic acid, methyl ester is possessed antioxidant, hypocholesterolemic, antiandrogenic [19]. Oxalic acid, Phthalic acid, di(2-propylpenty, 2-Pentadecanone, 6,10,14-trimet,and Carbonic acid, decyl tridecyl e were highly antioxidant and antimicrobial [20][21][22]. 2-Tetradecynal, 4-hydroxy-has antitumor, antioxidant and antibacterial potential [23], [24]. Tritriacontane was possessed anti-tumor, antibacterial and antidiabetic activity [25], [26]. ...
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Medicinal plant was wildly used at recent year for treated many diseases instead of chemical drugs because of less in side effect. Cassia angustifolia leaves extract was investigated in this study as anti-proliferation agent for type of breast cancer cell. C.angustifolia (CA) ethanol leaves extract and its fractions (CAF) were evaluated in vitro for the MCF7 cell line and MDA-MB-231 cell line as anti-proliferation. The cells were treated in different doses for CA and CAF at 24h and 28h. The treated cells were stained with AO/EB stain to evaluated apoptosis effect of CAF. GCMS method was used to identify active component in the CAF that give highest anti-proliferation activity. Leaves extract of C.angustifolia was identified as anti-proliferation for MCF7 cell line and MDA-MB-231 cell line. The result was revealed that CAF1 was had highest inhibition percentage for both cells, in (76.73 ± 0.23) % for MCF7 cell and (70.49 ±2.6) % for MDA-MB-231cell. Apoptosis percent present for treated MCF7 cell at 24h and 48h was (84.32 ±22.42) and (72.32 ± 25.08) respectively. And for treated MDA-MB-231cell was (60.16 ± 40.13), (65.31 ± 30.28) respectively for the highest dose 1000 µg/mL. GCMS analysis was identified 23 active component as 2-Pentanone, 4-hydroxy-4-methyl-and 2H-Pyran, 2-(2-heptadecynyloxy), Hexadecanoic acid, methyl ester, Oxalic acid, Phthalic acid, di(2-propylpenty, 2-Pentadecanone, 6,10,14-trimet,and Carbonic acid, decyl tridecyl ester, 2-Tetradecynal, 4-hydroxy-, Tritriacontane, Tricosane, Hexadecanoic acid, methyl ester and Hexadecanoic acid, ethyl ester, Pentadecanoic acid, 14-methyl ester, Heptadecanoic acid, 16-methyl-, Methyl 8-oxooctanoate, Hexadecyl propyl ether, Undecanal, Octadecanoic acid, ethyl ester, 3-Methyl-4-(phenylthio)-2-prop-, dimer of Coleon F. In conclusion that C.angustifolia frication1 for ethanol leaves extract has anti proliferation and antitumor effect on the breast cancer by enhanced apoptosis pathway that lead to programmed cell death for cancer cell and prevent metastasis of its. For that CAF1 could be as new drug to treat aggressive breast cancer. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial 4.0 International License.
... The total phenolic contents in water and organic solvents are ranged: Water˂EtOH<Acetone<EtOAc<MeOH. Our results correspond with the results of the work Morales et al.,(2014), which reported that the total phenolic content of flower extract of Cichorium intybus L. in methanolic extract in the range from 51.1± 0.8 mg GAE/g. Tusevski et al.,(2013) reported that the total phenolic content of Cichorium intybus L. in methanolic extract range from 33.36± 0.14 mg GAE/g. ...
