Article

Invisible at Work An Integrated Model of Workplace Ostracism

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

This article offers a review, integration, and extension of the literature relevant to ostracism in organizations. We first seek to add conceptual clarity to ostracism, by reviewing existing definitions and developing a cohesive one, identifying the key features of workplace ostracism, and distinguishing it from existing organizational constructs. Next, we develop a broad model of ostracism in organizations. This model serves to integrate the relevant findings related to ostracism in organizations and to extend our theorizing about it. We take a decidedly organizational focus, proposing organizationally relevant factors that may cause different types of ostracism, moderate the experience of ostracism at work, and moderate the reactions of targets. We hope this article will provide a good foundation for organizational scholars interested in studying ostracism by providing a framework of prior literature and directions for future study.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... Leaders' abusive behaviors toward coworkers signal that mistreatment as the desired and appropriate way to treat abused coworkers. Consequently, observers may invoke ostracism, a subtle form of deviant behavior, to mimic this mistreatment behavior given employees share the same level of formal authority with abused victim (Robinson et al., 2013). Second, prototypical leaders are endorsed by their employees and are perceived as wholeheartedly dedicated to the team's overall interest (Giessner & van Knippenberg, 2008;Ullrich et al., 2009). ...
... Therefore, observers believe that the victim deserves mistreatment and that it is victims' own passive features, such their deviant behaviors or any actions detrimental to collective interest incurred the abuse from the leader. These defects make observers feel it is risky for themselves to interact with victims (Robinson et al., 2013). When people believe that association with a particular person is detrimental, individuals always avoid said person of concern (Robinson et al., 2013). ...
... These defects make observers feel it is risky for themselves to interact with victims (Robinson et al., 2013). When people believe that association with a particular person is detrimental, individuals always avoid said person of concern (Robinson et al., 2013). Because employees work together in the same place, ostracism is the most practical and likeliest approach to distance oneself from abused coworkers (Breidenthal et al., 2020). ...
Article
Full-text available
Despite several studies exploring the effect of abusive supervision on employee creativity from various perspectives, the social side of creativity remains largely unexplored. Building on the social identity model of organizational leadership and the dynamic componential theory of creativity, we purported that abusive supervision would dampen victims’ creativity through coworkers’ ostracism, but this effect would critically depend on leaders’ in-group prototypicality. Results from a multi-wave and multi-source survey and a scenario experiment provided converging support to the proposed model. Specifically, we found that abusive supervisor was negatively related to employee creativity via coworkers’ ostracism only among leaders high (vs. low) in-group prototypicality. Theoretical and managerial implications are discussed.
... First, this project can contribute to the understanding of workplace ostracism as a theoretical construct. What differentiates workplace ostracism from other workplace aggression constructs is that it is defined as an act of omission that is characterized by low intensity, lack of clear intent to harm, and ambiguity (Ferris et al., 2017;Robinson & Schabram, 2017;Robinson et al., 2013). However, it is currently unclear whether targets' appraisals of ostracism really encompass these three appraisals. ...
... Second, it is often implied that appraisals of ostracism influence how people respond to being ostracized at work (e.g., Ferris et al., 2016;Robinson et al., 2013). Yet, researchers rarely measured or manipulated appraisals of ostracism to study their effects. ...
... appraisal; Lazarus & Folkman, 1984) people will react differently to the same types of occurrences. Therefore, relying on a definition of workplace ostracism that incorporates the subjective experience of the targets is more valuable for the purposes of the current project than looking at workplace ostracism solely as an act of omission (Robinson et al., 2013). ...
Article
Full-text available
Using both correlational and experimental designs across four studies (N = 1251 working individuals), the current project aimed to contribute to the understanding of workplace ostracism by studying two research questions. First, we tested whether the subjective experience of targets reflects the current theorizing of ostracism. Second, drawing from the transactional theory of stress and coping, we investigated whether this subjective experience impacts targets' coping responses. Findings based on exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses supported the current theorizing of workplace ostracism such that perceived intensity, intent, and ambiguity were reflected in how targets appraised being ostracized at work. The appraisals were also related to coping responses. Perceived intensity predicted more approach-oriented (e.g., confrontation) and less avoidance-oriented coping responses (e.g., minimization).
... Although it is usually manifested in the form of low-intensity counternormative behavior and seems to be trivial (Ferris et al., 2017;Robinson et al., 2013), its detrimental effects on both employees and organizations are remarkable (Jones et al., 2016). Numerous studies have found that ostracized employees are more likely to experience various negative consequences, such as high strain and low performance (e.g., De Clercq et al., 2019; Wu et al., 2012). ...
... Second, COR theory suggests that initial resource loss may result in a cascade of subsequent resource loss, thus limiting individuals' abilities to gain new resources to endure suffering (Hobfoll, 1989). Based on this, Robinson et al. (2013) highlighted the pragmatic outcome of ostracism and proposed that ostracism hinders employees' abilities to access information and seek functional support through social interaction to attain work goals (e.g., Kwan et al., 2018). Therefore, when health-impaired employees are ostracized at the workplace, they lack sufficient task resources, such as the assistance of their colleagues, to complete tasks as expected. ...
