Article

Adaptive Characteristics of Group Singing: Perceptions from Members of a Choir for Homeless Men

Authors:
  • Government of Prince Edward Island, Canada
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Abstract

There is considerable evidence to suggest that music has adaptive characteristics. Individuals use recorded music to transform the emotional landscape to coincide with transitory needs and desires. Also, music has frequently been reported to provoke uncommon emotional and physical reactions often referred to as peak experiences. In many cultures, that have limited industrial and technological development, active participation in musical activities is pervasive and all individuals are considered musical. In contrast, the musical elitism that has evolved in the Western world intimates that musical ability is specific to a talented minority. The elitist notion of musicality restricts the majority to procurers of rather than producers of music. However, experimental and theoretical sources indicate that music is an innate and universal ability and, therefore, active participation in music may have adaptive characteristics at many levels of proficiency. Positive life transformations that occurred for members of a choir for homeless men, since joining the choir, provided an opportunity to determine if group singing was a factor in promoting adaptive behaviour. A phenomenological approach utilizing a semi-structured interview wasemployed to explore the choristers' group singing experience. Analysis of the interviews indicated that group singing appears positively to influence emotional, social and cognitive processes. The choristers' perceptions of the adaptive characteristics of group singing fell within four principal categories: clinical-type benefits, benefits derived from audience-choir reciprocity, benefits associated with group process and benefits related tomental engagement. Active participation in singing may act to alleviate depression, increase self-esteem, improve social interaction skills and induce cognitive stimulation. The themes adhere to the tenets of flow theory which advocate the importance of mental stimulation and social interaction in increased life satisfaction. The emergent themes provide a preliminary basis for the development of a theory of the adaptive characteristics of group singing and also provide a framework for further investigation in this area.

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... This section examines data from 12 qualitative studies of singing that were The qualitative studies included in the review point toward positive, personal, and social experiences associated with singing. This is the case for healthy adults who take part in open access group singing (Bailey & Davidson, 2002;Baker & Ballantyne, 2013;Creech et al., 2014;Joseph & Southcott, 2014a, 2014b, 2015Judd & Pooley, 2014;Lally, 2009;Li & Southcott, 2012;Skingley, Martin, & Clift, 2015) and for more clinically oriented interventions targeted at specific conditions, including stress in pregnancy (Carolan, Barry, Gamble, Turner, & Mascarenas, 2012) and stroke (Tamplin, Baker, Jones, Way, & Lee, 2013). ...
... Other mediating factors include group dynamics (Judd & Pooley, 2014), choir organization (Judd & Pooley, 2014;Lally, 2009), choice of repertoire (Judd & Pooley, 2014;Li & Southcott, 2012;Skingley et al., 2015), management of performance related stress (Bailey & Davidson, 2002), choir ethos (Judd & Pooley, 2014), and MD characteristics and role (Bailey & Davidson, 2002). ...
... Other mediating factors include group dynamics (Judd & Pooley, 2014), choir organization (Judd & Pooley, 2014;Lally, 2009), choice of repertoire (Judd & Pooley, 2014;Li & Southcott, 2012;Skingley et al., 2015), management of performance related stress (Bailey & Davidson, 2002), choir ethos (Judd & Pooley, 2014), and MD characteristics and role (Bailey & Davidson, 2002). ...
... The availability of a community is important to wellbeing because human beings are social animals to such an extent that isolation and loneliness are associated with serious wellbeing detriments including an increased risk of mortality (Holt-Lunstad et al., 2015). Singing groups help tackle loneliness and isolation in older people (Cohen et al., 2006), people who are affected by homelessness (Bailey and Davidson, 2002), those living with mental health problems (Dingle et al., 2013) and people who have spent time in prison (Silber, 2005;Cohen, 2009). ...
... Choristers report that the inherent collaboration, cooperation and team spirit of the group activity can increase their sense of community (Bailey and Davidson, 2002;. Choir membership and the presence of peer role models can provide an individual with a sense of group identity (Bonshor, 2017a). ...
... The final two categories of the survey were less populated compared to those above, but nevertheless offered insights into similarities between choirs and brass bands. The current respondents identified common emotional impacts of music making including positive mood states, a reduction in symptoms aligned with depression and anxiety, and the role of music making as a successful method of emotional release in relation to non-music life experiences, either through the emotional content of the music being performed or the emotional nature of performing in synchrony with a group (Clift and Hancox, 2001;Bailey and Davidson, 2002;Myskja and Nord, 2008;Creech et al., 2013). ...
Article
Full-text available
The wellbeing impacts of group music making have been established by evidence-based research. However, studies have largely focused on one group music activity; singing in choirs. To what extent can these wellbeing impacts be considered representative of group music making? This paper presents a survey of wellbeing impacts in brass band players. A wellbeing survey was designed to obtain qualitative information as well as quantitative data for computing descriptive statistics regarding both positive and negative impacts of group music making on wellbeing. The survey was distributed via Brass Bands England and 346 adult brass band players reported self-perceived wellbeing impacts across 5 categories; physical, psychological, social, emotional and spiritual. Responses were analyzed through a descriptive statistical approach combined with an applied thematic analysis that identified the wellbeing impacts expressed by the performers, as well as their valence (positive vs. negative). Areas of overlap between choral practice and brass band work were identified, most notably in the categories of physical, psychological and social wellbeing; enhanced respiratory function and posture, reduced stress, improved general mental health, and regular social interaction. We also identified wellbeing themes that are less common in choral research, impacts relating to the brass bands’ physical demands, competitive tradition, community roles and cross-generational social structures. Based on findings, we created a visual model of group music making impacts across five wellbeing categories as a basis for future research. A wider appreciation of the relationships between group music making and wellbeing can be achieved by expanding the present research base to varied music ensembles and adapting the present model to emerging findings. Testing in this systematic way would enhance understanding of the general wellbeing impacts of group music making that might be accounted for by universal brain and body processes versus wellbeing impacts that may be unique to different ensemble types due to their particular performance styles, practice demands and traditions.
... including improved mood, quality of life, and well-being, and reduced feelings of depression and isolation (Ahessy, 2016;Boyd, 2012;Coulton, Clift, Skingley, & Rodriguez, 2015;Sanal & Gorsev, 2014;Sun & Buys, 2012. Benefits of singing have been reported from populations including not only healthy adults but also children and adolescents (Ashley, 2002), juvenile offenders (Rio & Tenney, 2002;Wolf & Holochwost, 2016), prisoners (Cohen, 2012;Silber, 2005), homeless people (Bailey & Davidson, 2002, 2003, older adults with depression (Ahessy, 2016), people with chronic mental health and substance abuse problems (Bailey & Davidson, 2005), people recovering from surgery and strokes (Fogg-Rogers et al., 2016;Tamplin, Baker, Jones, Way, & Lee, 2013), and people living with dementia (Davidson & Almeida, 2014), Parkinson's disease (Fogg-Rogers et al., 2016), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (Lord et al., 2012), and emphysema (Engen, 2005). Despite these positive results, several studies have reported mixed, null, or negative findings Gick & Daugherty, 2015;Hinshaw, Clift, Hulbert, & Camic, 2015;Kenny & Faunce, 2004;Pearce, Launay, Machin, & Dunbar, 2016;Stewart & Lonsdale, 2016;Unwin et al., 2002). ...
... on self-esteem. In interviews of members of choirs for homeless and marginalized adults, participants reported improved selfesteem that they attributed to their choir membership (Bailey & Davidson, 2002, 2003. Similarly, a longitudinal, 15-month study compared the combined effects of mindfulness meditation with weekly classes in literacy, history, and computing with weekly classes in singing, Tai chi, dancing, or playing an instrument . ...
... This article is intended solely for the personal use of the individual user and is not to be disseminated broadly. pated in a choir over 3 years (Bailey & Davidson, 2002). In addition, as the present study was the first to investigate the impact of group singing on individuals' state self-esteem, replication attempts are needed. ...
Preprint
This study examined short-term effects on mood and self-esteem of a novel group-singing model that relies exclusively on oral methods of teaching songs in 59 community-recruited adults. We compared effects of group singing to group listening using a counterbalanced, within-subjects experimental design that isolated the effects of changes attributable to singing versus listening. We hypothesized both singing and listening would improve mood and state self-esteem, and singing would yield a larger effect than listening. Mixed between-within ANOVA results were partially consistent with these hypotheses. Participants’ positive affect and mood improved after singing and declined after listening, regardless of the order in which they sang or listened. State self-esteem increased throughout the session regardless of condition. Thus, this group-singing format tended to boost participants’ mood and positive affect, at least temporarily. This easily-disseminable singing model could be a simple means of helping improve emotional well-being among community members.