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Effect of extraction solvent on bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of Cichorium intybus L. grown in Kosovo. Agriculture and Forestry, 68 (1): 159-171. SUMMARY The aim of this study was the investigation of the total phenolic content, flavonoid, and the assessment of the antioxidant potential of Cichorium intybus L. flowers grown in the Kosovo region. The flowers of Cichorium intybus L. were collected, dried, and extracted with solvents with different polarities (water, EtOH, MeOH, EtOAc, and acetone), using the extraction method. The total phenolic and flavonoid contents were analyzed by using Folin-Ciocalteu's and AlCl3 reagents, respectively. The antioxidant activity was assessed by DPPH in vitro assay methods. The obtained results revealed variation in the content of phenolic compounds (5.2 mg GAE/gDW in water extract, 6.8 mg GAE/gDW in ethanolic extract,72.1 0.3 mg GAE/gDW in methanolic extract, 45.3 0.1 mg GAE/g DW in ethyl acetate extract,and 31.3 0.1 mg GAE/gDW in acetone extract), flavonoid (2.9 mg CE/gDW in water extract, 19.0 mg CE/gDW in ethanolic extract,30.50 mg CE/gDW in methanolic extract, 27.1 mg CE/gDW in ethyl acetate extract, and 25.4 mg CE/gDW in acetone extract), and antioxidant activity (23.0 μMolTE/gDW in water extract, 124.7 μMolTE/gDW in ethanolic extract, 152.4 μMolTE/gDW in methanolic extract, 92.7 μMolTE/gDW in ethyl acetate extract,and 107.2 μMolTE/gDW in acetone extract). Cichorium intybus L. flowers from the Kosovo region are also a rich source of flavonoids. Further studies are recommended to quantify and isolate the pure phytoconstituents from Cichorium intybus L. flowers grown in the Kosovo region which might serve as natural antioxidants application in the food and drug industry.
... They can be used to fight against malnutrition given their high content in nutrients and vitamins (Burlingame 2000, Glew et al. 2005, Sarfo et al. 2020. Indeed, the fact that WEPs are rich sources of bioactive molecules is now argued (Aboukhalaf et al. 2020, Morales et al. 2014). In addition, these plants are valuable genetic resources that can be used for the development of new crop species (Shrestha & Dhillion 2006). ...
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Research Abstract Background: This study aimed to protect the knowledge related to the traditional uses of wild plant resources
... WEPs as basic food stuffs in many local folk cuisines [3][4][5][6][7]. The renewed interest in WEPs is largely due to the growing knowledge of the healthy role of phytochemical compounds, so much so that WEPs can be defined as "functional foods", being a good source of bioactive molecules and dietary supplements [8][9][10]. This is especially true in countries where the native vascular flora is particularly rich, such as Italy [11]. ...
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Calendula arvensis (Vaill.) L. (field marigold, Asteraceae) is an alimurgic plant, whose flowers and leaves are a common part of local food dishes. The diversity in polar specialized metabolites is herein unraveled, with the aim to further promote and valorize the food use of the plant. To this purpose, following the plant dissection of its organs (florets, fruits, leaves, bracts, stems, and roots), ultrasound assisted maceration has been employed in order to recover phenols and polyphenols. Through an untargeted UHPLC-HR MS (Ultra-High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry) approach, and deeper investigation of the fragmentation patterns of each compound by tandem mass spectrometry, the florets’ constitution in triterpene saponins and flavonol glycosides has been highlighted, whereas hydroxycinnamoyl compounds are mainly in bracts and fruits. The antiradical and reducing capabilities of the organs’ extracts have been assessed, and data acquired have been analyzed by cluster analysis, which allowed bracts and fruits to be observed, despite their negligible food use, as the most active extracts. Chemical and antioxidant data on the diverse organs of field marigold suggest new investigative food and nutraceutical scenarios of this plant, also revalorizing and preserving its traditional uses.
... The flavonoids kaempferol, quercetin, hypolaetin, and luteolin, along with the flavonoid glycosides isoquercitrin, astragaline, and hyperoside, were isolated from the methanol petals extract by Hillenbrand, Zapp and Becker (2004), who also identified two new depsides, 2-O-(3,4-dihydroxybenzoyl)-2,4,6trihydroxyphenylacetic acid and 2-O-(4-hydroxybenzoyl)-2,4,6-trihydroxyphenylacetic acid, along with p-hydroxybenzoic acid and its methyl ester, protocatechuic acid, 2-(4hydroxyphenyl)-ethanol, 2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-ethanol [142]. Corn poppy is a good source of vitamins, including ascorbic acid, dehydroascorbic acid, tocopherols, and tocotrienols [241]. The essential oil of P. rhoeas aerial parts has been investigated using GC-MS by [242]. ...
