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Storytelling, a model of and a model for planning

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Abstract

Interest in storytelling in planning has grown over the last two decades. In this article two strands of research are identified: research that looks at storytelling as a model of the way planning is done and research that looks at storytelling as a model for the way planning could or should be done. Recently, the second strand has received the most attention. This article builds on theories of storytelling as an important aspect of everyday planning practice. It draws on an ethnographic case in which a range of actors struggled with the meaning of what was going on, (re)framing the past, present and future with the help of stories. The case illustrates how new stories are built on top of older ones and new understandings emerge along the way. The article also looks into the relationship between storytelling and other planning activities. The article ends with a plea for ethnographic fieldwork to further develop ideas on storytelling in planning practice.

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... More recent authors argue that visuals (e.g., planning graphics such as maps and 3D renderings) are a form of storytelling too (Pojani andStead 2015, 2016). While powerful stories can rally individuals, communities, and cities and channel their efforts towards collective action, stories can likewise overwhelm audiences to the point of inaction or even persuade audiences to dismiss evidence (Verma 1993(Verma , 1998Throgmorton 1996Throgmorton , 2003Stone 2002;Sandercock 2003;Carp 2004;Childs 2008;van Hulst 2012;Pojani 2017). ...
... As with all good stories, the narratives presented in this article simplify a complex reality to its essence so as to render it accessible and memorable -as claimed by the advocates of storytelling in planning (Verma 1993(Verma , 1998Throgmorton 1996Throgmorton , 2003Stone 2002;Sandercock 2003;Carp 2004;Childs 2008;van Hulst 2012;Pojani 2017). Naturally, the picture on the ground is much more nuanced -involving many more characters, subplots, and twists. ...
Article
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Public views and perceptions surrounding parking demand and supply in Australian cities remain underexplored in the academic literature. In this exploratory study, we draw on written and oral qualitative data to set forth popular narratives and sentiments on parking supply and demand. We reveal two competing storylines. The first and more traditional one casts (free) parking as a “birthright” that is to be retained at all cost. The second and more recent storyline – which aligns closely to the position of contemporary planners – casts cars and parking as a “scourge” to be combated in order to restore urban liveability. We conclude that the emergence of this more recent storyline bodes well for the sustainability of urban areas.
... Such critique is not new. Theorists in the field discuss a paradigmatic shift in planning practices (Goodspeed, 2016;James et al., 2015), suggesting an increased concern for more open and inclusive mechanisms of decisionmaking processes in urban environments (Van Hulst, 2012), particularly endangered by the emergence and popularisation of big data tools and models associated with smart cities dis course and practice (Kitchin, 2014;Nguyen and Boundy, 2017). As a result of this paradigm shift, urban planning practices have redirected their engagement mechanisms towards a more democratic redistribution of power among the stakeholders involved in decision-making (Odendaal, 2006;Sheedy et al., 2008). ...
... In this sense, the exhibition tries to reconcile a dichotomy in narrating the city: the quantita tive genre, represented by the interest in statistics about the characteristics of the city and the concern for showcasing a statistically 'accurate' sample of Brisbane's population ( Figure 23.3), and the qualitative genre, portrayed by the stories, perceptions, and experiences of the 100 participants and the museum visitors who interact with the exhibit (Figure 23.2). 100% Brisbane, thus, sets up a 'middle-ground' contribution to rethinking storytelling practices focussed on citizen perspectives (Fredericks et al., 2016;Odendaal, 2006;Van Hulst, 2012), as well as it represents an opportunity for enriching engagement and plan ning mechanisms, often accused of being highly technocratic and distant of any human senti ment (Odendaal, 2006;Söderström et al., 2014). ...
... different structures of the labour market and economy, social inequality and demography); the institutional dimension (e.g. the welfare state and the educational system); the cultural dimension of varying context-dependent understandings of age, labour, family; the individual dimension, namely the subjective perspectives of young people, their aspirations and experiences as well as the transitions in their life courses (Parreira do . Thirdly, it discusses the different narrative strategies chosen to "tell the story of the cases" (van Hulst, 2012;Polletta et al., 2011;McBeth et al., 2005), in order to grasp the complex intertwinement of the different levels, dimensions and perspectives that account for case construction. Specifically, the article presents two examples of storytelling related to the LLL policies chosen as case studies in Germany and Scotland, and examines their contribution to analysing the policies. ...
... Put differently, actors cannot solve a problem unless they have some understanding (clarity is not necessary) of what the problem is. This is where storytelling comes in (van Hulst, 2012). The argument is that sense-making takes the form of storytelling because actors in social life understand their lives in the form of stories. ...
Article
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The paper aims to discuss the narrative approach to case study analysis, drawing on the research carried out within the H2020 European Project YOUNG_ADULLLT. It aimed to analyse Lifelong Learning (LLL) policies targeted to young adults in Europe, particularly those in situations of social exclusion, focusing on the different ways in which the policies are socially embedded in specific local contexts across Europe. By a multimethod and multilevel perspective, the research sought to explore the interplay between structural, institutional and individual levels to understand the relationship and complementarity between the LLL policies and the young people’s social conditions, needs and expectations. The paper focuses on the narrative approach, namely the “storytelling strategy”, adopted to examine the Lifelong Learning policies chosen as case studies in their social, political and economic realities. Different examples of storytelling and their contribution to analyse LLL policies are explored. Lastly, we critically discuss whether the narrative approach allowed to build a dense portrait able to yield the complexity and the specificity of the cases, reconstructing the story of the meaning of Lifelong Learning in different constellations. Epistemological and methodological considerations on the use of narrative approach in social science are provided, highlighting its opportunities and limits.
... The importance of collective stories in the urban planning literature has been well described by van Hulst [30], when cited Throgmorton: "[...] it is not merely the individual stories that count, but storytelling and the complex social networks, physical settings, and institutional processes in which those stories are told " [17] . For Forrester [18], collective aspects such as power, moral, political practice, and deliberative work can be faced by investigating practical stories . ...
... As a starting point, we took the planning process as a narrative. We established the entity Planning Narrative as a concept based on the twofold idea of storytelling as a planning model and as a model for planning [30] . The Planning Narrative narrates n collective storie s that compete to become the most relevant. ...
Conference Paper
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Over the past decades, the use of digital technologies to support participatory urban planning and design has been repeatedly described as a crucial instrument and critical building block for tackling historical problems of participation in such processes. Social media, e-participation platforms, and crowdsourcing applications are examples of technologies that can involve citizens in decision-making processes and thus leverage the benefits of collective intelligence. However, despite the extensive use of social media platforms, old problems related to engagement and participation still occur in digital initiatives. Successful collaboration examples between citizens, policymakers, and strategic stakeholders are still scarce based on online social practices. This study aims to introduce a collective intelligence model, which combines crowdsourcing and social storytelling to support participatory urban planning and design from a bottom-up perspective. The paper concludes by discussing a scenario where citizens can engage in mapping, taking photos, sending ideas, or even creating collective stories about their university issues in a post-pandemic future.
