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Telecommuting and Leadership Style

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Abstract

Telecommuting is an increasingly popular organizational dynamic that presents unique challenges for workers, managers, and human resources departments regarding how employees relate to their organizations, as well as what telecommuters need from their managers to be satisfied, committed employees. Much is known about how employees in private companies relate to their organizations in a standard work setting. However, little is understood about how teleworkers in government organizations relate to their organizations, and how managerial leadership behaviors influence the organizationally related outcomes of telecommuters. This article reviews some of the challenges with telecommuting, focusing on telecommuting’s impact on job satisfaction and organizational commitment. The article then presents a prominent leadership style dichotomy and assesses the impact of the two leadership styles on job satisfaction and organizational commitment. The substitutes for leadership are included in this assessment. To synthesize these literatures, the final section of the article combines telecommuting challenges and leadership style to suggest the leadership style that best mediates the negative aspects of telecommuting and is, therefore, most important for employees in a telecommuting environment. Areas for further research are also considered.

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... Para Dahlstrom (2013), teletrabalho é um ambiente de trabalho formal, mediado pelas tecnologias da informação e totalmente funcional sendo, portanto, completamente distinto da ideia de levar o trabalho para casa. Na literatura, o teletrabalho também pode ser designado como telecomutação, escritório virtual, trabalho remoto ou por outros termos semelhantes. ...
... Para Dahlstrom (2013), a literatura sugere que as dimensões cognitivo-psicológicas da liderança desempenham um papel fundamental na satisfação e no compromisso dos funcionários com a organização em ambiente de teletrabalho. Autores como Kowalski e Swanson 34 (2005), confirmam que os fatores críticos de sucesso para o teletrabalho incluem o apoio, a comunicação e a confiança. ...
... Situação que para o teletrabalhador apresenta as preocupações, já identificadas, sobre "longe da vista, longe do coração" e, assim, se perderem oportunidades de promoção e recompensa, ou preocupações sobre "ser tratado de forma justa", ou na sentir ansiedade em relação à segurança no emprego, ao potencial de promoção e a outras questões importantes. Estas situações podem também alterar o sentimento de ligação, envolvimento e compromisso com a organização.No que diz respeito às oportunidades de promoção,Dahlstrom (2013) sugere que o efeito da estrutura formalizada para os funcionários públicos, protege mais estes teletrabalhadores dos efeitos negativos do teletrabalho, particularmente no que diz respeito ao 18 Servidores públicos, no Brasil. 19 ...
Article
The main goal of this research is to analyse the leadership model or style that can be more effective in the context of teleworking in public administration. Thus, the research question is which leadership model or style is the most appropriate for public administration in a teleworking program. The methodology used was qualitative based on a literature review and the results show that transformational, servant, situational and democratic leadership with active gender representation, is the most effective way to implement teleworking programs in Public Administration. PALAVRAS-CHAVE E Liderança Teletrabalho Administração Pública Portugal RESUMO O principal objetivo da presente pesquisa é analisar o modelo ou estilo de liderança que pode ser mais eficaz em contexto de teletrabalho na administração pública. Neste enquadramento a pergunta de partida ou questão de pesquisa é: qual o modelo (ou modelos) e estilo de liderança mais adequado, para a administração pública, em regime de teletrabalho. A metodologia utilizada foi a qualitativa com base numa revisão da literatura e os resultados evidenciam que uma liderança transformacional, servidora, situacional, democrática e com representatividade ativa de género, constitui a forma mais eficaz na implementação de programas de teletrabalho na Administração Pública.
... Employee perceptions and empirical data vary regarding the solitude and isolation experienced by telecommuters (Harker-Martin et al., 2012). To be more specific, teleworkers can find themselves isolated from the organizational culture, which may result in additional work stress, lower production, and decreased self-efficacy (Dahlstrom, 2013;Golden, Veiga, & Dino, 2008). Also, there is a perception by employers and manages that some workers need watching, because they may not have the self-efficacy to overcome the isolation and distraction of remote work (Nicole, 2015). ...
... Key (2014) theorized that e-mentoring would provide the additional interaction necessary for the transfer of knowledge. Companies that utilize e-mentoring programs as a strategy to bolster remote employee self-efficacy would gain a competitive advantage (Key, 2014;Dahlstrom, 2013). ...
... Employee perceptions and empirical data vary regarding the solitude and isolation experienced by telecommuters (Harker et al., 2012). To be more specific, teleworkers can find themselves isolated from the organizational culture, which could cause additional work stress, lowered production, and decreased self-efficacy (Dahlstrom, 2013;Golden, Veiga, & Dino, 2008). This isolation is both social and professional. ...
Article
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The purpose of this exploratory qualitative study was to understand the perceptions of telecommuting employees regarding the effectiveness of e-mentoring to promote self-efficacy. Case study method was used. Participants in the study consisted of four telecommuters (two women and two men). Data were collected via semi-structured interviews. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis. The analysis revealed five themes: Relationships, The Downside, Work Effectiveness and Self-Efficacy, Life, and Logistics. The theme, Relationships, stood out as the most counted among the interviews. The findings showed, from the perceptions of the participants, that the most effective way to promote self-efficacy among telecommuters was maintaining strong relationships between the e-mentor, telecommuter, management, and the families of telecommuters. This could be achieved by reliable video conferencing and occasional face-to-face meetings with mentors and managers. The study findings can benefit those who do work remotely and their families, by giving them data regarding how to be more effective in their jobs while maintaining a more stable work-life balance. Findings would also benefit organizations that wish to maintain a remote workforce by informing them how to make a telecommuting arrangement work using e-mentoring. Corporations could benefit by recognizing the competitive and cost advantages of maintaining a remote workforce. Future researchers might add to the body of knowledge by conducting a quantitative study to see if a correlation exists between e-mentoring and self-efficacy. Future researchers might also expand to a global study checking include demographic data. Keywords: E-Mentoring, Telecommuting, Self-Efficacy
... Some previous researchers have analyzed differences in the responses of teleworkers and nonteleworkers to the system of telework relying on measures of work attitudes (e.g., Caillier, 2012Caillier, , 2013. Others addressed the role of leadership in managing nontraditional supervisor-subordinate relationships in teleworking environments in nongovernmental settings (e.g., Dahlstrom, 2013;Golden, 2006;. Golden (2006) tested the mediating role of leader-member exchange quality in the relationship between telecommuting and job satisfaction, while examined the moderating role of telework in the relationship between leader-member exchange and employee outcomes. ...
... Golden (2006) tested the mediating role of leader-member exchange quality in the relationship between telecommuting and job satisfaction, while examined the moderating role of telework in the relationship between leader-member exchange and employee outcomes. Dahlstrom (2013) and Taylor and Kavanaugh (2005) did qualitative research on a leadership style for effective management of virtual workers. They, however, provided limited implications for effective management of the teleworking system in governmental settings. ...
... Employees may be afraid of negative repercussions, for example, being retaliated against for utilizing telework in terms of career advancement (e.g., lower visibility and less promotion opportunities), unless they perceive that their supervisors are supportive of such flexible work arrangements. Some scholars suggested developing a new model of leadership appropriate in teleworking environments (e.g., Dahlstrom, 2013;Taylor & Kavanaugh, 2005). Probably, the biggest challenge to teleworkers is being isolated from their peer groups and losing professional and social interactions with their colleagues (Taylor & Kavanaugh, 2005). ...
