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Abstract

Feedback is one of the most powerful influences on learning and achievement, but this impact can be either positive or negative. Its power is frequently mentioned in articles about learning and teaching, but surprisingly few recent studies have systematically investigated its meaning. This article provides a conceptual analysis of feedback and reviews the evidence related to its impact on learning and achievement. This evidence shows that although feedback is among the major influences, the type of feedback and the way it is given can be differentially effective. A model of feedback is then proposed that identifies the particular properties and circumstances that make it effective, and some typically thorny issues are discussed, including the timing of feedback and the effects of positive and negative feedback. Finally, this analysis is used to suggest ways in which feedback can be used to enhance its effectiveness in classrooms.

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... Gemäß der Konzeption von Black und Wiliam (2009) manifestiert sich formatives Assessment in fünf Strategien, indem Lehrpersonen (1) Lernziele und Beurtei lungskriterien mit den Lernenden teilen, (2) regelmäßig, z.B. durch anregende Fragen und formative Tests, Informationen zum Lernstand einholen (Eliciting Evi dence), (3) aufbauend auf diesen diagnostischen Einsichten lernförderliche Rück meldungen geben (Feedback) und die Lernenden durch (4) Self-Assessments so wie (5) Peer-Assessments aktiv in Beurteilungsprozesse einbeziehen. Zahlreiche (Meta-)Studien konnten substanzielle positive Effekte von formativem Assessment auf die schulische Leistung, die intrinsische Motivation und die Selbstregulation von Lernenden feststellen (Black & Wiliam, 1998Decristan et al., 2015;Hat tie, 2009;Hattie & Timperley, 2007;McMillan et al., 2013). ...
... Eine breite Basis empirischer Befunde verdeutlicht, dass Eliciting Evidence und Feedback lernförderlich sind (Hattie, 2009;Hattie & Timperley, 2007). Insbeson dere in gelungener Reziprozität können sie Lernprozesse anregen (Furtak et al., 2017;Ruiz-Primo & Furtak, 2006. ...
... Vielmehr sollte im Zentrum stehen, wie und wann im Unter richt Zeit geschaffen werden kann, um durch offene, anregende Fragen mit Schüle rinnen und Schülern ins Gespräch über das Lernen zu treten und gemeinsam Ein blicke in Denk-und Lernprozesse zu gewinnen. Dies eröffnet Möglichkeiten, den Blick nicht nur auf konkrete Resultate, sondern auch auf andere Ebenen des Ler nens, wie Herangehensweisen und Selbstregulationsprozesse zu lenken(Hattie & Timperley, 2007). Dabei kommt dem Zuhören eine entscheidende Rolle zu, sodass Lehrpersonen an geeigneter Stelle an die individuellen Denkprozesse von Lernen den mit adaptiven Hinweisen anknüpfen können. ...
Chapter
Formatives Assessment und individuelle Lernunterstützung sind zwei Ansätze der Lernförderung, die sich mit Formen der individuell-adaptiven Begleitung von Lernenden auf Basis diagnostischer Informationen befassen. Die Frage, wie eine solche Förderung im Unterricht konkret umgesetzt werden kann, steht im Zentrum des vorliegenden Beitrags. Dazu werden qualitätsvolle Feedbackloops in den Blick genommen. Dies sind individuell-adaptive Interaktionen, in denen Lehrpersonen diagnostische Fragen (Eliciting Evidence) mit Rückmeldungen (Feedback) verbinden, um Lernprozesse gezielt zu unterstützen. Die Umsetzung qualitätsvoller Feedbackloops stellt eine Verbindung von formativem Assessment und individueller Lernunterstützung dar. Im Beitrag wird anhand von Unterrichtsvideos aus dem alltäglichen Mathematikunterricht von 52 Schulklassen der vierten Jahrgangsstufe, die im Rahmen der TUFA-Videostudie erhoben wurden, explorativ untersucht, wie Lehrpersonen qualitätsvolle Feedbackloops umsetzen. Der Beitrag schließt mit Schlussfolgerungen für eine individuell-adaptive Unterrichtspraxis.
... Furthermore, the importance of feedback in building one's self-concept as a learner has been examined in detail (e.g. Dermitzaki & Efklides, 2000;Pesu, Viljaranta, & Aunola, 2016), especially from the perspective of formative assessment and feedback delivery (Hattie & Timperley, 2007). What has not yet been studied is the child's perceptions of his or her own competence in conjunction with the provision of feedback. ...
... Timely formative assessment supports children's conceptual understanding and engagement in learning tasks, takes children's prior knowledge and experiences into account, provides the right level of challenge, develops one's competence, and supports revisions to one's work (Darling-Hammond, Flook, Cook-Harvey, Barron, & Osher, 2020). Providing feedback is one aspect of teachers' high quality classroom practices (Hattie & Timperley, 2007). Teachers should not forget the significance of an emotionally supportive role when giving feedback to their students, as this ensures their motivation and engagement (e.g. ...
... Feedback is considered to be one of the most powerful influencing factors on learning and achievement, and it serves as a link between learning outcomes, content, and pedagogy (Harris et al., 2014;Hattie & Timperley, 2007). However, there is a limited amount of research on young children's beliefs concerning their school performance and how they absorb and process feedback they receive (e.g. ...
... Indeed, feedback is a powerful instrument to support student learning with a long and well-documented tradition [2,11,43]. Feedback is supposed to help identify similarities and differences between a given standard of a subject or task, or the quality of one's results. This is how learners' results can be improved [3]. ...
... Feedback constitutes an important factor for student learning with a long and well-documented body of research [2,11,43]. Boud and Molloy [3] define feedback as a process in which learners receive information from an external source about their own work or solutions. Feedback is supposed to help identify similarities and differences between a given standard of a subject or for any task and the quality of one's results so that learners' results can be improved [3]. ...
... Although the exercises themselves represent the maximum feedback options of each tool, they do not allow for generalizations in the field of computing or other related disciplines. Moreover, the analysis excludes other feedback classifications and conceptual frameworks for high-information feedback [11,47]. ...
Preprint
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Online coding environments can help support computing students gain programming practice at their own pace. Especially informative feedback can be beneficial during such self-guided, independent study phases. This research aims at the identification of feedback types applied by CodingBat, Scratch and Blockly. Tutoring feedback as coined by Susanne Narciss along with the specification of subtypes by Keuning, Jeuring and Heeren constitute the theoretical basis. Accordingly, the five categories of elaborated feedback (knowledge about task requirements, knowledge about concepts, knowledge about mistakes, knowledge about how to proceed, and knowledge about meta-cognition) and their subtypes were utilized for the analysis of available feedback options. The study revealed difficulties in identifying clear-cut boundaries between feedback types, as the offered feedback usually integrates more than one type or subtype. Moreover, currently defined feedback types do not rigorously distinguish individualized and generic feedback. The lack of granularity is also evident in the absence of subtypes relating to the knowledge type of the task. The analysis thus has implications for the future design and investigation of applied tutoring feedback. It encourages future research on feedback types and their implementation in the context of programming exercises to define feedback types that match the demands of novice programmers.
... Our emphasis will be to confront what we see as a lack of understanding about the importance of this topic in music education and provide suggestions that will help music teachers optimize their performance teaching. We draw heavily on the work of Hattie and his colleagues (especially, Hattie and Timperley, 2007;Hattie and Clarke, 2018;Brooks et al., 2019a;Wisniewski et al., 2020) whose framework for explaining all facets of feedback-but especially those forms of feedback that are focused on ensuring students understand "where to next"has had a huge impact on school education through various publications (e.g., Hattie, 2012;Hattie and Clarke, 2018;Hattie and Zierer, 2018;Hattie et al., 2021). ...
... This contradiction between how teachers view feedback and what students feel is the most valuable form of feedback for them is why this topic is so important in all forms of teaching, and especially music, where lessons often include students who have chosen to participate in elective music classes, choose to participate in large ensembles, or are engaged in a master-apprentice learning context that is typical within one-to-one studio performance teaching settings. Hattie and Timperley (2007) define feedback as "information provided by an agent (e.g., teacher, peer, book, parent, self, experience) regarding aspects of one's performance or understanding" (p. 81). ...
... Essentially, views centered around feedback as a "consequence of learning" and as a means of "closing the gap" by providing corrective information to clarify an idea, receive encouragement, or evaluate the correctness of a response (Sadler, 1989). More recently, feedback has been conceptualized more broadly (Hattie and Timperley, 2007;Wisniewski et al., 2020). One of the most prominent educational scholars on feedback is John Hattie, who has proposed a conception of feedback that is multifaceted, including a variety of potential sources, types, and levels of feedback. ...
Article
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The purpose of this article is to provide one prominent perspective from the research literature on a conception of feedback in educational psychology as proposed by John Hattie and colleagues, and to then adapt these concepts to develop a framework that can be applied in music performance teaching at a variety of levels. The article confronts what we see as a lack of understanding about the importance of this topic in music education and provides suggestions that will help music teachers refocus how they use feedback within their teaching. Throughout the article, we draw heavily on the work of John Hattie and his colleagues whose explanations on all facets of feedback, but especially those forms of feedback that are focused on ensuring students understand “where to next”—have had a huge impact on school education through various publications.
... For example, Hattie (1999), in his review of 196 studies of feedback in the classroom, described feedback as one of the most influential factors in learning. Hattie and Timperley (2007) define feedback as "information provided by an agent (e.g., teacher, peer, book, parent, self, experience) regarding aspects of one's performance or understanding" (p. 81). ...
