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The Effect of Music on the Production of Neurotransmitters, Hormones, Cytokines, and Peptides A Review



Research on the effects of music exposure on the release of biochemical messengers is an expanding field. The importance of understanding the influence of music on messenger production is a means of explaining behavioral reactions through physiological mechanisms. Signaling molecules that prove integral for important regulatory functions include neurotransmitters, hormones, cytokines, and peptides. Thus music elicits responses promoting positive emotions, alleviation of stress, and immune function. Study of the production of the messengers reveals the connection between the mind and the body. The purpose of the review is to provide a closer look into the effectual relationship between music and production of these messengers by providing literature and analysis.
Music and Medicine
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DOI: 10.1177/1943862111415117
2012 4: 40 originally published online 22 July 2011Music and Medicine Abhishek Gangrade
The Effect of Music on the Production of Neurotransmitters, Hormones, Cytokines, and Peptides: A
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The Effect of Music on the Production
of Neurotransmitters, Hormones,
Cytokines, and Peptides: A Review
Abhishek Gangrade, BS
Research on the effects of music exposure on the release of biochemical messengers is an expanding field. The importance
of understanding the influence of music on messenger production is a means of explaining behavioral reactions through
physiological mechanisms. Signaling molecules that prove integral for important regulatory functions include neurotransmitters,
hormones, cytokines, and peptides. Thus music elicits responses promoting positive emotions, alleviation of stress, and immune
function. Study of the production of the messengers reveals the connection between the mind and the body. The purpose of the
review is to provide a closer look into the effectual relationship between music and production of these messengers by
providing literature and analysis.
cytokines, hormones, music medicine, neurotransmitters, peptides
Music is widely regarded as a means of enjoyment and
entertainment. However, music has also been used toward
improving the well-being of patients. While the brain inter-
prets music, successive biochemical reactions are induced
within the body. Evidence indicates that music plays a role
in activating pleasure-seeking areas of the brain that become
stimulated by food, sex, and drugs.
Most research on the biological effects of music has revolved
around studies involving brain mapping and physiological para-
meters such as heart rate and blood pressure, venturing to
explain the cognitive processes behind music appreciation, stress
relief, and manifestations of emotions. In all the reviewed stud-
ies, pathways for translation of music inception in the brain to
changes in production of signaling molecules have been
hypothesized to explain the mechanisms. Through production
of messengers such as hormones, neurotransmitters, cytokines,
and proteins, music elicits biological responses to stress, emo-
tion, and immune function.
The messengers within the body range from simple to
complex molecules that provide functions crucial to survival.
Hormones certainly prove necessary for proper physiological
growth and development. Neurotransmitters are messengers
that regulate the activation or inhibition of neurons. Cytokines
are imperative toward maintenance of immune function and
growth. Proteins, such as antibodies, have many diverse roles
ranging from cell composition to tissue integrity.
The cited literature state the case for music as a stimulator or
inhibitor of messenger pathways in the body. To the author’s
knowledge, no review or summary on the effect of music on
production of all 4 aforementioned messengers has been
attempted thus far. I will first incorporate important findings
relating music to messenger production. I follow with a presen-
tation of the remaining objectives to be accomplished in this
field of research.
Music represents a noninvasive approach as opposed to
treatments such as hormone or cytokine therapies and medica-
tions. Further research on the effects of music may reveal the
precise functions of biochemical messengers. Today, an
emphasishasbeenplacedonpharmacological substances to
serveasremediesforpainorhyperactivity when music pro-
vides the simplest solution as an easily accessible form with-
out any known debilitating effects. For example, nicotine in
cigarettes stimulates production of dopamine, a neurotrans-
mitter involved in providing pleasure.
Music also has similar
effects on the dopaminergic pathway.
As a result, music
may pose as an effective substitute for other supplements to
help addicts quit smoking.
