Article

The Educational Benefits of Travel Experiences A Literature Review

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Abstract

Empirical evidence about the educational outcomes of travel is scattered across many fields of study. This paper reviews the literature on the educational benefits of travel, beginning with the literature on study abroad. Learning outcomes have been found from the travel portion of the study experience, and some research has found that out-of-class experiences were the most impactful portion of study abroad. Personal growth, increase in life skills, and knowledge also result from independent international travel, as well as “objectiveless” travel. A few studies have focused on adults and seniors, but the research primarily has focused on young adults and college students. After a review of the literature, numerous suggestions for future study are provided, including a focus on the educational outcomes of domestic travel, youth travel, and determining which travel experiences result in the most learning benefits.

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... Scant research on tourism mentioned travel transformations without a long-term holistic approach and empirical depth overlooking its factors and typologies of sustained tourism transformations. Various benefits e.g., educational (Stone & Petrick, 2013), health and wellness (Chen and Petrick, 2013) of travel have been listed, and transformation is usually associated with personal development and growth (Milstein, 2005;Stone & Petrick, 2013), cosmopolitan perspective (Bruner, 1991), alterations in values, growth and development of generic skills (Pearce andFoster, 2007) priorities, lifestyle (Reisinger, 2013), self-change (Noy, 2004) and well-being Lean, 2009). A limited number of scholars studying the relationship between travel and transformation have focused on different motivations, including backpacker's travel narratives (Noy, 2004), transformation power of sojourners (Milstein, 2005), ecotourism (Sowards, 2012), volunteer activities (Zahra and McIntocsh, 2007) and the educational (transformative and experiential learning) benefits of travel (Stone and Petrick, 2013). ...
... Scant research on tourism mentioned travel transformations without a long-term holistic approach and empirical depth overlooking its factors and typologies of sustained tourism transformations. Various benefits e.g., educational (Stone & Petrick, 2013), health and wellness (Chen and Petrick, 2013) of travel have been listed, and transformation is usually associated with personal development and growth (Milstein, 2005;Stone & Petrick, 2013), cosmopolitan perspective (Bruner, 1991), alterations in values, growth and development of generic skills (Pearce andFoster, 2007) priorities, lifestyle (Reisinger, 2013), self-change (Noy, 2004) and well-being Lean, 2009). A limited number of scholars studying the relationship between travel and transformation have focused on different motivations, including backpacker's travel narratives (Noy, 2004), transformation power of sojourners (Milstein, 2005), ecotourism (Sowards, 2012), volunteer activities (Zahra and McIntocsh, 2007) and the educational (transformative and experiential learning) benefits of travel (Stone and Petrick, 2013). ...
... Various benefits e.g., educational (Stone & Petrick, 2013), health and wellness (Chen and Petrick, 2013) of travel have been listed, and transformation is usually associated with personal development and growth (Milstein, 2005;Stone & Petrick, 2013), cosmopolitan perspective (Bruner, 1991), alterations in values, growth and development of generic skills (Pearce andFoster, 2007) priorities, lifestyle (Reisinger, 2013), self-change (Noy, 2004) and well-being Lean, 2009). A limited number of scholars studying the relationship between travel and transformation have focused on different motivations, including backpacker's travel narratives (Noy, 2004), transformation power of sojourners (Milstein, 2005), ecotourism (Sowards, 2012), volunteer activities (Zahra and McIntocsh, 2007) and the educational (transformative and experiential learning) benefits of travel (Stone and Petrick, 2013). Moreover, studies on the relationship between transformation and travel have often explored the impact of travel on a particular tourist group, such as backpackers or ecotourists. ...
Article
Transformative tourism experiences result in long-term changes in attitudes and behavior. Although research on transformative tourism has flourished in recent years, there is still a limited number of studies that investigate the travelers' experiences to examine the impact of travel on one's attitudes and behaviors. This exploratory study seeks to identify factors affecting transformative travel experiences to emerge. A typology of travel transformations is also offered based on a qualitative case study conducted on Turkish travelers. As a result of thematic content analysis of in-depth interviews with 30 travelers, the main themes affecting travel transformations emerged as tripograhic, personal and destination-based determinants, whereas the types of transformations were classified under behavioral, attitudinal, and personality changes. If tourist transformations could be understood better, this might result in better promotion of travel as a leisure activity not just at the individual level but at the policy level. Destinations, tour operators, and other hospitality organizations would position their product in a potentially more transformative way if they know the causes and outcomes of travel-related transformations.
... In most cases, studies focus on describing and/or explaining how students experience the exchange. Comparative studies of students staying at home and exchange students have demonstrated that exchange students display increased levels of independence, intercultural development, and academic performance after returning home (Bachner & Zeutschel, 2009;Stone & Petrick, 2013). Akhtar et al. (2015) identified factors explaining well-being of African students enrolled in Chinese universities. ...
... Traveling to other countries for the purpose of learning and development has a long tradition. In sixteenth and seventeenth century Europe, scholars and artists traveled to meet influential peers and experience other cultures; members of the British elite sent their sons on the Grand Tour to venture across continental Europe (Stone & Petrick, 2013;van 't Klooster et al., 2008). In a review of the literature on exchange students' experiences, Stone and Petrick (2013) identified a wish to travel and to learn a new culture or language as the main motivation for students to study abroad. ...
... In sixteenth and seventeenth century Europe, scholars and artists traveled to meet influential peers and experience other cultures; members of the British elite sent their sons on the Grand Tour to venture across continental Europe (Stone & Petrick, 2013;van 't Klooster et al., 2008). In a review of the literature on exchange students' experiences, Stone and Petrick (2013) identified a wish to travel and to learn a new culture or language as the main motivation for students to study abroad. Other studies emphasize global engagement, intercultural development, and intellectual and cultural growth of knowledge as either intended or realized outcomes (van 't Klooster et al., 2008). ...
Article
This study reports on adolescents' experiences as exchange students in the Rotary Youth Exchange program. Based on a literature review and multivariate analysis of original survey data collected from 408 exchange students from 40 home countries that had spent a year in one out of 37 destination countries, the study concludes that students' perceived social support during the exchange and students' proficiency in mastering the destination country's language impacted their well-being during the exchange. Neither cultural distance between the student's home country and destination nor the student's adventurousness as a personality trait had an impact on well-being during the exchange. These empirical findings suggest that the students' social support and ability to interact during the exchange play an important role in enabling exchange students to reap the benefits of international and intercultural exchange in their formative years.
... However, there is no consensus around the definition of "educational tourism." While some scholars define it as "informal journey[s] of self-discovery" (Mcgladdery & Lubbe, 2017, p. 8) or backpacking rites of passage (Pitman et al., 2010), others have adopted narrower definitions, thereby reserving the term for organized trips led by skilled guides (Sie et al., 2015), and more formally organized travel (Stone & Petrick, 2013). Ritchie (2003), adopting a market segment approach, divided educational tourism into "education first" or "tourism first." ...
... Out-of-class experiences, instead of in-class academic experiences, may be the most impactful part of study abroad journeys (Gmelch, 1997;Laubscher, 1994;Stone & Petrick, 2013). According to Stone and Petrick (2013), it is not exclusively through formal study abroad programs that travel for learning occurs. ...
... Out-of-class experiences, instead of in-class academic experiences, may be the most impactful part of study abroad journeys (Gmelch, 1997;Laubscher, 1994;Stone & Petrick, 2013). According to Stone and Petrick (2013), it is not exclusively through formal study abroad programs that travel for learning occurs. Independent international travel may yield similar learning benefits. ...
The main aim of this study is to explore post-travel outcomes in language travel. It sought to address the following research objectives: to understand the factors that influenced language travelers’ language and destination choice; to understand the main post-travel outcomes for language travelers, from a long-term perspective; and to understand how language travel influences subsequent travel behavior, in particular return intentions and return behavior. Overall, the study findings suggest that participants’ intrinsic interest in language and culture drove their language choice, while destination choice was mostly driven by their desire to enhance language skills. The main language travel outcomes included: the improvement of language abilities and subsequent professional and academic outcomes; personal growth; further language travel, including returning or migrating to previous travel destinations.
... Likewise, researchers studying the subject of study abroad have shown that such programs benefit students in many fields. These include personal development, intercultural skills, academic performance (Stone & Petrick, 2013), being more successful at finding a job and achieving professional goals (Marcotte et al., 2007), and acquiring critical thinking skills (Savicki et al., 2004). Therefore, it is seen that study abroad programs are beneficial regardless of whether they are short or long-term (Nguyen et al., 2018). ...
... Benzer bir biçimde, yurt dışı eğitim konusunu çalışan araştırmacılar bu tür programların birçok alanda öğrencilere fayda sağladığını göstermişlerdir. Bunların arasında kişisel gelişim, kültürlerarası beceriler, akademik performans (Stone & Petrick, 2013), iş bulma ve mesleki hedeflere ulaşma konusunda daha başarılı olma (Marcotte vd., 2007) ve eleştirel düşünme becerileri kazanma (Savicki vd., 2004) gibi özellikler yer almaktadır. Dolayısıyla yurt dışı eğitim programlarının kısa ya da uzun süreli olmalarına bakılmaksızın yararlı oldukları görülmektedir (Nguyen vd., 2018). ...
Article
Bu çalışmanın amacı, Erasmus+ öğrenci değişim programından yararlanan öğrencilerin bazı demografik değişkenler (ailenin geliri, ebeveyn eğitim düzeyi) ve kişilik özellikleri yönünden diğer öğrenciler ile karşılaştırılması ve bu programdan yararlanma isteğini yordayan değişkenlerin incelenmesidir. Araştırma, Ege Üniversitesinde öğrenim gören 264 öğrenciyle yürütülmüştür. Veriler demografik özellikler ve yurt dışında eğitim görme ile ilgili anket soruları ve on maddeli kişilik ölçeği ile toplanmıştır. Araştırmadan elde edilen bulgular, Erasmus+ öğrenci hareketliliğinden yararlanan öğrenciler ile yararlanmayanlar arasında ailenin gelir düzeyi, ebeveyn eğitim düzeyi gibi demografik değişkenler ve bazı kişilik özellikleri açısından farklar olduğunu göstermiştir. Yurt dışına Erasmus+ için gitmekte olan öğrencilerin aile gelir ve ebeveyn eğitim düzeyinin, duygusal denge, dışa dönüklük ve sorumluluk kişilik boyutlarından aldıkları puanların diğer öğrencilerden anlamlı bir biçimde yüksek olduğu gözlenmiştir. Ayrıca, anne eğitim düzeyinin ve dışa dönüklük kişilik boyutunun Erasmus+ eğitim değişim programından faydalanma isteğini yordadığı görülmüştür.