... 81). The most important function of feedback is to provide students with information about their learning or performance so that they can successfully regulate it (Butler & Winne, 1995;Hattie & Gan, 2011;Hattie & Timperley, 2007). ...
... However, more than 38 percent of the effect sizes from the analyzed studies were negative, that is, showed that control groups outperformed feedback groups. In the classroom context, Hattie and Timperley (2007) and Hattie and Zierer (2019) conducted meta-syntheses on the effects of feedback on student achievement. These indicated a large effect (between d = .70 ...
Article
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We focused on the effect of various types of feedback in a game-based fluid reasoning test called Triton and the Hungry Ocean on elementary school students (ages 8-12; total N = 321). The feedback types were four: no feedback (A), simple (correct/wrong feedback; B), elaborated (correct solution shown; C), and learner-controlled feedback (student chooses between feedback types; D). We did not observe an effect of any feedback type on performance (i.e., there were no between-group differences). However, within group D, students overall tended to choose elaborated feedback more often as task difficulty increased (r = .92), and those in group D who generally tended to choose elaborated feedback also tended to perform better even after controlling for intellect. Description of game mechanics, translation of opening and closing stories of Triton game, table with estimated model parameters (items difficulty and the variance of the latent variable), dataset and R software script used in analyzes is openly available in figshare at https://doi.
... Il feedback può essere considerato come l'informazione di ritorno data dal docente allo studente per migliorare la propria performance (Grion, Tino, 2018;Hattie, Timperley, 2007), un'interazione formativa che può influenzare il processo di apprendimento degli alunni su un piano cognitivo e motivazionale (Clark, 2012). Questa informazione di ritorno non è un atto di breve durata ma un processo e diventa formativa quando da un lato, permette allo studente di capire come migliorare il proprio lavoro e, dall'altro, lo conduce a un livello di comprensione più profonda rispetto alla fase precedente (Hattie, Timperley, 2007). ...
... Il feedback può essere considerato come l'informazione di ritorno data dal docente allo studente per migliorare la propria performance (Grion, Tino, 2018;Hattie, Timperley, 2007), un'interazione formativa che può influenzare il processo di apprendimento degli alunni su un piano cognitivo e motivazionale (Clark, 2012). Questa informazione di ritorno non è un atto di breve durata ma un processo e diventa formativa quando da un lato, permette allo studente di capire come migliorare il proprio lavoro e, dall'altro, lo conduce a un livello di comprensione più profonda rispetto alla fase precedente (Hattie, Timperley, 2007). L'idea di una conoscenza che viene costruita progressivamente durante lo svolgimento di attività predisposte dal docente all'interno delle quali vengono sollecitate capacità di: valutazione/autovalutazione; autoregolazione; monitoraggio degli apprendimenti, rimanda alla concettualizzazione di "feedback generativo interno" proposta in letteratura da Nicol (2018) e, in termini analoghi da Evans (2013) che si lega all'idea di uno studente indipendente e capace di "inserirsi positivamente negli ambiti professionali dopo la laurea" (Evans, 2013, p. 72). ...
... With a more rapid delivery of feedback, a few studies have demonstrated an increase in voluntary student feedback response rates by over 35% [7,12], perhaps due to students appreciating that their comments will be utilized to improve their own education, not just the education of future students [13]. In addition, feedback should be specific to individual learning activities and instructors [14,15], and rapid feedback has been purported to provide more specific feedback [11,16]. ...
... The context for feedback matters [14,26,27]. Feedback is received more effectively in well-established, longitudinal relationships, recently described as the "educational alliance" [15,24,28]. ...
Article
Introduction: Medical schools vary in their approach to providing feedback to faculty. The purpose of this study was to test the effects of rapid student feedback in a course utilizing novel virtual learning methods. Methods: Second-year medical students were supplied with an optional, short questionnaire at the end of each class session and asked to provide feedback within 48 h. At the close of each survey, results were emailed to faculty. After the course, students and faculty were asked to rate the effectiveness of this method. This study did not affect administration of the usual end-of-course summative evaluations. Results: Ninety-one percent of students who participated noted increased engagement in the feedback process, but only 18% on average chose to participate. Faculty rated rapid feedback as more actionable than summative feedback (67%), 50% rated it as more specific, and 42% rated it as more helpful. Some wrote that comments were too granular, and others noted a negative personal emotional response. Conclusion: Rapid feedback engaged students, provided actionable feedback, and increased communication between students and instructors, suggesting that this approach added value. Care must be taken to reduce the student burden and support relational aspects of the process.
... One common approach for providing feedback in introductory programming courses is the use of automated assessment systems [2,35,60], which at the minimum provide feedback on the correctness of programming assignments submitted for evaluation. As feedback plays a considerable role in learning [32], in addition to influencing approaches to learning by simply being offered [86], it should be given with care; feedback can both improve self-efficacy and decrease self-efficacy [32]. In general, formative feedback -feedback given as a part of the learning process -is preferred over summative feedback, i.e. feedback given after the learning process [40,77]. ...
... One common approach for providing feedback in introductory programming courses is the use of automated assessment systems [2,35,60], which at the minimum provide feedback on the correctness of programming assignments submitted for evaluation. As feedback plays a considerable role in learning [32], in addition to influencing approaches to learning by simply being offered [86], it should be given with care; feedback can both improve self-efficacy and decrease self-efficacy [32]. In general, formative feedback -feedback given as a part of the learning process -is preferred over summative feedback, i.e. feedback given after the learning process [40,77]. ...
Preprint
This article explores the natural language generation capabilities of large language models with application to the production of two types of learning resources common in programming courses. Using OpenAI Codex as the large language model, we create programming exercises (including sample solutions and test cases) and code explanations, assessing these qualitatively and quantitatively. Our results suggest that the majority of the automatically generated content is both novel and sensible, and in some cases ready to use as is. When creating exercises we find that it is remarkably easy to influence both the programming concepts and the contextual themes they contain, simply by supplying keywords as input to the model. Our analysis suggests that there is significant value in massive generative machine learning models as a tool for instructors, although there remains a need for some oversight to ensure the quality of the generated content before it is delivered to students. We further discuss the implications of OpenAI Codex and similar tools for introductory programming education and highlight future research streams that have the potential to improve the quality of the educational experience for both teachers and students alike.
... Also, proper feedback for any of the assessments should be promptly made available to learners in order to ensure that the progress of learning is continuous and seamless, whether it is web-based or paper-based. Findings reported in the literature over the decades have supported that providing feedbacks (whether right or wrong) consistently supports higher and better performance in the follow-up quizzes and the final assessment as long as they are done promptly (Travers et al., 1964;Sassenrath and Garverick, 1965;Roper, 1977;Birenbaum and Tatsuoka, 1987;Pashler, et al., 2005;Hattie and Timperley, 2007;Fazio et al., 2010;Butler et al., 2013;McDaniel and Little, 2019;Anderson and McDaniel, 2021). Therefore, if the students' success or learners' progress are the goals of educators, attention should be provided for prompt feedback and be part of a package of quizzes and assessments; and this should be continuous for the period of the course delivery. ...
Article
Full-text available
In a virtual learning environment enforced by the pandemic, assessments are equally administered online using the technology tools available on the different learning management systems (LMS). Assessment is pivotal in the learning process and the many benefits of online quizzes according to research, show that it inspires, motivates active learning and thinking, and enhances better performance and feedback compared to the dated pen and paper form of assessment. In the light of this, this study examines students' perspectives on Online quizzing and tries to understand the impacts of such form on their performances. A quantitative approach was employed, and it is interesting to note that of the 127 students of the University of Guyana that responded to the survey shared via Google Forms, students' perspectives towards online quizzing are generally positive and the majority prefer online quizzing to paper-based assessment. Respondents noted that online quizzing measures evaluation appropriately as most of them have recorded positive impacts on their performances. Students noted that they get assistance online which implies cheating is unavoidable. The findings also show that the Multiple choice (MC) form of quizzing online is mostly preferred by students compared to other forms. In literature, there are lots of claims against the MC questions. One such is that they evaluate low thinking capabilities and thus, all forms of assessment should be used in an online examination to achieve better learning outcomes. The findings gathered prompted lots of educational discussions juxtaposed by claims and secondary supports. Recommendations were made with the emphasis on the availability of better internet, critically prepared MC questions and other assessments, provision of sufficient time while quizzing online, and proctored online tools usage. In conclusion, the evidence in the research proves that Online quizzing is beneficial in 21st-century learning; however, more needs to be done for the betterment of educational advancement.
... Feedback is a crucial component of the teaching and learning process, and it characterises all sorts of information that is made available by an agent (e.g., a teacher, software, peer) in reactions to one's performance and understanding of presented tasks [14]. This definition emphasises the agent (the provider of feedback), the receiver, and the fact that feedback comes as a consequence of the receiver's action. ...
Article
Full-text available
Several universities are witnessing an increase in students' enrolment in mathematics-intensive programmes over the last decades. This increase has come with the price of high failure rates in foundational mathematics courses, which poses challenges to mathematics teaching and learning in higher education. It is therefore inevitable, for some universities, to transform the teaching and learning of mathematics to more student-centred approaches that engage the students mathematically and enhance their success rates. We approach this transformative effort by investigating students' perception of teaching, feedback, and assessment as a first step in reforming the teaching of a first-year mathematics course at a Norwegian university. The results of both quantitative and qualitative analyses of the data generated using a questionnaire from 107 (80 men) engineering students show that the status quo of teachings offers little support for learning. The teaching is dominated by teacher-led instruction, note-taking, and large pieces of proof which make learning difficult for students during class activities. The results also show that the current structure of the course offers limited formative feedback to students and that the assessment tasks require restructuring to capture students' time and effort. We discuss the implications of these findings and make some recommendations for improvement.