Music characterized by genres and musical elements evoke
distinct patterns of messenger production. Music of Johann
Strauss caused rises in atrial filling fraction and atrial natriure-
tic peptide and falls in cortisol and tissue-type plasminogen
University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA
Corresponding Author:
Abhishek Gangrade, University of Florida, 536 Serenity Place, Lake Mary, FL
32746, USA
Music and Medicine
4(1) 40-43
ªThe Author(s) 2012
Reprints and permission:
DOI: 10.1177/1943862111415117
activator (t-PA). Prolactin, cortisol, noradrenaline, and t-PA
concentrations decreased after listening to the music of H.
W. Henze. Ravi Shankar’s music resulted in lowered concen-
trations of cortisol, noradrenaline, and t-PA.
Listening to
techno music was found to alter levels of b-endorphin, adreno-
corticotropic hormone (ACTH), norepinephrine, growth
hormone, prolactin, and cortisol in healthy people.
cally ill patients who listened to Mozart’s slow piano sonatas
had increased growth hormone and decreased interleukin (IL)
6 levels.
Appreciation of a mixed selection of rock music
increased salivary immunoglobulin A (IgA).
The effects
of major and minor modes
and intensity of music
cortisol production have also been studied.
Different methods of measuring the concentrations were
implemented. Almost all the studies mentioned involve blood
drawn from the participants and tested for cytokines, Igs, hor-
mones, and neurotransmitters by immunoassays, such as
radioimmunossays and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays
(ELISA) to determine the concentrations. Dopamine levels
were measured by observing fluorescence intensities with a
brain-mapping analyzer.
High-pressure liquid chromatogra-
phy (HPLC) was used to measure norepinephrine and
In some studies, participants were administered music to
assess the possible relationship of perception and levels of par-
ticular messengers. Platelet serotonin is lower in participants
exposed to unpleasant music than those who listened to plea-
sant music.
Cortisol, IL-1b, and IL-10 levels did not change
in those listening to preferred music but changed in those
exposed to relaxing music.
Both morphine and IL-6
decreased in patients exposed to preferred music, leading to
lower blood pressure.
The clinical area has displayed promising effects of music in
battling specific conditions. Music decreases plasma concentra-
tions of cortisol, epinephrine, and t-PA in patients exposed to
regional anesthesia.
Music also is known to aid in fighting
cerebrovascular disease by activation of parasympathetic nervous
system, lowering concentrations of IL-6, tumor necrosis factor
(TNF), adrenaline, and noradrenaline.
Adrenocorticotropic hor-
mone, cortisol, adrenaline, and noradrenaline also have been
measured before and after gastroscopy.
Biochemical messenger
production has been found influential in providing a calming
effect in elderly patients with Alzheimer dementia.
Music has proven effective in improving the immune
function. Decreased corticosteroid production correlates with
the effect of music on immunity.
Rises in concentrations of
salivary IgA
and IL-1
are associated with falls in sali-
vary and plasma cortisol levels, respectively. In regard to coun-
tering the harmful effects of stress on immunity, music has
even proven to be as helpful as pharmacological treatments,
such as benzodiazepines and 5 hydroxytryptamine (HT) ago-
nists. There is also evidence that music may lead to production
of hormones and neurotransmitters that participate in T cell
proliferation and antitumor signaling.
Explanations for certain phenomena, such as learning, have
become possible with knowledge of the effect of music on the
production of messengers. For example, music influences
production of steroids including cortisol, testosterone, and
estrogen as well as their receptor proteins, leading to neurogen-
esis and improvements in learning in the brain.
Music may
regulate the production of neurotrophins in the hypothalamus,
causing reduction in stress and improved learning as well.
Not all studies concerned have produced results indicating
correlations between psychological and physiological out-
comes. Although patients felt less anxious after listening to
music, they revealed no differences in concentrations of no-
repinephrine, epinephrine, cortisol, or ACTH.
Some results
have been found to conflict with each other. Music therapy
increased adrenaline in one study
but decreased adrenaline
in another,
a result of the fact that music therapy protocols
vary from one administrator to another.
Further research is needed to explain with more specificity
the relationship between the psychological and physiological
manifestations of music. It has long been considered that phy-
siology affects psychology in a unidirectional manner. However,
some evidence indicates otherwise as oxytocin production is
increased by listening to music. Thus, psychological mechan-
isms influence physiological processes. More studies are needed
to clarify such cause and effect relationships.