... including improved mood, quality of life, and well-being, and reduced feelings of depression and isolation (Ahessy, 2016;Boyd, 2012;Coulton, Clift, Skingley, & Rodriguez, 2015;Sanal & Gorsev, 2014;Sun & Buys, 2012. Benefits of singing have been reported from populations including not only healthy adults but also children and adolescents (Ashley, 2002), juvenile offenders (Rio & Tenney, 2002;Wolf & Holochwost, 2016), prisoners (Cohen, 2012;Silber, 2005), homeless people (Bailey & Davidson, 2002, 2003, older adults with depression (Ahessy, 2016), people with chronic mental health and substance abuse problems (Bailey & Davidson, 2005), people recovering from surgery and strokes (Fogg-Rogers et al., 2016;Tamplin, Baker, Jones, Way, & Lee, 2013), and people living with dementia (Davidson & Almeida, 2014), Parkinson's disease (Fogg-Rogers et al., 2016), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (Lord et al., 2012), and emphysema (Engen, 2005). Despite these positive results, several studies have reported mixed, null, or negative findings Gick & Daugherty, 2015;Hinshaw, Clift, Hulbert, & Camic, 2015;Kenny & Faunce, 2004;Pearce, Launay, Machin, & Dunbar, 2016;Stewart & Lonsdale, 2016;Unwin et al., 2002). ...
... on self-esteem. In interviews of members of choirs for homeless and marginalized adults, participants reported improved selfesteem that they attributed to their choir membership (Bailey & Davidson, 2002, 2003. Similarly, a longitudinal, 15-month study compared the combined effects of mindfulness meditation with weekly classes in literacy, history, and computing with weekly classes in singing, Tai chi, dancing, or playing an instrument . ...
... This article is intended solely for the personal use of the individual user and is not to be disseminated broadly. pated in a choir over 3 years (Bailey & Davidson, 2002). In addition, as the present study was the first to investigate the impact of group singing on individuals' state self-esteem, replication attempts are needed. ...
Article
This study examined short-term effects on mood and self-esteem of a novel group-singing model that relies exclusively on oral methods of teaching songs in 59 community-recruited adults. We compared effects of group singing to group listening using a counterbalanced, within-subjects experimental design that isolated the effects of changes attributable to singing versus listening. We hypothesized both singing and listening would improve mood and state self-esteem, and singing would yield a larger effect than listening. Mixed between-within ANOVA results were partially consistent with these hypotheses. Participants’ positive affect and mood improved after singing and declined after listening, regardless of the order in which they sang or listened. State self-esteem increased throughout the session regardless of condition. Thus, this group-singing format tended to boost participants’ mood and positive affect, at least temporarily. This easily-disseminable singing model could be a simple means of helping improve emotional well-being among community members.
... The availability of a community is important to wellbeing because human beings are social animals to such an extent that isolation and loneliness are associated with serious wellbeing detriments including an increased risk of mortality (Holt-Lunstad et al., 2015). Singing groups help tackle loneliness and isolation in older people (Cohen et al., 2006), people who are affected by homelessness (Bailey and Davidson, 2002), those living with mental health problems (Dingle et al., 2013) and people who have spent time in prison (Silber, 2005;Cohen, 2009). ...
... Choristers report that the inherent collaboration, cooperation and team spirit of the group activity can increase their sense of community (Bailey and Davidson, 2002;. Choir membership and the presence of peer role models can provide an individual with a sense of group identity (Bonshor, 2017a). ...
... The final two categories of the survey were less populated compared to those above, but nevertheless offered insights into similarities between choirs and brass bands. The current respondents identified common emotional impacts of music making including positive mood states, a reduction in symptoms aligned with depression and anxiety, and the role of music making as a successful method of emotional release in relation to non-music life experiences, either through the emotional content of the music being performed or the emotional nature of performing in synchrony with a group (Clift and Hancox, 2001;Bailey and Davidson, 2002;Myskja and Nord, 2008;Creech et al., 2013). ...
Article
Full-text available
This article presents a survey of holistic wellbeing in brass band players. A survey was designed to obtain qualitative and quantitative data regarding both positive and negative effects of brass banding on the wellbeing of players. The survey was distributed via Brass Bands England and 346 adult brass band players reported wellbeing effects in five separate categories: physical, psychological, social, emotional, and spiritual.
... There is increasing evidence of the health and wellbeing benefits of group and choir singing. Previous studies of group singing have detailed its scientific and physiological benefits (Beck, Cesario, Yousefi, & Enamoto, 2000;, therapeutic benefits (Bailey & Davidson, 2002, the impact of group singing on social bonding Pearce, Launay, & Dunbar, 2015) and the particular role of the singing leader (Jansson, 2013). In Australia, several studies provide a policy and organizational overview of community choral musicking (Bartleet, 2010;Masso, 2013;, while others examine individual cases in detail (Southcott & Joseph, 2013 or offer international comparisons (Leske, in press). ...
... In Australia, several studies provide a policy and organizational overview of community choral musicking (Bartleet, 2010;Masso, 2013;, while others examine individual cases in detail (Southcott & Joseph, 2013 or offer international comparisons (Leske, in press). A growing body of literature explores the value of choir singing for addressing social exclusion in particular, highlighting its benefits for both individual and community wellbeing (Bailey & Davidson, 2002Dingle, Brander, Ballantyne, & Baker, 2013;Faulkner & Davidson, 2006;Langston & Barrett, 2008;Stewart & Lonsdale, 2016). ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This article offers an overview of public policy and community music as presented by an international panel in a symposium held in Edinburgh at the XV Community Music Activity (CMA) Seminar in 2016. This article summarizes public policy in eight countries: Australia, Japan, Germany, Britain, Ireland, United States, Canada, and Brazil. As a first discussion of policy and community music, this article provides an initial gathering of preliminary information to engage the larger CM community in discussions on policy that affects how community music activities happen across the globe.
... However, only over the last 20 years have researchers begun to address the nature and the health and well-being effects of choral singing, particularly in amateur singers. Some pioneering studies in this field were those by Bailey and Davidson (2002), Beck, Cesario, Yousefi, and Enamoto (2000) and Clift and Hancox (2001). Recently, the UK All Party Parliamentary Group on Art, Health and Wellbeing has reported extensively on the health benefits of singing (APPG, 2017;Gordon-Nesbitt & Howarth, 2019). ...
... (Possible alternatives are "vocal group," "singing group," or "glee club.") There has been some research on perceptions of choir singing in school students (Sweet, 2010) and in men experiencing homelessness (Bailey & Davidson, 2002). In Australia, PubChoir-a monthly event in which strangers gather for a few hours in a sociable context to learn a song in three-part harmony and record it-has grown from 70 participants to 800þ participants over the course of a year. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
This paper summarises the 18 authors' collective thoughts in relation to priority questions for future group singing research, theoretical frameworks, potential solutions for design and ethical challenges, quantitative measures, qualitative methods, and whether there is scope for a benchmarking set of measures across singing projects. With eight key recommendations, the paper sets an agenda for best practice research on group singing.
... In musical contexts, previous studies have outlined the importance of these flow states during music performances (Wrigley & Emmerson, 2013). Regarding group singing, Bailey and Davidson (2002) suggested that flow theory can be used to explain the benefits of active participation in singing sessions, including its positive impacts on depression, self-esteem, and peoples' social skills. However, as per a recent review of the concept of flow in music performances suggested (Chirico, Serino, Cipresso, Gaggioli, & Riva, 2015), only a few studies have examined "group" flow during group music sessions. ...