... Additionally, when we consider savoring processes in tourism contexts, the factor of knowledge gain (henceforth referred to as Knowing)-effectively building an understanding of the place or people at the destination-may be an important consideration (Pearce & Mohammadi, 2019;Pearce, Oguchi, Wu, & Mohammadi, 2016). Studies have found that tourism experiences lead to gaining knowledge and skills (e.g., Scarinci & Pearce, 2012;Stone & Petrick, 2013), which assists in forming memories of the time spent, facilitating positive recall, and reflecting on experiences after traveling (Kim & Ritchie, 2014;Kim, Ritchie, & McCormick, 2012;Tung & Ritchie, 2011). Following this literature, we examined the content of Knowing together with the other four savoring processes. ...
... Research from several areas of tourism and leisure studies can be examined to reinforce the rationale of including Knowing in the list of savoring processes. Many scholars have focused on unstructured learning in tourism contexts and noted that tourism experiences are one process by which individuals acquire new knowledge and skills (e.g., Chen et al., 2019;Falk, Ballantyne, Packer, & Benckendorff, 2012;Pearce & Foster, 2007;Scarinci & Pearce, 2012;Stone & Petrick, 2013). Moreover, empirical studies have shown that knowledge gain is an important component that makes people positively remember holiday episodes (Kim et al., 2012;Kim & Ritchie, 2014). ...
Article
Full-text available
This study aimed to explore the basic processes underpinning savoring tourism experiences. Specifically, we investigated the content of tourism experiences associated with savoring processes and the interrelationships between each savoring process. Thanksgiving, Basking, Marveling, and Luxuriating, which are all established savoring processes, were examined, and the potential new process of Knowing (knowledge gain) was also considered. The quantitative content analyses identified several key contents of positive tourism that stimulated savoring processes from emotional and experiential perspectives. Moreover, using a rating scale format, our study suggested the co-existence of the savoring processes and their interrelationships, including Knowing. The results increase the field's understanding of tourists' post-travel reflections and connect savoring to research on positive tourism.
... Study abroad experiences are generally acknowledged to beneficially impact students' education (Roberson, 2018;Stone & Petrick, 2013). Primarily these experiences root themselves in the foundations of experiential learning, a concept initiated by Dewey (1938) and most recently expanded upon by Kolb (1984), where the instance of travel provides students with an opportunity to be flexible, reflect, and learn (Roberson, 2018;Stone & Petrick, 2013). ...
... Study abroad experiences are generally acknowledged to beneficially impact students' education (Roberson, 2018;Stone & Petrick, 2013). Primarily these experiences root themselves in the foundations of experiential learning, a concept initiated by Dewey (1938) and most recently expanded upon by Kolb (1984), where the instance of travel provides students with an opportunity to be flexible, reflect, and learn (Roberson, 2018;Stone & Petrick, 2013). Study abroad experiences additionally often introduce students to other cultures, social norms, and attitudes. ...
... personal change(Alexander, Bakir, and Wickens 2010;Dwyer 2004).Much personal growth associated with international education happens outside the classroom(Stone and Petrick 2013). Research on primary and secondary school children of higher socioeconomic background who spend significant parts of their youth outside of their parents' culture, so-called 'third culture kids'(Pollock, Van Reken, and Pollock 2017), shows that cross-cultural interactions offer a wealth of learning opportunities. ...
... Theoretically, much of the ISM and travel and tourism literature emphasizes the importance of contextual and bodily experiences for personal growth (e.g.,Pollock, Van Reken, and Pollock 2017). Methodologically, however, most of these studies consist of survey research or one-off interviews, usually conducted within the country of permanent residence(Stone and Petrick 2013 ...
Thesis
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One in five young people across the European Union has a migration background, meaning that either they or their parents were born abroad. Many of these young people engage in visits to the country of origin on a regular basis and/or have been mobile before they migrated to Europe. Even though there is much research on the impact of migration on young people, their actual mobility has hardly been investigated. This dissertation investigates how the physical mobility to and within Ghana shapes the lives of Ghanaian-background youth living in Belgium. It does so by examining their ‘mobility trajectories’, that is, not only the migration move but all movements young people undertake over time and across geographically distinct localities, the concomitant family constellations these moves entail, and what happens during mobility. Ethnographic research in Belgium and Ghana with 25 young people of Ghanaian-background reveals how youth use their own mobility and digital media to create and maintain effective engagements, meaning the connections with people and places in the country of origin. These connections in turn shape experiences with family reunification and separation, personal growth and future pathways, and their relationship with the country of origin.
... The link of travel in school trips and learning values attached are argued to motivating many educators to duplicate the model to students. Despite others seemed to underestimate the trips' importance to produce element of a learning experience outcomes, they indicated formal learning environments can impart important element of knowledge (Davies et al., 2013;Stone & Petrick, 2013). Moving for one place to another and travelers' learning experience can also be linked to concept drawn by Aristotle's concept of three competencies, episteme, techne and phronesis. ...
... Kolb (1984) underlined four stages occurs in experiential learning model such as (concrete experience), perception (abstract conceptualization), cognition (reflective observation) and behavior (active experimentation) (Figure 3). Source: (Stone & Petrick, 2013) This model represents well the meaning of gaining knowledge through travel and how learning was built upon reflection on contextual things. Mouton (2002) in his research previously found that interactions and encounters, self-understanding and reflection helped the respondents to derive meaning from the travel experience. ...
Article
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Learning can take place outside school setting and school trips are often used to complement formal learning in classroom. As a sub type of educational tourism, the trips have been evolved and focused to enrich students learning experience. This paper provides discussion of educational school trip context, tourism elements in school trips, how school trip connects to learning in outdoor setting and challenges in conducting school trips. Compelling explanations are provided for better understanding this segment and can be an opportunity for many parties to reflect and work together to foster learning experience and facilitate leisure and tourism activities for students. Öz Öğrenme okul ortamının dışında gerçekleşebilir ve okul gezileri genellikle sınıf içi örgün öğrenmenin alternatifi olarak kullanılır. Eğitim turizminin bir alt türü olan geziler, öğrencilerin öğrenme deneyimini zenginleştirmeye odaklanmış ve gelişmiştir. Bu makale, eğitim amaçlı okul gezisi kavramını, okul gezilerindeki turizm unsurları, okul gezisinin açık hava ortamında öğrenmeyle nasıl bağlantılı olduğu ve okul gezilerinin yürütülmesindeki zorluklar hakkında tartışma sunmaktadır. Bu bölümü daha iyi anlamak için ikna edici açıklamalar sağlanmıştır ve birçok taraf için öğrenme deneyimini geliştirmek ve öğrenciler için boş zaman ve turizm faaliyetlerini kolaylaştırmak için birlikte düşünmek ve birlikte çalışmak için bir fırsat olabilir.
... Among cultural tourism niches, literary tourism is one of those to which public and private entities have been paying increasing attention, a growth that in the lack of concrete data (Karan Thompson Consulting Limited, 2018) is confirmed by the increasing number of literary routes, museum houses for writers and literary festivals all over the world. Stone and Petrick (2013) categorize the relationship between tourism and education as either 'education first' or 'tourism first'. The former involves school, college and university students and the tourist experience is secondary to the formal learning. ...
... Thousands of students travel around the world on exchange programmes (Courtois, 2018). There are also many who travel for a few months to another country to learn a new language and those who move abroad or even within their own country for a few days on study visits (Stone and Petrick, 2013). All these tourists have in common the search for immersion in the culture and language of the visited destination -termed 'idiomatic tourism' by the World Tourism Organization. ...
Chapter
Literary tourism is defined as the activity which involves visiting places linked with authors and their stories (Busby &Klug, 2001). It is not only concerned with works of fiction because other literary forms also have an emotional pull for visitors. Among cultural tourism niches, literary tourism is one of those to which public and private entities have been paying increasing attention, a growth that in the lack of concrete data (Karan Thompson Consulting Limited, 2018) is confirmed by the increasing number of literary routes, museum houses for writers, and literary festivals all over the world. However, this practice is not yet seen as very profitable. We can even say that, with the exception of extremely successful adaptations to cinema or television, literary tourism does not attract crowds and, therefore, it is not immediately as profitable as other niches and segments.
... Much personal growth associated with international education happens outside the classroom (Stone and Petrick 2013). Research on primary and secondary school children of higher socioeconomic background who spend significant parts of their youth outside of their parents' culture, so-called 'third culture kids' (Pollock, Van Reken, and Pollock 2017), shows that cross-cultural interactions offer a wealth of learning opportunities. ...
... Pollock, Van Reken, and Pollock 2017). Methodologically, however, most of these studies consist of survey research or one-off interviews, usually conducted within the country of permanent residence (Stone and Petrick 2013). Our multi-sited, multi-method research design, by contrast, allowed us to observe and, to some extent, experience with our own bodies what transpires during young people's travels. ...
Article
Full-text available
Migrant-background youth travel often to their or their parents’ country of origin, yet little is known about how such trips affect their personal growth. These trips have either been ignored or analysed through concepts of belonging or identity. By contrast, studies on international education and travel and tourism, which commonly focus on youth without migration background, highlight positive personal impacts of experiences abroad. This paper applies a personal growth lens to analyse how visits to the origin country impact Ghanaian-background youth living in Belgium. Drawing on 18 months of ethnographic fieldwork in Belgium and Ghana with 25 young people, we show how such trips stimulate self-confidence and aspirations. Self-confidence is strengthened through favourable treatment and access to luxurious spaces that make youth feel special. Young people develop educational and career aspirations after comparing opportunity structures they face in Belgium with their experiences in Ghana and engaging with Ghanaian role models.
... 61-78), travel assistance for special needs children (Kim & Lehto, 2013), experiences and perspectives of young children (Yang & Lau, 2019), teens (Gao et al., 2020) and pre-teens (Tong, Pearce, Zhai, & Shen, 2020). Although family travel has been acknowledged for its potential learning opportunities for children (Stone & Petrick, 2013), limited research has investigated children's learning in family travel (Wu, Kirillova, & Lehto, 2021). Among the various sub-groups of children, the adolescent travelers have received even less sufficient attention as we seek to understand how adolescents interface with family tourism as they experience volatile emotions, learn to assert personal identity and independence in their formative years. ...
... Family travel experience offers potential learning opportunities for children (Stone & Petrick, 2013) and family interaction is conductive to children's educational outcomes (Park, Pan, & Ahn, 2020). For example, Shaw and Dawson (2001) revealed that Canadian parents purposely plan and organize family leisure to satisfy adolescent's developmental needs, including knowledge and skill cultivation, development of healthy living habits and moral values. ...
