Article

Linking Social Environments With the Well-being of Adolescents in Dual-Earner and Single Working Parent Families

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

This investigation examined the relationships between middle school-aged children’s perceptions of their social environments (home, school, neighborhood, and parental work) with self-reports of well-being. In the present study, well-being was defined by measures of physical health and psychological happiness. Data from the Nurturing Families Study were collected during in-person interviews with adolescents in dual-earner and single working parent families. Adolescents’ subjective assessments were analyzed through two hierarchical regression models: mothers’ (N = 149) and fathers’ (N = 150). Findings suggest that child gender, perceptions of the school environment, and parents coming home from work in a good mood significantly predict the variability in adolescent self-reports of well-being. The school environment was found to have the strongest predictive power over variations in adolescents’ well-being. Implications for practice and research, including improving supports within schools and focusing more attention on parental mood after work, are discussed.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... However, little is known about the extent to which children of dual-earner parents in Latin America fare in terms of satisfaction levels compared to their parents. This gap in knowledge is particularly pressing for the stage of adolescence, in which children become independent from their parents, finding other sources of support (Tisdale & Pitt-Catshupes, 2012), and making decisions of their own (e.g. regarding what to eat, Schnettler et al., 2019). ...
... regarding what to eat, Schnettler et al., 2019). At the same time, adolescents continue to rely on their parents and, in turn, can provide them with emotional and instrumental support (Tisdale & Pitt-Catshupes 2012). For parents, their children's adolescence can be challenging for their well-being (Meier, Musick, Fischer, & Flood, 2018), as parents must fulfill demands to promote their child's healthy development (Davis et al., 2015). ...
Article
Full-text available
This study identifies family profiles based on the level of life satisfaction (LS) in mothers, fathers and adolescents, and variables related to their family, food, and work life. The sample was composed of 303 families of dual-earner parents (mothers’ mean age = 40.9 years, SD = 7.4, fathers’ mean age = 43.2 years, SD = 7.2) and one of their children aged between 10 and 17 years (mean age 13.3, SD = 2.4, 51.5% female). A Latent Profile Analysis (LPA) was used to identify five family profiles. Profiles differed in LS, satisfaction with family life (SWFaL), satisfaction with food-related life (SWFoL), family functioning, both parents’ work-life balance and their perception of the financial situation of the household. Balanced and imbalanced families in terms of LS differed in the three family members’ LS and SWFaL, mothers’ and children’ SWFoL and family functioning, and both parents’ perception of financial situation. These results contribute to understanding the heterogeneity of life satisfaction dynamics between and within dual-earner families.
... Dual-earner parents also face specific demands from the family domain depending on their children's age. Childrelated variables, such as misbehavior (Venkatesh et al., 2019) can become stressors in the home that spill over to the parents' work domain, but it is expected that children who reach adolescence pose fewer demands to their parents than younger children (Tisdale & Pitt-Catshupes, 2012). Nevertheless, the adolescent stage is also challenging for parents (Meier et al., 2018), and the parent-child dynamic can change radically. ...
Article
Full-text available
Research on factors related to job satisfaction in parents has mainly focused on work-related variables, paying less attention to family events that may provide parents with resources to invest in the work domain. To contribute to this body of knowledge, this study examined the associations between family meal atmosphere and job satisfaction in dual-earner parents with adolescent children, and tested the mediating role of family-to-work enrichment (FtoWE) between family meal atmosphere and job satisfaction. Questionnaires were administered to 473 different-gender dual-earner parents in Temuco, Chile. Participants answered the Project-EAT Atmosphere of family meals scale, three items that measure FWE from the Work-Home Interaction Survey, and the Overall Job Satisfaction Scale. Analyses were conducted using the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model and structural equation modelling. A positive association was found from family meal atmosphere to job satisfaction, directly and via FtoWE in fathers, and only via FtoWE in mothers. No associations were found for these variables between parents, as, one parent’s perception of a pleasant family meal atmosphere is positively associated with their own FtoWE and job satisfaction, but not with those of the other parent. These findings suggest policymakers and organizations to account for workers’ experiences in the family domain to improve satisfaction in the work domain.
... When considering the ethnic makeup of the young males recruited in the NESLA project, the superficial similarities of both their communities as depicted in Table 1 quickly faded away. Citizen science on the small scale of this first-generation study may not capture fully the social relationships and cultural milieus of the community within which these young male urban outcasts live and interact [65,66]. It does, however, begin to paint a somewhat different picture of the neighborhood's social reality that challenges public perceptions and can supply political and public health scientists as well as decision makers with new insights about the issues that matter for youths in marginalized local communities. ...
Article
Full-text available
Based on the synthesis of outside versus inside perspectives, this paper weighs the positive attributes of the so-called deprived place against its negative media image. Applying the concept of territorial stigmatization, small-scale citizen science was conducted to gain a unique understanding of the Swedish neighborhood from within. With the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goal 11 in mind, this approach enables researchers to reach otherwise difficult to access young urban outcasts and probe the potential to overcome their community’s lack of political influence. An overlap between local media narratives and urban outcasts’ perceptions of “drug and crime” and “football and school” was revealed. Yet, this first-generation study also painted a somewhat different picture of the stigmatized neighborhood, supplying new insights about places that matter most for marginalized young males. In this Swedish case, their pictures revealed that the local corner market, football court and youth club act as an antidote for the effects of stigmatization. This Our Voice citizen science initiative proved to be a good measure of two communities’ abilities to withstand stigmatization, which is either tainted by false perceptions from the outside or weakened by crime from within. Finally, attempting to bypass structural discrimination, citizen scientists’ findings and researchers’ conclusions were made available to students, colleagues and guests at a poster presentation hosted by Mälardalen University and to concerned politicians from Eskilstuna City Hall as well as the broader public via a local Swedish television station.