... Accordingly, when considering the relationship between group cohesion and flow, our findings provide an additional perspective to the current literature on the concept of flow in the musical (Tan & Sin, 2019) and group singing contexts (Bailey & Davidson, 2002). These findings are also in line with those of group flow (Sawyer, 2006) or social flow in jam sessions (Hart & Di Blasi, 2015), as well as those in group singing (Keeler et al., 2015), group cohesion (Henderson, 1983;James & Freed, 1989;Montello & Coons, 1999), and cooperation (Anshel & Kipper, 1988) during musical activities. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Group singing sessions have been observed to result in positive mood changes. One reason for this mood enhancement property is the sense of unity generated by the resulting group cohesion. Based on this sense of unity, the concept of group flow is then likely related the overall group’s cohesion to a certain degree. However, a question remains surrounding the time changes in the factors of group cohesion and flow during sessions in accordance with the therapist’s expectations. To investigate this, quasi-therapeutic group singing sessions were employed. The present study conducted a time series analysis to examine changes in group cohesion, group flow, and participants’ moods by examining the influence of the song orders that a therapist used for effective mood enhancement. The main findings were that (1) group singing sessions enhanced group cohesion and flow between members; (2) group cohesion and group flow of participants was altered in accordance with the order of the presentation of songs, as per our original expectation. We found that group singing sessions enhance participants’ positive mood through the resulting changes to the group cohesion and flow. These results are applicable for those involved in the organizing of the structures of music therapy sessions, as well as future research into this therapeutic mode.
... Interview was the most common qualitative approach and was used in 21/39 (53.8%) of all studies including qualitative components. These interviews were often semi-structured and sought to elicit responses on how the participants felt when engaged in various musical activities (e.g., Bailey & Davidson, 2002;Garces-Bacsal, Cohen, & Tan, 2011). Sample interview questions included, "How do you feel when you are singing?" ...
... Findings indicated that high achieving students and non-specialist students experienced flow more than moderate achieving students. Bailey and Davidson's (2002) phenomenological study sought to determine the psychological and physiological benefits, if any, of active group singing for seven members of a Canadian choir of homeless males. The themes that emerged included numerous clinical and engagement benefits that aligned with flow theory. ...
Article
The purpose of this study was to review flow research in music contexts from 1975 until the first quarter of 2019. Specifically, frequencies/percentages were calculated for (a) output in five-year periods; (b) publication type; and (c) methodologies employed, including measurement instruments used. Content analyses were also conducted on topics covered. Using the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) methodology, a total of 3,341 records were examined, with 95 studies eventually included in the analysis. Findings indicated a steady increase in research output over the last 25 years. Studies overwhelmingly sampled participants from Western populations, especially the United States. The majority of quantitative studies used self-report questionnaires, of which those developed by Jackson and colleagues were most prevalent. Among the qualitative approaches, interviews and observations were the most common means of data collection. Topics covered in the studies reviewed include the psychophysiological aspects of flow, transmission and group experience of flow, the association of flow with a range of positive outcomes, factors that contribute to flow experiences, and flow experiences of young children. Implications for future research were proffered in light of the findings.
... However, only over the last 20 years have researchers begun to address the nature and the health and well-being effects of choral singing, particularly in amateur singers. Some pioneering studies in this field were those by Bailey and Davidson (2002), Beck, Cesario, Yousefi, and Enamoto (2000) and Clift and Hancox (2001). Recently, the UK All Party Parliamentary Group on Art, Health and Wellbeing has reported extensively on the health benefits of singing (APPG, 2017;Gordon-Nesbitt & Howarth, 2019). ...
... (Possible alternatives are "vocal group," "singing group," or "glee club.") There has been some research on perceptions of choir singing in school students (Sweet, 2010) and in men experiencing homelessness (Bailey & Davidson, 2002). In Australia, PubChoir-a monthly event in which strangers gather for a few hours in a sociable context to learn a song in three-part harmony and record it-has grown from 70 participants to 800þ participants over the course of a year. ...
Article
Full-text available
Research on choirs and other forms of group singing has been conducted for several decades and there has been a recent focus on the potential health and well-being benefits, particularly in amateur singers. Experimental, quantitative, and qualitative studies show evidence of a range of biopsychosocial and well-being benefits to singers; however, there are many challenges to rigor and replicability. To support the advances of research into group singing, the authors met and discussed theoretical and methodological issues to be addressed in future studies. The authors are from five countries and represent the following disciplinary perspectives: music psychology, music therapy, community music, clinical psychology, educational and developmental psychology, evolutionary psychology, health psychology, social psychology, and public health. This article summarizes our collective thoughts in relation to the priority questions for future group singing research, theoretical frameworks, potential solutions for design and ethical challenges, quantitative measures, qualitative methods, and whether there is scope for a benchmarking set of measures across singing projects. With eight key recommendations, the article sets an agenda for best practice research on group singing.
... There is increasing evidence for the personal and social benefits of participating in group singing, including: enhanced general health and well-being (Mellor, 2013); physiological improvements (Beck et al., 2000;Kreutz et al., 2004); psychological well-being and mood enhancement (Clift & Hancox, 2010;Judd & Pooley, 2014); and social cohesion (Faulkner & Davidson, 2006;Parker, 2010). Additionally, research has demonstrated that ensemble singing has therapeutic outcomes for adults with physical or mental health problems (Eades & O'Connor 2008;Dingle et al., 2013), and reduces social isolation (Bailey & Davidson, 2002, 2005Creech et al., 2013). However, there is also evidence that a significant number of adult amateur singers are adversely affected by confidence issues, which can have negative effects upon their experience of choral singing, and can limit the level and extent of their participation (Bonshor, 2002). ...
... The testimony of these amateur singers directly illustrates the social benefits of ensemble singing indicated in earlier research (Bailey & Davidson, 2002, 2005Dingle et al., 2013;Faulkner & Davidson, 2006), and demonstrates the confidence building effects of these social aspects of choral participation. ...
Article
This article describes some of the collaborative processes that take place within adult amateur choirs, and demonstrates some associations between group dynamics, peer learning and the development of choral confidence. Three focus groups and 16 individual interviews provided 40 hours of verbal data. The research aims were: to explore the lived experience of amateur choral singers in relation to their confidence levels; to identify some of the factors affecting singers’ confidence in their vocal skills and choral performance ability; to use the data to extrapolate strategies designed for managing confidence issues amongst amateur choral singers. Data was collected during semi-structured interviews and focus groups with amateur singers. The superordinate themes, which emerged from the data, included collaboration and teamwork, reciprocal peer learning, and the contribution of unofficial team leaders to effective learning and performance. All of these factors were reported as increasing individual and collective confidence levels. The findings highlight the role of peer interactions and social learning in developing the confidence of choral singers, and suggest ways in which conductors might optimize these interactions to build confidence during choir rehearsals and performances.
... Among qualitative studies, music performances (Lamont, 2012), participation in group singing (Bailey & Davidson, 2002;Wills, 2011), and collaborative musical activities (Ascenso et al., 2018;Waddington-Jones et al., 2019) were found to promote positive emotions and well-being. Similarly, findings from Lamont's (2012) study involving 35 university students in the United Kingdom indicated that positive emotions were experienced during music performances. ...
... In choral research, Bailey and Davidson (2002) interviewed seven members of a male homeless choir in Canada. The emergent themes aligned with flow theory and included numerous benefits, such as improved emotional and social processes which are important for life satisfaction. ...
... There is a growing trend of workplace singing in Ireland with 46 workplace choirs currently in existence across the country (Staunton, 2018). Literature examining the benefit of choral singing on health and wellbeing have focused largely on clinical or marginalized groups, including prisoners (Cohen, 2009), the homeless (Bailey and Davidson, 2002), individuals with dementia (Camic et al., 2013), mental health difficulties (Livesey et al., 2012) or the elderly (Cohen et al., 2007). Research on singing in workplace and community choirs exists, but is not specific to health service staff (Clift and Hancox, 2001;Clift et al., 2016;Goldenberg, 2018). ...
Article
This paper explores the well-being ['well-being' and 'wellbeing' are used interchangeably in the literature. Well-being is used in this paper (except in the reference list where exact wording is maintained)] benefits of participation in a workplace choir for health service staff. A mixed method study, this project combines quantitative measures of work engagement, perceived stress, resilience levels and work absences with qualitative interviews with choir participants. It is the first study of workplace choirs in Ireland and one of very few studies internationally that research health service staff choirs. There is some preliminary evidence of benefits that choir attendance may increase positive perception of workers' mental health as well as effect depression rates. However, evidence is limited quantitatively and difficulties in measuring the health benefits of arts interventions are noted. Qualitative data, however, confirms previous study findings, namely that a workplace choir can promote social connectedness, enjoyment at work and staff engagement. Work place choir was also noted to appeal mainly to a limited demographic of work place staff and people with relatively positive health and well-being. Efforts must be made to engage staff from lower socio-economic backgrounds, diverse cultural backgrounds and male staff in work place health promotion activities, as these groups were found less likely to join a work place choir. Given the low cost and low risk of this activity, and the qualitative benefits reported, it is recommended to continue to develop and evaluate health service workplace choirs.