... Distingue respuestas correctas e incorrectas, la adquisición de mayo y diferente información y la construcción del conocimiento profundo más que superficial. En el segundo nivel centrado en el proceso, se ofrece información con respecto a las estrategias adoptadas para que estas puedan ser reajustadas, en el tercer nivel, sobre la autorregulación, el docente señala en qué momento será necesario buscar ayuda instrumental o ejecutiva, finalmente, en el cuarto nivel del "yo" este tipo de retroalimentación incluye frases como "Eres muy inteligente", "Bien hecho", etc., lo que hace que no sea una retroalimentación eficaz (Hattie y Timperley, 2007). ...
Book
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Es muy grato presentar el libro “PLANIFICACIÓN CURRICULAR adentramos a la experiencia de la planificación curricular en sus diversos componentes, que al ser parte de ello dirigen la praxis educativa. Tener un conocimiento al respecto posibilita prever las sesiones de aprendizaje, las estrategias, los conocimientos, los recursos y materiales educativos y sobre todo la evaluación. En un contexto, de evaluación formativa conocer el marco teórico orientará nuestra planificación en contexto porque presenta los niveles alcanzados según la EBR. Asimismo, en base a diversas actividades el lector podrá ejercitar y aplicar conocimientos aprendidos en el libro, desde las bases científicas del Currículo Nacional, su organización actividades que potencian las habilidades aprendidas, sugerencias y formas de retroalimentación de la evaluación formativa, el marco teórico, la finalidad y las formas de retroalimentación. Pero, ¿Qué ganamos al poseer este libro en nuestras manos o en formato virtual? Las posibilidades son variadas. Desde la presentación del marco teórico hasta la realización del análisis de la organización de la planificación curricular de la Educación Básica Regular, basados en ejemplos y actividades vinculantes a la práxis pedagógica; invitándonos a tener una lectura seria de acuerdo a las orientaciones del Ministerio de Educación y autores referentes al tema. Las propuestas presentadas nos permiten reflexionar ante una gama de ejemplos de los niveles educativos: inicial, primaria y secundaria, que involucran los procesos didácticos, las estrategias, la retroalimentación para comprender la complejidad de nuestra realidad educativa, cuto propósito del texto es seguir innovando en próximas ediciones en base a los cambios en materia educativa. Agradecemos infinitamente a quienes directa e indirectamente hicieron posible la realización del material que tienen ante su vista, con el entusiasmo académico de ser una guía a estudiantes y docentes y su difusión en la comunidad magisterial y saludamos a quienes hagan uso adecuadamente de las diversas páginas que se muestran a continuación.
... To support students engaging in programming education, educators utilise a wide range of approaches in curriculum and assessment design & format [94]. Regardless of approach, providing students with high-quality, formative feedback is integral to ensuring students achieve learning outcomes [95]. ...
Thesis
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Higher education is at a critical juncture in its evolution as it accommodates changes in demand, accessibility, and funding models. Further, COVID-19's impact on institutions has drastically accelerated the already increasing prevalence of online or blended modes of student engagement. The recent shift to emergency online learning has only illuminated the pre-existing issues facing online students' quality and educational experience. In this thesis, we aim to explore ways to bridge this gap between campus and online students. We investigate how innovations in pedagogy and artificial intelligence-driven software tools in learning and feedback systems can enhance online teaching and learning outcomes. We accomplish this by conducting a sequence of interrelated action research projects, each designed to observe real challenges and opportunities in the online learning environment, propose and implement a solution, and evaluate that solution. Initially, we began by exploring the impact that formative feedback delivered via audio comments in an online learning tool has on tutor efficiency, student-tutor relationships, and learning outcomes for online computing students. After observing how educators were using the newly available asynchronous audio system to engage in student-tutor discussions, we expanded the audio system to develop Real Talk, a system that facilitates student-synchronous, tutor-asynchronous, audio-based discussions. We quantitatively analysed the real-world usage of Real Talk to establish its efficacy in leading to meaningful learning interventions. Later, after collecting qualitative educator feedback regarding Real Talk, we augmented the tool with machine-learning speaker verification to deliver an intelligent teaching assistant system which aims to support staff in maintaining academic integrity throughout the use of these oral discussion and assessment devices. In this thesis, we present a substantial and original contribution to knowledge by addressing challenges that have historically made trustworthy and authentic, online, student-tutor discussions prohibitive --- issues affecting many universities' online teaching and learning practice. We present research-driven, translated, open-source solutions to these challenges, along with educator perspectives and a range of mixed-method evaluations. We expect that the work presented in this thesis can pave the way for richer, student-friendly, and student-centred experiences, assessment, and outcomes in online higher education.
... The course utilizes Google Slides, a collaborative platform that enables students to collaborate on slide creation and the teacher to provide real-time feedback to students, a powerful enhancement tool because everything is in sync. This strategy fosters student collaboration while increasing the efficiency of formative assessment [16]. The program then presents students with virtual reality scenarios to identify possible events in a realistic system. ...
Conference Paper
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The purpose of this paper is to take a compelling case for the role of online learning platforms in facilitating student learning and to explore plausible strategies for optimizing the student learning experience. The project described in this paper is based on a fourth-grade English language arts course. This research shows that those students who use Nearpod in class are more motivated and capable of improving their learning, which is a change that can be highly beneficial to students. Students were asked to participate in various activities as part of this project. A pre-test was administered at the start of the project to ascertain students’ prior knowledge. Numerous assessment tools provided additional data for educational implementation to help students improve their learning process. The project combines self-study and discourse activities to help students develop more complex thinking, and peer-reviewed discussion boards to help develop students’ communication skills. Finally, virtual reality was seamlessly integrated into the classroom, allowing students to learn about and interact with the most cutting-edge technological advancements. When considering the difficulties encountered during the pandemic with face-to-face instruction, this method of teaching, which is based on the Nearpod online learning platform, is more easily understood and embraced by a broader range of students.
... Studies point to the problem of learning to collaborate versus learning through collaboration and suggests that teachers often may not understand the mechanisms of productive collaboration or do not recognize the necessity to instruct students on the norms of collaboration (Murphy & Henessey, 2001). To be effective, teacher feedback needs to specifically target learning strategies that cater to the task on hand (Chan & Lam, 2010;Hattie & Timperley, 2007;Zimmerman & Kitsantas, 2002). ...
... While this makes the role of GTAs uniquely invaluable there is a lack of importance attached to professional development for GTAs. This point is echoed by one contributor's quote: (Hattie & Timperley, 2007;Wisniewski, Zierer & Hattie, 2020), and a vital component of professional development for teachers (Knight, 2002;Ulker, 2021). While GTAs benefited from the facilitator and peer feedback on microteaching sessions incorporated within an introductory teaching and learning module, the context of Covid-19 and online remote classes reduced further such opportunities. ...
Article
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Postgraduate research students who teach, also referred to as graduate teaching assistants (GTAs), have consistently been described as essential contributors to Higher Education (HE), given the crucial teaching role that they perform (Austin, 2002; Luft et al., 2004; Gardner & Jones, 2011; Roden, Jakob, Roehrig et al., 2018; Holland, 2018; Fung, 2021; Hastie, 2021). However, it has been noted that, frequently, the only opportunity provided for GTAs to engage with personal and professional development is through their allocated teaching hours, most of which are on common introductory or practical modules, which form the staple part of the GTA teaching experience (Seymour & Hewitt, 1997; Ellis, 2014; Schussler et al., 2015). In many cases, these are conducted in isolation from other GTAs or Faculty members, leading to teaching becoming somewhat of an isolating experience. As such, GTAs often struggle to find the space and time to develop their teaching identity with other GTAs. Adopting a qualitative approach, this co-authored paper, which we describe as a ‘collective reflective’, details how, through involvement in a peer support initiative, we, as a group of GTAs, were able to reflect on our role and shape our identity as teachers. Together, we delve into the thoughts and discussions that we shared on this journey. Our considerations from this reflective piece highlight the importance of building supportive communities for GTAs, not only to allow for reflection on professional development but also to engender a sense of belonging amongst GTAs
... Feedback is considered information that focuses on aspects of performance and understanding [54]. Feedback is an effective intervention to support and optimize learning processes [10,55,56]. ...
Article
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In classrooms today, teachers are asked to support their teaching with digital tools. For this purpose, teachers require not only technological knowledge but also corresponding beliefs about the advantages of digital tools. The development of those beliefs should already be em-bedded in the university education of teachers. To this end, we developed a university seminar aimed at fostering prospective teachers’ confidence in the utility of digital tools, using the digital tool STACK as an example. The seminar is based on learning mathematics with the digital tool STACK, independently designing digital tasks with said tool, and finally, reflecting on a teach-ing experiment with school students using STACK. To make the development of prospective teachers’ beliefs visible throughout the seminar, we worked with different qualitative methods. The results of this case study show that there are four developmental phases of prospective teachers’ beliefs which include an initial situation, a purely positive phase, a disillusionment, and a phase of differentiated beliefs. It becomes apparent that it is possible to develop prospec-tive teachers’ beliefs about digital tools in a positive way.
... Developing writing skills is critical both academically and socially, as students will use their writing skills throughout their learning lives. Students often need to write in their daily and school life, so they need to have effective writing skills (Hattie & Timperley, 2007). Writing is one of the skills that students have gained from primary school age (Skibbe & Aram, 2018). ...