... The World Health Organization (2020) establishes the adolescent period from ages 10 to 19 years-old; our study focuses on parents of adolescents aged 10 to 17 years-old because in the Chilean context, youth commonly start university and move from their parents' house at 18 years-old. Adolescents may pose fewer demands of parental care than younger children, being able to provide emotional and instrumental support while becoming more independent from their parents (Tisdale and Pitt-Catshupes 2012). Yet, overall, adolescence is also particularly challenging for parental wellbeing (Meier et al. 2018), partly due to its demands that parents allocate resources (time, attention, shared activities) to ensure their adolescent child's healthy adjustment and ongoing development (Davis et al. 2015). ...
Article
Full-text available
Parents in dual-earner couples use family resources to balance work and other life roles, which can influence not only their own well-being, but that of their partner. Following the theories of conservation of resources and role balance, in the present study we proposed that family support is positively associated with life satisfaction, directly and via work-life balance, in dyads of different-sex dual-earner parents with adolescent children 10–17 years-old. Questionnaires were administered to 303 different-sex dual-earner couples in Temuco, Chile. Both parents answered the family subscale of the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, the Work-Life Balance Scale, and the Satisfaction with Life Scale. Analyses were conducted using the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model and structural equation modelling. Results showed positive associations for each parent from family support to life satisfaction, directly and via work-life balance. Crossover associations were only found from fathers to mothers—namely, fathers’ family support had a positive effect on mothers’ work-life balance, as did father’s work-life balance on mother’s life satisfaction. Overall, men’s resources had a positive effect on their female partner’s role balance and well-being. Results are discussed by considering gender dynamics in the work-life interface.
... While families with toddlers or young children have been progressively included in recent analyses on the work-family interface, families with adolescents have received little attention (Lawson et al., 2014), and so, too, has adolescents' perceptions on how parents articulate work and family roles (Tisdale & Pitt-Catsouphes, 2012). To focus on adolescents is particularly relevant because this age group continues to benefit from high-quality parenting and also is more able than younger children to provide their own accounts of the family situation. ...
Article
Objective To analyze both parents' and adolescents' perspectives on work–family conflict (WFC) and enrichment (WFE) and its crossover to adolescent well‐being, via quality of parent–child relationships. Background Parents' work and family experiences are associated with parenting and may crossover to adolescent well‐being. Adolescents' outcomes and perceptions about parents' work–family balance have been disregarded, despite acknowledgment of adolescence as a crucial developmental period. Method A convenience sample of 209 dual‐earner families including both couple members and their adolescent children (aged 13–18 years) participated. WFC, WFE, and parent–child relationship dimensions (coercion, autonomy support, and warmth) were addressed by both parents' and adolescent perspectives, while adolescent well‐being was assessed using children's report. A nested design and dyadic data analyses with SEM were used. Results Mothers' WFC and both parents' WFE were significantly associated with the quality of the relationships with children, and only mothers' WFC was indirectly linked to the well‐being of adolescents. The perceptions of adolescents show that both parents' WFE was linked to the quality of the relationship with children, but only mothers' WFE was indirectly linked to the well‐being of adolescents. Conclusion These findings emphasize adolescents' critical perspective over their parents' work–family interface and highlight the importance of considering multiple informants in research. Implications Practitioners may use these findings to foster a sensible approach on how the work–family interface interferes with parent–adolescent relationship, diminishing strains rooted on parents' perspective. Discussion groups on work–family linkages and vocational programs that allow adolescents to think critically about their parents' work experiences and how it affects them.
... The relationship between school engagement and students' mental health and well-being has been supported by numerous studies (e.g. Christenson, Reschly, & Wylie, 2012;Green et.al., 2013;Renshaw, Long, & Cook, 2015;Tisdale & Pitt-Catsuphes, 2012;Wang & Peck, 2012). In addition, adolescents' psychological well-being is positively correlated with their academic performance (Biddle & Asare, 2011). ...
... Children's perceptions of neighborhood environment, safety, and helpseeking Childhood researchers have argued that children can be valuable informants about their lives and that it is important for adults to listen to children's voices (Clark, 2005;Conroy & Harcourt, 2009;Elden, 2012;Farrell, 2005;MacNaughton et al., 2003;Roberts, 2000;Torstenson-Ed, 2007). In the context of the neighborhood environment, studies with school-aged children and adolescents have explored the themes of neighborhood safety (Farver, Ghosh, & Garcia, 2000), resource availability (Anthony & Nicotera, 2008), neighborhood boundaries (Aitken, 1994;Bass & Lambert, 2004;Spilsbury, 2005a;Spilsbury, Korbin, & Coulton, 2009), and positive and negative aspects of physical and social characteristics of the neighborhood (Francis & Lorenzo, 2002;MacDougall, Schiller, & Darbyshire, 2009;Morrow, 2001;Spilsbury, 2005b;Tisdale & Pitt-Catsuphes, 2012;van Vliet, 1981). Relevant studies with children under the age of 5 are rare, but two studies in particular have shown that children as young as 3 can participate meaningfully in research about their communities. ...