... (Landfill Harmonic, 2015) Although these projects were not launched as CoMT projects, they resemble Ruud's description about community music therapy: "new groups have gained access to the symbolic significance of musical participation in today's society with the accompanying social recognition" (Ruud, 2008, p. 48). Regarding amateur music making, the widespread benefits of choir singing on health and well-being are well-documented (Ansdel &Kipper, 1988;Beck et al., 2000;Bailey & Davidson, 2002;Silber, 2005;Clift & Hancox, 2010;Gridley et al., 2011). ...
... Citations without an asterisk are included for the purposes of interpretation and grounding our findings in the extant literature. (3); Transformation (3) Thomas, et al. (2); Benefits to clients (1); Respect and public recognition (3) a The seven individuals in Bailey and Davidson (2002) were also interviewed in Bailey and Davidson (2003), but quotes used in this analysis were not repetitive. Arts-based programming provides an alternative to psychopharmacology and talk therapies traditionally practised among this population (Bell and Walsh, 2015;Cronley et al., 2018a). ...
Preprint
Homelessness is a global phenomenon that contributes to and exacerbates social exclusion and marginalisation. The objective of this study is to generate a rich description of the experience of participating in arts-based programming as told by adults experiencing homelessness using a qualitative interpretive meta-synthesis. The synthesis includes eight studies, using direct quotes provided by fifty-three individuals in Canada, the USA and Australia. Synthesis of the eight studies results in three themes that describe the experience of participating in arts-based programming across geographic locations and art mediums: 'arts as healing', 'arts as advocacy' and 'arts as self-empowerment'. While social workers, homelessness service providers, arts-based educators and researchers may be intuitively aware of the power of the arts, the syn-ergistic findings of these eight articles indicate its influence among marginally housed populations. Implications and opportunities for future research are discussed.
... Might choir participation then be a particularly pertinent practice for people experiencing homelessness? There has been some research in this field conducted by Bailey and Davidson (2002, 2003, with two choirs in Canada. ...
Article
Full-text available
Personal testimonies about the positive impact of joining a choir abound, with people actively seeking them out to connect with others, improve wellbeing and self-medicate. There has also been an explosion of research around choirs, with growing evidence that participation may improve the quality of life of singers; bringing psychological, social, emotional and cognitive benefits. This study explores the experience of homeless choirs performing during the Cultural Olympiad in Rio de Janeiro in 2016. It seeks to understand the perceptions, attitudes, beliefs and feelings of choir members and leaders and the role the group plays in the life of the singer. The research was conducted while travelling as a delegate with the International Arts and Homelessness Movement, With One Voice, who supported the growth of eleven choirs in Rio. A phenomenological approach was adopted, observing singers at rehearsals, performances and beyond the music-making space. Five semi-structured interviews were conducted with choir members and two with choir leaders. The research gives a window into how participating in these choirs, may increase visibility and recognition and shift the singers sense of identity.
... Numerous programs (Welch et al., 2014) have also manifested the impact of music participation on well-being and inclusion. Research studies show positive effects of music programs for other populations, such the homeless (Bailey & Davidson, 2002), the elderly (Clift & Hancox, 2010), and the imprisoned (Henley et al., 2013). Some of the programs aiming at social inclusion have been initiatives of local organizations, while others have been policy initiatives at a national or international level. ...
... Numerous programs (Welch et al., 2014) have also manifested the impact of music participation on well-being and inclusion. Research studies show positive effects of music programs for other populations, such the homeless (Bailey & Davidson, 2002), the elderly (Clift & Hancox, 2010), and the imprisoned (Henley et al., 2013). Some of the programs aiming at social inclusion have been initiatives of local organizations, while others have been policy initiatives at a national or international level. ...
... Life satisfaction contains all dimensions of an individual's life and it may be defined as a degree which a person evaluates the entire quality of life and considers his life positively as a whole (Dagli & Baysal, 2016). Conducted studies show that chorus helps individuals generate various personally and socially pleasant outcomes (Adams, 2000;Bailey & Davidson, 2002;Yigit, 2001); and at the same time, it positively affects their social relations and level of participation in life. Musical education practices and correspondingly chorus studies which are performed during the very crucial period of middle school, contribute highly on a students' social, educational, cultural and economic relations and they help the students create, develop and tend towards their own taste of music (Senturk, 2001). ...
Article
Full-text available
Chorus education, which is being practiced within the framework of music education’s branch of voice training, has significant impacts on an individual’s philosophy of life, self-confidence level and socialization. An individual assesses his own life satisfaction level cognitively in terms of many aspects. Chorus education can be seen as the most prominent and contributing aspect as it helps people feel satisfied and happy and moreover, it makes their life more meaningful in various ways. The study aims to interpret the effect of choral participations of middle school students on their life satisfaction. Accordingly, in this research, ‘satisfaction with life scale’ developed by Diener, Emmons, Laresen and Griffin - later translated in Turkish by Koker - has been used. To that end, middle school students’ satisfaction with life has been investigated through comparisons done within the context of factors such as; gender, age, grade, previous musical instrument experiences as well as choral participation. As a result of the research, it has been identified that the life satisfaction does not vary significantly according to gender, age, grade or previous musical instrument experiences; yet it has been found that that there is a positive effect of choral participation on students’ life with satisfaction. © 2018 Eurasian Society of Educational Research. All rights reserved.
... Numerous programs (Welch et al., 2014) have also manifested the impact of music participation on well-being and inclusion. Research studies show positive effects of music programs for other populations, such the homeless (Bailey & Davidson, 2002), the elderly (Clift & Hancox, 2010), and the imprisoned (Henley et al., 2013). Some of the programs aiming at social inclusion have been initiatives of local organizations, while others have been policy initiatives at a national or international level. ...
... Qualitative research suggests that participants in music projects value their participation, which can provide meaning and purpose, supporting positive reworkings of identity for people in challenging circumstances (Daykin, in process;Baker & Ballantyne, 2013;Creech et al. 2014;Dabback, 2008;Henley et al. 2012;Daykin et al. 2013;Bailey & Davidson, 2002;Judd & Pooley, 2014, Joseph & Southcott, 2014Lally, 2009;Li & Southcott, 2012;Perkins & Williamon, 2013;Skingley et al. 2015). ...
Article
Background: there is a growing trend towards addressing social inclusion through community music, and at the same time, increasing interest in the way that participatory music can benefit health and well-being. However, relatively little research has been undertaken on community ensembles that addresses personal and social well-being through genre-based music. This pilot study examined community music impacts and processes in contexts where there are higher than average health needs and well-being inequalities. Methods: participant observation and semi structured interviews were undertaken with music leaders, project managers and musicians in two UK ensembles: a Community Orchestra (CO) that focuses on reggae and a jazz Big Band (BB). Thematic analysis identified twelve key themes. Findings: while each ensemble addresses specific needs, common themes and challenges were identified. These include positive and negative experiences that are mediated by musical identity and genre, inclusive practices, the role of the Music Director (MD), community connections, and governance and structure. Conclusions: membership of a community ensemble can afford creative and educational opportunities as well as supporting the well-being of members and a wider sense of empowerment in the communities from which they are drawn.
... Numerous programs (Welch et al., 2014) have also manifested the impact of music participation on well-being and inclusion. Research studies show positive effects of music programs for other populations, such the homeless (Bailey & Davidson, 2002), the elderly (Clift & Hancox, 2010), and the imprisoned (Henley et al., 2013). Some of the programs aiming at social inclusion have been initiatives of local organizations, while others have been policy initiatives at a national or international level. ...
... Numerous programs (Welch et al., 2014) have also manifested the impact of music participation on well-being and inclusion. Research studies show positive effects of music programs for other populations, such the homeless (Bailey & Davidson, 2002), the elderly (Clift & Hancox, 2010), and the imprisoned (Henley et al., 2013). Some of the programs aiming at social inclusion have been initiatives of local organizations, while others have been policy initiatives at a national or international level. ...
... Numerous programs (Welch et al., 2014) have also manifested the impact of music participation on well-being and inclusion. Research studies show positive effects of music programs for other populations, such the homeless (Bailey & Davidson, 2002), the elderly (Clift & Hancox, 2010), and the imprisoned (Henley et al., 2013). Some of the programs aiming at social inclusion have been initiatives of local organizations, while others have been policy initiatives at a national or international level. ...