Article
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This research aims to examine the effect of the planned and structured editorial study on writing success. This quasi-experimental research was conducted with 60 fourth graders chosen for either the experimental or control groups. Data were collected by the students through written texts. According to the result, there were no significant differences between the experimental and control groups' pretest. However, significant differences were detected in the post-test related to the experimental and control groups. In conclusion, the results indicate that there was a significant difference in terms of overall writing success between the experimental and control groups. This research is essential to confirm the effect of review and feedback on students' writing improvement. According to these results, suggestions for the practices of giving feedback regarding writing are presented.
... Another crucial component is feedback (Praetorius et al., 2018), not only between teachers and students, but between teachers and parents as well. According to Hattie and Timperley (2007) as well as Rahman et al. (2011), teachers' feedback (also taking assessments into consideration) for students and their parents has a strong influence on student learning and achievement. In line with Siebert et al. (2018), feedback is understood in this study as teacher-student-parent communication (TSPC), which includes forms of summative and formative assessment and/or feedback (Sardareh, 2016;Tante, 2018). ...
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With the spread of the SARS-CoV-2 virus, school-related closures and the hasty transition into homeschooling, parents were required to take a more active and positive role than ever before in collaboration with their children’s educators. Thus, with this unprecedented situation, parents became an important source of information during the pandemic. Considering this unique event, the study at hand aims to explore parents’ perspectives regarding primary and upper secondary school teachers’ digital competence, digital differentiated instruction, and feedback during the first SARS-CoV-2 school shutdown in Germany. Additionally, the study examined parents’ evaluation of teachers’ characteristics. Results reveal that parental ratings were generally positive. Moreover, parents with children attending primary schools perceived and evaluated teachers’ digital competence and digital differentiated teaching highly, and perceived significantly more teacher feedback than parents whose children attend upper secondary school. In addition, positive correlations were found between parents’ evaluations of teachers’ feedback and how motivated, appreciative, and devoted teachers are perceived to be. Practical implications and further research areas are discussed.
... There is a need to communicate and cooperate about practicum experiences and to relate the experiences to both theory and established practicum. Cooperation between students, preceptors and academic teachers is critical during practicum to achieve learning outcomes through reflection and feedback (Gustafsson et al., 2015;Hattie & Timperley, 2007;Löfmark et al., 2012). Students' reflections can take place during three phases: planning, action, and after-action. ...
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The purpose of this review was to identify studies and experiences reporting with triadic synchronous video-based supervision (TSVBS) in nursing education. It is important for nursing students to be supervised by preceptors and academic teachers during their practicum. There are some challenges to performing in-person supervision involving those three parties, like long travel distances and the restrictions caused by the Covid-19 pandemic. TSVBS may be a solution. There is, however, limited knowledge about TSVBS in nurse education. We performed a scoping review focusing on TSVBS to provide an overview of the existing publications on the approach. Only six studies were found describing the use of TSVBS, all of them relating to nurse education. No studies evaluating the effect of TSVBS were found. Instead, the studies only compared the cost-effectiveness of TSVBS with in-person supervision. The supervisory relationship between the three could also not be separated from a more general teacher-student relationship.
... In addition to the instructions in the two synchronous sessions both lecturers offered voluntary coaching sessions during the asynchronous phases in order to offer formative feedback (see argumentation of Biggs &Tang 2011 andHattie &Timperley 2007). The coaching sessions provided the students an opportunity to critically discuss their work, their learning process and their acquisition of skills with the lecturers and to ensure that their contribution meets the necessary standards for presenting at an academic conference. ...
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Die Coronapandemie stellt Hochschulen vor bisher ungeahnte Herausforderungen. Digitalisierung und Online-Lehre bestimmen das Bild, während Campus und Seminarräume verwaisen. Welche Auswirkungen haben diese Veränderungen auf Studierende und Lehrende? Werden Diskriminierung und Exklusion durch digitale Lehre verstärkt oder gemindert? Und wie können Hochschulleitungen auf das »New Normal« reagieren? Die Zusammenführung von Forschungsergebnissen, Lessons Learned und Best Practice-Beispielen zeigt, wie sich Hochschulen – und Hochschullehre – durch die Erfahrungen aus der Pandemie verändern, und bietet Impulse für eine nachhaltige Hochschulentwicklung.
... Even though these students with low prior knowledge might have already had a basic understanding of the underlying biomedical knowledge that was needed, they might have lacked the experience to build meaningful clinical case representations (Dickinson et al., 2020;Rikers & Boshuizen, 2000). It is well possible that learners with low prior knowledge would have benefitted, for example, from a more elaborate form of feedback (for an overview of helpful feedback components, see Hattie & Timperley, 2007). Elaborated feedback might have helped learners identify their own knowledge gaps and thus make use of one of the learning mechanisms that is crucial for productive failure (Loibl et al., 2017). ...
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To advance the learning of professional practices in teacher education and medical education, this paper introduces the idea of representational scaffolding for digital simulations in higher education. We outline the ideas of core practices in two important fields of higher education, namely teacher and medical education. To facilitate future professionals’ learning of professional practices, we suggest using digital simulations for the approximation of practice, as they offer multiple options for selecting and adjusting representations of practice situations. We introduce the idea of representational scaffolding to adjust the demands of the learning task in simulations by selecting and modifying representations of practice to match relevant learner characteristics. Building on research on problem-solving and scientific reasoning, we identify leverage points for employing representational scaffolding. We suggest four sets of representational scaffolds that target relevant features of practice situations in simulations: informational complexity, typicality, required agency, and dynamics. Representational scaffolds might be implemented in a strategy for approximating practice that involves the media design, sequencing, and adaptation of representational scaffolding. The outlined conceptualization of representational scaffolding can systematize the design and adaptation of digital simulations in higher education and might advance future professionals’ learning for engaging in professional practices. This paper offers a necessary foundation and terminology for approaching related future research. DOI: https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/bf92d
... When a test-like event is launched, learners are encouraged to generate an answer on the basis of prior knowledge and evaluate their own current performance. Feedback is a powerful tool to help learners evaluate their learning so as to bridge the gap between current performance and the target (Hattie and Timperley, 2007). ...
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This study aimed to explore the impact of emotional feedback and elaborated feedback provided by a pedagogical agent (PA) on learners' emotions, intrinsic motivation, agent perception, cognitive load, and transfer performance in multimedia learning. The experiment was conducted based on an actual undergraduate course. Undergraduate students (N = 117) were randomly assigned to one of the four conditions, where PA's feedback differed by emotional feedback (with vs. without) and elaborated feedback (elaborated feedback vs. knowledge of results). Results revealed that emotional feedback reduced learners' confusion, activated intrinsic motivation, and enhanced agent perception. In addition, elaborated feedback improved intrinsic motivation, agent perception, and transfer performance but reduced germane cognitive load. Surprisingly, there was no significant interaction between emotional feedback and elaborated feedback. These findings had implications for designing a PA with a feedback fulfilling learners' emotional and cognitive needs to maximize multimedia learning.
... Einer der grössten Einflüsse auf die Wirksamkeit von Feedback sind die individuellen Diversitätsmerkmale vonLernenden (vgl. Buch 2019;Narciss et al. 2014;Hattie und Timperley 2007). Diversität kann dabei viele verschiedene menschliche Merkmale umfassen, wie beispielsweise das Alter, Geschlecht, Nationalität, Bildungsstand oder Arbeitsplatz. ...
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Feedback gehört zu den wichtigsten Aspekten des Lehr-Lern-Prozesses. Doch nicht jedes Feedback ist für alle Lernenden passend in Bezug auf die Verständlichkeit und Effektivität. Auf der anderen Seite ist personalisiertes Feedback seitens der Lehrenden für eine kapazitätsüberschreitende Anzahl an Lernenden nicht umsetzbar. Im Gegensatz dazu kann ein computergestütztes Lernsystem schnell und auf eine skalierbare Art und Weise passendes Feedback bereitstellen. Es gibt bereits einige Ansätze dazu, Feedback adaptiv oder personalisiert bei der Aufgabenbearbeitung den Lernenden unter Einbezug einzelner Diversitätsmerkmale zur Verfügung zu stellen. Die Auswahl von passenden Feedbacks könnte jedoch auch von mehreren Diversitätsmerkmalen abhängig sein. Aus diesem Grund wird ein neuartiges Lernsystem vorgeschlagen, das auf einer soziotechnischen Basis verschiedene Diversitätsmerkmale verwendet, um passendes Feedback zu generieren, auszuwählen und vorzuschlagen.
... Providing detailed feedback is an important requirement for shortanswer grading systems. When a student makes a mistake, it is not enough to simply tell them that the answer is wrong [5,19,21]. They still have to either read their lecture materials to identify their mistakes or wait for the opportunity to consult with their teacher. ...
... Also, it is necessary to increase the writing performance through a particular strategy. For that reason, Hattie & Timperley (2007) proposed many strategies in writing learning process, among which feedback has the most powerful effects for the advancement of the students writing skill. ...
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This research investigated the feasible effects of individual/group focused versus unfocused feedback on EFL learners' pragmatics achievements in terms of accuracy and fluency. To do this, 60 female intermediate level English students were divided into four experimental groups and asked to write request letter based on the instruction they had received. In order to check the homogeneity of the participants in terms of their level of proficiency, an Oxford Placement Test was administered. Afterwards, to estimate the participants' speech act performance before the experiment in each group, a pre-test was used. During treatment sessions, the writings were corrected, individual/group focused and unfocused feedbacks were provided, and then they were handed back to the students to notice the errors. To assess the pragmatic knowledge of the participants regarding the speech act of request in each group after the treatment, a post-test was administered. To reach more reliable data, two raters corrected the participants' responses on pretest and posttest. Two repeated-measures two-way ANOVA and MANOVA were used to analyse the data. The results indicated individual/group focused and unfocused group significantly benefited from the provision of feedback. Besides, implications of the findings and suggestions for further research are both addressed at the end of the thesis.