... Workplace ostracism has been widely identified as a type of social pain (Riva et al., 2011), with both psychological and pragmatic impacts on employees (Robinson et al., 2013). Therefore, we included two indicators of the psychological and pragmatic impacts of ostracism to investigate the possible mechanisms in accounting for the moderating effect of ostracism. ...
Article
Full-text available
Presenteeism has mainly been discussed in terms of its negative effects on both individuals and organizations. By conducting two studies, we posit that presenteeism is an active, problem‐focused coping strategy that health‐impaired employees use to endure difficult times, and that the process is attenuated by workplace ostracism. In Study 1, we adopt a resource‐based view of stress, identify the effects of two kinds of pain (i.e. physical pain and social pain) on presenteeism, and explore the positive implications of presenteeism by sampling 60 full‐time employees over 10 consecutive workdays. We find that episodic physical pain is positively related to presenteeism and ultimately drives job crafting at the daily level. Furthermore, workplace ostracism significantly weakens the daily relationship among episodic physical pain, presenteeism and job crafting. Grounded in these findings, study 2 is designed to explore the mechanisms through which ostracism moderates the relationship between physical pain and presenteeism. A two‐wave dataset from 187 employees reveals that ostracism reduces self‐esteem, and then weakens the positive link between physical pain and presenteeism. In summary, we provide preliminary evidence that presenteeism may play a positive role in dealing with physical pain, and that social pain (i.e., ostracism) tends to weaken this positive role by reducing employee’s self‐esteem.
... Although the vast majority of the studies have focused on the consequences of workplace ostracism, it is essential to note that both individual and organizational factors are thought to play important roles in workplace ostracism (Robinson et al., 2013;Robinson and Schabram, 2017). Robinson et al. (2013) stated that flat organizational structure, formal policies and competitive culture, high-stress environment, group ostracism, and workplace diversity had been linked to workplace ostracism. ...
... Although the vast majority of the studies have focused on the consequences of workplace ostracism, it is essential to note that both individual and organizational factors are thought to play important roles in workplace ostracism (Robinson et al., 2013;Robinson and Schabram, 2017). Robinson et al. (2013) stated that flat organizational structure, formal policies and competitive culture, high-stress environment, group ostracism, and workplace diversity had been linked to workplace ostracism. In organizations -especially in competitive ones -employees primarily focus on their performance and avoid sharing their resources with others. ...
... For example, if one of the group members may repeatedly engage in citizenship behaviors to build a positive self-image, others would notice that association will have detrimental effects on group harmony and efficacy. Similarly, people may interpret certain behaviors as "deviant" rather than beneficial and believe that association will hurt them (Robinson et al., 2013). ...
Article
The study aims to discover the probable roles of cultural characteristics in the relationship between organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) and workplace ostracism which is a critical phenomenon among employees. It was designed in a causal model claiming that there are moderating effects of collectivism and belief in collective emotions in the relationship between OCB and workplace ostracism. 309 employees were included randomly in Turkey, and correlation and regression analyses were conducted to test the hypothesis. Unlike similar studies and the expected relationship in our hypotheses, OCB and workplace ostracism were found negatively correlated. Moreover, neither organizational collectivism nor employees’ belief in collective emotions had a moderating role in this relationship. The study showed that the dark side of the OCB does not work for the Turkish culture, although its collectivist features. It is evident that globalization makes the collectivist organizations’ strict norms and rules more flexible and loosens the employees’ collectivist beliefs. Regardless of the cultural characteristics, the study also underlines that workplace ostracism should be prevented with appropriate management strategies like encouraging employees to be engaged in citizenship behaviors.
... Workplace ostracism occurs whenever individuals or groups breach social norms by failing to engage or include other co-workers (Robinson et al., 2013). In turn, ostracized co-workers report such incidents as intense and painful experiences that have lasting implications on their performance and well-being (Howard et al., 2020). ...
... In the ostracism condition, the vignette described how the two group members went from working effectively with the participant to ignoring them, which meant excluding them from personal and work-related conversations and failing to acknowledge their ideas-all characteristics associated with workplace ostracism (Robinson et al., 2013). In addition, and consistent with the ambiguous nature of workplace ostracism (Ferris et al., 2017), participants were given no insight into the intentionality of motives underlying this change in group behaviour, thus leaving it open to interpretation. ...
