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A review of current automotive battery technology and future prospects

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In this article, today’s battery technologies and future options are discussed. Batteries have been one of the main focuses of automotive development in the last years. Technologies that have been in use for a very long time, such as the lead–acid battery, are indispensable but need improvement. New technologies such as the lithium-ion battery are entering the market. Supercapacitors (also known as electrochemical double-layer capacitors) can be used for high-power requirements such as regenerative braking. The variety of vehicles has increased with the introduction of hybrid vehicles, plug-in hybrid vehicles and electric vehicles and, for each type, suitable battery types are being used or under development. Appropriate battery system designs and charging strategies are needed. Battery technologies can be classified according to their energy density, their charge and discharge characteristics, system integration and the costs. Further relevant performance parameters are the calendar lifetime, the cycle lifetime, the low- and high-temperature performances and the safety.
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... Among all these aspects, understanding the aging phenomena of the battery is of particular importance to describe its performances and reliability in terms of lifetime [8,9], allowing to perform the previous services. Each battery, whether it is used or not, suffers from a continuous reduction of its useful capacity (the amount of charge that can be extracted from the battery, measured in Ah) and an increase in the internal series resistance, which leads to a decrease in the available output power. ...
... Li-ion batteries are the most used in EVs due to their high energy and power density, high efficiency and long cycle lifetime. Li-Ion batteries identify a large family of batteries that work with Li+ ion flow, having different material at the anode, cathode and electrolyte for the single cell [9]. For EV applications, the automotive industry mainly focuses on the nickel-cobalt-aluminum (NCA, LiNiCoAlO 2 ) and nickel-manganese-cobalt (NMC, LiNixMnyCo1-x-yO 2 ) technology (Table 1) [2]. ...
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The growing interest in Electrical Vehicles (EVs) opens new possibilities in the use of Li-ion batteries in order to provide ancillary grid services while they are plugged to recharging stations. Indeed, Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G), Vehicle-to-Building (V2B), Vehicle-to-Home (V2H) as well as Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V) services can be carried out depending on the particular installation and on the connection to the distribution grid of the considered recharging station. Even if these are interesting and challenging opportunities, the additional charging/discharging cycles necessary to provide these services could decrease the expected life of EV batteries. For this reason, it is of paramount importance to study and develop reliable models of the batteries, which take the aging phenomena affecting the reliability of the Li-ion cells into account to evaluate the best charging/discharging strategy and the economic revenues. To this aim, this paper focuses on a battery pack made up with Li-ion nickel–manganese–cobalt (NMC) cells and proposes a semiempirical Electrothermal Aging Model, which accounts for both calendar and cycle aging. This modeling phase is supported by several experimental data recorded for many charge and discharge cycles at different C-rates and for several temperatures. Thus, it is possible to analyze and compare scenarios considering V2G services or not. Results show that the considered battery is subjected to a life reduction of about 2 years, which is a consequence of the increased Ah charge throughput, which moves from 120,000 Ah over 10 years (scenario without V2G services) to almost 230,000 Ah over 8 years (scenario with V2G services).
... Power train electrification is one way to lower the carbon intensity of transportation [1]. Lithium-ion (Li-Ion) batteries are widely used for power train electrification due to their advantageous characteristics compared to other battery technologies (i.e., high energy and power density [2,3]). The increased application of Li-Ion technology as storage for vehicle propulsion energy is bringing battery safety into focus [4][5][6][7] as it comes with a number of downsides. ...
... A further criterion was needed to distinguish different types of contamination. The data sets, which were classified as "contamination" (1) in the step before, were now separated into the classes "contamination-oxygen" (1) and "contamination-water" (2). Therefore, the maximum depth of the decision tree was set to two. Figure 8. Prediction of classes "no contamination" (0) and "contamination" (1) with a decision tree of depth = 1 based on R 1,normalized . ...
