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Unresolved abandonment and engulfment issues may be activated by space and closeness needs of people in a relationship. Treatment interventions are divided into four categories: blocked development, script decisions, introjections, and communication problems.
Berne (1961b, 1963, 1964) proposed a social psychiatry and contrasted it with social psychology. He construed social psychiatry as focused on individual psychodynamics and pathology or discomfort as persons transact. He both viewed social psychology as a more neutral approach and suggested that social psychiatry might be a branch of social psychology. While Berne expanded understanding of psychodynamics and interactions in his social psychiatry, he did not integrate his conceptualizations of individual psychodynamics and group dynamics. Social-psychological processes serve as the bridge interconnecting self, others, and social structures. In his social psychiatry, Berne advanced knowledge about groups. Social psychology adds to comprehension of the contexts—families, systems, cultures—in which persons both experience difficulties and develop constructively. Assessment and interventions in the clinical, counseling, educational, and organizational fields are effectively broadened by considering the more encompassing social-psychological processes partially explained by social psychiatry.
With the elucidation of the life positions of “I'm OK, You're Irrelevant” (I + U?) and “I'm not-OK, You're Irrelevant” (I − U?) by White (1994), a new direction or focus of treatment is opened up. The purpose of this article is to examine some of the treatment options that are provided by looking at psychopathology in the way these life positions do.
Although Berne proposed transactional analysis as a social psychiatry, his constructs can be synthesized as a social psychology. This more effectively integrates his observations on personal functioning, interpersonal transactions, social aggregations, and organizations. The perspectives of Laing (1971), Mead (1956/1964), and Natanson (1970) on self and others; Minuchin (1974) and Joines (1988) on boundaries; and Klein (1956) and Scarf (1987) on projective identification are helpful in this synthesis. As a social psychologist, Berne offered insights on communication, socialization, and the interconnecting of persons and structures. The interrelationships of fields of specialization (clinical, counseling, educational, organizational) are more apparent when transactional analysis is viewed as a social psychology.
This article addresses the importance of substantiating changes in basic transactional analysis theory, and in particular, in making changes to Berne's original developments regarding the Parent ego state. It focuses on the period of 1955 to 1962 as a crucial period for the evolution of the Parent ego state. A discussion of some of these alterations is offered along with some pre-Bernian psychoanalytic contributions to highlight an apparent trend away from the analytic roots of transactional analysis toward a behaviorial stance.
This article defines a common type of couple in therapy as a system of perceived asymmetrical power in which the individuals believe that one has more power than the other. Differences between actual power distribution in the system and power distribution as perceived by the couple are highlighted. Clinical examples are given to illustrate this kind of power system, which is investigated in relation to three variables: authentic, although often covert, requests (as opposed to those expressed verbally and overtly); the different positions of the members of the couple; and the two basic mechanisms of control and power: mystification and power games. These variables are presented as a series of integrated mechanisms, and interventions for confronting this kind of a power system are described.
Diagraming games as transactions between participants is based on functional descriptions of ego states. Berne also depicted games as series of ulterior transactions, which is more congruent with structural analysis. Examples are provided of the diagnosis and treatment of individuals through exploring games as expressions of exteropsychic or archaeopsychic ego states.
Integrating transactional analysis and family systems concepts enhances the assessment and treatment of couples. TA constructs that imply the systemic processes of complementarity and circular causality are examined. Ways in which relationship and script contracts and the dynamics of symbiotic passivity add to an understanding of couples are made explicit. The ways in which the constructs of double binds, knots, and dilemmas further our knowledge of couples are explored and illustrated.
Applies Teaching Individuals to Live Together (TILT), a 2-axis interpersonal program developed by K. J. Kaplan (see record
1989-15433-001), to couples. TILT is designed to differentiate healthy individual development from clinical pathology. Healthy couple development is defined as mutually integrated increases in levels of intra-individual individuation and attachment, while couple pathology is defined as an incongruence between individuation and attachment on the part of the partners. Unidimensional and bidimensional models of family cohesion are reviewed, and a distinction is made between healthy and pathological cohesion. The concept of cohesion is applied to couple types, and the application and goals of TILT for couples are outlined. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
To resolve some discrepancies in rackets theory and its place within TA theory and treatment, this article proposes the addition of Racket Analysis and explains how the Racket System is a model for identifying and dealing with racket-related phenomena. The Racket System is self-reinforcing and distorted, based on script, and consists of Script Beliefs and Feelings, Rackety Displays, and Reinforcing Memories.
Reparenting techniques are employed during Parent interviews (J. McNeel) to reparent the Parent ego state in order to provide support for redecisions made by the Child. Parent needs, wants, and feelings are identified and experienced to ensure that appropriate attention will be paid to them during the reparenting process. An annotated example of Parent reparenting is provided. Specific indications and examples of appropriate circumstances for the use of Parent reparenting are included.
Describes a technique used to assist couples to recognize the relationship between their individual preferences in receiving strokes and their patterns in giving strokes. This approach provides information, aids in stopping blaming transactions, and promotes awareness of each partner's separateness and uniqueness.
Extends work of Mahler (1975) and Kaplan (1978) to the diagnosis of couples' systems. Identifies 5 couple stages: symbiotic-symbiotic; symbiotic-practicing; practicing-practicing; Mutual interdependence-mutual interdependence; and Synergistic-synergistic. Describes the characteristics of each system, and illustrates selected aspects from couple interviews. This model is used educationally with couples, and often becomes a facilitative tool for the couple. The model is suggested to facilitate the therapist's diagnosis and intervention selection.
Discusses issues involved in the use of 2-chair work as an adjunct to transactional analysis therapy. Clients tend to do 2-chair work around issues that they cannot resolve. A methodology is needed for the therapist to use in making judgments about the type of interventions that are appropriate. Five important themes to watch for as 2-chair work is being conducted are discussed, and clarifying "heightener" interventions appropriate to them are suggested. The parent interview is a specific technique to be used once the therapist has seen clear indications of an impasse situation. It consists of talking to the parent projection as if he or she were that person, asking questions designed to elicit Child ego-state responses. The technique enables the client to see his or her parents as individuals with personal problems that the client can separate from his/her own. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)