... Storytelling is a large part of Native cultures as prior to missionary exposure Native languages were primarily oral and still maintain oral traditions to this day. Storytelling is also a method useful in planning for communities(van Hulst, 2012). The results of this project produced a booklet for Ninilchik about all their future ideas for self-determining actions (seeAppendix F). ...
Thesis
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Alaska Natives are a diverse group of people with different language groups and over 200 tribes. We have a history of colonization and are still a colonized people, but through all this, we strive for wellness for our people. This paper begins with an explanation of historical trauma, development, and the lack of fate control Alaska Native people experience. The literature review explains how colonization can negatively impact the colonized and details international, federal, and Alaska state law and court cases having to do with Indigenous sovereignty and self-determination. In this project the researcher works with the Ninilchik Village Tribe of Ninilchik, Alaska, to explore how community members utilize self-determination, either individually and/or as a group, to achieve individual, community, and tribal sustainability and wellbeing. This project uses the method of ethnographic futures research to conduct scenarios about the future. The researcher conducted 30 interviews about three possible futures: the optimistic, pessimistic, and most likely, and followed the interviews with four focus groups to discuss the interview results. The results were coded through grounded theory in NVivo analysis software and compared with: (a) the Capabilities Approach, (b) Self-Determination Theory, (c) social science development theories of Dependency and World Systems, and (d) the Elements of Development Model. The Capabilities Approach and Self-Development Theory explain the links between self-determination and wellbeing. Dependency and World Systems Theories explain the importance of local self-determination for development. Finally, the Elements of Development Model provides an outline for different types of self-determining actions. The project analyzes Arctic wellbeing indicators and developed indicators of sustainability and wellbeing. The project results demonstrate what community members think that individuals, the community, and the tribe can do to improve sustainability and wellbeing in Ninilchik, and how to achieve those goals through self-determining actions. The dissemination document serves as the start to a 20-year strategic plan. This type of research demonstrates how tribes can address the results of historical trauma and take control of their fate through self-determination. The next steps in research would be asset mapping and capacity-building projects to work with the data and benefit the community.
... The main challenge to materialize the proposal would be to recruit and provide a participatory environment that reshapes interactions between communities and companies for transmedia narrative, as well as their integration in the solution. Nevertheless, it is considered that the narrative can be seen as: a democratic and inclusive planning model; which offers space to a variety of stakeholders with their own experiences and emotions; which allows stakeholders to build shared understandings of what their situation is and what can be done [24]. It is also believed that narrative gerontology (i.e. a process in which senior citizens tell their story by memory) brings many benefits and improves the sense of well-being through sharing, thus enhancing the social participation and inclusion inherent to active aging. ...
Chapter
The general decrease in fertility rates and the increase in longevity allow the incessant aging of the world population. Furthermore, senior citizens are becoming better consumers of tourism products, leading to the need to meet their context, demands, and preferences while avoiding overtourism. Although a boom is observed in this field, there is a lack of information and products that address cyclotourism, senior tourism and its impact on citizens’ well-being and formation of communities. Community-based tourism, alongside media convergence culture, relies on the use of information and communication tools to inform purchase decisions and reinforce the connections among people relative to both place-making and place-visiting. The purpose of this position paper is to discuss the potential of transmedia to foster participatory strategies in cyclotourism to encourage active aging. In specific, it proposes the delivery of an integrated cyclotourism experience targeted to senior citizens that result from the convergence of community-based, induced, and transmedia tourism.
... Drawing on critical planning theory, we conceptualize IBM's smarter city campaign as a specific form of storytelling in the world of planning (Mandelbaum 1991;Sandercock 2003;Throgmorton 1996Throgmorton , 2003Van Hulst 2012) and show that it mobilizes and recycles two long-standing tropes: the city conceived as a system of systems, and a utopian discourse exposing urban pathologies and their cure. On this basis, we develop three main arguments related to the purpose, content and effects of the dominant smart city story. ...
... Creating future stories is also a known valuable method to organize collaborative visioning processes, but also to enable and coordinate joint action [15,78,79]. Collaborative storytelling (also called 'persuasive storytelling') is a particularly powerful approach for activism and for generating collective and shared action around a collaborative agenda [80][81][82]; it is often widely used also to improve planning and policymaking [26,83,84]. ...
Article
Local energy policy agendas require commonly defined desirable future visions and collective agenda-setting to spur collaborative action. However, methods designed for multi-stakeholder engagement often do not sufficiently open up deliberative processes to all voices, and efforts to envision desired futures built from current local energy challenges are usually designed by and oriented towards specialists. With this paper, we aimed to explore how the theoretical strengths of storytelling for supporting local policy processes play out in practice. We contrast what the literature states about the potential of storytelling for solving complex challenges and facilitating collaborative processes to the lessons learnt from actually using storytelling in a set of 17 multi-stakeholder workshops across 17 European countries run as part of the H2020 SHAPE ENERGY project. The workshops were each designed around a tangible local energy policy challenge. We found storytelling has unique strengths in terms of enabling significant (un)learning regarding stakeholder relationships, allowing participants to step into others’ perspectives, keeping hold of diversity, and the use of ‘we’ in stories leading to concrete future initiatives. We also note specific learnings about when these outcomes may not be achieved, for example due to fears, traditions, hierarchical structures, as well as the need for sufficient time for planning, facilitator training and stakeholder invitations. We conclude that as an innovative, playful and flexible methodology, storytelling can undoubtedly be a valuable additional tool for policymakers where there is a desire for deliberative stakeholder involvement, and appetite to tailor approaches to local contexts.
... In previous studies, storytelling (e.g. Bowman, 2016;Colville et al., 2011;Lauerman, 2016;Olesen, 2017;Van Hulst, 2012) and spatial imaginaries (e.g. Davoudi et al., 2018;Golubchikov, 2010;Westerlink et al., 2013) have been perceived as instrumental in complexity reduction and meaning-making, as well as in framing planning issues, conveying particular ways of conceiving space and providing guidelines for action. ...
Article
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This article examines the coordinative capacity of strategic spatial planning conducted as persuasive storytelling. It suggests that spatial imaginaries and metaphors developed in storytelling gain coordinative capacity when they perform as boundary objects. Boundary objects are conceptually flexible to lend themselves to the stakeholders’ varying interpretations, and artefactually robust to provide joint targets and tools for coordinated strategic action. This is demonstrated with the example of Aalborg, Denmark, where the spatial imaginary of the ‘growth axis’ and the associated boundary object of the light rail transit/bus rapid transit spine have played important communicative and coordinative roles in the city’s spatial strategy of transitioning from an industrial city to a knowledge and culture city. The aim of the Aalborg example is to illustrate the feasibility and relevance of the theoretical approach, developed in the article, for future case research.