Most studies simply observed the direct involvement of
music on messenger production by allowing participants to lis-
ten to music before measuring changes in concentrations. How-
ever, some studies combined both music and treatment with a
substance in order to examine the effect of the substance which
was either accentuated or reversed by music or vice versa.
For example, thrills in listeners are intensified by the opiate
receptor antagonist, naloxone hydrochloride. The thrills of
music could thus be linked to endogenous opioids.
other studies state that music decreases stress-induced hor-
mones, such as b-endorphin and ACTH.
It is important
to note the areas sampled for the messengers. Goldstein
sured central opioid activity as opposed to Halpaap et al
measured peripheral concentrations of b-endorphin.
While the studies exhibit promise toward the effects of
music on messenger production for developing improved med-
ical care, certain issues remain for further consideration. Most
experiments have focused attention on particular types of
music and have included neither large sample sizes nor wide
ranges of musical diversity as variables. Thus far, studies have
selected musical pieces for participants based on certain musi-
cal elements such as rhythm, tempo, and tonality but must not
ignore basic qualifications such as instrumental versus vocal
melodies and ethnic diversities.
Few studies were found to have compared profiles of mes-
senger production of musically educated and untrained parti-
cipants. Active participation in producing music increased
natural killer (NK) cell activity and changed gene expres-
sions for interferon-gand IL-10.
However, the participants
were merely motivated by a trained mentor to play percussion
instruments rather than to perform independently with musi-
cal knowledge. Musical ability has been found to influence
the production of hormones.
Musical talent and simply
Gangrade 41
listening to music have been compared with respect to
production of IgA and cortisol.
Exploring the exact functions of cytokines, neurotrans-
mitters, hormones, peptides, and other messengers requires
further research. While exposure to music may reveal such
functions through trends in messenger production, they are
not by any means causative. Complexity is apparent when dis-
cussing the aggregative effects of the messengers. A trend in
the production of a particular messenger may be offset or
amplified by the potency of another messenger. Thus, path-
ways of messenger production prove crucial to understanding
the connections between the mind and the body. One study
has shown that music may balance messenger levels by
increasing and decreasing steroids in those with low and high
hormone levels, respectively.
Further research on the link
between messenger outputs and physiological homeostasis
remains to be determined.
Learning about specific messenger changes as a result of lis-
tening to and processing music proves promising toward eluci-
dating therapeutic benefits. This article seeks to place emphasis
on a field believed to have real biological implications that may
become even more relevant in the clinical realm in the future.
Neurotransmitters, hormones, cytokines, and peptides provide
a more quantitative means of comparison for music studies.
They represent the direct link between music interpretation and
physiological reactions. Further research may encourage devel-
opment of better pharmacological drugs to combat problems
with lesser side effects or to pave the way for newer treatments.
All the literature reviewed for the effects of music on biochem-
ical messenger responses do not contain recordings or any other
type of specific musical content. The titles and composers of
the music were provided in the articles as they can be readily
accessed through the Internet. Thus, the relationships between
the specific types of music and their effects on the levels of bio-
chemical messengers serve as a foundation for further under-
standing the role of music in physiological mechanisms.
The author sincerely appreciates the guidance of Dr Miriam Zach
while writing this article.
Declaration of Conflicting Interests
The author(s) declared no potential conflicts of interest with respect to
the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article.
The author(s) received no financial support for the research, author-
ship, and/or publication of this article.
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Abhishek Gangrade, BS, received his bachelor of science degree in
biology at the University of Florida.