Article
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Recent research indicated that flexible work arrangements cannot only bring benefits for individuals and organizations but also pose various challenges. This study examined the relationship between telework and employee turnover intention and the roles of institutional and managerial support in moderating the relationship. The results showed that turnover intentions of nonteleworkers are significantly different depending on one’s ability to choose. Nonteleworkers by barrier reported the highest level of turnover intention, whereas nonteleworkers by choice expressed the lowest, even lower than that of teleworkers. Managerial and institutional support for telework decreased the intention of teleworkers to leave the agency further.
... The individual's isolation can make this person feel unmotivated by work; in addition, this individual's opportunities for learning may diminish. The informal aspect of the organization contributes in a relevant manner to worker learning (PÉREZ, SÁNCHEZ and CARNICER, 2007;BARROS and SILVA, 2010;SERRA, 2010;ORDOÑEZ, 2012;DAHLSTROM, 2013). The sensation of isolation thus affects the worker's productivity and quality of life, and it can lead to alienation in terms of organizational culture. ...
... Our 16 word script seeks to understand the relationship between the interns in the telework regime and their professional and personal lives, will all of them being recorded in their entirety and subsequently transcribed. Our script was constructed based on contributions from various authors including Barros and Silva (2010), Coenen and Kok (2014), Dahlstrom (2013), Noonan and Glass (2012), Ordoñez (2012), Pérez, Sánchez and Carnicer (2007), Rodrigues (2011), Serra (2010, Tose (2005) and Whittle and Mueller (2009), in relation to telework and internships. To perfect the script, the authors realized three preliminary interviews as a pre-test which were later consolidated. ...
... [...] there was a time to begin, but not a time to end. (Interviewee 10) Dahlstrom (2013) emphasizes this troubled relationship between the teleworker and time: when working remotely, interns are strongly seduced by or influenced by the idea of "demonstrating service" and end up exceeding their allotted work hours to be closer to management and one step closer to the realization of getting a position with the organization: Their functions, which took more than 30 hours a week to complete, were performed in their residences and the absence of organizational monitoring or the intern's own personal records in this context, compromised the fulfillment of the applicable laws for internships (CHEN and SHEN, 2012). However, it may be seen that the long working hours can be established as a implicit rule among these participants, that is, as a code of conduct even when the bosses respected the internship hours and there were no mandatory tasks solicited outside normal working hours, and in terms of whether they were really mandatory, the respondent that mentioned working 50 hours a week makes it clear that this was a personal desire: ...
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Resumo Em meio às transformações no mundo dos negócios, as empresas são constantemente forçadas a se adaptar, revisando suas políticas, seus processos e suas práticas e rotinas de trabalho. Dentre as diversas práticas de trabalho, o teletrabalho é um tema polêmico em administração e merecedor de estudos mais aprofundados. Baseando-se nessa premissa, propõe-se a seguinte pergunta de pesquisa: “Quais são os elementos críticos para a sustentabilidade de um programa de teletrabalho no contexto de uma empresa multinacional?”. Assim, o objetivo deste artigo é descrever e caracterizar as visões de teletrabalhadores em relação ao teletrabalho enquanto prática de recursos humanos (RH), suas vantagens e desvantagens, assim como o desafio de torná-lo uma prática estrategicamente orientada. Realizou-se estudo em um programa de teletrabalho para estagiários de uma empresa multinacional. Os dados foram coletados por meio de entrevistas em profundidade com 12 estagiários e examinados por meio de análise de conteúdo no programa de computador NVivo 9 - que forneceu 7categorias acerca das percepções dos participantes do programa de teletrabalho. Dentre as vantagens identificadas estão a relação positiva entre teletrabalho e atividades acadêmicas, a flexibilidade proporcionada, assim como o amadurecimento profissional como resultado do estabelecimento autônomo de metas individuais de trabalho; por outro lado, a sobrecarga de horas de trabalho, a dificuldade de desvincular a vida pessoal do trabalho e os problemas com a visibilidade foram apontados como as principais dificuldades dessa modalidade de trabalho.
... As Olson-Buchanan and Boswell (2006) point out, teleworkers may find it challenging to manage the overlaps between their work and daily living responsibilities, which may even lead to a worsening of stress and role conflict (Tietze & Musson, 2005;Russell et al., 2009). Furthermore, social and professional isolation and the drastic decrease in interpersonal contacts are a risk of teleworking, which can contribute to feelings of personal frustration, loneliness and organisational alienation (Dahlstrom, 2013;Palumbo et al., 2021). ...
... Nevertheless, when asked about work-life balance, 74.3% of the public servants in our survey considered that teleworking helps to achieve work-life balance. The results presented in Table 3 are aligned with the argument that teleworking does not necessarily improve the lives of those who telework, as described by Palumbo (2020;, that teleworking-private life management can create new stressors (Olson-Buchanan & Boswell, 2006;Tietze & Musson, 2005;Russell et al., 2009) and that social isolation and the decrease in interpersonal contacts can bring new dangers (Dahlstrom, 2013;Palumbo et al., 2021). ...
Article
This article seeks to characterise teleworking in public administration during the COVID-19 pandemic. It draws on a study that aimed to collect the perceptions of Portuguese public servants about this phenomenon. Findings show that, in general, perceptions of workers and managers about teleworking are more positive than negative. It seems that teleworking in public administration has succeeded despite perceptions of insufficient equipment supply and some stigmatisation of teleworkers. The article also sought to investigate whether the perception of the potential advantages and disadvantages of teleworking, with special emphasis on work-life balance, varies according to the workers’ gender and number of dependents. The study found that this was indeed the case. However, there were also differences relating to workers’ motivation. The study found that a significant proportion of Portuguese public servants felt more motivated when performing their activities as teleworkers.
... For example, some telecommuters argue that online relationships can reduce the influence of power hierarchy. However, loneliness and frustration resulting from the lack of faceto-face interactions may have critical roles in the career development of individuals and subsequently have negative effects on the quality of peer relationships [44]. ...
... Prior to the onset of COVID-19, virtual teamwork was mainly considered an alternative working option that provides employees with high flexibility; however, with the spread of COVID-19, virtual teamwork has become a necessity for organisations to continue their operations [45]. Communication serves four major functions within an organisation, namely, "control, motivation, emotional expression and information", and virtual communication may not be an excellent substitute that can fulfil these functions [44]. To promote social connectedness in virtual teamwork contexts, regular informal meetings, such as virtual coffee breaks, can be organised for mutual support; synchronous communication with visual information can also transmit non-verbal cues that help maintain trust amongst team members [45]. ...
Article
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Hong Kong is an international city where almost all the companies did not have a WFH policy before the pandemic since it is a very small place. During the pandemic period, Hong Kong governments, major banks and large private organizations have adopted WFH policy. The purpose of this article is to examine impact of work from home (WFH) practice on work engagement with the company during the pandemic period in Hong Kong. According to a stimulus-organism-response model, this study explores the dark side the WFH arrangement during the pandemic period. Convenience sampling method was used to collect 206 valid responses from individuals who were working from home in Hong Kong. Partial least squares structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) was used in the analysis of data. It was found that teamwork climate is negatively associated with physical isolation and sense of belonging is negatively associated with psychological isolation. Work engagement was impaired. Affective social presence may not be so easily established through virtual ways. Virtual informal gatherings, such as virtual breakfasts, lunch or tea breaks where work-related matters are not discussed, could be arranged.