... McBeth et al, 2005). At the same time, it is noteworthy that storytelling has been widely considered as a fruitful tool for policy design and planning (van Hulst, 2012), but also as a way, in the health care sector, to deliver care in unbalanced relationship situations (Banks-Wallace, 1999). ...
... Viene proposta una triplice tassonomia delle narrazioni per la/nella/della pianificazione (Hendler, 1995;Van Hulst, 2012;Ameel, 2017), per distinguere le narrazioni tra teoria finalizzata alla definizione della pianificazione (teoria della pianificazione), teoria incentrata sulle procedure di pianificazione (teoria per la pianificazione) e teoria "orientata al soggetto" (teoria nella pianificazione). In particolare, le narrazioni nella pianificazione sono quelle che Throgmorton (2003) chiama "storytelling persuasivo" e quindi le narrazioni dei pianificatori all'interno dei documenti di pianificazione (Ameel, 2017). ...
Conference Paper
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Il saggio intende evidenziare come le narrazioni (in particolare quelle "non-convenzionali"), possano essere utili per la produzione di conoscenza, all'interno dei processi di analisi urbana ma anche come feedback sulle trasformazioni spaziali avvenute nel territorio. Il passaggio da una tipologia di pianificazione "dall'alto" verso una forma più dialogica e partecipativa, ha compreso anche un percorso verso il riconoscimento e un crescente utilizzo di diverse narrazioni urbane. Dagli anni Novanta, diversi sono stati i pianificatori che hanno evidenziato l'importanza delle narrazioni, distinguendole in narrazioni nella/per la/della pianificazione. Il saggio si concentra sulle narrazioni per la pianificazione e in particolare su quelle derivanti da fonti "non-convenzionali" (narrazioni letterarie e filmiche), cercando di evidenziarne l'importanza per la pianificazione. Di seguito, si riportano brevemente i risultati della sperimentazione di questi strumenti per una ricerca sul territorio della città diffusa del nordest italiano, in cui, attraverso narrazioni letterarie e filmiche su tale contesto, ma anche attraverso le testimonianze degli scrittori (essendo testimoni privilegiati della vita in questi spazi), si è cercato di ottenere informazioni sul vissuto quotidiano, sulle emozioni urbane e sul profilo socio-spaziale di questa forma di città; informazioni che crediamo siano difficilmente ottenibili da altri strumenti di ricerca urbana.
... The account herein provides a retrospective reflection of the processes and activities that were undertaken in the initiative that emerged and evolved organically in 2018 and 2019. The writing mode employed in the article has resemblance to the so-called 'storytelling' (Maynes, Pierce & Laslett 2008;Van Hulst 2012;Watson 2002), which relays the narrative of how the nexus between the concepts of transdisciplinarity, internationalisation of higher education and community service-learning was inadvertently teased out in the initiative reported on. The article refers to the initiative as either St. Mark's Church project or District Six project. ...
Article
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Background: The ability of the South African citizenry to overcome a myriad of challenges (which include the triple challenges of inequality, poverty and unemployment) can be called into question. This alleged inability could, in part at least, be linked to the role of higher education, which is at a vantage point of equipping the citizenry with the requisite values, skills and knowledge. Aim: The aim of the article is to discuss attempts that were employed towards imparting transdisciplinary and collaborative skills to students at Cape Peninsula University of Technology (CPUT). Setting: The article reports on the collaboration between a number of stakeholders, viz. CPUT, University of Michigan, St. Mark’s Church and District Six Museum. The aim of the collaboration was to develop an interactive Web map, which would display the socio-spatial information based on the baptismal records of the former residents of District Six. Methods: The article explores interconnections between transdisciplinary education, internationalisation of higher education and community service-learning. The discussion is based on the authors’ reflective analysis of the deployment of the triad of concepts in the initiative reported on. Results: Intricate interdependencies were discovered between transdisciplinarity, internationalisation of higher education and community service-learning. Conclusion: It is proposed that future teaching and learning initiatives employ a critical lens and the notion of complexity to meticulously explore the aforesaid concepts towards extending the frameworks for higher education.
... We suggest that these relationships are built, maintained, and extended by private planning, architecture, and design consultants like Gehl and other placemakers. Yet, whether operating in local contexts or in wider networks, placemakers' narratives are what Van Hulst (2012, 302, following Forester, 1993) calls storytelling as "organizing attention." They direct focus to certain aspects of public space and, deliberately or not, away from others. ...
Chapter
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Over the past decade, a tide of financial analyses has washed over the African continent. These reports by international consultancy firms predict fundamental economic transformation, or “Africa Rising,” a slogan that signifies an emergent middle class and investment-ready domestic consumer markets. However, in promoting the Africa Rising narrative, the consultancy firms also have directed attention to the role of the private sector for public financing. This chapter illustrates that process through a specific example: the securitization of remittances. By recasting remittances as future flow receivables, African states claim increased foreign exchange reserves and thus improve sovereign credit ratings. This financial technique allows governments to access foreign capital markets by issuing sovereign bonds based on asset-backed securities, thus bypassing channels of public credit, such as multilateral foreign aid. The international consultancies serve as intermediaries in this network of migrants, local development banks, and international institutional investors, leading to new forms of debt-financing.
... Media press shapes and disseminate stories. Different authors have highlighted the importance of storytelling in urban planning practices (Sandercock, 2003;Throgmorton, 2003;Hulst, 2012;Mager & Matthey, 2015;Bulkens et al., 2015;Olesen, 2017). According to James Throgmorton (2003) planning is a persuasive form of storytelling about the future. ...
Article
The circulation of ideas about ‘best practices’ and policies shape multi-scalar governance networks. This paper examines the role of the international press, both as an actor and as a medium for the circulation of urban planning models. We aim to deepen the theoretical notions on the role of media, particularly the written press, in building narratives of ‘urban models’, and their circulation in other contexts. And second, by extending the reaches of multi-sited ethnography as the main methodological approach to follow policy mobility. This research monitored, and analysed news items published about Medellín on the digital editions of several newspapers across the globe between 2004 and 2017. The resulting examination shows, firstly, how the changes of the image of the city has been portrayed over time, with a growth of news items highlighting Medellín's urban model as an inspirational source for other cities in the world. Secondly, the research shows the importance of international media for building a particular storytelling about urban transformations. We argue that newspapers constitute a key informational infrastructure for urban policy mobility contributing to amplify mythical narratives of ‘urban models’ and to institute new metrics of good governance.