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... The most common categories, which are relevant for automotive applications, are lead-acid batteries, nickel-cadmium batteries (NiCd), nickel-metal hydride batteries (NiMH), and lithiumion batteries (Li-ion) [27]. In the past years, the Li-ion battery technology almost totally replaced all the other categories due to its higher energy density and other beneficial behaviors [41], which is why this thesis will only focus on it. There is a lot of research conducted about future battery technologies based on different chemistries. ...
... The top and bottom of the cylinder are functioning as the two connection poles. It makes the cell rather simple to manufacture and therefore achieves lower costs, but the energy density of the battery pack is not the best due to the round shape and the cooling of the cells is challenging [41]. The prismatic cells are also made of coiled layers, but here the winding is done around a flat core, so that the flat wrap can be inserted in a rectangular cuboid case. ...
Thesis
Tolerances within static interconnected cells in automotive battery packs are limiting the overall usable capacity. This dissertation investigates the cascaded H-Bridges (CHB) inverter as an alternative interconnection. Actual cell variations are reviewed, a control strategy is defined, the most suitable state estimator is identified, and the inverter configuration is optimized. The actual capacity gain is limited for high quality cells. However, the efficiency is increased by 5.3 % and total vehicle costs are reduced by USD 2,647. Cells with increased tolerances and therefore potentially decreased costs are enabled.
... In any case, most manufacturers select this format in their EVs [27]. In addition, it is believed that pouch cells (prismatic cells with a soft packaging) will be able to outperform their competitors, becoming the primary option in the near future [28]. ...
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Silicon has become an integral negative electrode component for lithium-ion batteries in numerous applications including electric vehicles and renewable energy sources. However, its high capacity and low cycling stability represent a significant trade-off that limits its widespread implementation in high fractions in the negative electrode. Herein, we assembled high-capacity (1.8 Ah) cells using a nanoparticulate silicon–graphite (1:7.1) blend as the negative electrode material and a LiFePO4–LiNi0.5Mn0.3Co0.2O2 (1:1) blend as the positive electrode. Two types of cells were constructed: cylindrical 18650 and pouch cells. These cells were subjected both to calendar and cycling aging, the latter exploring different working voltage windows (2.5–3.6 V, 3.6–4.5 V, and 2.5–4.5 V). In addition, one cell was opened and characterised at its end of life by means of X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and further electrochemical tests of the aged electrodes. Si degradation was identified as the primary cause of capacity fade of the cells. This work highlights the need to develop novel strategies to mitigate the issues associated with the excessive volumetric changes of Si.
... The limitations and possibilities of the different combinations will affect cell performance considerably, but not all of them are of interest to electric vehicles. These technologies will be described in Ragone's diagram [13] in figure 4. Due to its polyvalence, as illustrated in the Ragone diagram, the lithium-ion battery has become the most common rechargeable battery of choice for portable consumer electronics and electric vehicles having an all-electric driving range [14]. Many li-ion battery sub-technology exist depending on the cathode active materials components [15] [16], their polyvalence is illustrated in the kiviat's diagram in figure 5. ...
Conference Paper
This paper investigates the impact of battery technology on the electric motor’s optimization process for an electric vehicle application. Matlab and Ansys Electronics are used to conduct the simulations. The needed autonomy is estimated for the WLTC driving cycle using a dynamic vehicle model while considering the storage system mass calculated with a connected sizing algorithm. The Motor model is constructed using the finite element software Ansys electronics. The genetic algorithm will determine its geometrical parameters while considering the new power and torque demands, including the storage system weight. The comparison of the optimization results was carried out for four battery technologies that have promising characteristics for an automotive application. The results discussed active material cost and performances evaluated for the entire selected driving cycle.
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... V). Detailed review for battery technology is provided in [169]. Li-ion batteries, however, have two main limitations-low energy capacity as compared to combustible fuels (petrol for example provides 13 kWh/kg, natural gas-15 kWh/kg, and hydrogen-34 kWh/kg), and relatively long charging time as compared to refuelling time. ...
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