... In this context, HR managers have an essential role in helping to "challenge the current norms". Furthermore, they can take initiatives to empower employees' skills, especially those related to the technological and digital tools to work remotely [19], to communication skills when working remotely [34], and also empower managers to take a leadership style that balances taskand relationship-oriented behavior, with a weight towards relationship-oriented leadership behavior [37]. Besides, smart working can also be an exciting element for new, younger employees, attracted by organizations offering better work-life balance conditions [38]. ...
... If, in the described case, managers remained on-site and coordinated their workers from the office, managers will probably also be remote workers in a short time. This shift will call into question their leadership skills, which have to be adjusted to this new scenario [37], and the very existence of the middle-level manager role. The more remote work becomes a permanent phenomenon, the more employees will become accountable, and the coordination role of managers might lose, at least partially, relevance. ...
Article
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This case study describes the implementation stages and some outcomes of a remote work program that was adopted in an Italian municipality before the COVID-19 pandemic. This research used a qualitative case study approach, proposing a semi-structured interview with 14 staff members (six remote-worker employees, their respective managers, and two intermediate-level managers) about the experience with the remote work program. In addition, two researchers attended two preparatory program meetings. The evidence shows that, even before the COVID-19 pandemic, remote work was mainly performed at home, for one or two days a week. Together with their manager, remote workers decided the tasks to perform remotely and the criteria to monitor remote work. Furthermore, employees appreciated the remote work program, perceiving themselves to be more productive in their work. Elements of this case study may be relevant for companies that aim to move from an emergency to a more planned remote work.
... Besides, there are risks in the implementation of new work schemes such as telework [42], some of these risks are increased burnout, isolation, and work overload [39,40]; as well as increased personal expenses (excessive use of household resources), and lack of required connection elements such as the Internet and electronic devices [37]. Due to this, teleworking in organizational dynamics represents challenges for both teleworkers, managers, and public organizations [4,10]. Therefore, derived from the variations in the results and findings of the studies it is essential to emphasize the organizational consequences of telework for the public sector. ...
... Moreover, it can be interpreted that the result of the model is representative. 10 The beta coefficients observed in the multiple linear regression analysis presented the following results: job satisfaction (β = 0.588) and organizational commitment (β = 0.176); these coefficients are positive and statistically significant. On the other hand, burnout did not show statistical significance. ...
... Moreover, research in telework is mostly focused on studying teleworkers themselves or comparing the phenomenological experience of nonteleworkers and teleworkers; thus, only a few studies have focused on the colleagues of teleworkers, including supervisors (Collins et al., 2016;Fogarty et al., 2011). Examples of the topics of these studies include the role of supervisor support for telework in achieving work-life balance (Julien et al., 2011), the effect of manager leadership style on teleworker outcomes (Dahlstrom, 2013), telecommuting and supervisor relationship quality (Gajendran & Harrison, 2007), and managerial resistance as a deterrent of telework engagement (Mello, 2007). ...
... Furthermore, from a job demands-resources perspective, teleworking supervisors face additional challenges in managing subordinates compared nonteleworking supervisors. When one roughly divides leadership activities into two categories, including task-oriented activities and relationship-oriented activities (Dahlstrom, 2013), teleworking supervisors earn their job resources for task-oriented activities with increased flexibility. Nevertheless, they may confront further demands in conducting relationship-oriented activities and suffer from lowered effectiveness in those activities. ...
Article
Research in telework has mostly focused on studying teleworkers themselves or comparing the phenomenological experience of nonteleworkers and teleworkers. Thus, supervisors in the telework context have been a relatively neglected area of study. The current study compares the task behaviors of nonteleworking and teleworking supervisors and investigates the factors that affect supervisors’ perceived organizational impact of telework. The findings indicate that teleworking supervisors tend to spend less time doing work that can be accomplished only at the office. For teleworking supervisors, management support for telework, work assignment fairness, teleworker supervision experience and teleworker supervision proficiency all positively affected the perceived organizational impact of telework. In the case of nonteleworking supervisors, only work assignment fairness and teleworker supervision proficiency positively affected the perceived organizational impact of telework.
... A valuable contribution of this article concerns the type of leadership required in a teleworking environment. Authors have argued that hierarchical forms of leadership are less appropriate in teams and organizations characterized by a high degree of virtuality (e.g., Dahlstrom, 2013;Hoch & Kozlowski, 2014). This is because, in such contexts, communication is less formal and less hierarchically based. ...
... Thus, our results highlight how relationship-oriented leadership approaches in particular might be beneficial and even required in a teleworking environment. Hence, our findings also provide empirical evidence to add to the literature review by Dahlstrom (2013) in which two types of leadership behaviour (i.e., task-orientated and relationship-orientated) in a teleworking environment were discussed, and relationship-oriented leadership behaviours especially advocated. The reasoning is that, in a teleworking environment, direct co-worker support and empathy may not be available, and subordinates may then have a greater need for consideration behaviour from their leaders. ...
Article
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Many public organizations implement teleworking: an organizational innovation expected to improve the working conditions of public servants. However, it is unclear to what extent teleworking is beneficial for public servants. This study adds to the literature by studying the effects of teleworking on a day-to-day basis. We used a daily diary methodology and followed public servants across five consecutive working days. Studies that apply a daily survey method are more accurate than cross-sectional measures because they reduce recall bias. The results highlight that public servants experience quite negative effects from teleworking, including greater professional isolation and less organizational commitment on the days that they worked entirely from home. Contrary to predictions, working from home did not affect work engagement. We also found that higher leader-member exchange (LMX) reduced the impact of teleworking on professional isolation. These findings contribute to the literature by showing the unfavourable effects of teleworking, but also highlight that LMX can, to some extent, reduce these negative effects.
... In addition, providing workers with a career path to grow and develop can further satisfy the need for competence [65]. Working from home, this need for competence can be left unfulfilled: as interactions with co-workers and managers goes down, there is less knowledge sharing [26] and a lack of developmental opportunities [37]. ...
Article
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Working from home has become common practice for many, especially since the global pandemic has forced many office workers to relocate their work spaces to a home environment. While working from home can have benefits, it requires self-discipline and can be a challenge to stay motivated. Changes in motivation about work may impact people's sense of productivity and well-being. We used a mixed-methods study using diaries and interviews with 25 informants to investigate perceived challenges during remote work from home. A grounded theory analysis revealed that people's work motivation had shifted from being people-centric to being work-centric. In the office, informants were motivated by working and interacting with others and being at their desk signaled work engagement to others. At home, motivation was mainly driven by personal work responsibilities. We identify four clusters of worker strategies to address the shift in work motivation. While some informants' perspectives on motivation made them reflect inward on their work performance and enjoyment, other informants' perspectives were outward-facing and involved performance and enjoyment in relation to others. We conclude that there needs to be better support for sustaining work motivation at home that can be tailored to different individuals, specifically in terms of managing time and detaching from work. We conclude by considering new pathways for supporting remote work.
... Telework is a formal, information technology mediated, fully functional work setting, and is, therefore, distinct from simply "taking work home." In the literature, telework may also be called telecommuting, virtual office, remote work, or similar terms, and the terms should be considered interchangeable [7]. ...