... If the use of NAO with participatory arts activities can make a positive difference in mental well-being in these settings, then this will contribute to its cost effectiveness. Active engagement in participatory arts may increase quality of life via improvements in physical health (Coffman, 2009;Cohen et al., 2006;Cohen et al., 2007), further demonstrated by a reduction in both the need for self-medication (Bailey & Davidson, 2002;Rio, 2005) and the number of emergency room visits by older adults engaged in participatory arts programming 2007). Moreover, research suggests that the "intrinsic and instrumental value of arts engagement" in later life may reduce the need for medical intervention and health service use (Archibald & Kitson, 2019, p. 2). ...
Article
Research suggests that the use of creative, artistic activities in later life may positively impact the psychological well-being of older adults. Social robots have been utilized in research with older adults, however, few studies have integrated participatory arts (e.g. theatre) into social robotic platforms for the purpose of implementing a psychosocial intervention with this population. An interdisciplinary team designed and delivered an intervention integrating theatre and social robotics with the aim of improving the psychological well-being of study participants both with and without cognitive impairment who live in a residential care setting. A purposive sample of older adults age 65 and older (N = 15) participated in this 3-session pilot study that involved a Shakespeare participatory art activity using the robot, NAO. Pre and post tests were conducted before and after each session with measures of depression, loneliness, and a simplified face scale for mood were asked. Results from Repeated Measurement Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) showed that depression, loneliness and face scores had significantly decrease across six time periods and these declines differed between people with dementia and those without dementia. In addition, only significant changes of depression before and after the intervention were found between persons with and without dementia. We discuss the promising aspects of using social robotics as a platform for participatory arts interventions with older adults and offer lessons learned from the use of innovative technology in residential care settings.
... Clearly, such engagement raises questions about the motivations and reciprocal effects of choral singing on individual choristers. Seminal studies at the beginning of the millennium (Clift and Hancox, 2001;Bailey and Davidson, 2002) have initiated sustained research interest in amateur singing, in general (Müller and Lindenberger, 2011;Clift, 2012a,b), and its psychobiological effects on the singers, in particular (e.g., Beck et al., 2000;Grape et al., 2003;Kreutz et al., 2004;Kreutz, 2014;Fancourt et al., 2015Fancourt et al., , 2016. ...
Article
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Previous studies have suggested that there are complex psychobiological effects of amateur choral singing on well-being. Here, we investigate the influences of singing vs. non-singing on psychological and biological measurements, reflecting current positive and negative affect, perceived social connectedness, and physiological stress. We hypothesized that active singing leads to significant increases in these measurements compared to participating without singing. Amateur choristers (Exp. 1: N = 54, age range 18–85 years and Exp. 2: N = 49, age range 18–85 years) were tested in two experiments in which approximately half of the group was asked not to sing over periods of 30 (Exp. 1) and 60 min (Exp. 2), while the other half of the group sang. Dependent measures included scales for positive and negative affect and perceived social connectedness. In addition, saliva samples were collected to assess cortisol and alpha-amylase. The results revealed that singing activity had positive influences on affect measurements. However, significant increases in perceived social connectedness for singing were found only in Exp. 2. Biomarker changes were not significant across the experiments. Together, our findings suggest that both singing activity and duration of singing modulate psychological effects, with perceived social connectedness evolving over larger time spans than 30 min. Findings support the notion of beneficial psychological effects also for individuals, who report lower levels of general social support. The unexpected absence of biological effects warrants further investigation.
... One strong piece of evidence regarding how singing activity gives such a profound impact on emotion can be seen in research with choristers from a homeless men's choir, conducted as qualitative research and conducted by (Bailey, & Davidson, 2002). Based on the findings, the emotional benefits that were observed from the participants showed positive reviews as a musical outlet towards the seven men that have been interviewed. ...
Article
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The most important question in the psychology of music is how music affects an individual's emotional experience, which has been the subject of extensive research. However, the outcome appeared from a variety of perspectives, and at times it devolved into endless debates and arguments. When it comes to music, every individual's emotional state will have a different impact on how it is influenced, depending on whether the emotion is expressed through listening, playing, or participating in musical activities. Musical activities such as singing in preschool are examples that can be used to demonstrate how music can influence an individual's emotional responses. The purpose of this study is to gain an understanding of teachers' perspectives on the influence of singing activities on the expression of children's emotions because they are the ones who organize the activities and can observe the children's participation. This qualitative study was conducted by interviewing 7 preschool teachers that are currently teaching in Shah Alam, Selangor to study their perspectives on the influence of singing activity on the expression of children's emotions. For this research, a qualitative method approach will be deployed to analyze the teachers' perspective on the influence of singing activity on the expression of children's emotions. Data for this research was collected in the form of recorded audio interviews. The analysis is then done based on the transcriptions. The findings of this research acknowledge that music can influence human emotion. The outcome of this research can be used to contribute knowledge to other music researchers and psychologists on the importance of music and emotion.
... Using a person-in-environment perspective, social workers can look at the issue more holistically, including areas where current knowledge is limited. For example, limited research has highlighted the role of creativity in the lives of individuals experiencing homelessness such as music (Bailey & Davidson, 2002;Cronley, Nordberg, Murphy, & McCoy, 2018;Nordberg, Cronley, Murphy, Keaton, & Palant, 2018) and art (Feen-Calligan, 2008;Heise & Macgillivray, 2011;Iliya, 2011;Miller, 2006;Prescott, Sekendur, Bailey, & Hoshino, 2008;Thomas, Gray, McGinty, & Ebringer, 2011). ...
Article
In the following article we argue that social work education and research ought to approach homelessness from a holistic paradigm emphasizing individual resilience and autonomy. The current lack of explicit curriculum in many schools of social work necessitates creative strategies to integrate homeless content into social work education. We offer 3 diverse pedagogical strategies: course-based service learning, program evaluation, and graduate research assistantships. Students engaged in these activities acquire firsthand experiences with individuals experiencing homelessness in ways that humanize the issue, and critical reflection facilitates application of new knowledge. Additional, students’ work may impact homeless services positively by generating data to support service and policy reforms. Ultimately, schools of social work could formally offer courses on housing and homelessness.
... Being part of a choir and singing with others who share cultural and linguistic heritage is a positive and beneficial experience that offers older people opportunities for social bonding and belonging (Bailey and Davidson 2002;Clift et al. 2010;Southcott and Li 2017). As is the case with the Young Hearts choir, singing in the ensemble can be a way to address feelings of social isolation and loneliness (Creech et al. 2013). ...
Article
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This research examines the understandings and meanings of shared music making held by the members of the Young Hearts Russian choir in Melbourne, Australia and its impact on quality of life. The elderly participants in this interpretative phenomenological case data are first generation migrants who speak most strongly in their first language (Russian). Individual semi-structured interviews were undertaken with nine people and focus group discussion involved all 28 choir members. Data collected in their first language revealed stories of survival and resilience in the face of adversity. The findings are reported under two broad themes: Maintaining independence and resilience (Subthemes: The importance of participation, Maintaining ‘face’, Overcoming illness and disability, and Becoming a family), and Learning, rehearsing and performing music. Singing together enhances quality of life, combats social isolation, fosters resilience and sense of autonomy, and allows participants to access inner resources to face the challenges of life. Supported and enacted via musical and social engagement, the participants continue to be resilient in older age as they are faced with the consequences of ageing, particularly infirmity and isolation. They remain protective of their independence and resistant to relegation to residential care.
... Citations without an asterisk are included for the purposes of interpretation and grounding our findings in the extant literature. (3); Transformation (3) Thomas, et al. (2); Benefits to clients (1); Respect and public recognition (3) a The seven individuals in Bailey and Davidson (2002) were also interviewed in Bailey and Davidson (2003), but quotes used in this analysis were not repetitive. Arts-based programming provides an alternative to psychopharmacology and talk therapies traditionally practised among this population (Bell and Walsh, 2015;Cronley et al., 2018a). ...
Article
Homelessness is a global phenomenon that contributes to and exacerbates social exclusion and marginalisation. The objective of this study is to generate a rich description of the experience of participating in arts-based programming as told by adults experiencing homelessness using a qualitative interpretive meta-synthesis. The synthesis includes eight studies, using direct quotes provided by fifty-three individuals in Canada, the USA and Australia. Synthesis of the eight studies results in three themes that describe the experience of participating in arts-based programming across geographic locations and art mediums: ‘arts as healing’, ‘arts as advocacy’ and ‘arts as self-empowerment’. While social workers, homelessness service providers, arts-based educators and researchers may be intuitively aware of the power of the arts, the synergistic findings of these eight articles indicate its influence among marginally housed populations. Implications and opportunities for future research are discussed.