Article
Studies that focus on children's safety and well-being often focus on neighborhoods as the unit of analysis, as it is within these geographic confines that children spend much of their time. Such studies have shown that neighborhoods directly and indirectly influence children's safety and well-being. Much of this research has focused on census data and/or caregivers' perceptions of neighborhood characteristics. Less attention has been given to the neighborhood experiences and perceptions of children themselves, especially young children. The current study utilized two techniques for interviewing pre-schoolers (aged 4 and 5): individual interviews incorporating drawing and focus groups integrating a story and a puppet. The current study highlights the important of incorporating children's perceptions and offers new measures of doing so. In the current study, very young children were put in the center of the exploration and the findings stress that children's experiences in their neighborhood were geographically limited. They talked about their homes, preschools, and the playground. In part, this finding may be indicative of the lack of child-friendly spaces and resources for children in the neighborhood. In addition, the current study shed a light into children understanding and ability to discuss safety and help seeking, which are key concepts to any future planning of prevention and intervention efforts with children. Delve into the individuals to whom children said they turned for help revealed extremely limited list of family members, which raises concerns about the support networks available to the children and their families. This study suggests that the inclusion of young children's perspectives may facilitate programs and initiatives aimed at improving their safety and well-being by identifying sources of protections and threat from children's own perspectives.
... Furthermore, a person's interaction in an environment not only influences their development and well-being but also creates spillover effects across settings. For example, a caregiver's mood after work may indirectly influence an adolescent's well-being ( Figure 1b) (Tisdale and Pitt-Catsuphes 2011). More examples of spillover effects are discussed later in this paper. ...
Article
Urban and neighbourhood design can moderate the effects of building design on human behaviour and well-being, and vice versa. The interdependence between built environments across scales is critical yet is often poorly understood. This paper overviews several psychological processes linking human behaviour to environmental design, both inside and out. In particular, the paper focuses on two environmental stressors‒ crowding and noise‒in four daily indoor environments: residential, school, work and commuting. These two stressors are often linked and can adversely impact people if improperly designed. Moreover, urban and neighbourhood design can mitigate such negative effects. Key suggestions for practitioners and policy makers include proper acoustic design, easily accessible semi-public or outdoor places and walkable streets. Some illustrations of the nexus between neighbourhood and building design show that the tendency of research traditions in environment and behaviour to focus on one scale of environmental design probably misses important human-environment transactions.
... With just a brief scan of PsychInfo for research in 2012, 144 articles came up with social support and well-being as search terms. Belonging to a valued social group predicted positive outcomes such as lower stress or higher psychological well-being in adolescents (Tisdale & Pitt-Catsuphes, 2012), college students (Chao, 2011), caregivers of people with disabilities or emotional disturbances (Ownsworth, Henderson, & Chambers, 2010; Palamaro, Kilmer, Cook, & Reeve, 2012), men living in remote areas (Kutek, Turnbull, & Fairweather-Schmidt, 2011), elders (Chao, 2012; Fauth, Gerstorf, Ram, & Malmberg, 2012), and post-disaster survivors (Kaniasty, 2012), to name a few. There is no question that social support is important to our health and well-being. ...
... Combat exposure (Blaisure et al. 2012) and psychological demands (Jex et al. 2013) influence the wellbeing of service members and their families. Recent studies show that parental work factors impact the environment of the family and child outcomes (Tisdale & Pitt-Catsuphes 2012). This study extends the work-family spill-over perspective by incorporating a bioecological framework (Bronfenbrenner 2005), therefore examining well-being as influenced by numerous contextual variables. ...
Article
The association between parental military work factors and adolescent's well-being was examined. Data were collected from 1036 military youth. Using a within-group design, we examined adolescent's well-being related to parental absence, school and neighbourhood transitions, paygrade/rank and participation in military-sponsored activities, and differentiated outcomes by sex and age. Two parental work factors primarily influenced adolescent's well-being, parental paygrade/rank and engagement in military-sponsored activities. Parental paygrade/rank was the only factor uniformly related to poorer well-being, and this variable likely represents a more complex set of family circumstances. Engaging in military-sponsored activities served as a resource and was related to enhanced well-being. Individual-level differences and implications for social workers are discussed.
Article
Contemporary concerns that social media – and its hardware accomplice the smart phone – dumb down, socially isolate and cause addiction among users have historical precedents in earlier reactions to the Internet, television, radio, and even the printed word. Automated and interpretive analyses of thousands of comments on YouTube videos of products (Study 1) and television programs (Study 2) from the past suggest a link between concerns about the negative effects of smart phones and social media and autobiographical obsolescence, a sense that the lived past is psychologically disconnected from the present and irrelevant to the future. Ironically, having nostalgia experiences on social media may provide older consumers with a psychological remedy. Viewing and commenting on video material from the past helps them verify the reality of the lived past and establish its relevance to younger generations. Suspicion of the latest disruptive communication technology (DCT) may simply be part of this broader psychological restoration process.