Article
Zusammenfassung. Theoretischer Hintergrund: Da der Kompetenzerwerb in der Psychotherapieausbildung maßgeblich durch Üben und systematisches Feedback bestimmt wird, wurde eine Online-Lehrveranstaltung entwickelt, in der erfahrungsbasiertes Lernen mit Simulationspatient_innen (SP) und strukturiertes Feedback kombiniert wurden. Fragestellung: Ziel der Studie war die qualitative und quantitative Evaluation der Lehrveranstaltung. Methode: Zunächst wurden halbstandardisierte Interviews mit Seminarteilnehmer_innen, SP und der Supervisorin durchgeführt und inhaltsanalytisch ausgewertet. Außerdem wurden die Gesprächsführungsfertigkeiten der Student_innen (aus Sicht einer Supervisorin) und die therapeutische Selbstwirksamkeit (Selbstbeurteilung) im Seminarverlauf erhoben. Ergebnisse: Zwischen N = 13 und 15 Masterstudent_innen der Klinischen Psychologie, die beiden SP und die Supervisorin nahmen an Begleitstudie und Interviews teil. Die Student_innen schätzten v. a. den Praxisbezug des Seminars, wünschten sich mehr Interaktionen mit SP und noch häufigeres Feedback. Das Onlineformat wurde als Übergangslösung wahrgenommen. Gesprächsführungsfertigkeiten und therapeutische Selbstwirksamkeit nahmen signifikant zu. Schlussfolgerungen: Erfahrungsbasiertes Lernen kann mit SP und Feedback praktikabel umgesetzt werden, allerdings sollten Präsenzrollenspiele zumindest ergänzend angeboten werden.
Article
This paper examines the impact of using mobile devices, the pivotal element of a student-centered ecosystem, on the learning process and learning outcomes from a system’s view in which mobile technologies are considered a critical success factor to facilitate the dialogue and self-regulatory learning processes, thereby enhancing e-learning outcomes. We synthesize the disparate literature to develop an elevated model. A total of 323 valid and unduplicated responses from students who have completed at least one online course at a Midwestern university in the U.S. were used to examine the structural model, using SmartPLS v. 3.3.2. The results of this study show that the use of mobile devices positively affects student-instructor and student-student dialogues. It also facilitates the self-regulation process, which in turn positively affects the learning outcomes. Integrating mobile technology enables educational institutions to design and build distance learning systems that allow students to be highly flexible with their locations and schedules in the learning process. We discuss several implications of this research for educational institutions and distance learners in a student-centered higher education ecosystem.
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Self-esteem has been investigated in a wide range of fields connected to psychology and physiology. It is commonly influenced by internal and external factors. This study aimed to explore the relationship between self-esteem and previous learning experiences, and further investigation for the reasons that might have contributed to lowering students’ self-esteem. This study utilized Rosenberg's scale of measuring individuals’ inclination to lower or higher self-worth on a questionnaire. Another data collection instrument was used to explore the causes of low self-esteem from the perspective of college students. The study population was 60 female students in the Faculty of Education-Janzour. These Samples were drawn from the total population using simple random sampling techniques. The data gathering tool for this research was an adopted scale that is designed by Likert scale. High and low self-esteem were selected according to the results of Rosenberg self-esteem scale. The results of this study showed that there was a relationship between previous learning experiences and students’ low self-esteem. The paper also concluded that there were different causes behind students’ low self-esteem.
Article
Tablets kommt eine zunehmende Bedeutung im Unterricht zu. Sie ermöglichen die Erweiterung bewährter Unterrichtsformen (z. B. Bearbeitung von Aufgaben), aber auch neue Formate (z. B. Erstellung von Erklärvideos durch die Lernenden). Im Rahmen der hier vorgestellten Untersuchung wird die Wirkung des Tablet‐Einsatzes in der Erarbeitungs‐ und Sicherungsphase analysiert. Dafür wird eine digitale Lernumgebung zur Einführung in das Basiskonzept Chemische Reaktion evaluiert, welche die Schüler:innen durch die beiden Unterrichtsphasen führt. Die Intervention wird im Rahmen eines Projekttags im Chemieanfangsunterricht durchgeführt, wobei sechs Unterrichtsstunden à 45 Minuten zur Verfügung stehen. Während der Erarbeitungsphase erfolgt ein interaktiver Informationsinput. Anschließend werden die Inhalte in Form von Experimenten angewendet und vertieft. Für die Sicherungsphase wird die Klasse in zwei Gruppen eingeteilt: Die eine Hälfte der Lernenden erstellt eigene Erklärvideos, wohingegen die andere Hälfte Aufgaben auf den iPads bearbeitet. Die Evaluation erfolgt unter anderem im Hinblick auf den Fachwissenszuwachs und die Einschätzung der Lernmaterialien durch die Schüler:innen. Der Vergleich beider Gruppen ermöglicht Aussagen über die Effektivität beider Sicherungsmaßnahmen. Tablets are becoming increasingly important in the classroom. They enable the augmentation of established teaching forms (e. g., working on tasks) but also new formats (e. g., creation of explanatory videos by the learners). In the study presented here, the effectiveness of using tablets in the acquisition phase and internalization phase is evaluated. For this purpose, a digital learning environment for introducing the basic concept of the chemical reaction is evaluated to guide the students through the two teaching phases. The intervention takes place within the framework of a project day in initial chemistry tuition with six teaching units of 45 minutes each. During the acquisition phase, the students are provided with input in form of interactive information. After that, this information is applied and consolidated by experiments. For the internalization phase, the class is divided into two groups: One half of the learners creates their own explanatory videos, while the other half works on tasks on the iPads. In particular, the evaluation is carried out with regard to the increase in knowledge and the assessment of the learning materials by the students. The comparison of the two groups allows conclusions concerning the effectiveness of both internalization methods.
Chapter
Formative assessment and the provision of formative feedback are key factors in effective teaching and learning. Generally, while teachers understand the role of feedback, studies show there is a tendency for them to provide it when a task comes to a complete. When teaching took to the online mode due to forced conditions imposed by COVID-19, questions arise about the provision of formative feedback particularly since teachers have been found to struggle teaching online. In this paper, we report on a preliminary study involving five university faculty who teach language courses. We present the respondents’ (1) views and practices on using the computer for teaching online (2) practices of providing formative assessment and feedback online and (3) their intentions to proceed with online formative assessment and feedback. By and large, the faculty were comfortable teaching online. While they did agree on the importance of formative feedback and attempted to provide these in their classes, they reported issues on using the appropriate tools or assigning the appropriate tasks for the purpose. They also talked of the stress in doing so, relating it with pedagogical, technical and institutional management factors. With effective learning in mind, the group was divided on whether or not they would proceed with online formative assessment and feedback, if the choice was available to them. This paper concludes with recommendation for further research and consideration for teaching online.
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Le chapitre développe 5 balises à prendre en compte pour assurer l'accompagnement des étudiants : (1) d’instaurer un cadre relationnel positif et sécurisant, (2) de mettre en avant ses talents, car on sait que c’est ainsi qu’il va progresser, (3) de s’adapter à ses besoins et aux défis qu’il se donne, (4) de soutenir son apprentissage en situations formelles et informelles et (5) de montrer que l’accompagné n’est pas seul, mais intégré dans un contexte et un réseau.
Chapter
Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) policy and practice develops in the early years of life. This understanding will facilitate the implementation of inclusive and equitable quality educational programmes in ECEC. Educators play a primary role and require support and training to proactively plan and address variability in learning across learning environments. Universal Design for Learning (UDL) is a framework guided by the neuroscience and psychology of how learning occurs and guides educators to best support all learners. UDL establishes flexible learning environments that provide accessibility from the outset. By providing multiple means of engagement, recognition, action and expression, educators can promote expert learning to help each learner actualize their potential and understand what serves them best across contexts. When learning environments are established through intentional design predicated on how children learn, educators can better equip young learners with a robust platform for successful future learning impinging on their learning engagement and motivation. This chapter describes efforts in Malta that focus on national decision-making policies and strategies with a clear vision that early childhood years’ experiences impact society, the environment, and the economy. With a focus on UDL and highlighting how executive function can be explicitly scaffolded during STEM learning experiences, this chapter offers examples of initiatives being implemented in Malta.
Article
This study investigated the extent to which the uptake of peer-feedback of 10th grade students (N = 160, age range = 15–16) related to intrapersonal factors (error tolerance, feedback tolerance, and writing self-efficacy) and interpersonal factors (feedback provider's language skills, as perceived by the feedback recipient). Two groups of students received similar feedback on their writing performance, provided by trained research-assistants. Half the students was led to believe that feedback was provided by a peer perceived to have stronger language skills than their own, whereas the other half was led to believe that feedback was provided by a peer perceived to have weaker language skills than their own. Results showed that (1) error tolerance was related to feedback tolerance, (2) perceived language skills of the feedback provider positively related to the uptake of peer-feedback on writing style, and (3) error tolerance, feedback tolerance, and writing self-efficacy did not relate to peer-feedback uptake. These results emphasize the central role of errors in peer-feedback processing and they imply that the importance of interpersonal factors should not be overlooked when predicting or explaining peer-feedback uptake.