Article
The 4.0 industrial revolution in business changed the way of working, including changes in the work patterns of employees, who had to work at office to work at home using the internet, called as telecommuting employees. The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of financial compensation and flexibility of working hours provided by e-commerce companies on the performance of their telecommuters. In this quantitative study, it was released that the financial compensation variable based on the T test had a coefficient of 0.126 and Sig. 0.195, which means there is no influence between financial compensation and telecommuting employee performance. As for the second independent variable, the flexibility of working hours based on the T test has a coefficient of 0.607 with Sig. 0,000, which means that employee flexibility is very influential in employee performance.
... Effective leadership and managerial support are necessary for mitigating potential concerns about telework and maximizing its benefits. Although effective leadership in telework implementation and management has been discussed in previous studies (Choi, 2018;Dahlstrom, 2013;Kim & Mullins, 2016), they have rarely considered the nonteleworker perspective. What can be done to better manage telework arrangements? ...
Article
Our study investigates the perceived individual and organizational outcomes of coworkers’ telework between teleworkers and non-teleworkers in the US federal government. We address two research questions: (1) how are perceived individual outcomes of coworkers’ telework different between teleworkers and non-teleworkers? and (2) how are perceived organizational outcomes of telework different between teleworkers and non-teleworkers? We incorporate the perspectives of non-teleworkers to better understand a wide range of individual and organizational outcomes of telework. In order to answer these questions, we analyze a unique telework survey administered by the US Merit Systems Protection Board. Our findings indicate that compared to teleworkers, non-teleworkers perceive less positive impact of telework on employees and organizations. Besides ensuring fairness in determining employees’ telework eligibility and participation, our findings suggest that managers and supervisors should also be mindful of unfairness and ineffectiveness non-teleworkers may perceive about coworkers’ telework after their organizations roll out telework.
... Managers and workers struggle to adapt to the nature of virtual work, especially if there has not been adequate training, established clear expectations or strategies incorporated to ensure a high level of connectivity and support (Bartel et al., 2012;Greer & Payne, 2014;Lautsch & Kossek, 2011). Researchers have described the concept of virtual work as work done outside a co-located workplace environment, such as a home office or other geographically convenient locations (Dahlstrom, 2013;Gajendran, Harrison, & Delaney-Klinger, 2014). Bentley et al. (2016) suggested that virtual work is usually conducted without personal interaction with supervisors and co-workers. ...
Article
This study examined the impact of employee satisfaction on the competitive advantage of selected virtual organisations in Lagos State, Nigeria. Specifically, it assessed the relationship between individual virtual competencies, motivation, organisational identity, autonomy, the nature of the work and the competitive advantage of virtual organisations in Lagos State, Nigeria. The survey research design was adopted for this study. The population of the study covered all staff in selected virtual organisations in Lagos State, Nigeria. A total of 400 copies of questionnaire were distributed and retrieved. Stratified random sampling procedure was used in administering the copies of questionnaire to selected virtual organisations in Lagos State, Nigeria. The data collected through questionnaire administration was analysed using descriptive statistics such as frequency distribution, mean and standard deviation. Multiple regression analysis was used to test the null hypotheses and estimate the research model using the Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) technique through the use of the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) Version 24. The study found out that there is a significant positive relationship between individual virtual competencies, motivation, organisational identity, the nature of the work and competitive advantage while revealing that there is a positive and non-significant relationship between autonomy and the competitive advantage of virtual organisations in Lagos State, Nigeria. The study recommended that virtual organisations employ individuals that have the required skills and competencies needed to perform the various organisational tasks, motivate their employees intrinsically and extrinsically, possess a strong brand image, allow employees experience freedom to do their tasks and duties at their own pace and take cognisance of employees that work in dispersed locations with peculiar difficulties in those varied locations so that they will contribute more to the competitive advantage of the virtual organisation.
... Taylor & Kavanaugh (2005) emphasize that one of the challenges for employees in telecommuting is the feeling of isolation from coworkers and the loss of professional and social interactions with coworkers. This will further have a negative impact on the implementation of tasks and the achievement of organizational goals, therefore trust between leaders and subordinates, as well as among colleagues is the key to the successful implementation of FWA (Dahlstrom, 2013). ...
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This study aims to examine how significantly Flexible Work Arrangements (FWA) contribute to the improvement of civil service inter-organizational networks by looking at various factors, including trust, adaptability, information technology readiness, and other control variables. This study uses a mixed-methods design. The quantitative approach uses an online survey of 675 civil servants’ respondents from central and regional agencies. A qualitative approach with in-depth interviews and focus group discussions with local civil service in West Java Province, Central Java Province, and Semarang City. The collected data is then analyzed Path Analysis using SPSS version 25. The research revealed that Flexible Work Arrangements contributed to increasing the influence of the level of trust on the work network. Meanwhile, FWA do not contribute to the effect of adaptability and readiness of information technology on the work network. This is supported by qualitative data which shows that Trust is the main factor to increase the network when implementing FWA in order to create a good network, with high and solid trust, both trust in leaders, colleagues, and stakeholders, then any instruction as soon as possible is realized into a good cooperation network when FWA is realized by developing a Flexible Work Arrangement system
... Hansen et al. (2012) conclude that working together over a distance emphasises a number of issues, especially with regard to trust, coordination of work, conflict, culture and communications technology. Dahlstrom (2013) assumes that a relationship-oriented leader will be a more efficient talker who is better able to develop trusting relationships with e-employees. Gajendran & Harrison (2007) point out that information scarcity is a major worry of e-workers. ...
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With the outbreak of Covid-19, teams and managers had to accept the necessity of working remotely and were forced to remodel the working environment. Modern technology enables the workforce to work from home as effectively as in cubicles. This study analyses hybrid work models, in particular how the management of face-to-display workers differs from that of in-house workers. This study asked 10 Austrian participants about their perceptions of managing face-to-display workers. A qualitative investigation was carried out through semi-structured Skype interviews. Blending in-house and face-to-display workers presents some challenges. Based on data, a hybrid model seems to be the strongest working model, especially these models: face-to-display first and cubicle-first, face-to-display allowed. Conclusions were drawn which outlined that time, culture, trust, feedback and social connectedness are important differences in managing both types of employees. However, it is equally evident from the data that managing hybrid workers can be challenging, and managers face some obstacles. Received: 24 November 2021 / Accepted: 11 February 2022 / Published: 5 March 2022
... rutiner dermed kan variere mere end i organisationer uden distance. Det kraever, at lederne er saerskilt opmaerksomme på at skabe rutiner, der på den ene side tilgodeser de enkelte medarbejdere, så deres jobtilfredshed og motivation opretholdes (Bae & Kim, 2016;Bailey & Kurland, 2002;Dahlstrom, 2013), og på den anden side sikrer, at rutinerne ikke bliver så individualiserede, at det går ud over organisationens sammenhaengskraft. Med det for øje har en leder i staten valgt at lave "fremmødedage", hvor alle organisationens medarbejdere skal møde op (L17). ...
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Coronakrisen har sendt mange offentlige ledere på et crash course i at lede på distancen igennem digitale teknologier. Men det er uklart, hvad man præcist skal gøre for at lykkes. Det viser både dansk og international forskning. Ud fra en interviewundersøgelse belyser vi, hvilke muligheder og udfordringer offentlige ledere oplever, når de interagerer med deres medarbejdere digitalt på distancen. På den baggrund udvikler vi en ny konceptualisering af digital distanceledelse. Vi argumenterer for, at tre typer ledelsesadfærd tilsammen kan håndtere de muligheder og udfordringer, lederne oplever: styrkelse af digitale kompetencer samt tilrettelæggelse af rutiner og italesættelse af normer for digital interaktion på distancen.