Article
Full-text available
Tuntutan ekonomi terkadang membuat suami (ayah) dan juga istri (ibu) dalam sebuah keluarga harus bekerja. Kondisi itu tentu saja berimplikasi positif dan juga negatif. Implikasi positif lebih pada aspek ekonomi, dan implikasi negatif lebih pada aspek psikologis keluarga, terutama pada kesejahteraan psikologis anak. Studi ini merupakan studi literatur yang mencoba menelusuri bagaimana kesejahteraan psikologis anak dengan dual earner family. Mesin pencari (search engine) digunakan sebagai alat mencari data. Hasilnya, 12 penelitian ditemukan dan digunakan sebagai sumber data. Penelitian-penelitian itu melaporkan bahwa dual earner family lebih memberikan dampak buruk bagi kesejahteraan psikologis anak, seperti mood yang buruk, depresi, kecemasan, mudah marah, agresif, sikap buruk terhadap sekolah, dan beberapa perilaku negatif lainnya. Hasil studi ini diharapkan menjadi pilot studi bagi penelitian empiris selanjutnya, terutama dalam konteks Indonesia yang bisa saja berbeda dengan temuan-temuan penelitian sebelumnya.
Article
Full-text available
A munka-magánélet egyensúly témájában sokat vitatott kérdés, hogy a szülők, különösen az anyák munkavállalása hogyan hat gyermekeik jóllétére. Tanulmányunkban a 2007–2017 között született nemzetközi lektorált szakirodalom szisztematikus áttekintésével képet adunk azokról a kutatásokról, amelyek a szülők munkavállalását és a gyermekek jóllétét (kognitív képességek, egészség, viselkedés) együttesen vizsgálják. Az eredmények azt mutatják, hogy a szülői munkavállalás direkt és indirekt módon, továbbá pozitívan és negatívan is hathat a gyermekek jóllétére. Negatív hatással van a jóllétre, ha a munkavállalás következtében lecsökkenő közös idő strukturálatlan, fókuszálatlan időeltöltést jelent; a kognitív képességek fejlődését ronthatja, ha az anya a gyermek korai éveiben 20 óránál nagyobb óraszámban dolgozik, illetve az, ha a gyermekfelügyeletet nem szakképzett személy látja el. A nem sztenderd munkabeosztás vagy a hosszú munkaórák az anyák esetében közvetett, míg az apák esetében jelentős közvetlen negatív hatást gyakorolnak a gyerekekre. Az apák körében a munkanélküliség, illetve az apák hiánya (elvált apák) többnyire szintén negatívan hat a gyerekek jóllétére. A megfigyelt hatást befolyásolják a szülők szocio-demográfiai változói. A gyerekek jóllétével kapcsolatos elképzelések befolyásolhatják a jó szülőségről vallott társadalmi nézeteket, így a szülői magatartást is. A munka és magánélet harmonizálásának sikeressége hatással lehet tehát a szülők gyermekeikkel szembeni elvárásaira, az általános otthoni légkörre, és így közvetve és közvetlenül is a családban nevelkedő gyermekek jóllétére.
Article
Full-text available
The well-being of young people is of considerable concern with many initiatives targeting the health behaviors of this population. Educators are among the professional groups being challenged to understand, evidence, and enhance childhood well-being. Working with a case study U.K. school adolescent subjective well-being (SWB) was examined through the administering of the Personal Wellbeing Index–School Children (PWI-SC; n = 840) and focus groups with pupils (n = 18). PWI-SC results suggest significant differences in personal well-being between school years (p < .001). Focus group data indicate that transitional periods associated with adolescence, feeling unsafe, and anxiety over the future were linked to a lowering of SWB. Asset-based well-being strategies that promote health literacy and build on the resources of young people and local communities are considered as a means for schools to promote well-being.
Article
Full-text available
This prospective study examined the differential effects of parent, teacher, and peer social support on depression and self-esteem of 217 adolescents, ages 15 to 18. Results indicate that female adolescents perceived significantly more support from friends than male adolescents did, whereas male adolescents perceived significantly more support from fathers than female adolescents did. No gender differences were found in perceptions of support from mothers or teachers. Boys and girls perceived the least amount of support from fathers compared with other providers. Multisample structural equation models were invariant across female and male groups for the effects of support providers on each outcome. The joint effects of the support providers explained a significant amount of variance in time 2 depression and self-esteem, after controlling for both at time 1, suggesting that social support has important effects on symptoms. The separate effects of mothers, teachers, and friends had similarly sized, significant negative effects on time 2 depression. Self-esteem was significantly, positively affected by friend and teacher support.
Article
Full-text available
Past studies have investigated relationships between peer acceptance and peer-rated social behaviors. However, relatively little is known about the manner in which indices of well-being such as optimism and positive affect may predict peer acceptance above and beyond peer ratings of antisocial and prosocial behaviors. Early adolescence-roughly between the ages of 9 and 14-is a time in the life span in which individuals undergo a myriad of changes at many different levels, such as changes due to cognitive development, pubertal development, and social role redefinitions. The present study investigated the relationship of self-reported affective empathy, optimism, anxiety (trait measures), and positive affect (state measure) to peer-reported peer acceptance in 99 (43% girls) 4th and 5th grade early adolescents. Because our preliminary analyses revealed gender-specific patterns, hierarchical regression analyses were conducted to investigate the predictors of peer acceptance separately for boys and for girls. Girls' acceptance of peers was significantly predicted by higher levels of empathy and optimism, and lower positive affect. For boys, higher positive affect, lower empathy, and lower anxiety significantly predicted peer acceptance. The results emphasize the importance of including indices of social and emotional well-being in addition to peer-ratings in understanding peer acceptance in early adolescence, and urge for more research on gender-specific peer acceptance.