Article
Family travel is conducive to family function and tourists' personal development. Despite its long-established emphasis of family and learning through travel, limited effort has been invested in understanding Chinese adolescents' learning outcomes in the family tourism literature. This study adopted a mixed-method approach to establish a measure for such learning outcomes and validated the measurement scale via three rounds of surveys. The results suggested an eighteen-item and four-factor learning outcome structure with acceptable levels of reliability and validity. The four factors were family awareness, personal capability, destination knowledge and self-reflection. Family awareness was found to be the strongest predictor for Chinese adolescents’ well-being in family travel.
... Young people's travels have not been the focus of researchers internationally (Staffieri et al, 2017), so there is still room for new research. The importance of further research cannot be overstated, as youth travel has positive effects on education, self-confidence, skill development, maturation, cultural growth, cross-cultural communication and individual change (Priyanto & Andrianto, 2022;Staffieri et al, 2017;Stone & Petrick, 2013). ...
Conference Paper
Purpose – Young people represent a significant segment of the tourism market, accounting for 23% of the total tourism market, according to UNWTO. This segment provides socio-economic opportunities for local communities as young travellers boost local tourism businesses, foster closer social interaction with host populations, and engage in environmental protection. The purpose of this research is to identify the basic characteristics of travel among young people from Croatia and Serbia and to determine which elements are most important to them when choosing a destination, while also determining whether there are differences between respondents from these two groups. Methodology - an online survey was conducted in Croatia and Serbia. The sample includes young people between the ages of 15 and 30. Descriptive statistical analysis was used to create the sample profile. Pearson’s chi-square tests and Mann-Whitney U tests were performed to detect significant differences between young respondents from Croatia and those from Serbia. Findings – The results of this study show that marketers can consider Croatian and Serbian youth travellers as a single market segment, because they are indistinguishable in many ways. Their motives and activities at the destination are similar, as are the elements by which they choose their holiday destination. Their attitudes toward sustainability issues also do not differ. Originality of the research – There is a considerable amount of academic research on young people and their travel. However, few studies have examined the travel of young people from Southeastern Europe or the attitudes of young people who experienced the pandemic. This study aims to fill this gap by providing insights into the attitudes of young travellers from Croatia and Serbia and what they look for when choosing a travel destination. Another important contribution is that this study also captures the views of young people from neighbouring countries, which provides an opportunity for comparison. This information will enable the destination management targeting young tourists to create tailored offers for the young population, which will have a positive longterm impact on the economy and the local community.
... Es decir, está orientada a conseguir unos objetivos. Algunos autores afirman que los estudiantes están motivados para estudiar fuera de su lugar de residencia, especialmente en el extranjero, por el desarrollo de habilidades personales y profesionales, nuevas oportunidades, el ocio, la relajación y otros beneficios (Stone y Petrick, 2013;De Castro et al., 2018). De acuerdo con Fraiz (2017), para que tengan lugar viajes por motivaciones de estudio, deberá haber tanto atractivos lingüísticos, donde se relacione una actividad ligada con el aprendizaje de un segundo idioma, como académicos, esto es, universidades o centros de investigación, y turísticos, como visitas culturales. ...
Article
El turismo idiomático tiene cada año una mayor popularidad, especialmente entre los jóvenes, gracias a los diversos programas de formación existentes en los distintos niveles de la educación. Esta investigación tiene como objetivo fundamental analizar el comportamiento en materia turística de los estudiantes beneficiarios de una beca Erasmus en la Universidad de Córdoba durante el curso 2020-2021 marcado por la pandemia de la Covid-19. En el estudio han participado 168 sujetos que han respondido al cuestionario elaborado con el fin de recopilar información acerca del fenómeno. La conclusión más relevante es que su radio de acción turística ha sido más limitado por las restricciones de movilidad y han recibido menos visitas de las que podrían esperar en un curso académico desarrollado con normalidad.
... Minor differences between three out of four databases were found, resulting in a consensus in regard to the most impactful publications. Whether following the narrative of transformation in backpacking tourism [14], describing tourism as a potential agent of change [30], revealing the capacity of international sojourns to transform students' personal and professional lives [16], pinpointing the transformative learning process through travel and tourism [205] and associating it with alternative ways of sustainable tourism [206], or even showcasing the transformative benefits in wellness [24], spirituality [77], volunteering [207], or extreme sports tourism [13,18], the top publications enabled the reader to discover different facets of transformation in tourism as well as the importance of including such aspects into the day-to-day life. Most of the publications encountered in the list (Table 3) have had a long history of activity (from eight up to 23 years), and therefore present a significant time span to be analysed, reviewed, and cited. ...
Article
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Transformative tourism (TT) has been gaining a lot of attention over the past few years due to its power to transform both the individual and the world we live in, in a positive way. Although presently consisting of a plethora of studies, transformative tourism lacks the lens of a bibliometric approach to track its growth in a more objective and quantitative manner. In this article, a total of 250 publications were analysed using several bibliometric performance metrics, science mapping techniques, such as citation analysis, co-occurrence, and co-authorship, as well as enrichment procedures. By combining these methods, the study identifies the most prolific journals, reference studies in the field, key authors, collaboration patterns, geographic distribution, preferred methods, major research topics, as well as an overall research timeline in this area of study. Findings suggest that transformative tourism could become the heart of tourism in the upcoming years as it begins to take deeper roots through new junctions and discoveries, appealing to more researchers and practitioners, with the literature on TT thus gaining momentum. This paper contributes to fill a research gap and capture the evolution of the fast-growing concept of transformative tourism using bibliometric analysis. The article provides useful insights as well as further research directions for both researchers and tourism practitioners interested in this field of study.
... The idea underlying a tourism experience that can be shared by all visitors, including persons with disabilities, is that everyone has the right to travel (UNWTO, 2001) to meet several needs that are felt differently by each person. For example, the need to enrich personal knowledge by experiencing the local culture in the location visited (Stone & Petrick, 2013) or the need to appreciate diversity and beauty by exploring to answer curiosity (Fourbert, 2018). ...
Article
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Persons with disabilities have equal rights in society. Likewise for tourism activities. People with disabilities with their limitations, do not have many choices related to their tourist destinations. It is an opportunity for tourist villages to accept them as visitors. Must improve, both in service and in facilities. The point is to create a comfortable and safe atmosphere for them. Friendly facilities for them and trained human resources to deal with persons with disabilities. Research related to persons with disabilities must be special because each type of disability has different needs. It aims to be able to provide comprehensive solutions related to each obstacle. As in this study, the focus is on persons with mobility disabilities in understanding their tourism experience. The research was conducted qualitatively by observing and conducting interviews with tourism business actors and persons with mobility disabilities who are members of the Lingkar Sosial community. Focus on the analysis of their tourism experiences in tourist villages in Malang Raya. The study found that price was not the main factor for persons with mobility disabilities in choosing a tourist destination. Tourist destinations that are able to answer the obstacles they face when traveling so that they get an unforgettable tourism experience are chosen.
... In terms of touristic enterprises, universities are 'involved in many markets and are multiproduct organisations with a potentially ubiquitous number of consumers' (Enders & van Vught, 2007, p. 25) and have sought to develop marketing competencies beyond communication with prospective students (Molesworth et al., 2010). Universities, for example, are encouraging student exchanges (Stone & Petrick, 2013), the VFR market (Kashiwagi et al., 2018) and alumni (Gibson et al., 2003). Universities are also developing full-service campuses that include visitor and tourism amenities (Hay, 2020;Powell, 2017), creating spaces and facilities where local people can exercise, meet, or eat (Albino, 2015) and/or providing conference, meeting, and training facilities. ...
Article
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While changes in society continue to inform understandings of what leisure is and how it manifests itself, the emergence of Chinese outbound tourists, with specific motivations, travel styles and interests, are having powerful impacts on multiple host destinations. While university campuses have long been marked as visitor attractions in China, this study explores the motivations of outbound Chinese tourists visiting university campuses abroad. On site qualitative interviews took place with 25 fully independent Chinese tourists at three campuses in Seoul, South Korea and a campus in Chiang Mai, Thailand. The study results found that Chinese visitors mark specific university campuses as attractions and are motivated to visit because of their prestige, by novelty and exploration, emotion and nostalgia and learning and knowledge seeking. This study argues that campus tourism may be difficult to develop and manage as a well-defined product that meets the needs of Chinese tourists, university governors and university stakeholders. The study explores the implications for universities and recommends universities begin a critical evaluation of prestige markers and especially those markers present in the Chinese cultural, pop-culture and (social) media context, which may be counterproductive to the primary mission of universities.
... In parallel to the literature on work placements, there is also a vast literature that has investigated both qualitatively and quantitatively the impact of students studying abroad. Stone and Petrick (2013) provide an excellent review of the literature, and they argue that students experience a personal growth in terms of life skills and knowledge from independent international travel. According to Paige et al. (2009), studying abroad is found to be "one of the most important experiences students can have during their undergraduate years". ...
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To be competitive, universities across the world are embedding an international perspective into every layer of an institution’s operational structure. For higher education (HE) providers that offer sandwich degrees (4-year undergraduate courses with a compulsory placement after the second year), this allows students to choose a range of options. Students can enter the labour market for one year, or they can go overseas to study at a foreign institution. For some students, it might even be possible to do both. However, regarding final year degree performance, which option leads to higher student performance? In this paper, we aim to shed light on this empirical question. Our results are drawn from Aston University (UK) which is a world-leading University in Advanced Technology. Overall, using a large student dataset, we find that for students who have a compulsory placement built into their degree programme, the work placement has a more powerful impact on student performance compared to an international study placement abroad. Our findings have important implications for universities across the world that offer sandwich degrees to their students.
... Such travel experiences inspire others to travel to enhance/ maintain their status in their social circle. Travel experiences also have educational (Stone & Petrick, 2013), eudemonic and hedonic benefits (Mirehie & Gibson, 2020) and can also lead to feelings of travel envy (Hajli et al., 2018). Social media is used to self-present and compare travel histories to portray superiority (Lim & Yang, 2015;Liu et al., 2019). ...
Article
This study examines tourists’ envy and social return from engaging in domestic travel among Millennials and Baby Boomers. A conceptual framework is developed, grounded by social comparison theory. Using a quantitative research design, an online survey instrument was used to collect data. Results reveal that the relationship between social comparison and travel envy, selfpresentation and travel envy, and tourism xenophilia and domestic travel behaviour is stronger for Millennials. However, the relationship between domestic travel behaviour and social return relationship is stronger for Baby Boomers. The findings contribute to the under-researched area of domestic tourism during an unprecedented global pandemic.
... Business travel is out of reach for those most who are undertaking their University education overseas because of youth and/or inexperience. However, the study abroad medium combines international education and leisure travel and educational benefits of such travel experiences are well recognized (Stone and Petrick, 2013). The acceleration of student mobilities has been particularly evident in Europe, with institutionalisation of the phenomenon through the Erasmus scheme (García-Rodríguez and Jiménez, 2015;Juvan and Lesjak, 2011) and the Bologna Process. ...