... In practice, this would be an alternative to tournament crowdsourcing formats where participants usually need to draw and master graphic representation techniques to express their ideas. Furthermore, the relevance of using stories as a planning model has been supported by the planning theory literature since the 90's [6] and can be better supported by ICTs. It can also be said that this requirement addresses the following problem in supporting the discussion about the city: 'How to create and sustain a collaborative network between citizens and relevant stakeholders?' ...
Conference Paper
In recent years, digital technologies have been used to support discussions about the city and also to involve citizens in participatory public processes. However, despite the widespread use of social media platforms, old issues related to engagement and participation still persist in digital initiatives. The main goal of this study is to carry out an empirical evaluation of a collective intelligence model that combines crowdsourcing and social storytelling to support discussions about the city from a bottom-up perspective. Within a design science research approach we designed a participatory action study that was carried out through a workshop with students and professionals from different areas, such as architecture, urban design and information technology. As a result, we were able to assess whether the collective intelligence model was acceptable to the participants by investigating whether the behavioral assumptions were valid and thus outlining some contributions to the field of urban informatics.
... Drawing on critical planning theory, we conceptualize IBM's smarter city campaign as a specific form of storytelling in the world of planning (Mandelbaum, 1991;Sandercock, 2003a;Throgmorton, 1996aThrogmorton, , 2003Van Hulst, 2012a) and show that it mobilizes and recycles two long-standing tropes: the city conceived as a system of systems, and a utopian discourse exposing urban pathologies and their cure. On this basis, we develop three main arguments related to the purpose, content and effects of the dominant smart city story. ...
Book
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Natural forest regrowth on abandoned land represents a major land use change in, some regions of Europe. This is driven by various factors related to land abandonment, particularly changing socioeconomic conditions for agriculture and rural depopulation., Little research exists about how the issue is addressed at the policy level. This paper, looks into the policymaking related to natural forest regrowth in France and Spain, two, countries where land abandonment and natural forest regrowth occur at significant, scales. We conduct a policy discourse analysis building upon 27 interviews carried out, between 2018 and 2020 with policy actors from various fields that connect with these, topics. We find four competing storylines in both countries: extensive agriculture, forestry, landscape conservation, and wilderness. These storylines differ regarding the, framing of natural forest regrowth as a problem or an opportunity, and the preferred, policy solutions. While storylines rooted in extensive agriculture, landscape, conservation and forestry tend to problematize the phenomenon, a wilderness storyline, voices an opportunity perspective. In France, a few actors voice elements of an, insignificance storyline. Given its spatial importance, natural forest regrowth will likely, become more important for future policymaking in the EU. Engaging in further research, across disciplines and policy fields is necessary to study the phenomenon and its possible management and governance options.
Chapter
This chapter is dedicated to the presentation of the main corpus of planning theory, as it appears in most theoretical writing. This corpus in made up of what are here considered as the mainstream theories of rational/comprehensive and communicative/collaborative planning. These currents are presented mainly through the work of their representative advocates and/or critics. Arguments for or against them are outlined to help the reader appreciate their explanatory power. The presentation of these theories provides the opportunity to introduce a large number of important concepts which are extensively used in the respective theoretical writing. The chapter sheds light on the opposition between these currents, their mutual criticisms, their inadequacies, their overlaps, but also the possible conciliation of their conflicting paradigms and arguments.
Article
Research evidence from cognitive science documents how everyday thought actively composes imaginary blends of possible actions. These include plans that inform intentions and infer meaning about causes, norms, and effects. Recognizing the pragmatic functional features of imagination can help scholars and professional planners better understand their own practice. I explore how this evidence supports the insights of scholars like Myers and Forester who study what planners do and how plans work. Planning educators should treat spatial planning as more craft than science, more practical than precise, and more collaborative than solitary.
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Urban landscape is a type of landscape presenting a new knowledge that has been a contemporary man's new interpretation of space. It defines space, not as a physical entity but a phenomenon with intertwined objective-subjective aspects. According to this definition, whenever the organization of the landscape is a matter of concern, both aspects are expected to affect this relationship. Despite the effect of each aspect on one another, a review of the urban landscape literature on landscape organization-the evolution of the interactive landscape relationship-has been limited to a few actions or physical interventions which affect the objective aspect of the landscape. If the landscape is assumed to be the product of an interactive relationship between objectivity and subjectivity, theoretically speaking, this relationship might change by affecting the subjective aspect of the landscape.This research seeks to understand how the urban landscape can be transformed by a mental intervention rather than the physical one. It also attempts to provide a conceptual model that explains the mechanism of transforming the urban landscape by influencing the minds of citizens. This study seeks to develop a conceptual model using accepted concepts in the three domains; landscape knowledge, psychology, and media. This research employs logical reasoning to explain the relationship between logical propositions in these domains. Interpreting the data through the cultivation theory shows if conditioning messages are sent to change the urban landscape, and affect the feelings and behavior of the audience, it can also affect their attitude and mentality provided that they are constantly exposed to those messages. Theoretically speaking, as the result of the mentality change, one of the two interacting components of the landscape would be subject to change. Thus, some transformations are expected to occur in the urban landscape as a product of this interaction.