Article
Full-text available
A new, interdisciplinary paradigm is emerging in developmental psychology. It includes contextual as well as individual variation and is more consonant with the complexity of adolescent behavior and development than traditional research paradigms. Social problems, such as poverty and racial discrimination, and the ways that young people negotiate adolescence successfully, are objects of research. A research program sponsored by the MacArthur Foundation, that embodies the new paradigm, is described.
Article
Full-text available
Personality and competence were examined in a community sample of 205 children ages 8-12 who were followed up 10 years later in emerging adulthood (ages 17-23). Adult Positive Emotionality (PEM), Negative Emotionality (NEM), and Constraint (CON) were presaged by childhood personality. PEM was associated with current success in social and romantic relationships. Low CON was associated with childhood and current antisocial conduct. NEM was broadly linked to childhood and current maladaptation, consistent with the possibility that failure in major developmental tasks increases NEM. Findings highlight the pervasive linkage of NEM to maladaptation and suggest that adult personality may develop from processes embedded in childhood adaptation as well as childhood personality.
Article
The present study investigates the implications of work pressure and supervisor support for individual psychosocial functioning, marital and parent–adolescent relationships. We examined the effects of work pressure and supervisor support separately for mothers and fathers and their adolescent children (M=17.33 years) in 156 white working- and middle-class, dual-earner families. Results revealed when husbands reported high work pressure and low supervisor support, both parents reported higher levels of depressive symptoms. When wives were in the high pressure/low support group, they reported lower levels of marital love, and both spouses reported less marital satisfaction. When either parent was in the high pressure/low support group, both parents reported higher levels of role overload, and families experienced more conflict and less intimacy in their relationships with their children. Their children also reported higher levels of depressive symptoms. Results associated with parent and child depressive symptoms, however, varied by parent and child sex.
Article
This article examines how parent involvement intervenes in the relationship between maternal employment status and mathematics achievement of eighth graders. Data on 13,881 students and their parents from the National Educational Longitudinal Study of 1988 (NELS:88), base year and first follow-up, are analyzed. Of 11 forms of involvement examined, mother's time in the labor force is clearly associated only with amount of unsupervised time after school and whether parents volunteer at school. Part-time employed mothers generally have the highest levels of involvement. Children perform better on base-year achievement tests when mothers are employed part-time or not employed; however, the latter can be explained entirely by unsupervised time after school. Students' gains in test scores over 2 years are generally independent of maternal employment status; however, when the amount of time the adolescent spends unsupervised after school is controlled, students of nonemployed mothers gain slightly less.
Article
If problematic relationships with parents are an academic risk factor during adolescence, then nonparental sources of support (e.g., friends, siblings, and teachers) may be arenas of comfort that promote educational resilience in the face of such risk. In a series of structural models using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, the authors found that nonparental relationships are more likely to be directly associated with academic behavior than to interact with parent-related risk. Protective interactions occur only among certain subgroups. For example, close relationships with teachers and involvement with friends protect against parent-related academic risk among Asian American adolescents, whereas support from friends operates similarly for younger girls. In other subgroups, parental and nonparental relationships interact but not in a protective way. These patterns demonstrate the complex interplay of developmental ecology and larger social structures during the adolescent stage of life as well as the context-specific nature of resilience.
Article
This study examines the ways in which different family processes and personal experiences of social contexts are related to the adjustment of adolescents in a subsample of 755 mother-child dyads drawn from the National Survey of Families and Households. Structural equation modeling was employed to examine a model in which joint family contexts (socioeconomic resources), mothers’ and adolescents’ experiences of outside-family contexts (perceived social network quality and experience of school stress, respectively), and individual characteristics of mothers (distress) were expected to relate to adolescents’ externalizing and internalizing behaviors through their association with within-family contexts (mother-adolescent conflict, family warmth). This conceptual model was supported by the data. Pathways were consistent for boys and girls.
Article
Family-responsive workplace arrangements, including schedule flexibility, reduced hours, and workplace social support, are often touted as important to employed parents' abilities to balance the simultaneous demands involved in work and childrearing. Empirical evidence regarding this supposition has most often focused on employed parents' perceptions of work-family incompatibility, leaving little understanding of (1) which arrangements are associated with parenting and children's well-being and (2) the process through which these arrangements may be related to these aspects of family life. A stress perspective on the work-family interface suggests that work-family arrangements might be related to parenting and children through the mechanisms of parents' psychological well-being. I use data from a regional sample of employed mothers to investigate this proposition. Findings from path models show that most relationships between arrangements and parenting are direct and unmediated by mothers' well-being and that work-family arrangements are only indirectly associated with children's socioemotional well-being.
Article
This article uses a resources and demands approach to examine the extent to which work, community, and parenting resources and demands are related to adolescents’ internalizing and externalizing problems and grades in school. The analysis is based on data from 489 married two-earner couples and adolescents aged 10 to 17 interviewed for the 1992-1994 National Survey of Families and Households. The results indicate that time in activities is not related strongly to adolescent problems and grades. Negative work spillover, peer-based school problems, and harsh parenting behaviors show the strongest and most consistent relationships with adolescent problems and grades. Friends’ planning college and nurturing parenting behaviors are positively related to grades. Thus, the findings support the resources and demands approach to varying degrees for the resources and demands included in the study.