Article
Using self-determination theory, the authors explore whether destination appeal enhances intrinsic motivations to study abroad. Primary data gathered from inbound and outbound educational travellers in Paris, France were analysed using Structural Equation Modelling. It was confirmed that the mediating effect of destination appeal enhances intrinsic motivations for studying abroad. A discussion follows about how destinations can enhance educational travellers’ autonomous decision-making through two self-contextual influences – information and external control. Destination authorities can potentially address a society-wide issue – the lesser performance of extrinsically motivated students. The authors discuss implications for stakeholders, including institutions and DMOs.
... Perceived learning and perceived benefits of travel have been examined for their role in constructing social experiences and acquiring skills (Asfeldt & Hvenegaard, 2014;Bakx et al., 2003;Stone & Petrick, 2013). These studies operationalized perceived learning using self-assessment questions in which the participants report how much they knew or had learned. ...
Article
Tourism in Antarctica has been growing and diversifying. While Antarctic tourists are purported to have meaningful interactions with the Antarctic environment, little empirical research exists to understand how motivations and trip characteristics of the Antarctic journey shape tourists' experiential outputs, which may in turn influence their pro-environmental outcomes. To examine these relationships, we conducted exploratory analyses using 242 pre-and post-trip surveys collected during the 2019–2020 Antarctic season. We identified four motivation types of Antarctic tourists: experience & learning, adventure into Antarctica, social bonding, and trip of a lifetime. Following the interactional model of tourist experience, we associated this motivation typology and trip characteristics with experiential outputs (Perceived Learning, Measured Learning, and Satisfaction) and pro-environmental outcomes (Environmental Concerns, Management Preferences, and Behavior Intentions). Our results indicated most tourists traveling to Antarctica already possessed high levels of pro-environmental attitudes and behavior intentions, leading to few significant changes after the journey. However, we found that the specific inputs of motivations and trip characteristics influenced experiential outputs in different ways -especially Perceived Learning and Satisfaction-, which were strongly associated with pro-environmental outcomes. Findings reinforce the importance of meaningful and transformative Antarctic tourist experiences in promoting sustainable human-environment interactions and provide new insights regarding tourists’ learning and experiential outcomes. Management implications Tourists traveling to Antarctica hold a diversity of expectations and motivations. These motivations interact with trip characteristics to influence tourists’ experiences. Enhanced understanding of these relationships could contribute to the Antarctic tourism industry efforts to develop strategic promotion, programming, and communication strategies that produce meaningful experiences and foster pro-environmental outcomes. As tourism diversifies, we should reflect on how the Antarctic tourist experience could become more customized and participatory, effectively inspiring Antarctic tourists to serve as stewards and ambassadors for the Last Frontier.
... Despite much conceptual and qualitative work that implies that cultural aspects of a trip experience could have an influence on learning and post-trip pro-environmental behaviors (e.g. Fennell, 2001;Donohoe & Needham, 2006;Ballantyne et al., 2011b;Falk et al., 2012;Stone & Petrick, 2013;Hunt & Harbor, 2019), an explicit connection to a broader understanding of sustainability has been missing. Importantly, sustainability outcomes can include meta-competencies-as they have been termed in the sustainability education literature (e.g. ...
Article
Since ecotourism was popularized in the late 1980s, a focus in scholarly writings on the topic has been its dual in situ mandate of biodiversity conservation and community development. As visitor education ­­gained attention, so too did research on how nature-based aspects of ecotourist experiences influence ex situ pro-environmental. Yet, researchers have largely neglected culture-based aspects of ecotourism experiences, overlooking the role that experience with communities, people, and local culture have on visitor outcomes, thus bypassing other important sustainability-related outcomes (e.g. systems thinking, humanitarianism). The purpose of this psychological assessment of recent traveler experiences is to explore the distinct influence of the natural and cultural aspects of travel on traveler’s understanding of sustainability, and whether these influences are because of particular affective experiences during travel. This study supports the proposal that both nature and cultural-based experiences contribute to sustainability insights by fostering meaning and self-discovery (i.e. eudaimonia). Our findings suggest that the positive contribution that natural and cultural components of tourism makes toward sustainability insights may be enhanced when eudaimonic experiences are incorporated into tourism experiences. This work thus implies that more explicit incorporation of eudaimonic elements into the design of (eco-) tourism experiences will increase visitors’ sustainability insights.
... However, the study abroad medium combines international education and leisure travel and educational benefits of such travel experiences are well recognized (Stone & Petrick, 2013). ...
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Using self-determination theory, the authors explore whether destination appeal enhances intrinsic motivations to study abroad. Primary data gathered from inbound and outbound educational travellers in Paris, France were analysed using Structural Equation Modelling. It was confirmed that the mediating effect of destination appeal enhances intrinsic motivations for studying abroad. A discussion follows about how destinations can enhance educational travellers' autonomous decision-making through two self-contextual influences-information and external control. Destination authorities can potentially address a society-wide issue-the lesser performance of extrinsically motivated students. The authors discuss implications for stakeholders, including institutions and DMOs.
... Because NPS units are inherently natural, historical, or cultural landscapes, bridging the gaps to accommodate these diverse activity preferences-or effectively communicating similar activities that already exist-can be challenging. The NPS might consider more cultivated experiences that would appeal to population segments who enjoy the more programmed educational structure of resorts or cruise ships (Stone & Petrick, 2013). However, such a compromise might be unpalatable considering the agency's mission (Pitas, 2020). ...
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The mission of the U.S. National Park Service (NPS) is increasingly challenged by underrepresentation of visitors from low-income and racial/ethnic minority backgrounds. To better understand attributes of Americans who do and do not visit national parks, we used data from a national general population survey (N = 4,103) to examine the sociodemographic characteristics, constraints to visitation, and vacation preferences among three groups of NPS visitors (recent visitors, past visitors, and non-visitors). Results revealed significant differences in constraints and preferences among the three groups. Black, Hispanic, and lower-income respondents were least likely to visit NPS sites. Compared to White respondents, they were also less aware of NPS units, more concerned about safety, and more likely to prefer alternative vacations such as sporting events, theme parks, and socially and culturally oriented destinations. Results underscore the need for the NPS to enhance relevancy and diversity by providing attractive and accessible recreation opportunities for historically marginalized groups.
... Tourists participating in Bleisure travels both gain business experience and enrich their touristic experience as leisure tourists. With experiential learning, bleisure tourists, who can be inspired by learning from travel and exploration, can turn their travels, where they see the opportunity to learn something by contemplating their experiences, into an enjoyable touristic trip (Stone & Petrick, 2013). ...
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This research aimed to determine the perceptions of destination service quality and the intentions to revisit the destination of the participants who visited İstanbul within the scope of “bleisure” tourism, that is an innovative tourism type. İstanbul is one of the most demanded destinations in Turkey’s domestic and foreign tourism markets especially by the visitors who travel for the purpose of business, conventions, meetings and so on. 460 questionnaire forms prepared within this context were delivered to the participants who visited the destination between the period of 1 September 2018 and 30 January 2019, by face-to-face communication. As a result of the analyzes (SPSS); it was determined that the bleisure tourists evaluated the destination service quality under the dimensions of destination accommodation and food services, transportation services, general protection and cleanliness, tourist activities and attractions, level of hospitality and general tourist price and that all of the related dimensions affected tourists' intentions to revisit the destination. In addition, it was determined that the bleisure tourists visiting İstanbul were generally satisfied with the destination (90%) and that they intended to revisit the destination (86%). Keywords: Bleisure Tourist, Quality Perceptions, Travel Intention, İstanbul. Çalışmada Türkiye’nin iç ve dış turizm pazarlarında özellikle iş, kongre, toplantı vb. amaçlı ziyaretçiler tarafından en çok talep gören destinasyonlarından İstanbul’u yenilikçi bir turizm türü olan “bleisure” kapsamında ziyaret eden katılımcıların destinasyon hizmet kalitesi algılarının ve destinasyonu tekrar ziyaret niyetlerinin belirlenmesi amaçlanmıştır. Bu kapsamda hazırlanan 460 anket formu destinasyonu 1 Eylül 2018- 30 Ocak 2019 döneminde ziyaret eden katılımcılara yüz yüze iletişim kurularak ulaştırılmıştır. Yapılan analizler sonucunda (SPSS); bleisure turistlerin destinasyon hizmet kalitesini destinasyon konaklama ve yiyecek hizmetleri, ulaşım hizmetleri, genel korunmuşluk ve temizlik, turistik aktiviteler ve çekicilikler, misafirperverlik düzeyi ve genel turistik fiyat düzeyi boyutlarıyla değerlendirdikleri ve ilgili boyutların tümünün turistlerin destinasyonu tekrar ziyaret niyetlerine etki ettikleri belirlenmiştir. Ayrıca İstanbul destinasyonunu ziyaret eden bleisure turistlerin destinasyondan genel olarak memnun ayrıldıkları (%90) ve destinasyonu tekrar ziyaret etme niyetinde oldukları da (%86) tespit edilmiştir. Anahtar Kelimeler: Bleisure Turist, Kalite Algısı, Seyahat Niyeti, İstanbul.
... This has a significant effect on their identity and their European 212 citizenship (European Commission, 2019). In this vein, the benefits of academic travel for individuals' personal growth have been reported in relation to out-of-class learning (Stone & Petrick, 2013), as well as in terms of students' self-awareness and their perception of otherness (Iglesias, 2014;Iglesias et al., 2019;Pachmayer & Andereck, 2019). Thus, their realization and acceptance of cultural difference, the change in their attitudes, and their cultural adjustment result in enhanced cross-cultural competences. ...
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Academic mobility programs in higher education institutions draw students from all over the world who wish to take part in them. University students travel to their academic destinations to join their host educational institutions for a limited period of time, during which they need to be accommodated. This article focuses on the lodging used by academic tourists in Barcelona, Spain, and more specifically, on the residence hall market. Following a qualitative approach, the 35 residence halls available in this city have been explored by analyzing their websites. In addition, in-depth structured interviews with respondents working for 9 residence halls and 4 study-abroad intermediaries in Barcelona have been conducted. The results obtained through content analysis, categorization, and triangulation provide an unprecedented picture of the demand and the supply of residence halls in Barcelona, as well as the socio-economic impacts stemming from academic tourism stays.
... Within bus rides on geology field trips, Elkins and Elkins (2006) Koernig (2007) provides a checklist for leaders, but skips from pre-trip meetings to the arrival in the new country without mentioning flights or transport time. Similarly, in a literature review of the educational benefits of travel (including study abroad programs), Stone and Petrick (2013) did not identify any publications on people's experiences in transport (for example buses, trains, airplanes). This oversight is reminiscent of the attitude we (the authors) took to transport in OE. ...