... Las dificultades para establecer cuáles serían las modalidades apropiadas de supervisión del trabajo remoto, han motivado el desarrollo de estrategias de sustitución o neutralización de estas funciones por otros medios. Por ejemplo, la orientación a la tarea o a las relaciones, podrían ser actuadas por los propios teletrabajadores, de manera a sustituir la influencia de los supervisores, o por medio de generar "vacíos de influencia", con base a regulaciones organizacionales, la claridad de las tareas, la experiencia y competencias de los teletrabajadores o la fortaleza de los equipos de trabajo, entre otros (Dahlstrom, 2013). Un aspecto a considerar desde esta óptica, es el de la forma en que se cristalizan y se muestran, las lógicas, procedimientos y soportes del trabajo en los instrumentos técnicos que disponen los teletrabajadores para desarrollar su actividad (Rabardel, 1995). ...
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Resumen: Con base a la revisión de la literatura científica disponible, se presenta una perspectiva de análisis del teletrabajo en el contexto de pandemia COVID-19. Se discute desde la ergonomía cognitiva, de la Teoría Histórico-Cultural de la Actividad, y de la teoría de procesos auto y co-regulatorios, la necesidad de integrar los factores estructurales, de las exigencias laborales, los recursos disponibles, así como de los potenciales conflictos entre el trabajo y el hogar, para comprender las estrategias de enfrentamiento empleadas y los efectos del teletrabajo. Se plantea la necesidad de soluciones que se hagan cargo de la diversidad de situaciones presentes. Palabras clave: Teletrabajo, COVID-19, procesos regulatorios, carga de trabajo. Abstract: Based on the review of the scientific literature available, a perspective of analysis of teleworking in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic is presented. The need to integrate structural factors, work demands, available resources, as well as potential work-home conflicts, for the understanding of coping strategies, and telework effects, is discussed from cognitive ergonomics, Cultural-Historical Activity Theory, and the self and co-regulatory processes theory. The need for solutions that take care of situations diversity arises. Introducción El teletrabajo estaría esencialmente definido por la distancia espacial entre trabajadores y la actividad mediada por TIC, incorporando grados variados de interdependencia entre tareas, trabajos de distinta naturaleza, diversos entornos tecnológicos y distancias temporales, en donde la virtualidad y la distribución del trabajo entre distintos actores, podrían presentarse en distintos continuos (Henry et al., 2021). El paso desde el trabajo presencial al teletrabajo, ha implicado para los trabajadores, transitar desde una situación de distribución del trabajo basado en la diferenciación de roles, y secuencias temporales, a una en que se ha introducido además de una amplia distribución espacial de los trabajadores, una extensa mediación instrumental del trabajo basado en TIC (Ruiller et al., 2017). También ha significado un giro
... Changes in public service workplaces due to the COVID-19 pandemic will shape how workers engage (or not) in the meaningfulness-making process. Remote and teleworkers experience both physical and cultural isolation requiring more leadership support and efficient communication (Dahlstrom, 2013). The extent that managers can respond to workers' needs for support, especially for relationships within and outside of organizations, may impact how public servants experience meaningfulness. ...
Article
Public service work and public-serving institutions are evolving by incorporating neoliberal modes of working more and more. Contemporary research oftentimes neglects to account for these changes in how we understand public service work, however. This article draws on the meaningfulness in work and public service motivation literature to explore how public service workers are making sense of their work and work environments to create meaningful work experiences under evolving conditions. The findings from 45 interviews with public and nonprofit managers are presented and compared. The changing world of work has implications for how public and nonprofit workers narrate and find meaningfulness in work but not what they find meaningful about their work. The findings suggest that both public and nonprofit workers create positive meaningfulness in work but in dissimilar ways. The findings also suggest that organizational leaders play a substantial part in workers’ meaningfulness-making process. The findings hold theoretical and practical implications for understanding the role workplaces and organizational leaders play in workers’ experience of meaningful public service work.
... There are four main functions of communication: control, motivation, expression of emotion, and information exchange. They are all undoubtedly important, but in the context of telework, where trust is emphasized, control should be of least importance while motivation and information exchange should be the highest priority (Scott, Mitchell 1976, quoted from Dahlstrom, 2013) [31]. ...
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Due to the wide application of remote teaching during the COVID-19 pandemic, the foundations of the education system have been shaken; education has entered a new era of teaching and learning on digitalized platforms. How do pedagogues evaluate their experiences when information technologies have become the main axis of carrying out their work? What impact did telework have on pedagogues as employees of an education institution or as individuals? What could be expected from older pedagogues in the shift to using digital means of teaching? These were the main questions raised in this research, the results of which are presented in this article. This research is original because the differences in experiences of telework were studied not only in terms of age and nature of work (professional/leader) but also the type of education institution. This delineation is of key importance in understanding the virtual work challenges faced by pedagogues in schools, professional education institutions, colleges, and universities.
... Furthermore, this type of leadership, the one based on consideration and proximity, the one that wants to build trust, is the most correlated with remote work performance, which was massively present as a way to protect against the virus. The telecommuter has unique needs that may dictate the leader's best style (Dahlstrom, T. R., 2013). Hackman & Johnson (1991) make the point that leadership is best understood from a communication standpoint. ...
Chapter
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Analytics (PA) is a field of HR that uses the techniques of artificial intelligence, social sciences and innovation to extract insights from employee data for business decision-making. This is an area that has shown growing interest from organizations, industry and academia in the last decade. PA trends before the COVID-19 pandemic were mostly around the need to extract business value from the amalgamation of user data provided and data privacy. The latter is the most pressing. After the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic, PA managers' concerns focused on empathy and data privacy was intensified. Through a literature review and content analysis of interviews and case studies on the internet this evolution in PA trends is proven and a review on this topic to date is done.
... The mindset of management can also be a limitation to WHF. The traditional view of wanting to see the worker and measure the workers' productivity with 'time in the seat' (Dahlstrom, 2013). Therefore, communication in a WFH context must be more explicit than it might be in a comparable person-to-person interaction (Makarius & Larson, 2017). ...
Article
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As part of the response to Covid 19, working from home (WFH) was enforced by governments of more than 150 countries in order to curtail the transmission of the pandemic. The COVID-19 pandemic had brought new business ideas, making organizations change how they conduct their business. This study aims to discuss the advantages and disadvantages of working from home in the scientific literature, using questionnaires, how employees feel about WFH in the aspects of family values, increase of performance, isolation and disrupts work-life balance, how workers cope with WFH. Data was collected from the primary source by using a structured questionnaire completed through google form. The target respondents were employers and employees both from the private sector of the economy. Data was gathered from 504 respondents. SPSS and Excel were used to analyse the data. The majority of the respondents were employees (76.98%), while 23.02% were employers. An inquiry was also made about the marital status of the respondents, and the majority (71.83%) were married while 28.17% were single. The study showed that respondents were still able to connect with their teammates despite working from home, frequently communicate with leaders, and have clarity on working from home policies. It can also be seen that the majority of the respondents enjoyed working from home, although they still look forward to returning to the office. Findings on working from home on family values show that this work style positively influences availability at the home front. Findings on the effect on work performance show average agreement on the positive impact of working from home. Agreement on the negative impact of working from home on office/social interaction and work-life balance was also seen to be on average. It can be inferred from this study that working from home is a work style that employees would prefer to continue post-COVID-19.