Gangrade 43
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... En este sentido, algunos estudios clínicos controlados han encontrado beneficios significativos con el uso de música para mejorar los niveles de depresión, ansiedad o dolor (Kraus y White-Schwoch, 2017). En este sentido, es sabido que la música es un estímulo ampliamente extendido en la sociedad y que escuchar música tiene un impacto beneficioso en niveles de bienestar (Fernández-Company et al., 2020) o de la salud de las personas, habiéndose demostrado que favorece el aumento de los niveles de sustancias químico/orgánicas entre las que se incluyen neurotransmisores, hormonas, citocinas y péptidos (Gangrade, 2012) como la norepinefrina (Panksepp y Bernatzky, 2002), cortisol (Thoma, 2013;Ventura, 2012) u oxitocina (Chanda y Levitin, 2013;Harvey, 2020;Keeler et al., 2015;Nilsson, 2009;Riedl, 2017;Sabino, 2020), que pueden contribuir en la mejora de la salud y el bienestar. En definitiva, la música es un recurso cotidiano al que acuden las personas para regular las emociones o el estado de ánimo (Fernández-Company et al., 2020;García-Rodríguez et al., 2021). ...
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La música es un estímulo ampliamente extendido en la sociedad ya que escuchar música tiene un impacto beneficioso en niveles de bienestar. Esta revisión narrativa tiene como objetivo principal dar a conocer los hallazgos previos sobre la eficacia de la escucha musical, la práctica instrumental o vocal y la musicoterapia desde diferentes perspectivas relacionadas con la mejora del bienestar, analizando literatura de impacto sobre este tema para conocer las técnicas, objetivos, instrumentos de evaluación y resultados más frecuentes. Se ha llevado a cabo una búsqueda estratégica a través de la consulta en bases de datos científicas. Se realizaron búsquedas en las siguientes bases de datos electrónicas internacionales: PubMed, Medline, Ovid, Cochrane Library, Google Scholar, REDALYC, Dialnet, SciELO y DOAJ. Se identificaron un total de 121 fuentes de las cuales se incluyeron 51 artículos en esta revisión. En los estudios se utilizaron técnicas de musicoterapia tanto receptivas como activas, escucha musical y práctica instrumental o vocal. Aunque esta revisión de la literatura identificó numerosos artículos de calidad contrastada, dada la heterogeneidad y la calidad metodológica de algunas de las investigaciones incluidas, es complejo extrapolar y generalizar resultados. De este modo, se considera necesario realizar más investigaciones con planteamientos metodológicos rigurosos que permitan divulgar resultados en este ámbito.
... Olahraga atau aktivitas fisik sambil mendengarkan musik keras dapat meningkatkan detak jantung lebih tinggi dibandingkan dengan melakukan olahraga dan mendengarkan musik lambat (Susanto et al., 2019). Demikian pula, penelitian lain telah membuktikan bahwa olahraga yang diiringi musik akan merangsang sistem saraf pusat dan saraf otonom, kesehatan, emosional, dan adaptasi fisiologis yang mengurangi stres akibat olahraga (Morgan et al., 2015), dan telah terbukti bahwa mendengarkan musik meningkatkan sekresi β-endorphin, hormon pertumbuhan, norepinefrin dan menurunkan sekresi hormon adrenokortikotropik (ACTH), kortisol, dan mengurangi peradangan (Gangrade, 2012). Hal ini dikarenakan musik dapat mengalihkan perhatian dari rasa lelah saat mendengarkan musik berdasarkan pilihan yang tepat dapat meningkatkan rasa senang dan meningkatkan performa saat aktivitas (Rad & Hafezi, 2013). ...