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Anxiety and insomnia are among the most common mental health disorders and are a major cause of disability around the world. Traditional herbal medicines are receiving significant attention in global health debates. Several Italian regions maintain rural traditions and are among the most extensively studied areas of Europe regarding medicinal plant uses. The present overview aims to highlight the use of wild and cultivated plants, specifically as sedatives and for insomnia treatment in Italy, and to collect, analyze, and summarize the available literature about their pharmacological activity as well as clinical and pre-clinical studies concerning the most cited plants. In total, 106 wild taxa are used in Italy for sedative purposes. The plant species belong to 76 genera and 32 families, of which the most cited are Asteraceae (24.2%) and Lamiaceae (21.1%). Leaves (29%) and flowers (27%) are the plant parts mostly used as infusion (70%) and decoction (25%). Out of 106 taxa documented, only the most cited are analyzed in this overview (A. arvensis L., C. nepeta L., C. monogyna Jacq., H. lupulus L., L. nobilis L., L. angustifolia Mill., M. sylvestris L., M. chamomilla L., M. officinalis L., O. basilicum L., P. rhoeas L., P. somniferum L., R. officinalis L., T. platyphyllus Scop., and V. officinalis L.). Among the fifteen species selected, only seven have been studied for their pharmacological activity as hypnotic-sedatives. Future pre-clinical and clinical studies are needed to better clarify the mechanism of action of bioactive compounds and confirm the potential of these alternative therapies.
... Beside carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and essential minerals, chicory also provides humans a plethora of important phytochemicals, like antioxidant. Antioxidants, which cannot be adequately synthesized by the human body and must be taken with sufficient doses of food daily, have an important biological activity (Morales et al. 2014). Since antioxidants powered the defense system in the human body, they are of great importance in proper nutrition (Jiménez et al. 2008). ...
Article
Despite being ignored in the modern agricultural approach, wild vegetables have an important use in Turkey and contribute to a balanced diet and food security at the household levels. This study focused on the nutritional content of wild chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) that is widely consumed as a vegetable by people living in rural areas in Turkey. The nutritional value and bioactive compounds and antioxidant contents in twenty-one wild chicory populations from Turkey were investigated by analyzing the leaf. The collected chicory seeds were sown in pots and grown in greenhouse conditions. 40 days after sowing, crude protein, mineral matters (Ca, Mg, P, K, Mn, Cu, Fe, Zn) and antioxidant contents were determined. Significant differences were noted among to chicory populations regarding all the investigated parameters. Crude protein content among the population was between 20.45 and 27.89% and averaged 23.65%. Averaged mineral contents over the populations were ordered as follows: K > Ca > Mg > P > Fe > Mn > Cu. The variation was between 15.3 and 25.8 mgGAE/g extract for total phenolic and between 1.43 and 2.55 µgQE for total flavonoid content. Overall results showed that chicory can contribute to a healthier diet and food security by diversification of food sources. In addition, the geographical origin of the population was important in the traits examined, which can shed light on the selection of genotypes for breeders.
... The root, leaf and seeds contain a number of medicinally important compounds such as inulin, sesquiterpene lactones, coumarins, flavonoids and vitamins thereby, these organs were traditionally used to cure various ailments. The phytochemical composition and several pharmaceutical properties of C. intybus have been extensively reviewed (Azay-Milhau et al., 2013;Morales et al., 2014). The plant has immunomodulator (Watzl et al., 2005) and anticancer properties (Hughes and Rowland, 2001) and preventive effect against colon cancer (Watzl et al., 2005). ...
... However, Lim and Quah (2007) reported that the total phenolic of P. oleracea ranged from 127 to 478 mg GAE 100 g -1 . This may be due to the presence of different amounts of sugars, carotenoids, or ascorbic acid, or other conditions including the duration, geographical variation or extraction methods, growing conditions and cultivation practices which may alter the number of phenolics (Morales et al., 2014;Burri et al., 2017). In addition to the obtained results for DPPH are in agreement with the phenol contents determined for each sample. ...
... For example, Palmar and Kar [6] reported that mango peel extracts showed thyroid stimulatory effects on animals with hypothyroidism and reduced lipid peroxidation in the liver, kidney and heart tissues [6]. On the other hand, extracts from the mango kernel showed superoxide anion scavenging in a cell-free system, showing possible bioactivity via an antioxidant mechanism [7]. The biological effect of most polyphenols seems to be associated with their antioxidant activity (such as H + or electron donors) due to their ability to eliminate, decompose, trap or prevent the formation of free radicals. ...