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Das Kapitel erläutert vorbereitend die grundlegenden, intendierten Wirkungsweisen und Funktionen von Bildungsstandards im Schulsystem. Besondere Beachtung finden hierbei spezifische Bezüge des Mathematikunterrichts zu Kompetenz- und Ergebnisorientierung. Darauf aufbauend werden die österreichischen Bildungsstandards Mathematik für die 8. Schulstufe vorgestellt. Zusammenfassend diskutiert das Kapitel Ansätze und Modelle zur Nutzung von Bildungsstandardüberprufungen, indem Befunde zur Nutzung von Ergebnissen aus grossflächigen Lernstandsdiagnosen erörtert und diese in einem Angebots-Nutzungs-Modell zu Lernstandsdiagnosen verortet werden.
Article
The purpose of this study was to examine how the flipped learning readiness, engagement, autonomous learning, and computing achievements of university students in an online flipped classroom differ according to gender and feedback groups (verbal, written, and grade reporting) before and after a computing course. An 8‐week application was conducted with 104 university students enrolled Computing course at a state university, İstanbul, Turkey. Students were randomly assigned to three different feedback groups. An experimental design was used in this study and quantitative data was collected. Students did homework and written/verbal or grade feedback was given to students through Moodle. A flipped learning readiness scale, computing achievement test, online student engagement scale, and autonomous learning scale were given to participants as pretests and posttests. The results showed that computing academic achievement, flipped learning readiness, and engagement variables increased significantly. There were differences in online engagement regarding gender but no difference between feedback types. The research includes suggestions for future studies.
Article
Providing feedback on student work is a key part of the teaching process. Ideally, students use the provided feedback to learn and improve future work. In the age of technology-mediated learning, it is essential to study how technology affects the feedback process. This work uses data captured by a Learning Management System (LMS) to measure whether students view the feedback provided by an instructor. Unfortunately, the data show that only a limited number of students actually viewed the provided feedback. A technology-focused review of the feedback process is used to identify how technology may contribute to students’ limited use of feedback. Suggestions are offered for how instructors, pedagogy researchers, and developers of technology used in learning can collaborate to ensure that technology supports the best pedagogical practices identified by research and also provides the tools and data needed to support ongoing pedagogical research.
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Students’ steps during recursive problem solving of standard computer science problems (including the computation of the factorial of natural numbers, as well as the computation of the Fibonacci sequence) were recorded in a professional usability lab in form of both audio and video data (among them screencasts). A self-developed feedback prototype and the freely available online tool CodingBat were utilized for the investigation. The data on students’ steps includes their task processing time, interactions, feedback demands and use, so that students' steps in the problem solving process can be qualitatively traced.
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This work has been undertaken as part of the Further Education Professional Development Grant funding from the Department for Education. The Research College Group (RCG) was tasked with reviewing the support and development of New and Inexperienced Teachers (NETS) through an assessment of what was already in publication and of the current practice in the sector. By drawing on this new evidence base the project aimed to create guidelines on what was considered to be best practice to support NETs and to redraft the Department for Education’s statutory Early Career Framework (2019) (ECF) and develop an Early Career Teacher Framework for the Further Education and Skills (FES) sector. Section one of this publication therefore brings together a review of what is already known about the support of NETs within the sector through academic and other publications. Whilst there is some useful work undertaken around the Further Education and Skills sector, notably in areas such as mentoring there is not research and understanding of a comparable level with that of the schools sector. For this reason what is known in through publication was enhanced with a review of practice from within FES. This gives a richer understanding of the landscape as it currently stands, allowing those using this document to make development to be make changes that can complement the existing good practice and context of the sector rather than risk adopting practice that potentially deforms or damages what is already good. The conclusions of section one produce best practice guidance as to how new and inexperience teachers can be developed. Section two introduces the methodology and rationale for the FES version of the ECF and details the framework in full. It provides guidance on NETs should 'learn about' and 'learn to do' to become competent. This document enhances and adapts the existing ECF with the Institute of Apprenticeships and Technical Education’s occupational duties for a Learning and Skills Teacher, the latest or most influential research in the FES sector and the knowledge of expert teachers and development leaders from within the sector.
Chapter
It is critical to understand how to design courses that keep students engaged and help them achieve the desired learning outcome. This is especially true in an online classroom where student reaction is harder to gauge. Accordingly, this exploratory study attempts to understand how incorporating frequent formative assessments, or ongoing knowledge checks, in online classes can impact student engagement and achievement. Effectiveness was evaluated according to reaction and learning, the first two levels of the Kirkpatrick four-level model. Learning Analytics helped assess effectiveness. Results indicate that according to the first level of the model, reaction, students appreciate a more interactive class. Furthermore, participation in the formative assessments was analyzed in conjunction with the summative assessments, such as exams and graded assignments, to evaluate the second level, learning. Here too, the results show a significant positive impact of increased participation in achieving the desired learning outcomes. This study shows the importance of learning analytics, even with little data, to make informed decisions about course design. Furthermore, it shows the importance of ensuring formative assessments occur at regular intervals throughout online classes. It offers students a better experience and helps them better achieve the desired learning outcome.
Article
Researchers investigated the impact of a professional learning intervention focused on teaching teachers to increase rigor, challenge, and engagement to reveal talent in low-income learners. The professional learning intervention’s goal, to improve teachers’ ability to recognize student ability and talent through use of proven high-level curricular and instructional strategies, focused teacher learning on culturally responsive teaching, fundamental principles of learning, and specific curriculum. Researchers hypothesized teacher perceptions of students’ abilities would shift from a deficit view to a strengths-based one. Results indicated that teacher beliefs were positively impacted after one year and that those impacts leveled off over time. Specifically, teachers’ perceptions of student potential and the importance of talent development improved. Engagement in professional learning predicted positive change in classroom support, organization, and instruction. Finally, the professional learning intervention positively impacted teacher efficacy related to engaging, instructing, and managing learners.
Article
The well-known Additive Increase-Multiplicative Decrease (AIMD) abstraction for network congestion control was first published by Dah-Ming Chiu and Raj Jain in their seminal work [4] in 1989 and soon played a prominent part in TCP algorithm design for the Internet. The ingenuity of AIMD lies in the abstraction of Internet congestion control, and ever since its inception has also been a staple part of teaching curriculum for performance evaluation and computer networking courses at universities worldwide. In this paper, we describe teaching examples for university students to appreciate the AIMD abstraction from the theoretical aspects such as convex optimization and Perron-Frobenius theory to the data science aspect. The essence of cooperation encompassed by AIMD reverberates even in teaching networks formed by students and educators, giving rise to online classroom flipping teaching tools and data analytics to close the gap between teachers and students.
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The effects of written feedback on accuracy in reading with 5 students enrolled in a self-contained classroom for behaviorally disordered children and youth were evaluated. Written feedback, placed on students' reading assignments, was evaluated in a multiple baseline design across students. The outcomes indicated improved accuracy in reading when written feedback was provided by the teacher. This finding was replicated across all 5 students. The students also rated the written feedback procedure favorably. Differences between previous research and the present outcomes were examined. The benefits of using written feedback as an intervention procedure with behaviorally disordered children, youth, and other student populations are discussed.
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Previous studies have demonstrated the interactive effects of goal setting and feedback. The present study examined process and outcome feedback as moderators of the relation of goal setting to performance, task-strategy quality, appropriateness of information search, effort, and self-confidence. Using a stock-investment computer simulation, 85 students worked under experimental conditions in which goals and process and outcome feedback were varied in a completely crossed factorial design. Results support the hypothesis that both process and outcome feedback interact with goal setting to enhance performance. In addition, the interaction of goal setting and process feedback was more strongly related to the quality of information search and task strategy than the interaction of goal setting and outcome feedback; the latter was more strongly related to self-confidence and effort than was the interaction between goal setting and process feedback. We discuss the results in terms of expanding the role of studying feedback in research on goal setting. Feedback and goal setting have become integral management tools because they are thought to serve both informational and motivational functions that enhance an individual's work performance (Kopelman, 1986; Locke, Cartledge, & Koeppel, 1968). Feedback can provide information about the correctness, accuracy, and adequacy of work behaviors. Motivationally, feedback may be necessary for instilling a sense of competence, accomplishment, and control in workers (Bandura, 1977; Hackman & Oldham, 1976). Likewise, the beneficial effect of specific and challenging goals on an individual's task performance is a well-documented phenomenon (Locke, Shaw,
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Self-regulated learning (SRL) is a pivot upon which students’ achievement turns. We explain how feedback is inherent in and a prime determiner of processes that constitute SRL, and review areas of research that elaborate contemporary models of how feedback functions in learning. Specifically, we begin by synthesizing a model of self-regulation based on contemporary educational and psychological literatures. Then we use that model as a structure for analyzing the cognitive processes involved in self-regulation, and for interpreting and integrating findings from disparate research traditions. We propose an elaborated model of SRL that can embrace these research findings and that spotlights the cognitive operation of monitoring as the hub of self-regulated cognitive engagement. The model is then used to reexamine (a) recent research on how feedback affects cognitive engagement with tasks and (b) the relation among forms of engagement and achievement. We conclude with a proposal that research on feedback and research on self-regulated learning should be tightly coupled, and that the facets of our model should be explicitly addressed in future research in both areas.
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In most educational programs, a substantial proportion of teacher and student time is devoted to activities which involve (or lead directly to) evaluation by the teacher of student products or behavior. This review summarizes results from 14 specific fields of research that cast light on the relationships between classroom evaluation practices and student outcomes. Particular attention is given to outcomes involving learning strategies, motivation, and achievement. Where possible, mechanisms are suggested that could account for the reported effects. The conclusions derived from the individual fields are then merged to produce an integrated summary with clear implications for effective educational practice. The primary conclusion is that classroom evaluation has powerful direct and indirect impacts, which may be positive or negative, and thus deserves very thoughtful planning and implementation.