Article
The present study investigates the implications of work pressure and supervisor support for individual psychosocial functioning, marital and parent–adolescent relationships. We examined the effects of work pressure and supervisor support separately for mothers and fathers and their adolescent children (M=17.33 years) in 156 white working- and middle-class, dual-earner families. Results revealed when husbands reported high work pressure and low supervisor support, both parents reported higher levels of depressive symptoms. When wives were in the high pressure/low support group, they reported lower levels of marital love, and both spouses reported less marital satisfaction. When either parent was in the high pressure/low support group, both parents reported higher levels of role overload, and families experienced more conflict and less intimacy in their relationships with their children. Their children also reported higher levels of depressive symptoms. Results associated with parent and child depressive symptoms, however, varied by parent and child sex. La présente étude examine les incidences de la pression subie au travail et du soutien apporté par les chefs sur le fonctionnement psychosocial de l'individu, les relations conjugales et les relations entre parents et adolescents. Nous avons étudié séparément les répercussions de la pression subie au travail et du soutien apporté par les chefs en ce qui concerne les mères et les pères, et leurs enfants adolescents (M=17,33 ans) de 156 familles moyennes, blanches, et o[ugrave] les deux parents travaillent. Les résultats montrent que lorsque les maris signalaient une forte pression au travail et peu de soutien de la part du chef, les deux parents mentionnaient des symptômes dépressifs plus importants. Placées dans la même situation, les épouses mentionnaient une baisse de l'amour conjugal et les deux conjoints se montraient moins satisfaits de leurs relations conjugales. Lorsque l'un ou l'autre parent se trouvait dans le groupe forte pression au travail et peu de soutien de la part du chef, les deux parents signalaient que leur rôle respectif leur pesait davantage et que les familles connaissaient davantage de conflits et moins d'intimité dans leurs relations avec leurs enfants. Leurs enfants signalaient également des symptômes dépressifs plus importants. Cependant, les résultats associés aux symptômes dépressifs des parents et des enfants variaient selon le sexe du parent et de l'enfant.
Article
Reviews research on the influence of external environments on the functioning of families as contexts of human development. Investigations of the interaction of genetics and environment in family processes; transitions and linkages between the family and other major settings influencing development, such as hospitals, daycare, peer groups, school, social networks, the world of work (both for parents and children), and neighborhoods and communities; and public policies affecting families and children are included. A 2nd major focus is on the patterning of environmental events and transitions over the life course as these affect and are affected by intrafamilial processes. External systems affecting the family are categorized as meso-, exo-, and chronosystem models. Identified as areas for future research are ecological variations in the expression of genotypes, relations between the family and other child settings, relations between family processes and parental participation in other settings of adult life, and families in broader social contexts. (4 p ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Investigated whether fathers' work experiences (decision latitude, job demands, job insecurity and interrole conflict) influence children's behaviors (acting out, shyness and school competence) through their sequential effects on job-related affect (job satisfaction, negative job-related mood and job tension) and parenting behaviors (punishing, rejecting and authoritative behaviors). Data on work experiences, job-related affect and parenting behaviors were obtained from 189 fathers (mean age 38.5 yrs); teachers provided ratings of the children's behaviors. Fathers' work experiences differentially affect their children's behavior through their effects on fathers' job-related affect and parenting behaviors. Results provide support for the assumptions that work experience is the critical variable in understanding the link between work and family, and any effects of work role experiences on family functioning are primarily indirect. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Chapter one serves as an introduction to the issue of why and how families matter in child development. The authors point out that the family has played the most prominent role in theory, research, practice, and policy aimed at understanding and improving child welfare and development. In the risk and resilience literature, quality of parenting and the parent-child relationship have been implicated over and over again as correlates of positive development, in both normative and high-risk situations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
This paper describes the McMaster Family Assessment Device (FAD), a newly developed questionnaire designed to evaluate families according to the McMaster Model of Family Functioning. The FAD is made up of seven scales which measure Problem Solving, Communication, Roles, Affective Responsiveness, Affective Involvement, Behavior Control and General Functioning. The paper describes the procedures used to develop the FAD and presents scale means and scale reliabilities from a sample of 503 individuals.
Article
This study investigated whether participation in structured after-school activities moderates the association between detached parent–adolescent relationships and adolescent depressed mood. A representative sample of 539 14-year-olds and their parents were assessed concerning adolescent participation in after-school activities, the parent–adolescent relationship, and adolescent depressed mood. Results showed that adolescents with detached relations to their parents reported high levels of depressed mood. Adolescents who participated in after-school activities reported low levels of depressed mood compared to adolescents not participating in such activities; however, this was primarily true of participants who perceived high support from their activity leader. Support from after-school activity leaders was particularly important for a subgroup of youth characterized by highly detached relations to their parents. Although girls reported higher levels of depressed mood than did boys, the associated benefits of perceived support from an activity leader were consistent across gender. © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Article
Family-responsive workplace arrangements, including schedule flexibility, reduced hours, and workplace social support, are often touted as important to employed parents' abilities to balance the simultaneous demands involved in work and childrearing. Empirical evidence regarding this supposition has most often focused on employed parents' perceptions of work-family incompatibility, leaving little understanding of (1) which arrangements are associated with parenting and children's well-being and (2) the process through which these arrangements may be related to these aspects of family life. A stress perspective on the work-family interface suggests that work-family arrangements might be related to parenting and children through the mechanisms of parents' psychological well-being. I use data from a regional sample of employed mothers to investigate this proposition. Findings from path models show that most relationships between arrangements and parenting are direct and unmediated by mothers' well-being and that work-family arrangements are only indirectly associated with children's socioemotional well-being.