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Background: During transport to and from outdoor education field trips, students experience a period of togetherness and minimal imposed structure. Transport time also appears to align with Oldenburg's third places, where people spend time together without a particular agenda. Purpose: To examine educators' perspectives on the contribution that transport time makes to OE programs through an analysis featuring the characteristics of third places. Methodology/Approach: The perspectives of 16 outdoor educators (four each from New Zealand, Australia, Hong Kong and Scotland) were gathered using a semi-structured interview protocol. Data were analyzed using a deductive process based on the third place characteristics; four unforeseen themes also emerged. Findings/Conclusions: Findings highlighted the centrality of conversation between students and between students and educators; the low profile of transport time; and a sense of excitement and fun. Students controlled the intensity of their "presence" through the use of devices (where allowed) and by selecting their sitting position in the vehicle. Implications: The findings show that transport time allowed students to have a broad variety of conversations that could be variously silly and fun, deep and introspective. Educators are encouraged to more carefully consider the contribution that transport time makes to their programs
Chapter
This chapter discusses prominent theories of and research into the connections between cross-border mobility, mental health and health behaviour among young people. Theories touch on key elements of the travelling experience, such as acculturation and cross-cultural adaptation, offering opportunities for intervention and policy development to safeguard young people’s health, reduce costs for healthcare systems and achieve the best potential of the experience abroad.
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Research finds that going far from home has many positive psychological outcomes such as enhanced creative thinking, and research on creativity reveals that nonconformity can be a useful tool to stimulate innovation. Merging these findings, we theorise that foreign experiences increase nonconformist attitudes and behaviours. In Studies 1 and 2, surveys of Chinese university students and non-student adults consistently showed that multicultural experiences were negatively related to conformity tendencies. Study 3 found that American students who were studying in China demonstrated a lower conformity tendency than American students without multicultural experiences, which suggests that the multicultural experience – conformity link cannot be accounted for by the effects of culture. Results from Study 4 indicated that compared with participants who had planned to go abroad but had not left their home country yet, participants who had lived abroad reported lower levels of conformity. Lastly, experimentally manipulating a focus on foreign experiences (vs. home experiences) facilitates non-conforming ways of thinking in terms of product preference (Study 5). Together, these findings provide evidence that exposure to diverse cultures not only produces divergent psychological consequences as have been found by other researchers, but also leads to the emergence of nonconformity attitudes and behaviours.
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Places can hold the most significant experiences of peoples’ lives, and place attachment rests in these people-place meaningful connections. Traveling abroad for international students is a mobility where changes and mixed emotions entangle to one another. It represents distancing and loosening ties from a familiar place (home) and creating and connecting new ones with another place (host destination). This voluntary relocation is considered a disruption in place attachment and impacts the overall experience of the international student mobility. Nevertheless, the creation of attachment to a place derived from a place disruption remains scarce within international student mobility literature. This case study explores the production of place attachment in international students in the host destination through the conceptual lens of disruptions to attachment via changes in places. Thirty-three in-depth semi-structured interviews were carried out with international students from different nationalities who have finished a Master’s degree in Tourism at the University of Girona, Spain. This investigation demonstrates the motives and process of place disruption in international student mobility and the power of a host destination to create new emotional bonds and connections, becoming another home for international students.
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The advent of the COVID-19 pandemic had a strong impact on the international activities of German higher education institutions (HEIs). Virtual mobility and other usages of information and communications technology (ICT) moved from a niche to the mainstream of internationalisation. This paper discusses the immediate negative impact of the pandemic on international relations, as well as alleviating measures taken at HEIs. It also presents a perspective on the role which ICT may take in international contexts post-pandemic.
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Researching language tourism (where language learning is a primary or secondary motivation for the trip) is a growing field of interest as the importance of language within tourism experiences is recognized. Conceptually located at the intersection of cultural, youth, academic, and educational tourism, past research has focused on the analysis of tourists who travel to formally learn a language, missing out on an important number of tourists who travel to learn a language informally. To overcome this gap in research, cluster analysis of a sample of 1014 formal and informal language tourists was undertaken to segment them based on language-related attitudes, beliefs, and travel outcomes. Four clusters of language tourists were identified, called the Enthusiasts, the Devoted, the Pragmatists, and the Less-Committed. We propose that two axes are fundamental for characterizing and understanding language tourists, thus contributing to expand theory on language tourism.
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Despite an extensive body of literature scrutinising international students’ short-term and long-term mobility experiences, little is known about the connection between the two. To address this gap, this study looks into the perception of a group of Chinese international students on how participation in their short-term mobility (STM) experience affects their navigation of subsequent full-degree experiences. Based on a qualitative investigation into 31 participants, drawing on the ABC theoretical model, this study manifests that penetrating diverse fabrics, the STM experience revealed impacts on the students' preparation for, operating and imagining their long-term study trajectory and beyond. These impacts are embodied in affective, behavioural and cognitive learning gains that are predominantly perceived as positive forces that facilitate navigation of a longer course. The study suggests some implications for stakeholders involved in students’ international mobility programs and concludes with directions for future research.
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Employing an exploratory mixed-method approach, this research explores young adults' affective learning outcomes derived from their short-term educational travel abroad experiences. Different from previous travel research mostly focusing on the educational benefits of cognitive knowledge and technical skills, the current research highlights the prominent effect of educational travel on young adults' personal growth and attitudinal/emotional development by investigating the understudied domain of affective learning and how it manifests among college students having short-term study abroad experiences. Through a systematic review and a follow-up survey-based comparison study, five salient affective learning variables were identified—perspectives on global interdependence, intercultural attitudes, openness to diversity and challenge, environmental attitudes, and general self-efficacy. Furthermore, this research found that travelers’ lower-order affective learning shows significant progress after the short-term educational overseas travel. This study contributes to a niche topic in tourism research and provides implications to promote educational travel as an effective transformative learning approach.
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International travel has long been considered a key pedagogical strategy for global learning. Yet very little is known about whether study-abroad experiences increase students’ awareness of the impact of tourism as a global phenomenon. In this study, we assessed students’ learning through a content analysis of their journals and final essays from a short-term study-abroad course that used key concepts from the sociology of tourism to explore the impact of tourism in a developing country. Findings demonstrate how thinking sociologically about travel and tourism enabled students to look “behind the scenes,” fostered critical-thinking skills, helped in their self-assessment of ethnocentrism, and promoted a sense of global responsibility. We also discuss areas that merit further pedagogical attention, particularly when students struggle to unlearn preconceived ideas about poverty and inequality or resort to overgeneralizations when thinking comparatively.
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The research aims to 1) Study the importance of cultural tourism sites information and the young tourists' intention to visit in Southern United States and 2. Study of the relationship between of cultural tourism sites information and the young tourists' intention to visit in Southern United States. The samples selection was purposively selected from the young people age between 10-24 years old who live in Southern United States. The sample sizes was 400 samples. The questionnaires were conducted among the tourism lecturers, young travelers and the tourism agencies. The questionnaires were surveyed by using online media. The research found that cultural tourism sites information were averagely important (= 4.11, S.D. = 0.727). The important ranking of each variables were firstly price and promotion (= 4.21, S.D. = 0.698), communication channels ( = 4.19, S.D. = 0.718), safety and security ( = 4.18, S.D. = 0.684), cultural attraction and sites activities (= 4.08, S.D. = 0.724), and products and services quality ( = 3.87, S.D. = 0.813) respectively. The cultural tourism sites information was also positively very important for the young tourists intent to visit the cultural tourism sites in Southern United States (= 4.61, S.D. = 0.513). The relationship between cultural tourism sites information and the young tourists' intention to visit in Southern United States were significant at 0.000 (p < 0.01).
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This paper outlines key success factors as they relate to learning communities that incorporate short-term travel. The authors share course design, learning goals, planning tips, and sample itineraries for the travel learning community at their college. Specific topics discussed include choosing a host country to ensure optimal cultural differences, choosing a host organization, and structuring an itinerary for engagement, reflection, developing flexibility, and pre-travel and post-travel assignments and activities to maximize effectiveness.
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Homeschooling families typically have the freedom to plan educational road trips without the constraints of a traditional school calendar. For this study, a total of 21 web pages were selected using ‘roadschool’ – a term that has recently emerged to describe such trips – as a keyword. A web content analysis revealed that this option is perceived as an opportunity for family bonding and is mostly popular among homeschooling families who own recreational vehicles and consider themselves digital nomads. Furthermore, it was observed that roadschooling parents often exhibited personality types that enhanced the overall learning outcomes and experiences of their trips. Implications and future research directions are discussed.
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The experiential tourism for children in the memorial museums of Sighetu Marmației. Case study: The Memorial of the Victims of Communism and of the Resistance and the Elie Wiesel Memorial House-The museum of the jewish heritage from Maramureș. The XXIst century tourism equals to an ample, continuous and targeted development of all kinds of tourism towards all age groups. Regardless of the type of tourism-either mass tourism or niche tourism-the children represent a delicate and critical target group, one that requires tailor made activities, especially those carried out inside memorial museums. The combination, per se, between the educational tourism and the experiential tourism enriches the educational role and the goal of the activities implemented in museums-the safeguarding and proper transfer of historical and cultural knowledge towards future generations. The experiential side in tourism contributes to the better understanding of the main features defining tourist attractions and often requires practical innovations. As a method of understanding and long term knowledge retention, the touristic services designed for children have to have a content adapted to specific age categories. This paper analyzes and evaluates the touristic and experiential character of the services designed for children and young people under the age of 18 years old offered on the premises of the two memorial museums from the city of Sighetu Marmatiei. The paper also aims, through a series of proposed experiential activities , to enrich the conceptual framework of tailor made activities designed for children.
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Recruitment and retention are critical for geoscience and the need for innovative ways of building these bridges to the geosciences is growing. Field experiences are a common attractor for students to the field sciences such as geoscience, but many research- and field-based experiences are limited to those who are already majors. Innovative, experiential approaches to geoscience recruitment and retention could be a new way to attract more students to geoscience. International field and research experiences designed for undergraduates from any academic discipline aim to provide opportunities for students to explore their (geo)science interests and potential career paths. A single, exploratory case study approach with semi-structured interviews combined with quantitative pre- and post-survey results is used to highlight the experiences of four students and their plans for continuing in the geosciences. Students (including geoscience and non-geoscience majors) were found to have had inherent, pre-college, and college influences for participation in the field experience; all students indicated plans to continue in the geosciences. Two years after the experience, researchers followed-up with the students and found that three of the four were still involved in the geosciences. Many international geoscience field experiences are exclusively for majors, but experiential learning opportunities like these should also be considered for potential majors. These results are beneficial for departments interested in designing and adapting their recruitment and retention efforts to better train the next generation of geoscientists.