... Since 2000, there has been a considerable growth of interest in singing, wellbeing and health specifically, demonstrating that, for example group singing can have substantial benefits in aiding the recovery of people with a history of serious and enduring mental health problems [1]. Several qualitative and survey studies have also shown significant improvements in affective state after group singing [2][3][4]. For example, Bailey and Davidson ( [5] p. 298) present positive effects of participation in group singing in a study that examined interviews and focus groups with 16 members of Canadian choirs from marginalised and middle-class backgrounds. ...
Article
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Background An increasing body of qualitative and quantitative research suggests that choir singing can improve mental and physical health and wellbeing. A recurring phenomenon is social agency and social and emotional competences. However, there is little consensus about the underlying impact mechanisms and the special nature of music as a medium for music-based social–emotional competence. Aim This research was carried out to explore how the participants experienced engaging and singing in the choir A Song for the Mind in order to understand the social and emotional aspects in relation to choir singing and mental health. Method Six women and two men were interviewed. The study involved open-ended interviews and applied Paul Ricoeur's phenomenological–hermeneutic theory of interpretation in processing the collected data. Findings Two themes emerged—The Singing Me and Cultivating Us. Joining the choir, singing and engaging with the lyrics, helped the participants get in contact with complex feelings and visualise and express challenges. This formed feelings of connecting to oneself and opening up to become aware of the world such as nature, the other person and the choir. Songs, melodies, tones, lyrics—singing together—formed a relation between the participants and the other and the group. This was a meaningful, and to some, a life-changing experience, and an important learning process to the professionals. As the participants are sensing and connecting to themselves, there is an opening for growing a nascent presence and awareness. Conclusion Joining the initiative A Song for the Mind instils an attention to the other person(s). The singing process seems to evoke presence, leading to awareness towards relational aspects and solidarity. In a choir singing perspective, and health care practice in general, this can be seen as a budding and ground-breaking formation of cultural activities holding learning and empowering potentials instilling mental health.
... In addition to encouraging social participation, group singing has been found to reduce anxiety and depression (Houston et al., 1998;Lally, 2009;Sandgren, 2009;Wise et al., 1992;Zanini & Leao, 2006). People from a range of different backgrounds can experience benefits to their emotional and physical wellbeing from making music with an increased sense of self-worth and enhanced social skills and wider social networks (Bailey & Davidson, 2002;. ...
Book
There is accruing evidence which indicates that actively making music can contribute to the enhancement of a range of non-musical skills and lead to other beneficial outcomes.
... Over the last several decades, researchers have sought to understand its ubiquity by studying its effects on health and wellbeing. The origins of this work focused primarily on singing's capacity to improve quality of life, particularly for vulnerable populations like inmates or the unhoused (e.g., Bailey and Davidson, 2002;Silber, 2005). Early studies explored the efficacy of singing-based interventions, using semi-structured interviews and questionnaires to assess psychological responses to regular participation in choir practice. ...
Article
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Humans have sung together for thousands of years. Today, regular participation in group singing is associated with benefits across psychological and biological dimensions of human health. Here we examine the hypothesis that a portion of these benefits stem from changes in endocrine activity associated with affiliation and social bonding. Working with a young adult choir (n = 71), we measured changes salivary concentrations of oxytocin, cortisol, and testosterone from before and after four experimental conditions crossing two factors: vocal production mode (singing vs. speaking) and social context (together vs. alone). Salivary oxytocin and cortisol decreased from before to after the experimental manipulations. For oxytocin the magnitude of this decrease was significantly smaller after singing compared to speaking, resulting in concentrations that were significantly elevated after singing together compared to speaking together, after controlling for baseline differences. In contrast, the magnitude of the salivary cortisol decreases was the same across experimental manipulations, and although large, could not be separated from diurnal cycling. No significant effects were found in a low-powered exploratory evaluation of testosterone (tested only in males). At a psychological level, we found that singing stimulates greater positive shifts in self-perceived affect compared to speaking—particularly when performed together—and that singing together enhances feelings of social connection more than speaking together. Finally, measurements of heart rate made for a subset of participants provide preliminary evidence regarding physical exertion levels across conditions. These results are discussed in the context of a growing multidisciplinary literature on the endocrinological correlates of musical behavior. We conclude that singing together can have biological and psychological effects associated with affiliation and social bonding, and that these effects extend beyond comparable but non-musical group activities. However, we also note that these effects appear heavily influenced by broader contextual factors that shape social dynamics, such as stress levels, the intimacy of interactions, and the status of existing relationships.
... Other studies also have revealed the benefits of group singing in reducing isolation (Dingle et al., 2012;Lamont, Murray, Hale, & Wright-Bevans, 2017;Skingley, Clift, Coulton, & Rodriguez, 2011), improving social interaction (Bailey & Davidson, 2003;Clift & Morrison, 2011;Schalk, 2015) and enabling people to make new friends (Clift & Hancox, 2001;Durrant & Himonides, 1998). Indeed, Bailey & Davidson (2002) suggest that group singing can positively influence emotional, social and cognitive processes by enhancing mental engagement and creativity and promoting a sense of flow. Furthermore, they suggest that the mental concentration demanded by participating in singing and the social affiliation of being part of a group can act as "change agents" (p. ...
Conference Paper
Singing is reported to be one of most popular artistic activities enjoyed by European adults, with 2.14 million people reported to be taking part in group singing in the UK. However, issues of diversity and inclusion have rarely been discussed in the literature relating to adult amateur group singing. Using a mixed methods approach, the aim of this exploratory study was, therefore, to understand more about the factors that affect diversity and inclusion within adult amateur group singing. The study adopted a conceptual framework for investigating inclusion that was developed in the workplace and that focused on understanding how groups’ practices, climate and leadership can affect their members’ perceived inclusion. Interviews with 31 group representatives and a participant questionnaire completed by 383 members of adult amateur singing groups in a multicultural urban area revealed that diversity among and within the participating singing groups appeared to be both more complex and fluid than has generally been reported. The groups varied in size, composition and repertoire, and the diversity of their membership, while superficially appearing to show little overall diversity, varied across groups. The study revealed high levels of perceived inclusion among respondents, and this did not generally appear to be affected by diversity characteristics. However, group practices, group climate and, to a lesser extent, group leadership all had a significant effect on how included individuals felt in their groups, while repertoire emerged as the most significant factor affecting both diversity of membership and perceived inclusion within the participating groups. As well as highlighting potential benefits for singing groups of promoting inclusion, the findings suggest that for singing groups to successfully embrace diversity within their membership, this must be nurtured by the inclusiveness of the groups themselves.
... Recent studies suggest that singers even without any formal training may experience flow (a psychological concept related to perceived happiness) during group singing [5]. Members of amateur choral societies frequently report a range of psychological, e.g., enhanced feelings of positive affect and energy, and physical benefits, e.g. ...
Article
Psychobiological effects of amateur choral singing were studied in a naturalistic controlled within-subjects trial. A mixed group of novice and experienced singers (N = 21) filled out brief ad hoc questionnaires of psychological wellbeing and gave samples of saliva for measuring levels of salivary oxytocin, cortisol, and dehydroepiandrosteron (DHEA) at the beginning of 2 rehearsal sessions and 30 minutes later. The singing condition included warm-up vocal exercises and repertoire pieces. In the chatting condition, dyads of participants talked to each other about recent positive life experiences. Within-subjects, repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) on self-reported and physiological measures revealed significant Time X Condition interactions for psychological wellbeing and oxytocin. Comparisons of mean scores showed patterns of changes favouring singing over chatting. There were no significant interactions for cortisol, DHEA as well as for the cortisol-DHEA-ratio. These results suggest that singing enhances individual psychological wellbeing as well as induces a socio-biological bonding response.
... In particular, people spoke of music as something dear to them: bringing back childhood memories, comforting them, lightening their moods, increasing connectedness, and strengthening a sense of membership. Psychological comfort experienced by the participants can also be explained through music (Hays, Bright, & Minichiello, 2002;Lally, 2009) helping to manage emotions, change moods, increase positive feelings, experience spirituality (Hays & Minichiello, 2005;Lee, 2013;von Lob, Camic, & Clift, 2010), improve bonding and co-operation, and create a sense of belonging (Bailey & Davidson, 2002;Blaine & Fels, 2003;Clift, Nicols, Raisbeck, Whitmore, & Morrison, 2010;Livesey, Morrison, Clift, & Hancox, 2012;Silber, 2005). ...