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OPSOMMING Storievertelling word wêreldwyd aangewend om individue op 'n informele wyse te onderrig. Persoonlike vertellings of lewensverhale is 'n onderafdeling van storievertelling as groter fenomeen en hierdie persoonlike lewensverhale kan suksesvol as onderrigstrategie ingespan word. In hierdie verband het McAdams (2001:101) bevind dat lewensverhale veral belangrik is as uitdrukking van die individu se identiteit en hom of haar sodoende help om sin te maak van persoonlike ervarings. Storievertelling is dus 'n uitdrukking van identiteit, want om die storie van 'n mens se lewe te vertel, help jou om sin te maak van jou ervarings en kweek 'n gevoel van self, oftewel "wie ek is". Dit is gevolglik baie belangrik dat leerders van 'n vroeë ouderdom af blootgestel word aan en opleiding ontvang in lewensverhaalvertellings. Hierdie blootstelling lei daartoe dat leerders geleidelik daaraan gewoond gemaak word om as 't ware die storie van hul lewe aan ander te vertel. Op hierdie manier verseker blootstelling aan die deel van persoonllike lewensverhale dat individuele leerlinge nie geïntimideer sal voel deur dergelike aktiwiteite wanneer hulle die ouderdom bereik waar die stories van hul persoonlike belewenisse met vertroue vertel kan word nie. Daar is daarom veral gekyk na die Kurrikulum en Assesseringsbeleidsverklaring (KABV) om vas te stel of daar in die KABV voldoende ruimte geskep is om leerders vanaf 'n vroeë ouderdom bloot te stel aan lewensverhale. Daar is ook ondersoek ingestel of hierdie blootstelling en opleiding in die vertel van lewensverhale toeneem totdat leerders in vroeë adolessensie spontaan en met selfvertroue hulle persoonlike stories aan ander kan vertel. Trefwoorde: Afrikaans Huistaal, dokumentontleding, Kurrikulum en Assesseringsbeleidsverklaring (KABV), lewensverhale, literatuurontleding, McAdams se lewensverhaalteorie, outobiografiese stories, persoonlike vertellings, rol van storievertelling, storievertelling, storievertelvaardighede ABSTRACT Storytelling, in general, is used worldwide as a strategy in informal education. Telling one's personal life story, a subdivision of the encompassing phenomenon, is a valuable educational tool. In this regard storytelling on an individual level possesses important characteristics that can be used to enhance teaching strategies. McAdams (2001:101) found that life stories are especially important in expressing an individual's identity, thereby enabling them to make sense of their experiences. It is therefore very important that learners receive exposure to and training in telling life stories from an early age. This exposure guides learners in gradually becoming familiar with different storytelling activities, thereby enabling them to participate confidently in sharing their life stories upon reaching the age when such activity may be practised successfully. Given the fact that telling life stories is a subdivision of storytelling as a larger global phenomenon, it was important to have a closer look at the functions of storytelling in general. Storytelling as a general educational tool supports the value of learning the art of telling one's life story, especially when considering the influence of storytelling with regard to the neuro-development and associated processes and changes in learners. According to Gazzaniga (2011:75), storytelling reflects a basic ability of the memory to organise, helping a person to present memory thoughts coherently. Particular attention was therefore paid to the Curriculum and Assessment Policy Statement (CAPS) to determine whether the CAPS underlines Gazzaniga's findings on storytelling and memory functions. It is generally accepted that most people learn best by means of their own meaningful experiences that enable them to connect new knowledge to that which they already believe or understand (Killen 2019:3). The guidelines in the CAPS support the notion that storytelling represents the way in which people use spoken language (discourse) and written language (text) in coherent and meaningful ways (Department of Basic Education 2011:14). It is necessary to determine whether enough time has been allocated in the CAPS to expose learners to storytelling from an early age. Since McAdams found that life stories can only be told successfully in early adolescence, it was necessary to determine whether this exposure to and training in storytelling skills accumulate until learners in early adolescence have reached the point where they are able to participate spontaneously and with confidence in telling their life stories. In this study, the CAPS documents were analysed by means of document analysis to see what kind of storytelling is encouraged, how much time is allocated to storytelling from Grade R to Grade 12 and which skills are acquired, according to the CAPS, for learners to be able to successfully participate in personal storytelling (listening and speaking). Findings in this article show that although learners are exposed to storytelling at a young age, the time allocated in the CAPS for storytelling is not enough to establish a storytelling culture. Also, the time spent on storytelling in class decreases as learners grow older, instead of increases, as would be expected. It is recommended that a partnership be established between the school and the community to address this issue. Teachers do not have enough time in the classroom for personal storytelling to take place, and therefore such a partnership will make a positive contribution in this regard. Moreover, the class situation is not always a safe environment in which to engage in personal storytelling - a problem that can, however, also be addressed by means of a partnership. When storytelling is learnt in the community, it should not be a strange concept for the individual when he or she encounters it in class. In this way, storytelling should facilitate the teacher's task in the classroom. It is important that trustworthiness be established in a partnership in order for it to become the medium through which the participants may safely expose their identity, thereby also assisting others in engaging in a similar activity. In this way such a partnership will be mutually beneficial to all the role players. Keywords: Afrikaans Home Language, autobiographical stories, Curriculum and Assessment Policy Statement (CAPS), document analysis, life stories, literature analysis, McAdams's life story theory, personal stories, role of storytelling, storytelling, storytelling skills
Preprint
Planning education aims to actively prepare students to tackle issues of social and spatial justice. To that end, storytelling can play a central role in planning education. However, how storytelling can be integrated effectively in planning education remains an open question. In this article, we reflect on our experiences of teaching urban planning courses that through storytelling centers on issues of globalization, urbanization, urban planning and social inequalities. We contemplate the art-based and digital pedagogical approaches to planning education employed in these classes to overcome several impediments instructors usually face in engaging diverse students in appreciating the complexities of social justice in various global and local scales. More specifically, we used zine-making and multimedia story-mapping. Zines allowed students to connect complex theories to their lived experiences. Multimedia story-mapping allowed students to collaborate through a multisensory approach in making sense of places. In light of critical feminist pedagogies and critical race theory and based on re-reading students’ multimedia products and follow-up conversations with our ‘co-travelers’, we discuss the pedagogical strengths, limitations, and opportunities of zine-making and story-mapping approaches to collaborate with students in imagining more humane urban futures. Keywords: alternative pedagogies; story-mapping; zine-making; Feminist Pedagogy
Chapter
Focusing on Jan Gehl, a Danish architect, and Gehl Architects, the firm he co-founded, this chapter explores the role of research methods in the production of credibility in the work of “placemaking” urban policy consultants. Gehl’s clients include cities across the world. His firm advises on how to implement a model of public space design based on the notion of people-centeredness. We argue that Gehl’s story of himself as a careful, grounded methodologist who studies everyday life in public spaces in order to better design those spaces is a key narrative and product that the firm sells and an important force in its circulation among cities. Thus, our chapter contributes both to understandings of “placemaking” as a contemporary movement in urban planning and design and also to the ongoing development of policy mobilities studies by focusing on a private firm that influences public policies and spaces.
Article
This paper provides a re-signification of industrial risk as a slow-burning issue (Mah [2017] “Environmental justice in the age of big data: challenging toxic blind spots of voice, speed, and expertise.” Environmental Sociology 3 (2): 122–133.), invisibly and violently diffusing across time and space and affecting relational entanglements between human and non-human components of risk landscapes. As an alternative to a planning approach based on quantitative and objective data, the authors propose to build strategic planning of riskscapes upon what they call small data, that is, the ensemble of qualitative and embodied data that can be gathered through street science (Corburn [2005]. Street Science: Community Knowledge and Environmental Health Justice. Cambridge: MIT Press.) and toxic autobiographies (Armiero et al. [2019]. “Toxic Bios: Toxic Autobiographies – A Public Environmental Humanities Project.” Environmental Justice, 1–5. ). In order to discuss the potential role of both small data and toxic autobiographies in the planning field, the authors present the results of an ongoing empirical case study in Gela, a Sicilian town converted into one of the main Italian petrochemical poles in the 1960s by a multinational oil company. The authors analyse Gela’s risk landscapes through the perceptions of citizens and their initiatives to tackle environmental injustices. Finally, the authors argue that small data can provide a better understanding of the landscape of risk through four lenses that allow seeing the slow and diffused change brought by industrial risk: memories of injustice, memories of smell, trans-corporeal stories, and relational stories.