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This article explores literary representations of female mobility in the Hebrew Bible. While it is often assumed that women barely moved in the ancient world, the study shows that the Hebrew Bible gives witness to a vast spectrum of travelling agents. The texts do not offer direct access to socio-historical realities, but as documents of cultural history, they are argued to hint at and echo the variety of the phenomenon in ancient Israel. It is not meaningful to speak of the travelling women as a collective, however, as the motives for their movement are tied to various socioeconomic contexts, ranging from slavery to economic migration to foreign policy. While class is fundamental to ancient female mobility, the sources also reveal the significance of other intersecting differences such as age, sexuality, kinship, ethnicity, or religion displayed by the (in)voluntary travelling agents.
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Previous studies have shown that experiential learning can effectively advance students’ education goals, but they have not attached importance to the perspective of destination marketing. This study fills a gap in the research on this topic. The study examined college students’ study tours as a typical form of educational tourism by surveying 208 Chinese college students and graduates who had experienced such programmes. The results showed that study tour experiences resulted in destination associations among the students, which commonly led to revisit intentions. The findings demonstrated that destination associations combine destination memory, destination image and affective attachment. These components played mediating roles in the relationship between study tour experiences and destination revisit intention. This study informs destination marketers concerning the need to strategically develop their marketing strategies by capitalising on the educational tourism niche market.
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Previous studies on education travel, which is defined as a form of experiential learning for pursuing learning experiences related to the destination (Bodger, 1998), focus on the historical background and some outcomes which has resulted in fragmented knowledge. This study provides a relatively comprehensive analysis of the antecedents and outcomes of educational travel in higher education adopting various data collection approaches including in-depth interviews, focus groups, and participant observation. Using Macao as a case study, the results address (1) the roles and functions; (2) educational and socio-cultural impacts and (3) facilitators and barriers of educational travel in higher education.
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This study investigated the relationship between social connectedness and overseas life satisfaction in addition to the mediating effect of cultural intelligence (CQ) and the moderating effect of socioeconomic status (SES) respectively. We adopted the social capital theory to support the relations among the proposed variables. Data were collected through online questionnaires from Taiwanese students studying abroad; 431 valid responses were analyzed. The results demonstrated that social connectedness was positively related to CQ; moreover, CQ was positively related to students’ overseas life satisfaction, and partially mediated the relationship between social connectedness and overseas life satisfaction. Concurrently, SES was observed to moderate the relationships of social connectedness with CQ and CQ with overseas life satisfaction. Furthermore, the indirect effect of social connectedness on overseas life satisfaction through CQ was moderated by varying SES levels. Our findings confirm that social connectedness affects CQ, and that CQ serves as the mediation mechanism between social connectedness and life satisfaction among overseas students. In addition, SES plays a significant role in the moderated mediation relationship. Limitations of this study and recommendations for future studies are also discussed.
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The way individuals define themselves is assumed to be tightly linked to social and cultural values of the environment they are raised in. Yet, identity is not static and forming a cultural identity requires adopting beliefs and practice of one or more cultural communities. Hence, this paper is an attempt to bring the issue of identity construction in question as a result of direct contact with people from different cultures and what it may engender as a change in social, cultural behaviour and positions. The present study investigates the impact of study abroad experience on Sojourners' cultural identity. It tries to highlight the nature of the crossing borders experience, and how it strongly contributes to the creation of a new cultural identity. This research work relies on a case study that consists of 25 Algerian students who are actually enrolled in a long-term programme at different universities in the United Kingdom. The data were gathered through the use of both questionnaire and semi-structured interview administered to these Sojourners. Then, data were analysed both qualitatively and quantitatively. The findings first display the competencies developed by students while abroad. Second, the study explores how cultural identity is being reconstructed and negotiated during the intercultural communication. Third, the extracts of the study reveal that the Sojourners are aware of the cross-cultural adaptation process and they try to cope with the challenges they face as well as avoiding communication breakdowns and misunderstandings. As a result, we contribute to the literature concerning constructing and negotiating identities in different socio-cultural contexts.
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This study attempts to rank different countries based on their performance in terms of travel and tourism and to categorize them into assemblages. The overall design of the study consists of a review of literature and analysis of secondary data as given on the website of World Development Indicators (WDI). It is a quantitative research study that uses Grey Relational Analysis (GRA) as a technique of investigation. On basis of the results of GRA, a classification has been made under a predetermined scheme of ensigns like exceptionally high, excellent, above average, average, below the average, poor, and very poor performance of countries in travel & tourism. Findings of the study show that under exceptionally high ensign majorly, there are member countries of European Union (EU), whereas, under very poor ensign mainly member countries of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) are categorized. It is an original research study based on country-level data analyzed through a valid mathematical technique of investigation that can generate objective results. This study is useful for the international community/institutions, policymakers, local governments, researchers, tourists & travelers, and society at large since it provides deeper insights into the phenomenon.
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This study re-analysed longitudinal data on international students’ alcohol use to demonstrate the practical value of person-centred statistical techniques, such as Latent Class Analysis (LCA) and its longitudinal extension Latent Transition Analysis (LTA). These techniques offer new analytic perspectives, can reveal typologies (i.e., subpopulations characterized by different profiles) and examine change (i.e., transition probabilities) in outcomes of interest. The use of these approaches remains limited in the intercultural research field, however. A step-by-step guide to the use of LCA and LTA is presented. The analyses demonstrate how alcohol use profiles can be identified, how transitions across profiles as students move from home to overseas can be examined and are affected by students' motivation to study abroad and their adjustment to the host environment. The validity for study abroad students of the four-class model of drinker types found in other populations was confirmed. Results, however, challenge the dominant view that most students increase alcohol intake during study abroad experiences, and indicate that moderate drinkers are at greatest risk of transitioning to heavy drinking as they travel abroad. Implications and suggestions for use of these statistical techniques by intercultural research specialists are discussed.
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Compiled by Dr. Julie Wilson and Dr. Greg Richards for: International Student Travel Confederation (ISTC) and Association for Tourism and Leisure Education (ATLAS)) Student and Youth Travel: A Bibliography of Research and Publications International Student Travel Confederation (ISTC) Association for Tourism and Leisure Education (ATLAS) Backpacker Research Group (2004)
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Drawing on the foundational theories of John Dewey and Kurt Lewin, we examine recent developments in theory and research on experiential learning and explore how this work can enhance experiential learning in higher education. We introduce the concept of learning space as a framework for understanding the interface between student learning styles and the institutional learning environment. We illustrate the use of the learning space framework in three case studies of longitudinal institutional development. Finally, we present principles for the enhancement of experiential learning in higher education and suggest how experiential learning can be applied throughout the educational environment by institutional development programs, including longitudinal outcome assessment, curriculum development, student development, and faculty development.
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Using transformational learning as a framework and a case study approach, this study explored how students make meaning of their experiences 1 year after a weeklong study abroad experience and examines how they integrate their study abroad experience into their lives. The findings include that students who had engaged in subsequent learning opportunities continued to find meaning in their study abroad experience. The experience had faded into a distant memory for students who did not integrate the experience into their lives in some way.
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Erasmus Exchange program was developed to increase possibilities for education at international level (ECDG, 2008; Pyvis & Champan, 2007; Keog & Russel-Roberts; 2009; Goodman et al., 2008). The number of students participating in the programme has been growing since the program's implementation. This survey was conducted on the Erasmus outgoing 2008/09 generation at the University of Primorska (UP) with the aim of analyzing the main motives for enrolment on the programme. The research was designed to elicit whether professional or leisure related motives are more important than educational desires. The main motives identified have little to do with formal education, thus the authors suggest that some amendments of the Erasmus program at UP could be implemented in order to follow the guidelines and objectives of the Erasmus Exchange program as well as to argue for opportunities for the host cities and universities when addressing this important market segment.
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This article explores the apparent connections between travel and transformation by considering two key questions: “Why might travel ‘broaden the mind’ or elicit transformative development?” and “Are there types of places and journeys that are more efficacious in this respect?” The article presents an argument that places and journeys which provide an encounter with Otherness, whether in terms of different cultures or the “more than human realm” of nature and wilderness, have significant transformative potential. The article further suggests that traditional pilgrimage practices might be fruitfully adopted and adapted in the development of transformative educational programs. The article concludes with a call to future research and a caution about the sensitivity required in order to ensure that the transformative power of places are not diminished through their exploitation.
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Hammer and Bennett’s (2002) intercultural development inventory (IDI) is used to assess the impact of a semester long study abroad program on the development of cross-cultural sensitivity. The results of this study provide evidence that a student’s integration and adaptation to cultural experiences continue after a student returns home after their study abroad experience. The IDI was administered on three separate occasions: prior to a semester long study abroad experience, at the conclusion of the program and four months later. In general this study supports the conclusion that study abroad programs have a positive impact on the cross-cultural development of students. However, when improvement is viewed from the perspective of long-term change, some of the gains found immediately after a study abroad experience are diminished over time. The paper concludes with a discussion of the implications for both research and education.
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Growing numbers of older adults are choosing to travel each year. Most research on older travellers focuses on how to market travel opportunities to this age segment. The purpose of this investigation was to examine learning experiences of older adults during travel. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a purposively selected sample of eight individuals ranging in ages from 56 to 89. Questions were directed at the nature of significant travel experiences and what they learned. Four themes emerged from the data: learning about personal character, learning about trust, learning about the world, and learning about home.
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This study applies qualitative analysis as a systematic tool for insight into factors influencing international students' university choice. We also develop a structural model for further analysis and understanding of that choice. Qualitative analysis of data collected via online chat identifies motivational and constraining factors that influence foreign students' decision to study in the United States. The study applies and explicates a contemporary qualitative approach to the analysis of interview transcripts for the determination of choice factors and their importance. Inductive analysis is used to postulate a model for international student destination choice based on the travel decision push and pull model. Three push factors (personal growth, language, and career) and three pull factors (college issues, physical geography, and U.S. culture) were determined to influence choice of country and institution. In addition, structural factors including visa issues and cost issues were identified as constraints. Personal growth was the most important push factor, and college issues the most important of the pull factors. Visa issues were the most important constraining structural factors.
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Tourism can be considered an educational experience: it is often portrayed as an integral part of personal development, that can be deep and meaningful, and that can change the way tourists think and act on their return. Relatively little however is known about these touristic learning experiences: research evidence on learning and behavior change in ecotourism highlights that the effects of the holiday are often limited unless formal learning opportunities are provided. This article reviews evidence about social tourism for low-income groups, and argues that learning and behavior change can ensue from the holiday experience without these planned, formal learning activities. These unplanned learning opportunities are theorized, and key conditions for learning are identified. Examples are provided of potential learning outcomes and of instances where these can lead to positive behavior change.