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Although persons who have labored to change self-concepts in naturally occurring situations have often experienced difficulty, researchers have reported considerable success in this endeavor. The present study sought to reconcile these contradictory findings by examining how 46 female undergraduates responded behaviorally and psychologically when they received feedback that disconfirmed their self-conceptions. Results show that self-discrepant feedback produced changes in self-ratings only when Ss had no opportunity to reject and refute it. If Ss had opportunity to behaviorally discredit discrepant feedback, they did so and subsequently displayed minimal self-rating change. The authors propose some important differences between transitory fluctuations and enduring changes in self-ratings and suggest some conditions that must be met before lasting self-concept changes will occur. (17 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Attempts to organize, summarize, or explain one's own behavior in a particular domain result in the formation of cognitive structures about the self or self-schemata. Self-schemata are cognitive generalizations about the self, derived from past experience, that organize and guide the processing of the self-related information contained in an individual's social experience. The role of schemata in processing information about the self was examined in 2 experiments by linking self-schemata to a number of specific empirical referents. In Exp I, 48 female undergraduates either with schemata in a particular domain or without schemata were selected using the Adjective Check List, and their performance on a variety of cognitive tasks was compared. In Exp II, the selective influence of self-schemata on interpreting information about one's own behavior was investigated in 47 Ss. Results of both experiments indicate that self-schemata facilitate the processing of information about the self, contain easily retrievable behavioral evidence, provide a basis for the confident self-prediction of behavior on schema-related dimensions, and make individuals resistant to counterschematic information. The relationship of self-schemata to cross-situational consistency in behavior and the implications of self-schemata for attribution theory are discussed. (23 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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begins with a brief overview of the historical connections between developmental and educational psychology, with special reference to some key theorists / volumes of the "Journal of Educational Psychology" published since 1910 are sampled for clues about historical trends in developmental research in education / contemporary issues in learning, curriculum, instruction, and assessment are examined from a developmental perspective to serve as guideposts for interpreting the studies reviewed in the rest of the chapter / children's academic development is examined chronologically according to 3 levels of schooling—preschool, primary grades, and upper elementary grades—with particular attention paid to transitions in each one / several key issues are examined at each age period [preschool–8th grade] as representative of developmental issues and research in educational psychology discusses 2 developmental themes in schooling that help to integrate developmental research in educational psychology / those themes are (a) children's emerging theories about education and (b) the integration of cognitive and motivational strategies for self-regulated learning during childhood (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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The question of how affect arises and what affect indicates is examined from a feedback-based viewpoint on self-regulation. Using the analogy of action control as the attempt to diminish distance to a goal, a second feedback system is postulated that senses and regulates the rate at which the action-guiding system is functioning. This second system is seen as responsible for affect. Implications of these assertions and issues that arise from them are addressed in the remainder of the article. Several issues relate to the emotion model itself; others concern the relation between negative emotion and disengagement from goals. Relations to 3 other emotion theories are also addressed. The authors conclude that this view on affect is a useful supplement to other theories and that the concept of emotion is easily assimilated to feedback models of self-regulation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Extracts available on Google Books (see link below). For integral text, go to publisher's website : http://www.elsevierdirect.com/product.jsp?isbn=9780121098902
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A recently completed review and statistical integration of the quantitative research on the feedback college teachers get from student ratings yielded an overall effect size of 342. This indicates a persistent positive effect for feedback, but this small difference has modest practical significance. Why has this intuitively appealing approach to instructional improvement been so unimpressive in empirical tests? Using Cook and Campbell's (1979) threats-to-validity framework, we examine methodological and conceptual issues in the areas of internal validity, statistical conclusion validity, external validity, and construct validity
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This study assessed the effects on second language learning of variations in homework written feedback that either suppressed student errors or made them salient. Eighty students from two college Spanish courses were randomly assigned to treatment groups for a six-week period. Performance data were collected before and after treatment, as well as from homework during treatment. Analysis of variance blocking on pretest revealed significant achievement increases for treated students independent of course membership. Planned comparisons pooled across courses showed achievement was consistently superior under salient error conditions and in particular with constructively critical feedback. Results support the notion that the written performance of students learning a second language can benefit most by focusing on homework errors in a motivationally favorable manner. Relevance of the findings for instructional theory and second language teaching are discussed.
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The incentive model of the effects of reward and punishment on human learning has often been researched. To estimate the relative effects of three types and three combinations of feedback on children’s discrimination learning, a meta-analysis was performed on the findings of 89 studies. In general, reward campared to punishment or to reward plus punishment is the least efficient feedback for teaching children discrimination materials. Reward plus punishment appears to result in the best performance. However, in four comparisons of punishment versus reward plus punishment, punishment is either as effective or more effective than the combination. The data also suggest that these findings are also mediated by the type of feedback used. Punishment also seems to be comparatively more effective when the task is simple rather than complex. Punishment results in the best performance, compared to reward plus punishment, when the child is bright, upper class, and in the fourth or higher grades
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This review focuses on the intrinsic character of academic work in elementary and secondry schools and the way that work is experienced by teachers and students in classrooms. The first section contains a review of recent research in cognitive psychology on the intellectual demands of the tasks contained in the school curriculum, with particular attention to the inherent complexity of most of the tasks students encounter. The findings of this research are brought to bear on the issue of direct versus indirect instruction. The second section is directed to studies of how academic work is accomplished in classroom environments. Classrooms appear to shape the content of the curriculum in fundamental ways for all students and especially those who find academic work difficult. In addition, the processes that are likely to have the greatest long-term consequences are the most difficult to teach in classrooms. The paper concludes with an analysis of issues related to improving instruction and extending current directions in research on teaching.
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Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of delay of feedback on immediate and delayed transfer tasks involving different pattern recognition strategies. The four conditions of delay of feedback in both experiments were 0, 10, 20, and 30 s, respectively. Among the major findings was that delay of feedback resulted in greater retention of the concepts underlying construction of the different patterns, in all transfer tasks. The results extend the range of the delayed retention effect and are interpreted as support for the Kulhavy-Anderson interference-perseveration hypothesis.
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Much research has shown that negative feedback has different motivational consequences for low- and high-self-esteem persons (low and high SEs, respectively). Primarily on the basis of laboratory experiments of task performance, it has been suggested that low SEs are much more likely than high SEs to become demotivated in the face of negative feedback. The present studies sought to explore the generalizability of such findings to (1) a more naturalistic setting (Study 1) and (2) a behavioral domain different from task performance (Study 2). Study 1 explored the impact of students' self-esteem and feedback from an initial course examination on their subsequent exam performance. As expected, low SEs performed much worse than high SEs subsequent to the receipt of negative feedback; following positive feedback the two groups performed equally on the subsequent exam. In Experiment 2, participants played the role of managers who had just received feedback that their willingness to communicate certain information either elicited negative outcomes (negative feedback condition) or did not (control condition). As predicted, low SEs expressed much less motivation than high SEs to communicate related information in the former than the latter condition, especially if the negative feedback was more threatening to their well-being in the organization. There were no differences between the two groups in the control condition. Theoretical and practical implications and limitations of the findings are discussed.
This paper proposes a model of individual feedback seeking behaviors (FSB). Individuals are posited to seek feedback while negotiating their organizational environments in the pursuit of valued goals. The model portrays several motivations for FSB based on the value of feedback to individuals and outlines two predominant strategies of FSB, monitoring and inquiry. The costs and benefits of each strategy are discussed. Hypotheses concerning both an individual's level of FSB and subsequent strategy choice are subsequently derived. FSB is proposed as an important component of the feedback process. The concluding discussion focuses on the contribution of this perspective to the current organization behavior feedback literature.
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To estimate the instructional effects of cues, participation, and corrective feedback on learning, 94 effect sizes were calculated from statistical data in 54 studies containing a combined sample of 14,689 students in approximately 700 classes. The mean of the study-weighted effect sizes is .97, which suggests average percentiles on learning outcomes of 83 and 50, respectively, for experimental and control groups. The strong effects appeared constant from elementary level through college, and across socioeconomic levels, races, private and public schools, and community types. In addition, the effects were not significantly different across the categories of methodological rigor such as experiments and quasi-experiments.
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Classroom-process data indicate that teachers’ verbal praise cannot be equated with reinforcement. Typically, such praise is used infrequently, without contingency, specificity, or credibility. Often it is not even intended as reinforcement, and even when it is, it frequently has some other function. The meanings and functions of behaviors typically included under the category of teacher praise are determined by the degree of congruence between verbal and nonverbal components and by the context in which the interaction occurs. Much teacher praise is determined more by teachers’ perceptions of student needs than by the quality of student conduct or performance. Considerations of classroom feasibility and probable student response to teachers’ attempts at social reinforcement suggest that teacher praise should remain infrequent, but that it could be made much more effective. Attribution theory is an important supplement to social learning/reinforcement theory for suggesting guidelines for praising effectively.
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Making self-serving social comparisons of performance depends on the freedom with which we can construct post hoc estimates of our own performance and that of comparison others. Three studies test the counterintuitive hypothesis that we make the most self-serving comparisons when (a) it is easy to construct our own standing on a dimension (in a positive direction) and (b) the standing of comparison others is relatively fixed (thus not easily constructed). In the first two studies, participants received performance feedback for themselves and others that each varied in susceptibility to construction. In Study 3, the availability of performance feedback for self and others was varied. Analyses on ratings of comparative performance showed that all studies supported the hypothesis. The effect seemed to derive from self-enhancement rather than denigration of others. Moreover, individuals in the high-self-construction/low-other-construction conditions rated performance as relatively more personally important and showed marginally less negative affect.