... Communication and collaboration can be limited by WFH and is an often-cited reason for organizations not to adopt telecommuting, while, on the other hand, technological tools such as online collaboration tools, web-based presentation rooms, workflow management tools and desktop video conferencing can be used to enhance collaboration [2]. Effective management is also important in WFH environments requiring "relationship-orientated behaviors" with a focus on clear and frequent communication [44]. Communication in a telecommuting context should be more explicit than it might be in a comparable in-person interaction [45]. ...
... Some companies are classed as innovation and change resistant because in a discussion of why innovations are rejected, Abrahamson and Rosenkopf (1993) indicate that innovation integration may occur in cycles, with organisations either getting 'on board or off board'. Some organisations apply innovation for economic efficiency or because they feel competitive pressure from other organisations that have already adopted the innovation and as long as that remains the trend among their rivals, they will continue to apply it (Dahlstrom, 2014). Telework like other innovations may be subject to the 'on board and off board effect' and managers may give negative support towards telework adaptation because of the lack of proper insight, awareness of incompetence, or little awareness that others are imbibing the work (Ruppel and Harrington, 1995). ...
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The research reported in this paper was undertaken to investigate the importance of teleworking as an innovative work practice in small business enterprises (SBEs) in South Wales. In order to accomplish this the research uses a qualitative research approach which employed an online focus group and in-depth interviews through questionnaires and interviews with various organizations, employees and employers and key policy makers in Wales to construct a framework to provide greater understanding of this phenomenon. The research concludes that teleworking is regarded to be important for the advancement of SBEs in Wales. It is the first study to investigate and evaluate the practice of teleworking and how its innovative application framework affects SBEs directly in Wales to help businesses succeed.
... Besides, the reduction of face-to-face interactions and the limited frequency and richness of interpersonal exchanges at work are expected to create a sense of isolation among teleworkers, fostering the perception of strain and fatigue (Robertson and Vink, 2012). Social and professional isolation results in frustration, disconnection from the organization and greater feelings of loneliness, which endanger well-being at work (Dahlstrom, 2013). Such feelings negatively affect the quality of job-related activities performed by teleworkers (Allen et al., 2015), triggering work-life conflicts and decreasing organizational commitment (Amponsah-Tawiah et al., 2016). ...
Article
Purpose: Literature is not consistent in discussing the implications of teleworking on work-life balance. Even though teleworking may enhance work arrangements' flexibility, it blurs boundaries between life and work, endangering the individual work-life balance. The article aims to illuminate this issue, moving forward our understanding of teleworking’s implications using the Social Exchange Theory framework. Design/methodology/approach: Secondary data were collected from Eurofound’s sixth European Working Condition Survey. A large sample of Europeans (n= 16,473) was involved in this study. We designed a serial mediation analysis to investigate the direct and indirect effects produced by teleworking on work-life-balance. We included employees’ job motivation and job satisfaction as intervening variables that mediate the relationship between teleworking and work-life balance. Findings: We found teleworking to negatively affect work-life balance, putting under stress the teleworkers’ ability to handle the interplay between work and life. However, the serial mediation analysis pointed out that teleworking triggers an improvement of job motivation, which, in turn, boosts job satisfaction. Increased job motivation and job satisfaction nurture positive employees’ perception of work-life balance. Research limitation/implications: The study results invite us to pay attention to the complex interplay between teleworking and work-life balance, emphasizing the mediating role of job motivation and job satisfaction. As a flexible work arrangement, teleworking may increase the employees’ sense of control over their work, which leads to better perceived work-life balance. However, confounding the boundaries between work and daily life, it may nourish work-to-life and life-to-work conflicts. Originality: The article advances what we currently know about teleworking’s implications on work-life balance, envisioning avenues for further conceptual and empirical developments.
... Estos líderes deben ser capaces de acompañar a sus colaboradores en la adquisición permanente de nuevas herramientas necesarias para adaptarse a modalidades de trabajo en entornos caracterizados por la constante transformación y reinvención. En este sentido, las áreas de empresas deberán diseñar e implementar planes de acción para el abordaje del teletrabajo (durante y después de la pandemia) en tres ejes centrales: "cultura organizacional", "liderazgo transformacional" y "capital psicológico" con el objetivo de asegurar el compromiso de organizacional en esta nueva modalidad de trabajo (Dahlstrom, 2013). ...
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El presente trabajo busca presentar los primeros desafíos que surgen en torno a la expansión de la práctica del teletrabajo que llega a la Argentina de manera no planificada en torno a la pandemia por COVID-19, pero que nos deja lecciones y aprendizajes que muy probablemente sean el puntapié de nuevas prácticas laborales de aquí en más.
... The greatest barrier to successful WFH can be the mindset of management, with the traditional view of needing to see the worker and measure productivity with 'time in the seat'. Effective management in a WFH environment requires relationship-orientated behaviours with a focus on clear and frequent communication (Dahlstrom, 2013) with the goal of establishing/maintaining good faith in the employment relationship. ...
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The Covid-19 pandemic has resulted, to date, in an estimated 29 per cent of the New Zealand (NZ) workforce moving quickly from centralised work locations to full time working from home (WFH). The literature prior to these extraordinary events suggests WFH is beneficial for employee wellbeing and performance, and organisational outcomes, notably productivity, retention, and business continuity in times of disruption. Lack of organisational preparedness, technological limitations, managerial reluctance, and the potential drawbacks of social isolation have meant that the rates of regular, planned WFH as a flexible work option have traditionally been low. This paper summarises the knowledge base of benefits and limitations of WFH prior to COVID-19 and speculates how the experiences of WFH during the pandemic are likely to shape the future of WFH for workers, organisations, and employees.
... működést és az interperszonális kapcsolatokat. Mivel a távmunka lehetőségére gyakran jutalomként tekintenek az alkalmazottak, ez ahhoz vezethet, hogy akik nem részesülhetnek ebből a lehetőségből, azok ezt méltánytalan bánásmódnak fogják tartani. Ez csökkentheti a dolgozói elégedettséget és a szervezet kevésbé fogja tudni megtartani alkalmazottjait.Dahlstrom (2013) az igazságosság fontosságára hívja fel a figyelmet. Kritikus tényező, hogy az alkalmazottak hogyan érzékelik és hogyan értékelik a rendszert.Hunton-Norman (2010) kutatásukban nem általánosságban vizsgálták a távmunka előnyeit és hátrányait, hanem különbséget tettek a fő formák között. Bár az alkalmazottak körében a legnépszerűbb távmunk ...
Article
Absztrakt: A koronavírus járvány átmenetileg megváltoztatta a foglalkoztatók viszonyát a távmunkához. Hazai és nemzetközi felmérések mutatták ki, hogy 2020. március-április folyamán a távmunkában dolgozók aránya drasztikusan megemelkedett. Jelenleg annak az átgondolása folyik, hogy milyen munkarendet alakítsanak ki a vállalatok, hogyan készüljenek fel a vírus esetleges második hullámára. Jelen műhelytanulmány a jövő munkahelyének kialakításában kíván segítséget nyújtani. Összefoglaltuk a korábbi távmunkával kapcsolatos kutatások legfontosabb megállapításait. Ismertetjük a 2020. március-április folyamán készült empirikus kutatások eredményeit. Bár a saját, témában végzett kérdőíves felmérésünk nem reprezentatív, válaszadóink értékes gondolatait, meglátásait érdemes közreadnunk, mivel hozzájárulhatnak egy a hatékonyságot és a munka és magán élet egyensúlyát egyaránt szolgáló munkahelyi modell kialakításához. ----- Abstract: The coronavirus pandemic has temporarily changed employers’ attitudes toward telecommuting. According to domestic and international surveys, the proportion of teleworkers increased significantly during March-April 2020. The current challenge is what kind of work-schedules companies should develop, how to prepare for a possible second wave of the epidemic. This study aims to help shape the workplace of the future. We have summarized the key findings of previous research on telework. We present the results of empirical researches conducted during March-April 2020. Although our questionnaire survey on the topic is not representative, it is worth sharing the valuable thoughts and opinions of our respondents, as they can contribute to the development of a workplace model that serves both efficiency and work-life balance.
