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Abstract

Writing is analyzed as thinking that uses paper or other media to externalize and manipulate symbolic expressions. Mental operations of natural language can occur somewhat independently, and they communicate well with language that has been written, but for skilled writing these operations need elaborate installation in the mind. We explore four methods to see how expert writers externalize thoughts and interact with them: laboratory comparisons of novices and experts, interviews with accomplished writers (mostly of prose fiction), biographical analysis of Jane Austen's development as a writer, and consideration of Gustave Flaubert's notes and drafts. Writers can use paper to extend their thinking, and to create frameworks of cues that enable readers of a story to construct mental models that they may enter empathetically. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved)
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... writing a letter to senator actually need low of physical effort but need a higher thinking skill to make an opinion that influence someone's tough. Writing skill need elaborate installation in the mind [24]. The ability to write some letter also indicate that students achieve critical component in successful learning [25]. ...
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Aberration in the northern coastal area of Central Java province of Indonesia is at an alarming level. What are the students think about the surrounding environment becomes very important information in increasing the environmental literacy in the region. 329 of students were given a questionnaire and some were interviewed to explore their opinions and verbal commitment to the various environmental issues and actions they could take. There is a variation in the verbal commitment of students who are dominated by willingness to invite others in pollution prevention efforts. Other results indicate that students have low scores on energy saving aspects. So it is necessary to update learning especially those related to environmental literacy.
... Arguably, the most important feature of a fictional narrative is its characters (Hogan, 2003;Miall, 1988). In Flaubert's five-stage theory of creative writing, the first step is creating an initial character sketch (Oatley & Djikic, 2008). This sketch, or outline or plan, is a foundational step in a character's depiction. ...
... Task explorations that are conversational cannot be decoupled from explorations that are executed with the 'pen'. The act of writing cannot be decoupled from the act of thinking (Oatley & Djikic, 2008), whether private or conversational. ...
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