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Manililla is a mango variety whose residues contain bioactive compounds such as polyphenols and flavonoids, with high added value. The use of environmentally friendly extraction technology would be of great relevance; hence, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of solvent relation, sonication time and amplitude on the ultrasound-assisted extraction of total polyphenols in Manililla mango residues (peel, endocarp and kernel) and antioxidant activity. An experimental design 23 with a central point was used to evaluate the curvature behavior of the process variables. Conventional maceration was used as a control. The better conditions were obtained at the central point using 50% ethanol in water, 60% amplitude and 20 min of sonication time. We obtained values of up to 1814 mg GAE/100 g, 469 mg GAE/100 g and 672 mg GAE/100 g of total polyphenols and 1228 mg QE/100 g, 653 mg QE/100 g and 880 mg QE/100 g of total flavonoids for peel, endocarp and kernel, respectively. Mangiferin was quantified in ultrasound-assisted extraction at 150 mg/g in peel and 0.025 mg/g in the kernel, but it was not detectable in maceration. An antioxidant capacity of 87%, 14% and 83% inhibition for peel, endocarp and kernel, respectively, were obtained. Peel and kernel were the residues with higher potential as extraction material, while endocarp was not.
... Most of these species are an integral part of local cuisines and are traditionally used for culinary and medicinal purposes [16][17][18]. Recently, the commercial cultivation of such species has gained interest both by farmers and consumers, and several studies have reported the potential of using wild edible species in sustainable cropping systems for the production of high value-added products due to increased health beneficial effects [19][20][21][22]. Considering that these species are usually collected in the wild or confronted as weeds within the fields, there is a lack of information regarding the best practice guides that should be applied to ensure high yields without compromising the quality and food safety of the final products. ...
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Soil salinization is one of the major environmental factors responsible for limited crop production throughout the world. Therefore, there is urgent need to find tolerant/resistant species to exploit in commercial cultivation systems. In this context, the valorization of wild edible greens for human consumption and/or medicinal purposes is gaining more and more interest. The aim of the present work was to study the effect of salinity, e.g., electrical conductivity: 2 mS cm−1 (nutrient solution EC), 6 mS cm−1 and 10 mS cm−1 on plant growth and chemical composition of Reichardia picroides and Taraxacum officinale plants grown in a floating hydroponic system. The results showed that R. picroides is a moderately salt-tolerant species, as the majority of plant growth parameters determined were not negatively affected under the treatment of 6 mS cm−1. On the other hand, the growth parameters of T. officinale plants were severely affected under the same conditions. Moreover, high salinity levels (EC at 10 mS cm−1) impaired the growth of both species. The content of leaves in chlorophylls (a, b and total), carotenoids+xanthophylls and total soluble solids was not significantly affected by the tested EC levels in both species, whereas the titratable acidity increased under the treatment of 10 mS cm−1. Moreover, R. picroides exhibited a more effective adaptation mechanism against saline conditions than T. officinale, as evidenced by the higher accumulation of osmolytes such as proline and the higher shoot K content, probably through a more efficient K/Na selectivity. In conclusion, both species were severely affected by high salinity; however, R. picroides showed promising results regarding its commercial cultivation under moderate salinity levels, especially in regions where resources of high-quality irrigation water are limited.
... Oxalic acid is considered anti-nutritional due to its effect in reducing the dietary Ca availability, and additionally, it induces the formation of kidney stones [78]. Not to neglect its toxicity in humans, the minimum lethal dose of oxalic acid for an adult is set at 5 g [79]. ...
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... The term wild edible plants (WEPs) refers to species that are directly gathered from the wild for its consumption (Shin et al., 2018). These species may contribute to the diet with macro-and micronutrients like minerals and vitamins, and also represent an opportunity for adding new flavours and textures to the diet (e.g., Grivetti and Ogle, 2000;Molina et al., 2014;Morales et al., 2014;Guijarro-Real et al., 2019a,b). For these reasons, the use, marketing and domestication of WEPs have been promoted during the last decades, as an alternative for improving human diet quality. ...