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As in many other policy areas, there is a rising concern about how to involve the general public in heritage management and preservation. We analyse attempts made by Swedish cultural heritage authorities to initiate new participatory devices. We ask: How is storytelling used as a participatory device? What are the implications of this in terms of how legitimate concerns are reconfigured? Storytelling has a capacity to transform dominant discourses and result in new objects of care. We conclude that even storytelling itself is reconfigured in these practices, resulting in the collection of narratives, with limited transformative effects.
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Ethnographic futures research (EFR) is a participatory research method that allows the researcher(s) and Indigenous people to explore sustainability together. The method is in alliance with Indigenous methodologies and provides a space for storytelling and trust-building between all participants. EFR develops a proactive attitude toward the future and helps people find their place in the future, exploring what they can do to achieve the future they want. The method helps participants clarify their values and goals in order to be an active participant in the future. In this paper, the author explains how EFR may be a particularly productive method to explore sustainability with Indigenous people as it utilizes a three-scenario methodology of the optimistic, pessimistic, and most likely futures. A case study, using information from the author's dissertation, will show the utility of EFR by exploring how the three scenarios lead to more insight about sustainability for the community. The article goal is to demonstrate that EFR is in alliance with Indigenous methodologies, provides benefits for the participants, and allows a community to explore how to live sustainably, creating indicators for sustainability which can lead to strategic planning.
Article
The global COVID-19 pandemic, with its associated issues of isolation, enhanced hygiene practices and contact tracing brought up a number of issues to the public domain, many of which bordered on the nexus between urban planning and public health. This paper sets out to examine how new ideas concerning the linkages between urban planning and public health revealed by the COVID-19 pandemic can be integrated into practice, moving forward; and how we might leverage on the crisis to build more just, healthier and liveable cities. Through a review of the literature on public policy responses to pandemics, it is observed that the current urban planning system in Ghana leaves so many people behind and exposes the lives of many to current and future disease pandemics. We propose an agenda for transformation which revolves around the co-evolution and co-creation of new forms of societal values that are less materialistic and individualistic but rather more egalitarian.
Article
Literature on planning as storytelling says little about the techniques of this persuasive practice. An analysis of six urban development videos in three Nordic cities clarifies how futures are envisioned and audiences seduced in the visual digital era. Variables related to space, time, and power demonstrate how meaning is created, the positive is accentuated, and hierarchies are established between places and groups of people. The discussion adds overlooked but useful literature and critical viewpoints to the discussion on planning as storytelling in the visual age. The results show why new, innovative responses are needed for Throgmorton’s 2003 call for the spatialization of storytelling in planning discourse. The results help in improving planners’ and citizen-scholars’ media literacy skills and in considering possible consequences of persuasive storytelling.
Conference Paper
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Storytelling is the oldest form of communication and still finds various areas of application in urban planning, ranging from communicating visions to citizens to co-creating narratives as a tool for participatory practice. This paper elaborates "storytelling for planning", describing the background, its application as workshops in the project +CityxChange and replication potential. The workshops are an integral part of the knowledge development and exchange in-and outside the project and contribute to intra-project collaboration and clustering. Led by ISOCARP Institute, the Storytelling Workshops are jointly organised with the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), as well as the project cities. To ensure an active exchange with other stakeholders and Smart Cities and Communities (SCC-01) projects, representatives of other projects are invited to the workshops.
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Neighbourhood Planning is a form of small-scale, community-led land-use planning, introduced to England by the Localism Act 2011. It constitutes a radical shift for UK planning and a striking example of the participatory and localist turns in governance, allowing 'laypeople' to write their own statutory planning policies. Its promoters portray it as a straightforward transfer of power from state to community which prioritises local experiential knowledge and care for place. However, drawing on theoretical and methodological resources from Science and Technology Studies and four years of ethnographic fieldwork at two sites in the North West of England, my research suggests a more complex picture. I show how the practices of Neighbourhood Planning reproduce the category of the expert and the expert-agency coupling by producing a new subset of lay-experts. However, they occupy a precarious position, being reliant on established expertise to stabilise their expert identity, but also subject to displacement by that expertise. They must also perform other identities alongside that of the expert to establish and maintain their legitimacy, and powerful tensions arise between these identities. Successfully enacting this composite of identities enables them to draw on complex, hybrid forms of representative, participatory, and epistemological authority. This constrains their ability to represent the neighbourhood as experienced and forces them to reframe the issues that they want to address, but also enables them to make real differences to the ways in which the neighbourhood will change. Framing the production and evaluation of evidence in terms of ‘matters of concern’ (Latour) and ‘matters of care’ (Puig de la Bellacasa), situated in a narrative context, would enable the diversity of things that matter to these groups to be addressed more directly, and allow better critical consideration of both those knowledge claims labelled as ‘objective’ and those labelled as ‘subjective’.
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This article argues that society as a whole and planning in particular need more creative responses to the problems and challenges they face. Planning needs creativity to imagine and to construct (structurally) different futures. First, the article briefly analyses two case studies: the Hasselt case as an example of creative transport planning and creative local governance; and the Perth case as an example of distorted creativity. Then the article questions the nature of planning creativity needs and looks for a systematic method. Scenario building turns out to be an excellent tool for conceiving possible futures and their processes, what must be changed first and what next. Just as there are many traditions and collective practices there are also many images of what a society wants to achieve. As the opportunities for implementing images are not equal the article reflects on a planning annex governance system that serves all citizens and especially the least powerful. All this has an impact on planners as well. In the final part, the article touches briefly on some preconditions for creativity, on how it could be enhanced and on how realistic the discourse itself is.
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Sinds het begin van het nieuwe millennium is de cultuur van het openbaar bestuur onderwerp van discussie. Door de rampen in Enschede en Volendam, maar ook als gevolg van politieke crises zoals in Den Helder en Delfzijl en naar aanleiding van de dualisering van gemeentebesturen, is het concept bestuurscultuur in de discussie over het lokaal bestuur veel gebruikt (Cachet, et al. 2001; Denters and Pröpper 2002; Bovens, et al. 2006). Aan het einde van het dualiseringsproces stelde de begeleidingscommissie dat bestuurscultuur ‘de echte sleutel is voor verbetering’ en ‘misschien wel de belangrijkste factor […] voor de vernieuwing van het lokaal bestuur’ (Begeleidingscommissie 2006b: 13). In dit proefschrift is het concept bestuurscultuur als een proces van betekenisgeving theoretisch verkend en empirisch onderzocht.