... Dentre as questões apontadas, uma das inovações organizacionais que tem sido adotada nas organizações públicas é o teletrabalho. O tema tem sido abordado recentemente por autores como Dahlstrom (2013), Caillier (2012Caillier ( , 2013, Eom, Choi e Sung (2016) e De Vries, Tummers e Bekkers (2017, 2018. ...
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Resumo Este estudo investigou as vantagens e desvantagens do teletrabalho na administração pública na percepção de 98 teletrabalhadores e 28 gestores do Serviço Federal de Processamento de Dados (Serpro) e da Receita Federal. Trata-se de pesquisa qualiquantitativa, composta por questionários aplicados aos teletrabalhadores e entrevistas com os gestores, que abordou aspectos estruturais, físicos, pessoais, profissionais e psicológicos. Os resultados evidenciaram como vantagens: melhoria da qualidade de vida; maior equilíbrio na relação trabalho x família; maior produtividade; flexibilidade; criação de métricas; redução de custo; estresse; tempo de deslocamento; exposição à violência; e conhecimento da demanda de trabalho. Já as desvantagens foram: não adaptação; falta de comunicação; perda de vínculo com a empresa; problemas psicológicos; infraestrutura; e controle do teletrabalhador. Conclui-se que o teletrabalho necessita de um modelo de gestão que o torne mais aderente à esfera pública.
... Dentre as questões apontadas, uma das inovações organizacionais que tem sido adotada nas organizações públicas é o teletrabalho. O tema tem sido abordado recentemente por autores como Dahlstrom (2013), Caillier (2012Caillier ( , 2013, Eom, Choi e Sung (2016) e De Vries, Tummers e Bekkers (2017, 2018. ...
Article
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Resumo Este estudo investigou as vantagens e desvantagens do teletrabalho na administração pública na percepção de 98 teletrabalhadores e 28 gestores do Serviço Federal de Processamento de Dados (Serpro) e da Receita Federal. Trata-se de pesquisa qualiquantitativa, composta por questionários aplicados aos teletrabalhadores e entrevistas com os gestores, que abordou aspectos estruturais, físicos, pessoais, profissionais e psicológicos. Os resultados evidenciaram como vantagens: melhoria da qualidade de vida; maior equilíbrio na relação trabalho x família; maior produtividade; flexibilidade; criação de métricas; redução de custo; estresse; tempo de deslocamento; exposição à violência; e conhecimento da demanda de trabalho. Já as desvantagens foram: não adaptação; falta de comunicação; perda de vínculo com a empresa; problemas psicológicos; infraestrutura; e controle do teletrabalhador. Conclui-se que o teletrabalho necessita de um modelo de gestão que o torne mais aderente à esfera pública.
... In the meta-analysis by Dahlstrom (2013), the author looked the effectiveness of relationship-based leadership in a telework environment and concluded that the structuring of the jobs and infrastructure play a significant role in the effectiveness of telework. The author discussed the study of telework form when the term was first used in the 1970's by Jack Niles (Dahlstrom, 2013, p.439). ...
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The purpose of this quantitative casual-comparative repeated cross-sections panel study was to investigate the effect of knowledge of status of access to telework on the Federal employee’s perception of job satisfaction and determine if this changes over time. The focus of this study was the effect of knowledge of access to the specific Work Life Benefit Telework on the Federal employees’ perception of job satisfaction. The study population was the full-time and part-time permanent employees of the Executive Branch of Federal Government worldwide. Data for this population was acquired by use of secondary data sourced from the Office of Personnel Management’s (OPM) Federal Employee Viewpoint Survey (FEVS). The data sampled from the FEVS included Likert-type scale and categorical items that comprised the study variables. Evaluation of the data included Cronbach’s Alpha (α) used to test the reliability and validity of the data used for the study. Use of chi square and the Kruskal-Wallis H tests of the FEVS data for 2011 through 2015 produced results indicating a statistically significant relationship between the Federal employee’s perception of job satisfaction and access to the WLB telework. The results indicated this relationship persisted through the entire period studied. This study suggests that further investigation of the ongoing relationship between access to telework and job satisfaction is merited, as job satisfaction is an important indicator of employee intent to remain at the organization.
... One research approach is examining the skills necessary for effective leadership in online contexts. E-leadership skill clusters include good basic e-communication and the avoidance of miscommunication (Balthazard et al., 2009;Brake, 2006;Lin et al., 2008;Marlow et al., 2017;Snellman, 2014), e-social skills to create a sense of friendliness and a pleasant work environment (Dahlstrom, 2013;Fernandez and Jawadi, 2015;Kirkman et al., 2002), team building to ensure deep buy-in and accountability (Cascio and Shurygailo, 2003;Hunsaker and Hunsaker, 2008; LODJ Malhotra et al., 2007), change management skills in virtual contexts (Anthopoulous et al., 2016;Bakar et al., 2016;Nah et al., 2001), basic technological savviness to use and take care of routine media issues (Fabris, 2015;Holland et al., 2009;Lareki et al., 2010), and creation of a sense of trust so important to strong leadership (Breuer et al., 2016;Crisp and Jarvenpaa, 2013;Malhotra et al., 2007;Savolainen, 2014;Thomas and Bostrom, 2008). Hertel et al. (2006) is notable in that they included antecedent traits in their modeling of crucial skills for team members. ...
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Purpose Even though e-leadership was broadly defined in 2001 (Avolio et al.), there has been surprisingly little progress (Avolio et al., 2014). In order to make a better progress, the authors recommend dividing the field into four quadrants to facilitate the research focus. It can be divided by e-leadership phases (the adoption of technology phase vs the quality of use of technology phase), as well as the purposes (e-leadership as virtual communication vs e-leadership as management of organizational structures). The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach This study provides a model of e-leadership as communication adoption at the individual level (ECAMi). Structural equation modeling was used to test a previously published model by Van Wart et al. (2017a). The model included select traits and skills (as antecedent conditions), awareness of ICTs, evaluation of ICTs, willingness to expend effort in learning about ICTs, intention to use ICTs, and facilitating conditions. Findings The overall model demonstrates a good fit. It can be concluded that the ECAMi represents a valid model for understanding e-leaders’ technological adoption. It is also found that while all select skills and traits are significant – energy, responsibility and analytical skills stand above the others. Originality/value To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this represents the first effort to operationalize e-leadership.