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p class="Abstract"> Abstract: Motor movement skills are an important aspect at every child's age and as an individual basis for reaching maturity in aspects of movement development. The research aims at an organized intervention program with various movement modifications through play and games activities. The design of this study was a pretest-posttest randomize control group design. Play and game learning activities for 30 minutes, by listening to music with a tempo of 140 beats/minute, with a frequency of twice/week for five weeks. data collection using TGMD-2 (Test Gross Motor Development-2). The results of statistical analysis with the Mann Whitney test determined an average score of 39.87 in the play and games experimental group without music and an average score of 47.37 for the play and games experimental group with music, there was a significant difference (2-tailed) 0.000 <0.05. This study shows that learning play and games by listening to music has a higher influence on the development of basic motor movement skills in grade II elementary school students. Abstrak: Keterampilan gerak motorik merupakan aspek penting pada setiap usia anak dan sebagai dasar individu untuk mencapai kematangan dalam aspek perkembangan gerak. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk program intervensi yang terorganisir dengan berbagai modifikasi gerakan melalui aktivitas play and games . Rancangan penelitian ini adalah rancangan desain randomize control group pretest-posttest . Aktivitas pembelajaran play and game selama 30 menit, dengan mendengarkan musik bertempo 140 denyut/menit, dengan frekuensi dua kali/minggu selama lima minggu. Pengambilan data menggunakan TGMD-2 (Test Gross Motor Development-2). Hasil analisis statistik dengan uji mann whitney menunjukan skor rata-rata 39.87 kelompok eksperimen play and games tanpa musik dan skor rata-rata 47.37 kelompok eksperimen play and games dengan musik, terdapat perbedaan signifikan (2-tailed) 0.000 < 0.05. Penelitian ini menunjukkan pembelajaran play and games dengan mendengarkan musik yang memiliki pengaruh lebih tinggi terhadap perkembangan keterampilan gerak dasar motorik pada siswa kelas II sekolah dasar. </strong
... Music elicits reactions in humans that promote positive emotions, stress relief and immune function, by soliciting different cellular signaling molecules including hormones, neurotransmitters, cytokines, and peptides (Gangrade 2012). Music can restore some of the homeostasis and thus reduce pain (Nelson et al. 2008). ...
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This review is based on recent publications about the effects of sound, and more particularly of music, on several aspects of physiology. It has been known for a long time that music has effects on the brain and on the functioning of different organs. In recent years, several publications also described specific effects of music on the physicochemical mechanisms in the other organisms, bacteria, plants and animals. These researches being rather disparate in the methodologies used and the results obtained, they need to be classified. In this review, we summarize the studies and attempt to explain the cellular mechanisms involved, by considering the properties of the plasma membrane and its links with the extracellular and intracellular medium. This field of research is currently in full expansion, but still requires further studies to understand and go further in the possible applications, the precise molecular mechanisms of effects of music still remain to be clarified. Keywords: sound, music, plant, animal, unicellular organism
... When looking for possible factors that protect against experiencing depressed mood, and actions and activities that could serve therapeutic functions, attention was paid to the value of music. Research to date has shown that music stimulates the endorphin system (Gangrade, 2012). Endorphins, commonly known as "happiness hormones", reduce stress and tension, leading to a state of euphoria and suppressing pain (Robinson, 2020). ...
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The authors of this work, noticing that opera is a combination of music and theater, examined the relationship between listening to opera music and mood changes in people over 50 years of age. The study took the form of a quasi-experiment. Recipients were invited to the previously prepared room, where the audiovisual material – a recording of the opera “La Traviata” – was presented for the first time. This was preceded by the respondents completing the SUPIN C30 and S30 questionnaires and a short survey by the authors. After the presentation of the stimulus, the subjects again filled in the SUPIN S30 questionnaire scale and the GEMS scale. The described procedure was carried out twice, using two different music materials. The procedure remained unchanged, while the audiovisual material changed. The second time, the participants were presented with a recording from the opera “The Barber of Seville”. The participants of the study were 30 people. In the studied group, there are no significant changes in emotional states in response to the opera “La Traviata”. In turn, the opera “The Barber of Seville” has no effect on a positive emotional state. Instead, it caused a statistically significant change in the level of negative emotional states. The results of this study are largely consistent with the results of other studies examining the relationship between music and mood, but there are also limitations – only two pieces of opera music were used and no control group was included. Research has shown that opera, as a specific musical genre, despite its peculiar form, affects mood and emotions.
... Fuente: Calderón et al., 2020. Otro aspecto neurobiológico relacionado significativamente con la respuesta emocional suscitada por la música es el aumento de nivel en neurotransmisores como la serotonina o la dopamina y la reducción de hormonas estresantes como la adrenalina (Altenmüller y Schlaug, 2012;Gangrade, 2012). También se ha comprobado que la emoción musical puede favorecer el incremento de la conectividad cerebral y la densidad de la materia gris (Zamorano et al., 2017). ...