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This article proposes an approach to planning which aims to realise the democratic potential of planning in the contemporary conditions of societies with developed economies and diverse social structures. It is argued in this article that the Habermasian conception of inter-subjective reasoning among diverse discourse communities, drawing on technical, moral and expressive-aesthetic ways of experiencing and understanding, can provide a direction for the invention of forms and practices of a planning behaviour appropriate for societies which seek progressive ways of collectively "making sense together while living differently'. The article draws on the work of a number of contemporary writers in the field of planning theory to present an outline of such an approach, and its implications for the contemporary practices of environmental planning. -from Author
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By close consideration of carefully collected oral history accounts of planners, public administrators, community organisers and leaders, a great deal can be learned about both the challenges of governance and the opportunities that insightful and skilful practitioners can seize. This essay first discusses several of the blind spots that hamper practice-focused research and then draws on a novel research approach to give a series of practical suggestions for those who might wish to gather, produce and analyse vivid and engaged 'practice stories' - to reveal the complexities, difficulties and possibilities of South African public serving practices.
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Sensemaking involves turning circumstances into a situation that is comprehended explicitly in words and that serves as a springboard into action. In this paper we take the position that the concept of sensemaking fills important gaps in organizational theory. The seemingly transient nature of sensemaking belies its central role in the determination of human behavior, whether people are acting in formal organizations or elsewhere. Sensemaking is central because it is the primary site where meanings materialize that inform and constrain identity and action. The purpose of this paper is to take stock of the concept of sensemaking. We do so by pinpointing central features of sensemaking, some of which have been explicated but neglected, some of which have been assumed but not made explicit, some of which have changed in significance over time, and some of which have been missing all along or have gone awry. We sense joint enthusiasm to restate sensemaking in ways that make it more future oriented, more action oriented, more macro, more closely tied to organizing, meshed more boldly with identity, more visible, more behaviorally defined, less sedentary and backward looking, more infused with emotion and with issues of sensegiving and persuasion. These key enhancements provide a foundation upon which to build future studies that can strengthen the sensemaking perspective.
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Citizen participation in such complex issues as the quality of the environment, neighborhood housing, urban design, and economic development often brings with it suspicion of government, anger between stakeholders, and power plays by many—as well as appeals to rational argument. Deliberative planning practice in these contexts takes political vision and pragmatic skill. Working from the accounts of practitioners in urban and rural settings, North and South, John Forester shows how skillful deliberative practices can facilitate practical and timely participatory planning processes. In so doing, he provides a window onto the wider world of democratic governance, participation, and practical decisionmaking. Integrating interpretation and theoretical insight with diverse accounts of practice, Forester draws on political science, law, philosophy, literature, and planning to explore the challenges and possibilities of deliberative practice.
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The authors argue that narratives—the plural being very important—are crucial for the representation of complex urban spaces. They do this by drawing on first-hand empirical examples from a previous examination of people’s understanding of ‘postindustrial transformation’ from the past through the present to the future, and earlier work on children’s understanding of their own places in the present and the future. In so doing, they propose that the use of narratives must be part of the repertoire of approaches used to represent complex urban systems. This does not imply an abandonment of interest in or search for causal generative mechanisms in system change. Rather, it is a recognition that narratives enable human actors to express the meaning that underlies their own agency as part of their account of the trajectories of places.
Article
Despite attempts to connect planning with design disciplines, some opportunities to do so still await further inquiry, particularly the conception promoted by Throgmorton of planning as persuasive storytelling. According to this perspective, we persuade one another about what the future should and can bring, as well as convince others to agree on and engage in a trajectory of actions. Decision-making is not about separate facts but concerns stories that strike a chord among those who can make things happen. Stories about the future may create resonance and amplify into anticipation, due to their persuasive character. This article points to three implications of planning as storytelling that will help us to better understand the effects of interactive regional design processes. Firstly, regional design is considered to be a form of devising and sharing stories; a perspective that better serves design than its usual conceptualization in the planning literature. Secondly, by considering regional design as story-making, it is also seen to affect the frames with which we perceive reality, thus intervening in the social, cognitive and intentional processes of presenting and constructing reality and regional action. Thirdly, if designs, considered in terms of the stories that they tell, change perceived realities, the interaction between governments and citizens, notably the role of communication, needs to be redefined. It would be justifiable to consider a more symbiotic model in which all communication is found to cause change and formal decisions only confirm events that are already underway.
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Metaphor analysis in political and social science has taken one of two streams: exploring the roles of metaphor in social and political theories and theorizing, and exploring the roles of metaphor in practice, such as in organizations or public policies. This paper is primarily concerned with the latter. Unlike "theory metaphors," "metaphors-in-practice" have direct implications for action. One of the intriguing questions concerns their genesis: are they models of some prior and typically as yet unarticulated understanding of the situation they describe and characterize, or are they models for taking action in that situation? "Practice metaphors" draw on pretextual, tacit, contextual knowledge of the situation; and they commonly occlude alternate, possible subtextual readings of that same situation. They are both models 'of' and models 'for,' and these two are mutually interactive. 'Seeing as' – the practice entailed in metaphorizing – concretizes prior conceptualizations, sometimes inchoate, often known tacitly but not explicitly. 'Seeing as' also projects onto the unknown in a way that moves into the future: seeing metaphorically-analogically, the policy analyst draws on ambient knowledge and conceptualizes policy solutions accordingly. I will illustrate the argument with two cases: one of a Government Corporation charged with implementing national social policy, the other of the "evidence-based" movement in policies and practices.
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Planning arguments are characteristi cally expressed as stories. As they both tell and manage these stories, planners maintain and redesign com munities. The essay describes five management (and hence design) modes for dealing with narrative conflicts. It focuses particularly on the fifth (postmodernist) strategy that sustains the differences inherent in a field of open moral communi ties.
Article
In earlier publications I have argued that planning can be thought of as a form of persuasive and constitutive storytelling about the future. In this article I tell a story about the transformation of Louisville, Kentucky, a city of approximately 700,000 people located in the middle of the United States. The story begins in the early 1950s with a youth named Cassius Marcellus Clay, moves through space and time, weaves together a series of locally grounded common urban narratives, and ends at a new Center in Louisville named after Muhammad Ali. By weaving these tales together, I seek to demonstrate how narrative might be used to generate a more capacious approach to planning, but also to indicate how the physical design of the city-region has to be changed to make space for diverse common urban narratives. I end by suggesting that such an approach might help increase the sustainability of Louisville and other city-regions.
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Underlying Assumptions of an Interpretive Approach The Importance of Local Knowledge Accessing Local Knowledge Identifying Interpretive Communities and Policy Artifacts Symbolic Language Symbolic Objects Symbolic Acts Moving from Fieldwork and Deskwork to Textwork and Beyond
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Stories and storytelling can inform and condition the design of places in multiple ways. Urban designers can (1) curate the narrative landscape of a town in ways that support designers' engagement with place stories, (2) nurture a virtuous cycle of interactions between stories of place, built form, and the emergent form of a settlement, and (3) create formats for the inclusion of multiple designers and a diverse set of independent stories rather than master narratives.