... The importance of setting a positive environment with a sense of community and responsiveness is as important in the virtual environment as in the face-to-face environment (e.g., Dahlstrom 2013;Fernandez and Jawadi 2015;Lin, Standing, and Liu 2008;McDermott 1999;Snellman 2014). Electronic media in organizational settings are cited as frequently stripping out informal interactions, jocularity, and various types of normal social bonding (Byron 2008 E-team skills have been much commented on in the literature, and most researchers assert that "virtual team leaders need to do more in virtual teams" (Kahai 2013, 76). ...
Article
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While many aspects of the dramatic shifts caused by digital government have made enormous progress, the leadership of those who serve the public via electronic means has yet to take a significant step forward. This article addresses three questions: How significant has e‐leadership become? What are the challenges in trying to create a more comprehensive model of defining and measuring e‐leadership? And, based on current knowledge, what skill and behavioral elements are candidates for a concrete e‐leadership model? The authors develop and test an original model that focuses on e‐leadership as a competence in virtual communications (i.e., the use of ICT‐mediated communications) and the digital opportunities and challenges that are created. The results provide strong support for the proposed model. The article concludes with a discussion of a future agenda for e‐leadership research that can be developed in a manner that is fruitful for theory and practitioners.
... Furthermore, Cascio [36] argues that there is no single factor for teleworking success as critical as trust. Nevertheless, Dahlstrom [37] states that teleworkers often sense a lack of trust from their manager, who is unable to see them at work. ...
Chapter
Telework is a management technique, proven to improve results and morale. The key to success in telework is an effective leader. This paper is designed to provide an understanding of telework in Austria through face-to-face interviews, from the manager’s perspective in the private sector. The manager determines which employees are permitted to telework, monitors progress, provides support and encouragement, and determines if he/she is productive at work. Becoming effective at managing teleworkers means a change in management style and technique. The principal key issue for results to be most effective in the virtual workplace is that managers accomplish effective managerial communication. Included in this is the importance of feedback, with trust being seen as one of the most important managerial tasks at a distance. An effective style of management can lead to stunning improvements in productivity, profits and customer service.
... Allen et al., 2015;Hislop & Axtell, 2007;Konradt, Schmook, & Malecke, 2000;Siha & Monroe, 2006), leadership (e.g. Brunelle, 2013;Dahlstrom, 2013) and OSH outcomes (e.g. Hislop, Axtell, & Daniels, 2008;Montreuil & Lippel, 2003;Quinlan & Bohle, 2008;Standen, Lamond, & Daniels, 1999). ...
Article
Distributed workers - those who work autonomously and remotely from their organisation’s main locations for some of their work-time, are an important and growing proportion of the workforce that share common characteristics of temporal and spatial distance. Yet many leadership styles and management practices assume face-to-face interaction, potentially rendering them less helpful in trying to ensure good occupational safety and health (OSH) outcomes for distributed workers. We conducted a systematic literature review to examine the leadership and management of OSH for distributed workers. Twenty-three papers were identified. Eleven papers identified established leadership styles, including leader-member exchange, (safety-specific) transformational and considerate leadership. Twenty papers examined management. Findings from these 20 papers were interpreted as representing resources, deployed through management and utilised by managers, to ensure OSH for distributed workers. These include communication technologies, social support, and a good safety climate. Despite limited research in this area, findings indicate the importance of both leadership and management in ensuring OSH for distributed workers. Findings suggest a fertile area for future enquiry.
Article
While telework has been adopted widely in local governments because of the numerous potential benefits that it offers for the workforce, organizations, and society, little research has been done to examine if and how telework achieves expected worker outcomes in local governments. Drawing on insights from the social exchange and social exclusion theories, this article extends previous telework research by demonstrating the differential effects of telecommute and telework options on job satisfaction and performance of local government workforce. Data were collected through an online survey of workers at a large local government agency in California. Results showed that telework and telecommute options improved job satisfaction and performance of workers in the local government agency due to flexible work schedules and locations. In addition, telecommuters having more interpersonal interaction opportunities which reduce feelings of social isolation/work alienation experienced higher job satisfaction and performance than teleworkers.
Article
Analysis of data from the representative German Linked Personnel Panel revealed that, overall, the use of home‐based working is associated with a higher affective organisational commitment on the part of employees. However, this is less often the case when the use of home‐based working involves the blurring of work–home boundaries. Perceived trust and fairness on the part of supervisors mediates the association between employees' experiences with working from home and their affective commitment. These results show that experiences with home‐based working shape employees' perceptions of trust and fairness in their exchange relations with supervisors and thus their affective commitment to the organisation. Employees' experiences with home‐based working that reflect its supportive implementation by their employers and supervisors are critical for their commitment. Our results provide the first evidence that in exchange relations between employees and supervisors, perceived fairness is as important as perceived trust.
Article
Purpose The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) situation has led to the emergence of virtual teams in all organizations, and the role of leadership has become more pertinent. The current research focuses on understanding the factors for better team performance in virtual teams. Based on the contingency perspective, the behavioral complexity in leadership (BCL) theory is the most appropriate as BCL requires the leader to demonstrate multiple contrasting leadership behaviors according to the situation. Both internal as well external roles were explored, which could facilitate better communication quality and role clarity to increase interpersonal trust and leadership effectiveness in the current crisis. Design/methodology/approach Data were collected from employees who have worked in virtual teams during the crisis and who have experience of working in a virtual team environment. A total of 200 questionnaires were distributed, and 175 were received. A path model was built applying partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM). Findings Communication quality has come as a partial mediator for the relationship between internal and external leadership roles and trust. Role clarity fully mediated the relationship between external leadership roles and conflict. Internal and external leadership roles showed a significant effect on leadership effectiveness, which were further related to team performance in virtual teams. Additionally, synchronous technology was used more by virtual teams. Research limitations/implications The study did not examine cultural differences or cultural adaptation in virtual teams. Instead of the BCL theory, future research may apply attribute-based or relational-based theory to examine leadership roles in virtual team performance. Originality/value Using the BCL theory, the current study contributes to an understanding of virtual team performance and the internal as well as external role of leaders. This is relevant in an environment of extreme ambiguity such as COVID-19.
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Current theories and models of leadership seek to explain the influence of the hierarchical superior upon the satisfaction and performance of subordinates. While disagreeing with one another in important respects, these theories and models share an implicit assumption that while the style of leadership likely to be effective may vary according to the situation, some leadership style will be effective regardless of the situation. It has been found, however, that certain individual, task, and organizational variables act as “substitutes for leadership”, negating the hierarchical superior's ability to exert either positive or negative influence over subordinate attitudes and effectiveness. This paper identifies a number of such substitutes for leadership, presents scales of questionnaire items for their measurement, and reports some preliminary tests.
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Organizational commitment has been conceptualized and measured in various ways. The two studies reported here were conducted to test aspects of a three-component model of commitment which integrates these various conceptualizations. The affective component of organizational commitment, proposed by the model, refers to employees' emotional attachment to, identification with, and involvement in, the organization. The continuance component refers to commitment based on the costs that employees associate with leaving the organization. Finally, the normative component refers to employees' feelings of obligation to remain with the organization. In Study 1, scales were developed to measure these components. Relationships among the components of commitment and with variables considered their antecedents were examined in Study 2. Results of a canonical correlation analysis suggested that, as predicted by the model, the affective and continuance components of organizational commitment are empirically distinguishable constructs with different correlates. The affective and normative components, although distinguishable, appear to be somewhat related. The importance of differentiating the components of commitment, both in research and practice, is discussed. ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR Copyright of Journal of Occupational Psychology is the property of British Psychological Society and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts)
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