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La música y su influencia sobre las emociones es un tema ampliamente tratado a lo largo de la historia de la música, sobre todo de forma aplicada. Es en estas últimas décadas cuando se han efectuado estudios científicos sobre la música como estímulo emocional. Algunos métodos, como la neuroimagen o las hormonas permiten un análisis detallado de los efectos de la música y el sonido sobre el ser humano. Este trabajo presenta las aportaciones más notables en este sentido a la vez que plantea actuaciones en el ámbito de la educación emocional mediante el uso de la música. La conciencia emocional y la regulación emocional, entre otras competencias, pueden verse claramente favorecidas gracias al uso de la música en la vida de las personas.
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Background: Children songs and rhymes moves from generation to generation, as a symbol of culture and value of each country and are one of the most enjoyable experiences which can play an important role in the parent-child emotional bond and help children's emotional and social development. In early years that are the sensitive period of attachment, songs and rhymes plays an important role in the parent-child relationship. This is especially important for hearing impaired children who need early intervention. Method: In this paper we used a descriptive analytical method. We gathered information about the subject from various information sources, including papers, books and online academic resources and scientific databases such as: Magiran, Elsevier, Wiley, PubMed, and Google Scholar from 1996 to 2017 and described and discussed them. Conclusion: Children songs and rhymes play important roles in the children's emotional development and can strengthen the parent-child emotional bond and children's social skills. In this article, we tried to study emotional and social development in children and the role of factors affecting them. We explained effective ways to facilitate these skills. Songs and rhymes can improve the learning process in hearing and deaf children.
Families have a heavy burden in caring for ODS. Heavy load perceived by the family due to the level of family knowledge and family stigma. This study aims to determine the relationship knowledge and stigma on families with family burdens in caring schizophrenia patient in the working area of Puskesmas Nanggalo Padang. Types of research this is correlation with the approach cross sectional. The population in this study is a family who cares for ODS in the working area of Puskemas Nanggalo Padang and a sample of 87 people taken withPurposive Sampling. Data collection using a questionnaire Family Interview Scale / Stigma Items, questionnaire knowledge, and a questionnaire Zarit Burden Interview (ZBI). Research result It was found that more than half (59.8%) of the families experienced a heavy burden, more than half (57.5%) of families have a lower or higher level of knowledge half (52.9%) of families experienced high stigma. There is a relationship meaning between the stigma in the family and the family burden (p =0,000). There is no significant relationship between the level of family knowledge with family burden (p =0.110). It is expected that health workers, especially nurses soul in society to provide health education to the community regarding Schizophrenia. So that society no longer gives stigma to families who will make the family embarrassed in caring for ODS.
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This study examines the effects of music and positive emotional states on autonomic and immune functions in normal, healthy individuals. Autonomic activity was assessed using power spectral density analysis of heart rate variability, and salivary IgA was used as a marker of immunity. The effects of rock, new age and designer music were examined alone, and in conjunction with a self-induced positive emotional state. The results indicate that only the designer music and the self-induced state of appreciation produced a significant increase in autonomic activity and salivary IgA (S-IgA). In addition, the combination of the designer music and the self-induced appreciation produced a much greater immunoenhancement than either of these two conditions alone. We conclude that music can be designed to enhance the beneficial effects of positive emotional states on immunity, and that this effect may be mediated by the autonomic nervous system. These data raise the tantalizing possibility that music and emotional self-management may have significant health benefits in a variety of clinical situations in which there is immunosuppression and autonomic imbalance.