Article
As a method specifically intended for the study of messages, content analysis is fundamental to mass communication research. Intercoder reliability, more specifically termed intercoder agreement, is a measure of the extent to which independent judges make the same coding decisions in evaluating the characteristics of messages, and is at the heart of this method. Yet there are few standard and accessible guidelines available regarding the appropriate procedures to use to assess and report intercoder reliability, or software tools to calculate it. As a result, it seems likely that there is little consistency in how this critical element of content analysis is assessed and reported in published mass communication studies. Following a review of relevant concepts, indices, and tools, a content analysis of 200 studies utilizing content analysis published in the communication literature between 1994 and 1998 is used to characterize practices in the field. The results demonstrate that mass communication researchers often fail to assess (or at least report) intercoder reliability and often rely on percent agreement, an overly liberal index. Based on the review and these results, concrete guidelines are offered regarding procedures for assessment and reporting of this important aspect of content analysis.
Article
Presented here is a family theory of emotional illness and its component system of family psychotherapy, which is one of several different theoretical approaches to the family, and one of many different kinds of “family therapy” that have come on the psychiatric scene in little more than one decade. A brief review of the family movement attempts to put this system into a kind of perspective with the overall family movement. Since this system places maximum emphasis on “family” as a theoretical system, the theory has been presented in some detail. The shorter section of family psychotherapy presents both broad principles and specific details about the usefulness of family concepts in clinical practice.
Article
Using a representative sample of over 900 low-income urban families from the Three-City Study, analyses assessed whether maternal human capital characteristics moderate relationships between mothers' welfare and employment experiences and young adolescents' well-being. Results indicate synergistic effects whereby greater maternal education and literacy skills enhanced positive links between mothers' new or sustained employment and improvements in adolescent cognitive and psychosocial functioning. Greater human capital also enhanced the negative links between loss of maternal employment and adolescent functioning. Mothers' entrances onto welfare appeared protective for adolescents of mothers with little education but predicted decreased psychosocial functioning among teens of more educated mothers. Results suggest that maternal human capital characteristics may alter the payback of welfare and work experiences for low-income families.
Article
In a sample of 2918 adolescents aged 12 to 24 years, the relation between parental and friends' social support was studied, specifically with regard to emotional problems. In addition, age and sex differences were examined. Results indicated that parental and friends' support seem to be relatively independent support systems. Although the degree of perceived support changes in the expected direction (with parental support decreasing and friends' support increasing) during early adolescence, parental support remains the best indicator of emotional problems during adolescence. The effect of friends' support appeared to depend slightly on the level of perceived parental support, with the high parental support group showing a slightly positive effect of friends' support, and the low parental support group showing a negative effect of friends' support.
Article
This survey study explores the relationship between area-specific perceived self-competence, perceived social support, gender, and substance use in young adolescents. Questionnaires were administered to 140 male and 131 female adolescents attending middle school to assess self-perception of competencies, social support, and substance use. Correlations were performed between the predictor variables and the substance use measures. Hierarchical multiple regressions were also used to identify potential interactions between gender, perceived competencies, and perceived social support in the prediction of specific substances. Higher perceived scholastic competence was associated with less substance use in both genders. In boys, more perceived support from teachers, and to a lesser degree parents, was associated with less substance use, particularly in those with low scholastic competence. In girls, social support was unrelated to substance use except for support from classmates, which was associated with more cigarette and marijuana use. However, in girls with low scholastic competence, more support from peers was consistently associated with more substance use. The gender differences in risk factors for early substance use identified in this study deserve further investigation, in view of their potential relevance for adolescent substance abuse prevention and early intervention.
Article
Using a sample of 188 low-income single black mothers (93 employed and 95 nonemployed), this study investigated financial strain, maternal depressive affect, and parenting stress among former welfare recipients who are now working, and current welfare recipients who are not employed. The findings suggested that being employed did not reduce financial strain, as the two groups reported similar levels of strain. However, regression analyses indicated that not being employed was associated with reporting higher levels of stress. Parenting stress was also associated with attaining less education, having boys, reporting more financial strain and depressive affect. Correlates of maternal depressive affect were mother's education and financial strain. Interaction effects were found for employment by financial strain, indicating that higher levels of depressive affect were related to more financial strain among nonemployed mothers. The findings suggest that although employment is associated with better mental health for poor mothers, entry into the workforce is associated with stronger links between financial strain, parenting stress and depressive affect for mothers leaving welfare.
Article
The current study presented a new description of adolescent school-based activity participation, in the form of mutually exclusive activity portfolios, and described the kinds of youth that participate in each portfolio. These portfolios included (1) Sports Only, (2) Academics Only, (3) School Only, (4) Performance Only, (5) Multiple Activities, and (6) Non-Participation. Findings indicated that youth demographic characteristics and school size differentiated between different kinds of activity participation as well as nonparticipation. More detailed activity portfolios were also identified that were complex and demonstrate the difficulty of examining participation beyond larger, more inclusive groupings. The Multiple Activity portfolio emerged as a unique group worthy of further examination. Characteristics of non-participators included: lower socioeconomic status, lower grades, and attended larger schools. Hispanic adolescents were also less likely to participate in school-based extracurricular activities. Findings from this study inform ecological models of adolescent development as well as school and social policy.