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“OE” is overseas experience – periods of “working holiday” undertaken by young people autonomously exploring other countries and cultures. This paper investigates OE and considers its effect on career development. OE is a world-wide phenomenon, but has special significance in Australia and New Zealand, where it is undertaken as a “rite of passage” by many young people. The paper reports results from an interview study of 50 OEs undertaken by young New Zealanders. It focuses on predisposing personal and situational factors prompting OE, the unplanned and improvisational nature of OE, the main forms of OE, and its apparent consequences for personal development and subsequent careers. The evidence suggests that OE brings benefits but that the process is complex and unpredictable because of confounding forces such as non-career travel agendas and personal relationships. The special value of OE to careers in current conditions requiring greater self-direction, flexibility and internationalisation is emphasised.
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Higher education in general and study abroad programming in particular are hardly strangers to stringent demands for accountability. What is new to higher education and to study abroad is the demand for accountability in terms of measurable student learning outcomes. This article is a first report from a system-wide initiative to document learning outcomes accruing from participation in study abroad. It focuses on one element of that initiative, a comparison of several outcomes between study abroad participants and non-participants attending sixteen varied public institutions within a state university system. The authors describe and interpret the data they have collected in Phase I of a six-phase, multi-year University System of Georgia project that is annually collecting data from more than 4,000 students. The authors trace the growth of the assessment movement in higher education and point out that institutions often define success in study abroad through such things as increases in study abroad participation or through post-program surveys that attempt to measure student satisfaction with their study abroad experience. They argue that neither these nor other sorts of measures now commonly in use provide direct evidence either of students' curricular content knowledge gained abroad or the cognitive understanding that they are presumed to have acquired. This paper presents the first set of findings from Phase I. (Contains 1 table and 7 notes.)
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This paper analyzes the relationship between students' motivations and their intention to participate in study abroad programs using a model based on expectancy theory. We surveyed U.S., Chinese and French business students who studied in their home countries. Results suggest that certain motivations are common among students from the three countries. We found that the direction of the relationship between motivations and the intent to study abroad varied among the three countries, that nationality moderates all of the relationships, and that different levels of the barriers moderate the relationship between motivations and the intention to study abroad. (Contains 6 tables and 3 figures.)
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The purpose of this article is to explore the cluster of experiences that participants in study abroad go through — both during their sojourn abroad and immediately upon return — and how these experiences enhance shifts in their individual priorities. I will discuss to what extent, and why, some study abroad participants bring their academic endeavors to the forefront of their interests when they return to their home colleges. Since the experiences of study abroad program participants are many, eye-opening, and quite complex, this article will also explore the intricate and multiple determinations of the changes in the participants. With the help of multiple regression and path analyses, I will lay out a model that charts those changes, their consequences, and mutual determinations.
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This article reflects on the significance of field trips for undergraduate experiential learning. Experiential learning is critical to the development of managers as future reflective practitioners, and this case study makes a significant contribution to debate about field trips at a time when UK university spending cuts threaten their future provision. Based on a qualitative study, this article highlights the experiential learning generated by an undergraduate field trip that took place on a 7-day cruise out of Southampton, UK, during March 2009. Students reflect upon their learning experiences, both personal and professional, and their perceptions of the value of such learning experiences for their knowledge and understanding of cruise management. The article also discusses associated benefits of field trips, such as student self-development, the facilitation of group cohesion, and the marketing opportunities for educational institutions. The implications of the findings are useful for educators as well as the wider cruise community.
Article
The present study examined the impact of an international program experience on college students’ personal growth in the areas of faith, vocational calling, and identity. Participants were selected from a random sample of 300 students belonging to a Lilly Endowment sponsored study. A subsample of 37 students who participated in an international program (the IP Group) was matched demographically to 37 students who did not (No IP Group). Repeated measures ANOVAs were conducted, revealing significant interaction effects, indicating that faith, life purpose, and identity achievement scores increased over time for the IP Group but decreased for the No IP Group.
Book
Increasingly tourists are seeking learning and educational holidays. This interest has led to the provision of tourism product with some form of learning or education as an integral component, including cultural heritage tourism and ecotourism. The growth of offshore education and lifelong learning has stimulated cross-border movement for language learning, school excursions and university student travel. Reflecting this growth in educational tourism types, the author outlines the main forms of educational tourism, their demand and supply characteristics, their impacts and the management issues associated with them, taking a holistic systems-based perspective. The book argues that without adequate research and appropriate management of educational forms of tourism, the potential regional development impacts and personal learning benefits will not be maximised. The book highlights the need for collaboration and networking between both the tourism and education industries to adequately manage the issues surrounding the growth in educational tourism. © 2003 Brent Ritchie and the authors of individual chapters. All rights reserved.
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This book examines the economic, social and environmental impacts and issues associated with the development of sport tourism globally, including the lack of research and coordination between industry and government. The book suggests the need for a more balanced analysis of the impacts and issues associated with future sport tourism development. © 2003 Brent Ritchie and the authors of individual chapters. All rights reserved.
Article
This study, conducted by IES in late 2002, was designed to measure the longitudinal correlations between specific program features—language study, housing choice, duration of study, enrollment in foreign university courses, participation in an internship or field study, among others—and a variety of student outcomes. A 54-year-old, not-for-profit, academic consortium, IES regularly conducts formative and summative evaluations of its programs, surveying students both during and immediately after their study abroad experiences. This longitudinal study was undertaken with the intent of comparing end of academic term evaluation results with longitudinal results. Only through such a retrospective longitudinal study could the sustainability of results, the effects of program design, and the impact of shifts in student participation patterns be assessed.
Article
The purpose of this research is to assess the impact of the international trips on ΕΜΒΛ student learning. We have measured participants’ cognitive, affective and behavioral elements towards international business before and after the trip for two ΕΜΒΛ classes. We find that although learning has taken place in all these areas because of the trip, it has been significant mostly for cognitive and affective learning. In addition, we have tested the extent of such experiential learning as a function of the perceived difference between the USA and the destination country. Our results indicate that both People's Republic of China (PRC) and Vietnam have been perceived very differently from the USA, compared to the differential perception of Hong Kong (a specially administered region of the PRC) vis-à-vis the USA. However, there has not been much evidence of different levels of learning based on the destination —the impact of all destinations has been very positive on learning.
Article
The research on which this article is based explores the logic that study abroad has long-term impact on participants’ professional development. It investigates the professional outcomes and benefits of studying abroad as perceived by study abroad alumni ten years following their undergraduate experience. Through the use of a survey, phone interviews, and email follow-up, study abroad participants were questioned about the skills, knowledge, and self-awareness they acquired and maintained from their study abroad experience. Inquiries were made into how and if these acquisitions proved professionally applicable, influenced career paths, and contributed to success. Findings confirm that gains resulting from studying abroad are professionally applicable in the form of intercultural competencies, foreign language use, and personal growth. Evidence showed that a large majority of study abroad alumni gravitate toward a line of work with an international or multicultural dimension. The experience increased competitiveness as a job applicant and led to professional opportunities. The data further indicates that many alumni are influenced by their study abroad experience in choosing a career path. With knowledge of these outcomes, this study aims to highlight the value of study abroad and support a socially and economically driven movement to increase study abroad opportunities.
Article
The taking of a 'gap year', immediately after completing their secondary school education, to explore life before embarking on formal studies or starting their career, is a growing phenomenon among young people in South Africa. This research study explores the experiences of three young people who engaged in a gap year and focuses on the influence that gap year had on their individual career decision-making process. A case study design was used and the data was collected by means of semi-structured interviews, as well as lifelines and collages the participants created for the purpose. Finally, the three participants, who were consulted throughout the research process, also participated in the final analysis of the data. The outcome of this study revealed that the chief value of the gap year might be found in the personal growth it facilitated and the benefit of extra time that the young people have at their disposal before finalising their career decision-making process.
Article
This research studied the differences between what consumers say they want and what they will actually buy. A segmentation study was conducted based on the benefits derived from travel using a sampling methodology that was not destination-specific. The sampling methodology employed also allows for the findings to be generalizable to the U.S. traveling public. Four market segments are identified — three that are big enough to war rant different marketing strategies — and discussed in detail. Where appropriate, they are compared to the segments identified by previous researchers.
Article
Is the short-term study abroad experience, particularly when undertaken with a self-contained group of international students such as on a `semester abroad programme' accredited by a US university, little more than glorified tourism? This study investigates some of the ways in which a group of American students developed their understanding of British culture, not just by studying it together with their peers, but also by living in the country for a semester. The results suggest that these students learned both within and out of the classroom; they were not simply adding information during the semester, but also reflecting about their own views and attitudes, such that the study abroad experience was not, for most of them, simply about the passive reception of pre-packaged tourist images; it changed their views of Britain, of America and of themselves.
Article
Learning is increasingly seen as an important motivation for tourism, however, little is known about touristic learning. While descriptions are available, few have attempted to establish why it has become important or to distil theoretical foundations that can explain both its form and existence. Establishing a theoretical framework for touristic learning will assist in the development of products that better fulfil both consumers' needs and providers' objectives and perhaps illuminate our understanding of learning that is more incidental. Indeed, beyond this, a greater understanding of touristic learning may also provide new insight on why people travel at all. This paper discusses learning as a motivation for tourism and advocates the use of the notions of tourism as play and learning through play to enhance future research into touristic learning.
Article
This paper reports on a research study of the long‐term effects of a high school home‐stay experience for German and American students who participated in the Youth For Understanding program in the 1950s, 1960s, 1970s and 1980s. With emphasis on the German sample, this paper (1) briefly describes the study’s methodology, (2) provides an overview of major findings, and (3) poses the question: what next?
Article
This research note describes the out-of-class experiences of students who took part in a yearlong study-abroad program in Maynooth, Ireland. The study examines how the program influenced students’ desire to become involved in out-of-class activities, how out-of-class experiences fostered students’ learning of the Irish culture, and how the experiences influenced students’ attitudes toward cultures other than their own. The study employed a descriptive qualitative approach using both long interviews and focus groups for gathering data. Results of the study suggest that the students used ethnographic discovery methods, as demonstrated through Spradley's [Spradley, J. P. (1980). Participant observation. New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston] means-end domain of semantic relationships.
Article
In order to determine whether personality changes occur in teenagers during 1-month homestays in Japan, the California Psychological Inventory (CPI) was administered to 154 exchange students and to 112 control students who did not travel abroad. The CPI was administered prior to the exchange, again at its conclusion, and a third time 4 months later. Antecedent information was collected using a pre-exchange questionnaire. Analysis of covariance was used to determine whether the pretest and posttest scores for the two groups were significantly different. Non-parametric tests were used to determine whether overseas group antecedent sub-populations changed differently. The overseas group increased in flexibility and independence and became less conventional compared with the control group. Exchangees who were the first members of their families to travel abroad and those who personally paid a high percentage of their trip expenses changed the most. Travelers who had studied a foreign language for one or two semesters experienced no significant changes; those with no previous language study and those who had studied a language for three or four semesters changed significantly.