Background: Receptive music therapy is widely applied in patients with cardiovascular diseases. We studied the impact of listening to music on physiological variables. Patients and methods: In a prospective clinical intervention study 40 patients (mean age 56+/-10 years) with angiographically proven coronary artery disease (n=20) or arterial hypertension (n=20) and 20 healthy control subjects (26+/-3 years) were investigated before and after listening meditative music (by R. Shankar), rhythmic music (by J. Strauss) and non-rhythmic music (by H. W. Henze). Adrenaline, noradrenaline, cortisol, prolactin, atrionatriuretic peptide and tissue plasminogen activator were measured. Hemodynamic data were recorded including heart rate, blood pressure and various parameters of left ventricular diastolic function by means of Doppler echocardiography. The actual mood of the participants was assessed by a psychometric score (Zerssen). Results: Systolic blood pressure was significantly lower after the music of Shankar in patients (-5 mmHg, p=0.011). Cortisol levels fell after all three pieces of music in patients but only after Shankar in controls. In patients, adrenaline (-6.1 ng(.)l(-1), p=0.015) and noradrenaline (-42.7 ng(.)l(-1), p=0.082) were lower after Shankar, and noradrenaline decreased (-40.4 ng(.)l(-1), p=0.015) in controls after this music. The changes of mood were inversely linear correlated with adrenaline (r=-0.384, p=0.017) and noradrenaline (r=-0.375, p=0.02) in patients after music of Shankar. Conclusions: A short period of listening to different types of music lowers stress in patients and controls. Listening to music has a potential as adjuvant stress reducing therapy and the effects seem to be independent of the individual music perception.
The purpose of this study was to measure the effects of music, progressive muscle relaxation (PMR), and guided imagery (GI) on the adrenal corticosteroids, or “stress hormones.” Hypotheses were designed to evaluate the effect of a taped induction of music/PMR/GI on the mean level (1), circadian amplitude (2), and circadian re-entrainment with body temperature (3) of urinary corticosteroids. Urine collections and body temperature were recorded in shift-working nurses during three 4–5 day intervals over a 1-month period. The nurses listened to the tape on a daily basis, commencing after the first recording period. Results indicated that circadian amplitude decreased significantly (p = .007), and corticosteroid and temperature rhythms were significantly (p < .01) more entrained during the tape conditions. The mean corticosteroid level also declined during tape listening, but nonsignificantly (p = .15). Because of the close relationship between corticosteroids and the immune system, these data suggest a relationship between music/relaxation techniques and physical health.
The purposes of this study were (a) to determine whether listening to selected music and expression of “perceived sensory experiences” would produce significant changes in the immune system as measured by interleukin-1 and cortisol, and (b) to determine the relationships between such changes and “perceived sensory experiences” as measured by the presence of imagery factors in drawings produced by the subjects following the music listening experience. Thirty-six subjects were divided into two experimental and two control groups. Blood samples taken before and after treatment were assayed for changes in immune agents interleukin-1 (IL-1) and cortisol. A significant increase in IL-1 was shown in one experimental group; a significant decrease in cortisol was shown in both experimental groups. No significant effects were found in the control groups. No significant relationships were established between “perceived sensory experiences” and immune agent changes.
The present study investigated the effectiveness of music therapy for dementia patients using endocrinological and behavioral evaluations. The study comprised 10 patients with senile dementia who received music therapy; six had Alzheimer's dementia and four had vascular dementia. Music therapy was performed twice a week for 8 consecutive weeks (16 sessions). As a result, total scores on the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) did not significantly change, but the scores of a subscale, ‘language’, improved significantly. According to the Multidimensional Observation Scale For Elderly Subjects (MOSES), scores for ‘irritability’ decreased significantly. Regarding changes in salivary chromogranin A (CgA) levels, the average was significantly decreased before session 16 compared to after this. These results suggest that the combination of endocrinological measurements, behavioral evaluations and functional assessment methods are useful in evaluating the effects of music therapy in persons with senile dementia.
This study explored the effect of music and imagery on plasma -endorphin in 78 undergraduates. Subjects screened for relevant psychological and health criteria were assigned to music imaging, silent imaging, music listening, and control conditions. Subjects donated 15 ml of blood prior to and following the 2-hr intervention period. There were no group differences in potential confounding variables. Split-plot factorial analysis controlling for individual differences in pretest level of -endorphin revealed that those in the music imaging group experienced a significant pre–post decline in -endorphin, while no other group demonstrated any significant pre–post difference. These data suggest that music imaging may lower peripheral -endorphin levels in healthy subjects. Further exploration of the effects of music and imagery interventions on physiology and health may be warranted.