Article
To examine the associations between connectedness to family and friends, and school engagement, and selected health compromising and health promoting behaviours in a sample of New Zealand adolescents. A web-based survey was designed and administered to a random sample of 652 Year 11 students aged 16 years from all Dunedin (NZ) high schools between 30th July and 31st October 2001. Connectedness to family and friends, and school engagement were assessed, together with reports of various health compromising and health promoting behaviours. Logistic regression was used to determine the extent to which these family, friends and school variables were related to health compromising and health promoting behaviours. School engagement was strongly related to both low levels of health compromising and high levels of health promoting behaviours. Connectedness to family was associated primarily with fewer reports of suicidal ideation and increased reports of physical activity. Connectedness to friends was associated in the main with increased reports of health compromising behaviours. This study reinforces the importance of school and family as support networks for young people. School may well play an especially important role in health promotion among young people. The mechanisms by which engagement with school operates need to be explored further.
Article
This research examines adolescent perceptions of neighborhood disorganization and social capital to determine if they are associated with adolescent alcohol or drug (AOD) use, AOD dependence, and access to AOD treatment. This is a secondary analysis of data from the 1999 and 2000 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH). The NSDUH is a cross-sectional survey of a random sample of the non-institutionalized United States population and is conducted in respondents' homes. Youth between the ages of 12 and 17, yielding a sample size of 38,115 respondents. Neighborhood disorganization was self-reported by youth in response to eight items; 10 items measured social capital. AOD use was also self-reported. AOD dependence was assessed by a series of questions regarding symptoms and impairment that is consistent with the criteria specified in the DSM-IV. A little more than half of the youth reported never using alcohol or drugs (54.3%), 41.1% reported lifetime AOD use, and 4.6% were AOD dependent. Two percent reported receiving AOD treatment. Medium and high levels of social capital were negatively associated with AOD use and dependence. Social capital was unrelated to access to AOD treatment. Neighborhood disorganization was positively associated with AOD use, dependence, and access to treatment. After controlling for individual- and family-level characteristics, neighborhood disorganization and social capital were associated with AOD use and dependence. The findings suggest that subjective measures of social context may be an important component of the complex biopsychosocial model of adolescent AOD addiction and treatment utilization.
Connecting social work perspectives to work-family research and practice The work and family handbook: Multidisciplinary perspectives, methods, and approaches
  • M Pitt-Catsouphes
  • J M Swanberg
  • E E Kossek
Pitt-Catsouphes, M., & Swanberg, J. (2006). Connecting social work perspectives to work-family research and practice. In Pitt-Catsouphes, M., Kossek, E. E., & r140 Youth & Society 44(1) Sweet, S. (Eds.), The work and family handbook: Multidisciplinary perspectives, methods, and approaches (pp. 327-360). Mahwah NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum
Working families and growing kids: Caring for children and adolescents
  • E Smolensky
  • J Gootman
Smolensky, E., & Gootman, J. (Eds.). (2003). Working families and growing kids: Caring for children and adolescents. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
Dimensions of human behavior: The changing life course
  • E D Hutchison
Hutchison, E. D. (2008). Dimensions of human behavior: The changing life course. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.
Advancing a positive school climate for students, families, and staff The school services sourcebook
  • M E Woolley
Woolley, M. E. (2006). Advancing a positive school climate for students, families, and staff. In C. Franklin, M. B. Harris, & P. Allen-Meares (Eds.), The school services sourcebook (pp. 777-784). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Neighborhood quality of life: A subjective matter New dimensions in marketing/quality-of-life research
  • R Widgery
Widgery, R. (1995). Neighborhood quality of life: A subjective matter? In J. Sirgy and A. Samli. (Eds.), New dimensions in marketing/quality-of-life research (pp. 267-278). Westport, CT: Quorum Books.
The school success profile. Chapel Hill, NC: Jordan Institute for Families
  • G L Bowen
  • J M Richman
Bowen, G. L., & Richman, J. M. (2005). The school success profile. Chapel Hill, NC: Jordan Institute for Families, School of Social Work, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
Parents' work experiences of young people: links with adolescent well-being
  • U Kinnunen
  • M Sallinen
  • A Ronka
Kinnunen, U., Sallinen, M., & Ronka, A. (2001). Parents' work experiences of young people: links with adolescent well-being. Psykologia, 36(6), 407-418.
Connecting social work perspectives to work-family research and practice
  • M Pitt-Catsouphes
  • J Swanberg
Pitt-Catsouphes, M., & Swanberg, J. (2006). Connecting social work perspectives to work-family research and practice. In Pitt-Catsouphes, M., Kossek, E. E., & Youth & Society 44(1)
How families matter in child development: Reflections on research from risk and resilience Families count: Effects on child and adolescent development. The Jacobs Foundation series on adolescence
  • A Masten
  • A Shaffer
Masten, A., & Shaffer, A. (2006). How families matter in child development: Reflections on research from risk and resilience. In Clarke-Stewart, A., & Dunn, J. (2006). Families count: Effects on child and adolescent development. The Jacobs Foundation series on adolescence. (pp. 5-25). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.