Article
This article traces the outlines of a profound and ongoing change in U.S. attitudes about study abroad. In chronicling the shift from a Junior Year Abroad paradigm that governed study abroad theory and practice as recently as two decades ago, to an emerging Student Learning paradigm that increasingly informs study abroad attitudes and goals today, the author argues that there is a widening gulf between what U.S. study abroad professionals believe their students ought to learn through studying abroad and what many programs abroad aim to provide.
Article
This study answers a need for outcome assessment in study abroad by exploring the intercultural communication skills of study abroad and on campus students. Through a pretest and posttest of two specific skills, intercultural adaptability and intercultural sensitivity, study abroad students were compared to students who stay on campus to measure their change (if any) during the course of the semester. Using the Cross-Cultural Adaptability Inventory and the Intercultural Sensitivity Index, the two student groups individually assessed their strengths and weaknesses through a self-reported inventory at the beginning and end of the fall 2002 academic semester. Results confirmed the hypothesis that students who study abroad exhibit a greater change in intercultural communication skills after their semester abroad than students who stay on campus. Results also indicated that exposure to various cultures was the greatest predictor of intercultural communication skills.
Article
This Capstone paper explores the logic that study abroad has long-term impact on participants’ professional development. It investigates the professional outcomes and benefits of studying abroad as perceived by Dickinson College class of 1998 study abroad alumni. Through use of a survey, phone interviews, and email follow-up, study abroad participants were questioned about the skills, knowledge, and self-awareness they acquired and maintained from their study abroad experience. Inquiries were made into how and if these acquisitions proved professionally applicable, influenced career paths, and contributed to success. Findings confirm that gains resulting from studying abroad are professionally applicable in the form of foreign language use, intercultural competences and personal growth. Evidence showed that a large majority of study abroad alumni gravitate toward a line of work with an international or multicultural dimension. The experience increased competitiveness as a job applicant and led to professional opportunities. The data further indicates that many alumni are influenced by their study abroad experience in choosing a career path. With knowledge of these outcomes, this study aims to highlight the value of study abroad and support a socially and economically driven movement to increase study abroad opportunities.
Article
Out-of-class experiences associated with learning and personal development were identified from interviews with college seniors. Respondents attributed a wide range of desirable outcomes (for example, critical thinking, relational and organizational skills) to life outside the classroom. Peer interactions and leadership responsibilities were among the most frequently mentioned antecedents of benefits.
Article
This conceptual paper explores the nexus between travel and learning; an area of investigation long neglected by tourism researchers. Using Aristotle’s concepts of phronesis, techne and episteme a framework for the major areas of literature dealing with touristic learning are considered and opportunities and challenges for expanding the boundaries of knowledge are explored. Key proposals are: learning resulting from tourist experiences is likely to be highly personal and strongly tied to individual interests, motivations and prior knowledge; the nature of learning from a tourist experience only emerges over space and time; and long-term meanings created by tourists are likely to be strongly influenced by their perceptions of how these experiences satisfy identity-related needs and expectations.
Article
Globalization is here to stay and companies across the world are realizing the importance of having employees with a global mindset. As companies cut costs, many provide little or no on-the-job training to hone employees' cross-border skills. It is thus the task of colleges and universities to prepare students to function and excel in the new and challenging global business environment of the 21st century. While there are a variety of forms that study abroad programs may take, study abroad has often been associated primarily with semester- or year-long stays in foreign countries, with students enrolled in programs offered by the home university or through arrangements with host foreign universities. Unfortunately, this type of program is often not a viable option for non-traditional business students. These working adults, attending classes in the evenings or on weekends, are seldom able to take much time away from their jobs and, hence, are usually precluded from the benefits of such programs. In an effort to respond to the needs of these learners, many business schools have included short-term programs, often referred to as study abroad tours, in their curricula. These courses are usually taught by professors from the home institution and include on-site visits, over a one- to three-week period, to businesses in one or multiple destination countries. This research assesses empirically the perceived benefits of a business study tour course in terms of business educational outcomes, cultural awareness and sensitivity, and work-related gains. This study fills a gap in the business-school-related literature by focusing on outcomes of study abroad tours for non-traditional, working adult students. According to the Institute of International Education, assessments of study abroad programs by their sponsors focus, for the most part, on student satisfaction and gains in language proficiency. Interestingly, intercultural proficiency and career-related outcomes are assessed by few institutions and the results of these studies are seldom accessible to individuals outside the sponsoring institution. As no published information could be found on the assessment of business-school study abroad tours for non-traditional students, the findings of this exploratory study should prove useful to business persons and academicians alike in understanding the role and effectiveness of study abroad tours in better preparing adult students to succeed in a global environment. (Contains 9 tables.)
Article
Over the past fifteen years, at least a dozen articles have appeared in the management and marketing literature describing and supporting international study tours as valuable educational experiences. These articles, however, have focused primarily on the design and implementation of such tours, with minimal emphasis given to outcome assessments or analysis. This limited attention to empirical support for these programs is surprising given their increasing popularity, especially among business students. The purpose of this article is to extend the existing literature by assessing the effects of an international business study tour in terms of participants' perceived cross-cultural connectivity and professional development, and then examining those results in light of two personality traits among participants--self-monitoring and core self-evaluations.
Article
This study examined the broader impact that study abroad programs have on students' cross-cultural skills and global understanding and the role that students' goals for participating in study abroad programs play on the development of these outcomes. Two hundred and thirty two (N=232) study-abroad college students were queried regarding their cross-cultural skills prior to and at completion of the program. A factor analysis of the Study Abroad Goals Scale (SAGS) revealed three factors that students report for joining study abroad programs (1) to enhance their cross-cultural skills, (2) to become more proficient in the subject matter and (3) to socialize. The results showed that overall students' cross-cultural skills and global understanding improved; but students' goals to study abroad influenced the magnitude of these outcomes. Namely, only the first factor (cross-cultural competence) significantly predicted students' global understanding and cross-cultural skills. Based on these findings, specific recommendations are provided to university officials and policy makers involved in study abroad programs.
Article
This study used a case study approach to examine how 30 Pennsylvania State University students used out-of-class experiences while studying abroad to enhance their learning. Students, who spent a semester or academic year abroad during the 1990-91 school year, were interviewed about their experiences. Three basic categories of learning activity encompassed the informants' detailed catalog of experiences: participant observation, personal interactions, and travel. Students related: (1) how direct interaction with the host culture enhanced their learning experience; (2) the importance of personal relationships in learning not only about the host culture but also about the relationship between stereotypes and individual identities; (3) the importance of travel as an out-of-class learning activity in its own right. To enhance the out-of-class learning experiences of exchange students, the study recommends that international programs build in experiential activities, monitor the quality of the exchange experience, develop appropriate pre-exchange orientation programs, prepare students for reflective observation, force critical thinking and reflection, and develop more exchange programs in nontraditional areas. (Contains 95 references.) (MDM)
Article
Naturalistic inquiry methods were used to explore the spiritual dimension of wilderness experiences among 26 participants in wilderness adventure programs. Participants identified their spiritual experiences and factors contributing to or inhibiting such experiences. Program recommendations are offered for planning wilderness trips conducive to spiritual development. (KS)
Article
Michigan State University (MSU) is strongly committed to the idea that study abroad is deeply beneficial and important for undergraduate students. However there is a relative scarcity of systematically gathered qualitative and quantitative information that assesses the impact of study abroad. In the summer of 2000, MSU implemented a broad plan to design and put in place mechanisms for continuously assessing the impact of study abroad on students, on faculty, and on MSU as a whole. From the beginning, "assessment of the impact of study abroad" was broadly construed to focus on measuring the acquisition of knowledge, skills and attitudes that students need to live and work in the 21st century. The assessment project is expected to continue indefinitely and so far two phases have been completed. In this article, the authors report preliminary results of Phase I and II, which explore study abroad's impact on students. Seeking evidence that MSU students going abroad are achieving learning goals, the study uses a variety of instruments and methods, qualitative and quantitative. The authors discuss some of the project's findings from student surveys, faculty reports, and the MSU database in terms of the primary areas in which MSU intends study abroad to have an impact on students: intellectual growth (including both academic performance and language learning), personal growth, intercultural awareness, and professional development. (Contains 2 tables.)
Article
As national boundaries have lost their traditional significance over the past thirty years through increased travel, global telecommunications, and international trade and investment, it has become important for individuals to possess firsthand experience with other cultures. Traditionally, American undergraduates accomplish this by studying abroad. In this paper, the authors describe their research, which explores whether students enrolled in courses abroad during five-week University of Delaware January-term programs acquire more "global awareness" than those who studied at home and enrolled in similar course in the same January term. They developed a survey instrument designed to measure student perceptions and recollections about their attitudes toward four categories they identify as the essential elements of "cultural awareness": (1) intercultural awareness; (2) personal growth and development; (3) awareness of global interdependence; and (4) functional knowledge of world geography and language. The four broad categories used to develop the survey items form a useful framework with which to analyze the results. The authors conclude that short-term programs, even as short as one month, are worthwhile educational endeavors that have significant self-perceived impacts on students' intellectual and personal lives. The data demonstrate that the students who spent the month abroad were more confident in their levels of intercultural awareness and functional knowledge than their peers who remained on campus. (Contains 2 tables.)
Article
The GoNorth! Adventure Learning (AL) Series delivered educational programs about global climate change and sustainability from 2006 to 2010 via a hybrid-learning environment that included a curriculum designed with activities that worked in conjunction with the travels of Team GoNorth! as they dog sledded throughout the circumpolar Arctic. This study addresses a gap in the AL literature by identifying factors that lead to high levels of student engagement and reveals strategies for instructional designers and educators on how to design emotionally engaging online learning environments. A mixed methods study was conducted to explore patterns of learner engagement in relation to two AL programs: GoNorth! Fennoscandia 2008 and GoNorth! Nunavut 2009. Survey data were drawn from a total of 101 students in 2008 and 2009.
Article
This paper aims to locate student exchange as a mode of tourism within a sociological framework. Data was collected through in‐depth interviews with seven Australian undergraduate students who participated in an exchange program in 2005 or 2006. The results suggest that the exchange experience goes beyond tourism in the consumerist tradition of Urry's (2002a) influential The Tourist Gaze. Instead, participants identified their experience as a more authentic engagement with their host country and culture than encountered when they had backpacked or holidayed in the area. They attributed this difference to opportunities for sharing in the leisure activities of the local culture and participating in the routines of everyday life. Simultaneously, participants remained conscious of their ‘foreigner status’. These experiences resonate with Cohen's (2004) Phenomenology of Tourist Experiences, though they cannot be classified within a single mode in this typology. This research concluded that student exchange is complex and not adequately articulated within these existing theories.