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A meta-analysis of findings on feedback timing and human verbal learning showed that a variety of results have been obtained in 53 separate studies of the topic. Applied studies using actual classroom quizzes and real learning materials have usually found immediate feedback to be more effective than delayed. Experimental studies of acquisition of test content have usually produced the opposite result. Laboratory studies of list learning have produced a variety of results, but the variation in results seems to be related systematically to features of the studies.
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Athough a number of previous narrative reviews have found reinforcement to be effective in the management of classroom behavior problems, lack of a statistical methodology for analyzing singe-case design has prevented precise comparisons of many of the parameters of reinforcement. This investigation uses a regression approach to generate effect sizes for a quantitative synthesis of single-case studies. Five parameters of reinforcement approaches in classroom behavior management were investigated: type of treatment, topography of behavior treated, administrative arrangements, agent administering the treatment, and setting. Although few main effect differences were found within any one parameter, significant, robust interaction effects were found between the presence of reinforcement and topography, reinforcement and setting, and setting and administrative arrangements. Implications for both practice and research methodology are discussed.
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Two studies are reported which compare the responses of 14‐16 year old Filipino and Nepalese school students to learning process questionnaires based on the 3P Model of Learning (Biggs & Telfer, 1987) to those previously reported for similar aged Australian and Hong Kong students. Evidence was found for a similar structure of learning processes in each culture. Moreover, in each culture students who reported deeper and more achievement‐oriented approaches to learning tended to be more successful academically and to have higher academic self‐esteem. However, little evidence was found to support the contention that Asian learners were more prone to rote learning than were the Australians. The Nepalese students in particular tended to report higher levels of both deep and achieving approaches to learning than the other students. A possible explanation for this is that the conceptions of learning on which the 3P Model is based may not be appropriate in Nepalese culture.
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A review of research and theory on cognitive processes and their relationship to instructional technique since the early 1970s looks at the contributions of schema theory and artificial intelligence and their instructional implications, including cognitive load theory, worked examples for learning problem solving, and physical vs. mental integration. (MSE)
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This study investigated the effects of goals and goal-progress feedback on children's reading comprehension self-efficacy and skill. Subjects, 30 lower-middle-class students from 2 fifth-grade classes in an elementary school who did not experience excessive decoding problems and who regularly received remedial reading instruction, were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatment groups: product goal, process goal, or a combination of process goal and progress feedback. Subjects received daily 35-minute training for 15 school days, working on instructional material covering comprehension of main ideas. Results indicated that (1) the combined treatment group demonstrated significantly higher performance on the self-efficacy and skill tests than the process-goal and product-goal conditions; and (2) combined and process-goal conditions judged perceived progress in strategy learning higher than product-goal subjects. Findings suggest that remedial readers benefited from explicit feedback on their mastery of a comprehension strategy. (One table of data is included; 23 references are attached.) (RS)
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This study investigated students' perceptions of their teachers and classmates in relation to reported academic help seeking. 177 students at grades 3, 5, and 7 were interviewed individually using a structured questionnaire to assess who, why, and in what situations they asked for help when they had problems in math class. Results indicated that students generally preferred the teacher to classmates as helpers and saw the teacher, in comparison to classmates, as more likely to facilitate learning and less likely to think they were ''dumb'' for asking questions. Several grade-related differences emerged. Fifth and seventh graders' help-seeking intentions reflected more concern about social comparison than did third graders'. At seventh grade only, a concern that the teacher might think students were ''dumb'' for asking questions was negatively related to the self-reported likelihood of seeking help. Perceptions of teacher support varied with grade level. Although perception of a strong personal relationship with the teacher was associated with students' intentions to seek help at all grades, perception of teacher encouragement of questioning was related only at fifth and seventh grades.
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Rewards have been shown to impair performance of a reinforced behavior. The work surrounding these detrimental effects of rewards has not been met with unanimous support. Does this phenomenon described in Deci's Cognitive Evaluation Theory concerning the detrimental effects of reward exist? Is Deci's Cognitive Evaluation Theory adequate to explain this phenomenon? A meta-analysis was employed to determine the existence of the detrimental effects of extrinsic rewards on intrinsic motivation. Results from this analysis showed that within strictly defined parameters the phenomenon defined by Deci exists. Implications from this analysis exemplify researchers' need for closer supervision of the operationalization of variables based on the theoretical framework.
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This article is a review of the literature on classroom formative assessment. Several studies show firm evidence that innovations designed to strengthen the frequent feedback that students receive about their learning yield substantial learning gains. The perceptions of students and their role in self‐assessment are considered alongside analysis of the strategies used by teachers and the formative strategies incorporated in such systemic approaches as mastery learning. There follows a more detailed and theoretical analysis of the nature of feedback, which provides a basis for a discussion of the development of theoretical models for formative assessment and of the prospects for the improvement of practice.
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Marsh and Parker (1984) described the big-fish–little-pond effect ({bflpe}), whereby equally able students have lower academic self-concepts in high-ability schools than in low-ability schools. The present investigation, a reanalysis of the Youth in Transition data, supported the generality of the earlier findings and demonstrated new theoretical implications of the {bflpe}. First, differences in the academic self-concepts of Black and White students, sometimes assumed to represent response biases, were explicable in terms of the {bflpe}. Second, equally able students earned higher grades in lower ability schools. This frame-of-reference effect for grades was distinct from, but contributed to, the {bflpe} for academic self-concept. Third, a longitudinal analysis demonstrated that academic self-concept had a direct effect on subsequent school performance beyond the effects of academic ability and prior school performance. About one quarter of this effect could be explained in terms of the {bflpe}. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Reexamined the delay retention effect (Y. Brackbill et al, 1962) using R. W. Kulhavy and W. A. Stock's (see record 1991-02705-001) model of feedback as a theoretical basis. The assumptions of the model were tested using constructed response items. The effects of different types of feedback on posttest performance were investigated. 154 undergraduates read text, completed an initial test, judged confidence, received feedback, and completed a posttest. Ss who received feedback after a delay outperformed Ss who received feedback immediately. Ss who generated their own feedback were more precise in estimating confidence than those who were provided feedback. The predicted relationship between confidence and posttest performance emerged for initial corrects, but was weakened for errors. Results are linked to current models in memory research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Girls show greater evidence than boys of learned helplessness in achievement situations with adult (but not peer) evaluators: They attribute their failures to lack of ability rather than motivation and thus show impaired performance under failure. Two studies are reported linking sex differences in attributions to adults' use of evaluative feedback. Study 1, with 52 4th graders and 27 5th graders, revealed that both the contingencies of feedback in classrooms and the attributions made by teachers were ones that would render negative evaluation more indicative of ability for girls than boys. For example, negative evaluation of girls' performance referred almost exclusively to intellectual inadequacies, whereas 45% of boys' work-related criticism referred to nonintellectual aspects. Moreover, teachers attributed the boys' failures to lack of motivation significantly more than they did the girls' failures. In Study 2, with 60 5th graders, teacher–boy and teacher–girl contingencies of work-related criticism observed in classrooms were programmed in an experimental situation. Both boys and girls receiving the teacher–girl contingency were more likely to view subsequent failure feedback from that evaluator as indicative of their ability. Implications for developmental theories and for development are addressed. (26 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Used the Praise Attitude Questionnaire to assess reactions to teacher praise among 279 female and 341 male 7th–12th graders. Students generally perceived praise as appropriate and expected for different academic and social behaviors. Praise was regarded more highly for academic work and preferred to be given quietly in most cases. A curve emerged to the intensity of praise expected in different grade levels. The answers "all the time" and "praise loudly" were chosen in appreciably higher numbers in Grades 7 and 8, dropped for Grades 9 and 10, and rose again for Grades 11 and 12. Boys as compared with girls chose "all the time" or "praise loudly" in slightly higher numbers (29.6% vs 25.4%). Results support the argument that secondary students view teacher praise favorably. However, reward and approval are received differently dependent on student need for public or private praise, which may shift according to grade level. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Estimated the effect of enhanced instruction on motor skill acquisition in a meta-analysis of 15 studies that used 4–5 yr old children and 4th–21th graders in Israel. Ss exposed to enhanced instruction gained more qualified motor skills than over 75% of the Ss exposed to regular instruction in a variety of motor skills. Enhanced instruction used cues and explanations by the instructor to clarify the motor skill, encouraged Ss to actively participate in the task over 70% of the time, reinforced Ss' responses, and supplied ongoing feedback and correctives to ensure motor skill acquisition. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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In a field study that replicated previous research by the authors (1981), 18 Venezuelan elementary school teachers were trained to provide constructive written feedback on the mathematics homework of their 6th-grade students ( N = 504) 3 times weekly for 10 wks. In addition to learning and attitude outcomes, aptitude × treatment interactions (ATIs) were examined among treatments and student ability, attitude, and sex. Results show significant main effects favoring students whose teachers provided feedback on mathematics achievement and attitude toward mathematics. No ATIs were found, indicating that the training had positive effects on student learning regardless of ability levels. The treatment was associated with reduced sex differences favoring males over the course of the study. Implications for implementing similar classroom intervention programs are discussed. (28 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Conducted a content analysis of the conceptions of learning of 333 Nepalese university students. Few Ss held the view of learning as memorization and/or reproduction commonly held by Western students. Responses cast doubt on the assumption of the existence of hierarchies of conceptions of learning supported in Western studies. In particular, it is suggested that Nepalese cultural and religious beliefs may result in the conception of learning for character development to emerge at a much lower cognitive level than in the West. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)