This acticle revisits Throgmorton's 1996 claim that planning can be thought of as a form of persuasive storytelling about the future. It responds to three broad lines of critique, connects the claim to contemporary scholarship about 'transnational urbanism' and the 'network societym,' and revises the author's initial claim. This revision suggests that planners should tell futute-oriented stories that help people imagine and create sustainble places. It further argues that, to be persuasive to a wide range of readers, planners' stories will have to make narrative and physical space for diverse locally-grounded common urban narratives. It recognizes that powerful actors will strive to eliminate or marginalize competing stories.
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Abstract The future is a long recognized,focus of the urban,planning,profession,but it has been neglected of late, particularly by academics. This article reviews concepts, theories and tools useful for strengthening,a future focus in planning. Core analytical concepts,include distinctions between projections, forecasts and plans, and continuities of past, present and future. Ethical issues center on the tension between,an activist shaping,of the future and the manipulation,of forecasts to support desired,plans. Emphasizing,representation,of the future as an essential means for gaining agreement, the article surveys the practices of visioning, scenario-building and persuasive,storytelling. The conclusion,outlines a reinvigorated approach,to planning the future that draws,upon,theories presented. 1 CONSTRUCTING THE FUTURE IN PLANNING:
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This article argues that story has a special importance in planning that has neither been fully understood nor sufficiently valued. Planning is performed through story, in a myriad of ways. The aim here is to unpack the many ways we use story: in policy, in process, in pedagogy, in critique, as a foundation, and as a catalyst for change. A better understanding of the work that stories do can make us better planners in at least three ways: by expanding our practical tools, by sharpening our critical judgment and by widening the circle of democratic discourse.
Article
Stories and storytelling are part of a post-positivist paradigm of inquiry influenced by phenomenology, ethnography and narrative analysis, along with the evolution of visual methods in social research. New information and communication technologies today provide the opportunity to explore storytelling through multimedia, including video/filmmaking, in what we describe as digital ethnography. While there has been a tradition in the planning field of using film for advocacy purposes since the 1920s, we argue for a new direction informed by collaborative planning theory and situational ethics.This paper reports on a three-year, three-stage research project in which we experimented with the use of film as a mode of inquiry, a form of meaning making, a way of knowing, and a means of provoking public dialogue around planning and policy issues (in this case, community development and the social integration of immigrants). We explored the expressive as well as analytical possibilities of film in conducting social research and provoking community engagement and dialogue, taking advantage of the aesthetic and involving dimensions of film as narrative. The research question was a socio-political one: how do immigrants become integrated into a specific social fabric, and how do they acquire a sense of belonging? The site of the research was a culturally diverse neighbourhood in the city of Vancouver, and the specific focus was a place-based local institution, the Collingwood Neighbourhood House. The paper concludes with critical reflections on the use of film in this research project, focusing on ethical issues, power relationships, insider/outsider dilemmas, and reciprocity.
Article
Ethnographic fieldwork brings something special to the study of sense‐making in local governance: the ethnographer's access to the experiences lived by the people under study. In addition, ethnographers not only look for the experiences of the people in and around local government, they also draw on their own experiences. Because the experiences of politicians, administrators, bureaucrats, professionals and citizens are both the result of and the basis for their acts, understanding these experiences helps ethnographers to explain the practice of local governance. This paper sketches the background of interpretive ethnography, gives an idea of the use of ethnographic fieldwork in recent research, and explains the idea behind fieldwork. It also discusses the elements of fieldwork. In particular, the paper looks at the usefulness of ethnographic fieldwork for the study of local governance.
Article
“Big” decisions are defined as discontinuous, abrupt, and unique, in contrast to “little” decisions, which are marginal, commensurable, and additive. We can model big decisions, as well as a wider range of little decisions, if we enlarge our notion of decisionmaking to include legal interpretation, rites-of-passage ritual and conversion experience, heroic leadership, critical judgment of works of literature and art, and entrepreneurship. These models are exemplary of a more encompassing “culture of decisionmaking,” involving six practices: marginalism, untouchableness, gaps, action, judgment, and entrepreneurship. Although big decisions may often be reduced to sets of little decisions, when a decision is treated as big it becomes a powerful mode of initiation, commitment, and justification of a project.
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Not long after joining my present university in 2001, I was shocked to hear that a Native woman who proposed to do her Masters thesis by focusing on the stories of her people had been told that that was not an appropriate topic or methodology. For the longest time, ‘story’ was thought of in the social sciences (though not in the humanities) as ‘soft,’ inferior, lacking in rigor, or, worst insult of all, as a ‘woman/native/other’ way of knowing. There was even a time, in the academic discipline of history (my own starting point as an undergraduate), in which story was demoted and more ‘analytical’ and quantitative approaches were sought. In response to this kind of marginalizing of story, feminists, historians, and workers in the cultural studies field, not to mention anthropologists, have reasserted its importance, both as epistemology and as methodology (Kelly, 1984; Lerner, 1997; Rabinow & Sullivan, 1987; Geertz, 1988; Trinh, 1989).
Article
In earlier publications I have argued that planning can be thought of as a form of persuasive and constitutive storytelling about the future. In this paper I tell a story about the transformation of Louisville, Kentucky, a city of approximately 700,000 people located in the middle of the United States. The story begins in the early 1950s with a youth named Cassius Marcellus Clay, moves through space and time, weaves together a series of locally-grounded common urban narratives, and ends at a new Center in Louisville named after Muhammad Ali. By weaving these tales together, I seek to demonstrate how narrative might be used to generate a more capacious approach to planning, but also to indicate how the physical design of the city-region has to be changed to make space for diverse common urban narratives. I end by suggesting that such an approach might help increase the sustainability of Louisville and other city-regions.
Article
Planning as Persuasive Storytelling is a revealing look at the world of political conflict surrounding the Commonwealth Edison Company's ambitious nuclear power plant construction program in northern Illinois during the 1980s. Examining the clash between the utility, consumer groups, community-based groups, the Illinois Commerce Commission, and the City of Chicago, Throgmorton argues that planning can best be thought of as a form of persuasive storytelling. A planner's task is to write future-oriented texts that employ language and figures of speech designed to persuade their constituencies of the validity of their vision. Juxtaposing stories about efforts to construct Chicago's electric future, Planning as Persuasive Storytelling suggests a shift in how we think about planning. In order to account for the fragmented and conflicted nature of contemporary American life and politics, that shift would be away from "science" and the "experts" and toward rhetoric and storytelling.
Article
Incluye índice Incluye bibliografía Obra sobre educación profesional, realizando propuestas sobre la manera de desarrollar la responsabilidad, auto-actualización, habilidades de aprendizaje, y efectividad, enfatizando el desempeño del ejercicio profesional en corporaciones.
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