Evaluating the Effects of a Systemic Intervention on First-Grade Teachers’ Explicit Reading Instruction

Learning Disability Quarterly (Impact Factor: 0.77). 11/2013; 36(4):215-230. DOI: 10.1177/0731948712472186


This article examines the efficacy of a multitiered systemic reading intervention for increasing the intensity and quality of explicit literacy instruction that teachers provide in first-grade classrooms. Schools (j = 16) were randomly assigned to the treatment or comparison condition. In both conditions, teachers (i = 42) provided 90 min of Tier I reading instruction to first-grade students (n = 883). In the treatment condition, Tier I classroom teachers were trained to enhance their core reading instruction by making instruction more explicit and intensive through standardized protocols and ongoing coaching support. At-risk treatment students (n = 240) also received an additional 30 min of Tier II supplemental reading intervention that was highly aligned with Tier I instruction. The focus of this study is on the Tier I portion of the multitiered intervention and the impact of the Tier I Enhancing Core Reading Instruction intervention on teacher practices. Results indicate positive effects of the Tier I intervention on the quality of explicit instruction and the frequency and accuracy of group practice opportunities provided to students.

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    • "The practice opportunities necessary for deep understanding are limited in number and do not provide enough guided support for struggling readers. The practice opportunities are often restricted in range so that students end up practicing what they have learned under a narrow set of examples (Baker et al., 2010; Nelson-Walker et al., 2013). The ECRI enhancements were designed to make core instruction more explicit and systematic (Baker et al., 2010). "
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    ABSTRACT: This article presents findings of an efficacy trial examining the effect of a multitiered instruction and intervention model on first grade at-risk students' reading outcomes. Schools (N = 16) were randomly assigned to the treatment or control condition. In the fall of Grade 1, students were assigned to an instructional tier on the basis of Stanford Achievement Test-10th Edition scores (31st percentile and above = Tier 1; from the 10th to the 30th percentile = Tier 2). In both conditions, students identified as at risk (i.e., Tier 2; n = 267) received 90 min of whole group instruction (Tier 1) and an additional 30 min of daily small group intervention (Tier 2). In the treatment condition, teachers were trained to enhance core reading instruction by making instruction more explicit and increasing practice opportunities for students in Tier 1. In addition, at-risk readers were provided an additional 30-min daily small group intervention with content that was highly aligned with the Tier 1 core reading program. Results indicate significant, positive effects of the intervention on students' decoding and first semester fluent reading and potentially positive effects on reading comprehension and total reading achievement.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2014 · Journal of Learning Disabilities
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    ABSTRACT: The extent to which teachers implement evidence based practices, such as explicit instruction, is critical for improving student mathematics achievement. The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of the kindergarten Early Learning Mathematics (ELM) curriculum on teachers’ use of explicit mathematics instruction in core educational settings. Observation data for the study were collected during a randomized control trial designed to investigate the efficacy of the ELM curriculum. A multifaceted observation system was utilized to examine teachers’ provision of high-quality and intensive instructional interactions during core mathematics instruction. A total of 379 observations were conducted in 129 classrooms (68 treatment and 61 control), involving approximately 2,700 students from 46 schools in Oregon and Texas.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2014 · Assessment for Effective Intervention
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    ABSTRACT: Explicit instruction is a systematic instructional approach that facilitates frequent and meaningful instructional interactions between teachers and students around critical academic content. This study examined the relationship between student mathematics outcomes and the rate and quality of explicit instructional interactions that occur during core mathematics instruction in kindergarten classrooms using a multifaceted observation system. A total of 379 observations were conducted in 129 classrooms, involving approximately 2,200 students across a 2-year span. Results suggest that the rate and quality of instructional interactions is related to student mathematics achievement. Implications for instruction and observation research are discussed.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · The Elementary School Journal