Article
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RÉSUMÉ Cette recherche à méthode mixte a évalué l’impact d’un programme pour la communauté culturelle d’aînés immigrants coréens en examinant les bénéfices pour la qualité de vie des participants liée à leur santé (HR-QOL) et leur bien-être en général. Bien que la programmation communautaire soit de plus en plus reconnue comme un moyen de promouvoir la santé et la participation active des individus dans la sphère sociale, peu d’informations sont disponibles concernant l’utilisation et l’impact de tels programmes chez les immigrants aînés des minorités visibles. Dans cette étude, 79 participants ont répondu au questionnaire SF-36v2 à deux reprises dans le cadre de l’évaluation de l’impact du programme du Canada Enoch Senior’s College (CESC) concernant le HR-QOL et leur bien-être. Des améliorations statistiquement significatives ont été observées sur les plans de la santé physique et mentale, notamment dans les dimensions liées à la douleur corporelle, au rôle émotionnel et aux limitations de rôle en raison de problèmes émotionnels. Les données qualitatives provenant des entretiens avec les participants ont confirmé les résultats positifs du sondage, par des améliorations aux niveaux de la vie sociale et de la santé des aînés. Ces résultats suggèrent que le programme CESC contribue à qualité de vie et au bien-être des aînés coréens participants. Cette étude permettra de soutenir des programmes communautaires culturels similaires.
... The effects of music through listening to music or active music making such as singing or playing instruments have been found to have perceived benefits in the literature, which include physical relaxation and alleviation of physical tension, release of suppressed emotional feelings of reduced stress that brings about a feeling of happiness, positivity, and a greater sense of physical and emotional well-being. [13][14][15][16] Emotions play an important role with our psychological, physiological, social well-being, and general functioning for our everyday functioning. Researchers have reviewed the use of music in emotions and in the search for the mechanism of music on emotions studied the effects of music on emotions, which has become more and more important. ...
Article
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COVID-19 or coronavirus disease-2019 pandemic is an acute respiratory syndrome, the causes and the effects of which are found to be enormous while the outcome and the treatments are still being understood. To handle the unknown, every country has brought in rules and regulations to safeguard the huge human population and lockdowns in movement and creating awareness on being socially distant. The sudden situation of crisis brought into our lives has also caused uncertainty about the future and the outcomes of this have been found to be psychological trauma and fear. Music along with mankind has evolved as a way of coping strategy for stress during psychological trauma in people's lives. Music has been found to have a profound effect on the physiological, psychological, and socializing aspects of human life. World over people have been using music to connect with each other from their homes. Technological enhancements of using music can also help in self-care allowing one's emotions to be expressed even when the need to maintain social distancing is mandatory. This article hopes to bring out the mechanism of music and the different techniques that may be used as a way of coping with crisis situations such as the COVID-19.
Article
An unfortunate tendency in previous HCI research has been to give the impression that it aims to ‘fix the problem’ of human ageing, suggesting a ‘deficit’ model of ageing or a ‘prosthetic’ model of technology. We conducted diary-aided interviews to investigate how technology use is situated in active, healthy older adults’ meaningful participation in community music. We argue that recognizing community music practices and technology use as situated action provides opportunities to grasp the subtleties of social participation and design for active ageing. We identified technology-mediated music practices, such as music sharing and revisiting, and how they evolved through the reconfiguration of connections between technology, competence, and forward-facing identities. We found that identity development, via routes such as exercising control, role transitions, and social spaces, had psychological significance and implications for active ageing. We explore how HCI leverages the perspective of active ageing and might facilitate older adults’ meaningful participation enhanced by technologies.
Article
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Participatory music engagement has the capacity to support well-being. Yet, there is little research that has scrutinized the processes through which music has an effect. In this meta-ethnography [PROSPERO CRD42019130164], we conducted a systematic search of 19 electronic databases and a critical appraisal to identify 46 qualitative studies reporting on participants’ subjective views of how participatory music engagement supports their mental well-being. Synthesis of first-order and second-order interpretations using thematic coding resulted in four third-order pathways that account for how participatory music engagement supports mental well-being: managing and expressing emotions, facilitating self-development, providing respite, and facilitating connections. Our interpretation suggests that people benefit from participatory music engagement by engaging with specific and multiple processes that meet their individual needs and circumstances. These findings inform research directions within the field of music and well-being, as well as guiding the development and delivery of future music interventions.
Chapter
This chapter examines the phenomenological experiences of young children playing within the visual arts space at The Artground (TAG), focusing on Hullabaloo by visual artist Nur Aida binte Sa’ad. The children’s phenomenological experiences are examined through the lenses of flow using mixed methods approaches, with the findings discussed in rank order—how participants felt that it was fun first and foremost, and then wanting more of it, expressing that TAG was the best play space, and finally, feeling that it was challenging, but they could do it. Three main themes also emerged from the qualitative data: (a) environment, (b) enjoyment, and (c) evaluation. These three themes interrelate with each other to enable the phenomenological experiences of flow for the children—the environment plays a significant role in determining the level of enjoyment a child experiences, while evaluation of the challenges present in a space determines the length of time a child is prepared to invest in overcoming and conquering the obstacles. In turn, the direct relationship between evaluation of challenges in the environment and the level of enjoyment is critical in understanding how children’s spaces need to be designed to enable such phenomenological experiences.
Article
Numerous studies have demonstrated the capacity of choral singing to improve human well-being and that, in certain sectors of society (including older adults, prison populations, underprivileged social groups, and mentally illness groups), choral singing bears several benefits. Thus, this descriptive study proposed a comprehensive structural model of the dimensions that comprise choral singing’s contribution to individual well-being and aimed to explain these benefits. The study was conducted in a non-random sample of 1,513 adult Spanish singers of both sexes and variable age. An instrument was developed to assess the psychosocial benefits of choral singing, as perceived by singers; it comprised five constituent dimensions: satisfaction, ability, group engagement, belonging, and optimism. The instrument enabled us to assess how choral singing contributed to well-being, with adequate reliability (Cronbach’s α = .917) and validity. The system of relationships proposed by the model represents a plausible explanation regarding the benefits of choral practice and singing for well-being.
Article
Group singing may be an optimal intervention strategy to promote active ageing and well‐being; however, evidence with experimental validity is scarce. This study aims to fill this gap by analysing the effects of a 34‐session singing group programme (SGP) on participants' subjective and social well‐being and the mediating roles of social identification with the singing group and of self‐esteem. An RCT with intervention (n = 89) and active waiting‐list control (n = 60) conditions was conducted, and a mixed method quantitative and qualitative data collection and analysis were performed. Participants were mostly elderly day‐care centre users (M = 76.66 years old; SD = 8.79) with low average levels of education and income. Structured measures of life satisfaction, positive and negative affect, self‐esteem, loneliness, social identification and social well‐being were collected, as well as interviews on the perceived benefits of participating in the SGP. Results showed significant effects of the SGP on the positive affect, social well‐being and marginally on the self‐esteem of the participants. The observed effects were sustained at the follow‐up. Qualitative analysis corroborated the quantitative results. Mediation analysis showed indirect effects of social identification with the singing group on loneliness and social identification with the social care institution group; and of self‐esteem on positive and negative affect.
Article
This case study explored the perceptions of choristers singing in a multicultural university choir in South Africa and the personal value they associate with their choir participation. Data were collected through semi-structured individual interviews, focus groups, and a four-month period of observations of choir rehearsals and performances. This research highlights the multidimensional experiences of choral singing which can be fulfilling, abundant, as well as demanding at times. Emergent themes include music as a key indicator leading to personal-, resilience-, and social values. Findings indicate the significance of collective music making and the ways in which it influences the lives of participants, such as enjoyment, health benefits, achievement, commitment, accountability, a sense of belonging, and camaraderie. Choristers experience the choir environment as safe and conducive to forming important relationships. Although cultural integration takes place to a large extent, there are still barriers due to a variety of languages within a diverse group of choristers. Participants’ reflections reveal that choir participation is an ideal vehicle whereby social cohesion can be enhanced. Finally, the study highlights the importance of choral conductors and educators employing strategies that allow choirs within a multicultural environment to successfully transform in order to remain relevant to the needs of the singers within a diverse setting.