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The present study was carried out to evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of chicory leaves and roots. The plant samples were extracted using different solvents as ethanol (25, 50 and 95%), methanol (25, 50 and 95%), acetone, ethyl acetate and distilled water. The total phenolic and flavonoid contents (TPC and TFC) were determined for all extracts to choice the best solvent. The samples of leaves and roots were gamma irradiated at dose levels of 0, 4, 8 and 12 kGy and extracted with the best solvent; furthermore the effect of gamma irradiation on TPC, TFC, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of the extracts was investigated, followed by identification and quantification of phenolic and flavonoid compounds using HPLC. The antioxidant activity were assessed by the radical scavenging activity against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and ferric reducing antioxidant power. As well as, the antimicrobial activity was verified by agar well diffusion assay against Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumonia, Aspergillus niger and Penicillium expansum. The results showed that, the ethanolic and methanolic 50% extracts of leaves and roots were exhibited higher TPC and TFC compared to other solvents, respectively. Gamma irradiation at dose levels of 4 and 12 kGy increased the TPC and TFC moreover enhanced the antioxidant and antibacterial activity of the methanolic and ethanolic 50% extracts of roots and leaves, respectively. In addition, ethanolic 50% extract of irradiated leaves at dose level of 12 kGy possess higher antioxidant and antibacterial activity than roots extracts. Thus, ethanolic 50% extract of irradiated leaves was used as a natural additive (antioxidant and antimicrobial agents) in sunflower oil and beef burger. The addition 2% of the extract increased the oxidative stability of sunflower oil compared to control and synthetic antioxidant, beside extended the shelf-life of beef burger samples to 15 days at cold storage (4±1˚C) compared to 6 days in control samples. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
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Medicinal traditional plants are a source of inspiration for the discovery of new bioactive substances. Plant infusions, extracts, and essential oils are known for their diverse biological activity since they are rich in secondary metabolites. The Mediterranean area in general and Lebanon in particular is known for its plant diversity due to its climate and geographical location. This chapter will provide an overview of Lebanese plants with antimicrobial activity. Many of these plants are known for their culinary and traditional medicinal uses for the treatment of different ailments. The main plant families discussed here include Amaryllidaceae, Anacardiaceae, Apiaceae, Asteraceae, Berberidaceae, Cannabaceae, Cistaceae, Lamiaceae, Myrtaceae, Pinaceae, Portulacaceae, Ranunculaceae, Rutaceae, Rosaceae, and others.
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During the last 20 years increasing experimental evidence has associated organic acid metabolism with plant tolerance to environmental stress. Current knowledge shows that organic acids not only act as intermediates in carbon metabolism but also as key components in mechanisms that some plants use to cope with nutrient deficiencies, metal tolerance and plant-microbe interactions operating at the root-soil interphase. In this review we summarize recent knowledge on the physiology and occurrence of organic acids in plants and their special relevance concerning nitrate reduction, phosphorus and iron acquisition, aluminum tolerance and soil ecology. We also discuss novel findings in relation to the biotechnological manipulation of organic acids in transgenic models ranging from cell cultures to whole plants. This novel perspective of organic acid metabolism and its potential manipulation may represent a way to understand fundamental aspects of plant physiology and lead to new strategies to obtain crop varieties better adapted to environmental and mineral stress.
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Wild species could be useful for the genetic improvement of pepino (Solanum muricatum Aiton) fruit quality. We studied several agronomic and physico-chemical traits in accessions of S. muricatum (EC-37), wild relatives Solanum caripense (EC-40) and Solanum tabanoense (EC-26), and their corresponding interspecific hybrids. Interspecific hybrids involving EC-37 had yield and fruit weight intermediate between the cultivated and the wild parents, while yield and mean fruit weight of EC-37xEC-26 were greater than those of EC-40xEC-37. Dry matter content (DM) was higher in the wild accessions (>13 %) than in the cultivated pepino (<10 %). Wild species had similar (S. caripense) or lower (S. tabanoense) concentrations of total sugars than S. muricatum. EC-37 and EC-26xEC-37 had similar relative concentrations of the soluble sugars glucose, fructose, and sucrose, while sucrose was predominant (>60 %) in the rest of the tested species and hybrids. Concentration of organic acids was much higher in EC-26 and EC-40 (total acids ≥2500 mg 100 g-1 and pH<4.0) than in EC-37 (275 mg 100 g-1 and pH=5.36), while interspecific hybrids had concentrations more similar to S. muricatum than to wild species. Citric acid was the predominant organic acid in the composition of all the studied accessions (>75 % of total acids). Ascorbic acid content of S. caripense and some interspecific hybrids was more than three times greater than that of S. muricatum. The results indicate that the studied wild species can be utilized to modify and improve the composition of pepino, especially by increasing acidity and ascorbic acid content.
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