Article
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A range of studies suggest that singing activities with young children can have a beneficial impact on other aspects of their development. However, there is little research examining the relationship between young children's singing and their developing social identity. In the current study, data were captured of young children's singing and social identity as part of a larger-scale, longitudinal evaluation of the nationwide Sing Up programme in England. Participants were 720 children aged 5-8 years old. The assessment of young children's singing ability employed an established measure and was undertaken individually. With adult support, the children were also asked to complete a simple questionnaire that focused on selected aspects of their social identity, both in general terms and also related to singing. Key themes embraced their attitudes to singing (at home, in school and in informal settings), singer identity (emotional engagement with singing and self-concept), and perceptions of self (self-efficacy, self-esteem, social integration). Comparative data were collected from young children of a similar age outside the programme. Findings suggested that the programme had a positive impact on children's singing ability, both overall and including the youngest children. The data analyses suggest that children could be identified as either "pupils with positive singing identity" or "pupils with less positive, or still developing singing identity." Overall, pupils with a more positive singer identity-irrespective of Sing Up-related experience-tended to report more positive attitudes toward singing at school and other settings, had higher perceived levels of self-esteem and social integration, as well as more positive evaluations of their singing ability. Furthermore, the research suggests that successful participation in high-quality singing activities is likely to have a positive impact on young children's singing ability and, by implication, such positive singing development will also be associated with aspects of self that are related to contexualised singer identity and their sense of social inclusion.
Research
The first Irish study on the health and well-being benefits of singing in Irish Health Service workplace staff choirs.
Article
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Choral singing, termed 'mixed chorus', is an integral part of the academic activities of the Department of Music Education, University of Education, Winneba. However, the impact of the singing on the wellbeing of the students and lecturers is largely unexplored. With 350 participants, this study contributes to filling that gap. Using questionnaire and interviews, the article examines the health benefits of singing in terms of emotional, psychological, social and physical wellbeing. It concludes that the mixed chorus has a great impact on the total health of the participants. However, this impact is dependent on some generative mechanisms needed in the training of choral singers. Public health professionals and researchers are increasingly giving serious consideration to the idea that the fitness and wellbeing of individuals, institutions and communities are dependent on multiple factors that call for collaboration across and within sectors. This is probably due to the redefinition of health by the World Health Organisation (1946) which recognises freedom of choice and emphasizes the role of individuals and communities in defining what health means to them. Epp (1987) comments on this new perspective of health from a broad range of factors, such as human biology, lifestyle, the organisation of health care, and the social and physical environments in which people live: Health ceases to be measurable strictly in terms of illness and death. It becomes a state which individuals and communities alike strive to achieve, maintain or regain, and not something that comes about merely as a result of treating and curing illnesses and injuries. It is a basic and dynamic force in our daily lives, influenced by our circumstances, our beliefs, our culture and our social, economic and physical environments. (p. 420) Given the dynamic force of health in our daily lives, there is the need to examine other possible activities and circumstances that facilitate the wellbeing of the people. It is for this reason that this study is undertaken to explore the extent to which choral singing can be one of such broad factors for solving contemporary problems relating to health and wellbeing.
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Choral singing is a complex and multifactorial activity, it is a group activity in which participants are actively involved through music and are able to transmit varied touches of human psychoemotional states. The conductor of a children’s choir must have a complex personality, he must be a passion-filled musician, a teacher, a psychologist, he must have psychosocial competences and leadership abilities. In the conductor-choir relationship, the interaction of the conductor’s self with the members of the choir is of distinct importance. In order to increase the quality of said relationship, which is the basis of a remarkable artistic performance, a new method has been approached: the Johary Window model, which can be applied by the conductor in order to obtain a viable communication between the members of the choral ensemble
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What psychological functions does music serve in everyday life? In this paper we argue that the answer to this question is changing as a result of current social and technological changes in music itself, and that these changes force us to re-evaluate the role of the social context in music psychology. After describing the changes we go on to outline the psychological functions of music in everyday life in terms of the cognitive, emotional and social domains. We next attempt a detailed redefinition of the social psychology of music by reviewing the contents of our recent book of this title. The research findings lead us to conclude that the social functions of music are manifested in three principal ways for the individual, namely in the management of self-identity, interpersonal relationships and mood. This leads us to propose a new agenda for music psychology which places the social dimension at its core, and which considers the interdisciplinary context; the effects of the "democratisation" of music; the role of theory; the relationship between theory and practice; and the implications for research methodology. © 1999 by the Society for Research in Psychology of Music and Music Education.
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Highlights a number of key features of research concerning emotional response to everyday music listening based on the assumptions that: (1) music is always heard in a social context, in a particular place and time, with or without other individuals being present, and with other activities taking place which have their own complex sources of meaning and emotion; (2) music is ubiquitous in contemporary life; and (3) despite the growing recognition that our experience of emotion is inextricably linked to the social world and the linguistic practices used to make sense of that world, we tend to think of our emotions as personal, "private' experiences, especially if they do not involve "public' emotional displays. In conclusion, the authors argue that by turning attention to the role of emotional "work' in relation to music, which takes into account individual subjective experience of both emotional feelings and displays as they occur in everyday evolving situations, it might be possible to describe musical materials in a way that is free of the assumptions and biases associated with one's own experiences and training. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Bottom-up principles of melodic implication (Narmour, 1990) were evaluated in a melody-completion task. One hundred subjects (50 low training; 50 high training in music) were presented each of eight melodic intervals. For each interval, the subjects were asked to compose a short melody on a piano keyboard, treating the interval provided as the first two notes of the melody. For each melody, the first response--the note immediately following the initial interval--was analyzed. Multinomial log linear analyses were conducted to assess the extent to which responses could be predicted by Narmour's (1990, 1992) bottom-up principles. Support was found for all of Narmour's principles, and two additional predictors based on implied tonal structure. Responses of low- and high-training groups were similar.
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Two exploratory studies are reported on the perceived benefits associated with active participation in choral singing. In the first study, 84 members of a university college choral society completed a brief questionnaire that asked whether they had benefited personally from their involvement in the choir and whether there were ways in which participation could benefit their health. A large majority of respondents agreed they had benefited socially (87%) and emotionally (75%), with 58% agreeing they had benefited in some physical way, and 49% spiritually. A content analysis of written comments served to elaborate the ways in which choir members felt they had benefited. Common themes expressed were: meeting new people, feeling more positive, increased control over breathing, feeling more alert and feeling spiritually uplifted. With respect to health benefits, 84% of participants gave answers, the main themes of which related to improved lung function and breathing, improved mood and stress reduction. In the second study, 91 members of the choir completed a structured questionnaire consisting of 32 statements about singing reflecting the ideas expressed in the first study. Over 40% of respondents strongly agreed that 'singing helps to make my mood more positive', 'singing is a moving experience for me sometimes', 'singing makes me feel a lot happier' and 'singing is good for my soul'. A principal components analysis followed by Oblimin rotation identified six dimensions of benefit associated with singing. These were labelled as: benefits for well-being and relaxation, benefits for breathing and posture, social benefits, spiritual benefits, emotional benefits, and benefits for heart and immune system. Cronbach alpha coefficients were satisfactory for all components except the third, social benefits, due primarily to the small number of items loading on this component. Women were significantly more likely to experience benefits for well-being and relaxation, younger people were more likely to report social benefits, and those professing religious beliefs were more likely to experience spiritual benefits. The present studies have a number of limitations, but they provide a useful foundation for future larger scale surveys, more sophisticated qualitative studies, and experimental investigations of the impact of singing on psycho-physiological functioning.
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This paper will critically review the limited literature available on the topic and present an empirical study that examines the effect of background music on the behavior of restaurant customers. It was found that music tempo variations can significantly affect purchases, length of stay, and other variables examined.
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Describes emotional reactions that occur in particularly strong experiences of music, further exploring which factors can elicit such reactions. First is a brief review of research on strong experiences followed by a description of a research project on strong experiences of music, an associated analysis of emotional reactions, and a discussion on the above. Although evidence from reviewed studies suggests that music may be a common trigger of extraordinary experiences, the author created the strong experiences of music (SEM) project to address the most basic question regarding music: how are we affected by music? Experimenters asked Ss to describe, in detail, "the strongest, most intense experience of music that you have ever had' and administered related follow-up questions. All participation was voluntary, however attempts were made to ensure variation with regard to gender, age, occupation, and musical preference. 60 percent of Ss were between the ages of 20 and 40 yrs and 30 percent were between 40 and 60 yrs. In the reports, the author found numerous examples of "basic' emotions, most of which were positive, and concluded that music is one of the most effective triggers of strong emotional experiences as confirmed by the studies reviewed in this chapter. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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