Article
We examine the impact of group attractiveness on the relationship between workplace ostracism and organizational citizenship behaviours directed toward the group (OCBG). Research has long overlooked contextual features of ostracism at work. Using an experimental vignette methodology (N = 312), we found that physical attractiveness was critical in determining the mechanism by which ostracism influenced OCBG. The victims' social anxiety served as a mediator through which ostracism influenced OCBG when the ostracizing group was deemed to be low on attractiveness. However, the negative direct effect between ostracism and OCBG was observed only when group attractiveness was high. Our findings have implications for understanding the interplay between victims' individual differences and the context in which workplace ostracism is manifested. Dans cette étude, nous examinons l'impact de l'attractivité du groupe sur la relation entre l'ostracisme au travail et les comportements de citoyenneté organisationnelle dirigés vers le groupe (OCBG). Les chercheurs ont longtemps négligé les caractéristiques contextuelles de l'ostracisme au travail. En utilisant une méthodologie de vignette expérimentale (N = 312), nous constatons que l'attrait physique est essentiel pour déterminer le mécanisme par lequel l'ostracisme influence l’OCBG. L'anxiété sociale des victimes modère l'influence de l'ostracisme sur les objectifs de bien‐être au travail lorsque le groupe ostracisé est considéré comme peu attrayant. Cependant, on observe un effet direct négatif entre l'ostracisme et l’OCBG uniquement lorsque l'attractivité du groupe est élevée. Ces résultats permettent de comprendre l'interaction entre les différences individuelles des victimes et le contexte dans lequel se manifeste l'ostracisme au travail.
... Organization scholars and practitioners are increasingly becoming aware of different types of work-related misbehaviors and their significant and costly consequences for both employees and organizations, as well as society (Aquino and Thau, 2009;Fox and Spector, 2005;Greenberg, 2002;Mishra et al., 2022;Murphy, 2021;Robinson and Bennett, 1997). Such behaviors in an organization can range from minor workplace ostracism (Robinson et al., 2013) to serious workplace violence (Neuman and Baron, 1998). Varying in form, degree of frequency and intensity, related phenomena have been studied and interpreted from various perspectives (e.g. the victim's or perpetrator's) over the years. ...
... workplace aggression (Baron and Neuman, 1996); emotional abuse (Keashly, 1998)], while others ignore intention [e.g. incivility (Andersson and Pearson, 1999); ostracism (Robinson et al., 2013)]. ...
Article
Purpose Organizational misbehavior (OMB) is a complex phenomenon for researchers and a major issue facing practitioners because of both its copious negative individual and organizational outcomes and its complexity. Researchers and practitioners are increasingly becoming aware of different types of work-related misbehaviors and their significant and costly consequences for both employees and organizations. OMB can take many forms, and a plethora of terms have been introduced to describe those OMBs. This article aims to review the constructs describing workplace misbehaviors in current organizational behavior literature. Design/methodology/approach The authors used a qualitative systematic review to organize OMB-related constructs. Findings This paper provides a review of workplace misbehavior constructs and a broader, more organized picture of OMB by developing a hierarchical reflective model. It highlights some challenges that the OMB literature needs to overcome. Originality/value Unlike previous review articles that primarily focused on workplace misbehaviors intended to cause harm or damage, this review includes misbehaviors intended to both damage and benefit.
... Employees who experience a perception of ostracism may think negatively about those who ostracise them by experiencing negative emotions (Williams, 2007) and exhibit some undesirable behaviours such as aggression and harm to the organization (Robinson et al., 2013). Consequently, ostracised employees may exhibit organizational deviance behaviours (Ferris et al., 2008). ...
... Therefore, this situation shows that the power in schools is not equally distributed between school administrators and teachers. The hierarchical structure in organizations causes employees to experience exclusion (Robinson et al., 2013). This situation negatively affects the stakeholders of the school. ...
Article
Full-text available
This research aimed to examine the relationship between organizational ostracism and organizational deviance according to teachers' perceptions. The research employed a correlational design. The study sample consisted of 261 primary school teachers working in Turkish schools. The data were analyzed via multiple linear regression analysis. The findings showed that teachers experienced a low level of organizational ostracism and organizational deviance at schools. In addition, organizational ostracism predicted organizational deviance in individual, organizational and ethical dimensions, but the level of this prediction was low. The study discussed some implications for researchers and practitioners, emphasizing the role of ostracism in teachers' displaying organizational deviance behaviours. For instance, to prevent organizational deviance behaviours in schools, ostracism should be stopped, or its negative effects should be reduced. Also, importance should be given to developing cooperation and relationship networks among teachers, and communication channels should be kept open.
... As per this conception, http://111.68.96.103:40003/ojs/index.php/jbe undermining behavior may also be direct (e.g., verbally treating others as less worth) or withholding behaviors (e.g., not providing critical information to a colleague). The most recent definition of workplace ostracism is by Robinson et al. (2013) 'Workplace ostracism occurs when an employee or group of employees does not connect with another members of the organization when it is communally suitable to do so.' ...
... Being ignored by other organizational members drops perceived relational value and hovers an individual's self-esteem (Peng and Zeng, 2017). Similarly, the feeling of being ostracized sends signals to the one who is experiencing it that one is not considered a valued member of the organization (Robinson et al., 2013). Thus, it takes down one's perceived relational value. ...
Article
Full-text available
Ostracism has become a common hurtful phenomenon in the workplace. Researchers and practitioners are interested in identifying the range of consequences for employee attitudes and behaviors caused by workplace ostracism. By drawing on the conservation of resources theory, this paper examines the impact of workplace ostracism on job performance through depressed mood and the moderating effect of employees' political skill in buffering the negative consequences of ostracism on job performance. In this empirical study, the data were collected from 233 employees of private banks using a self-administrative survey method. The proposed hypotheses were tested utilizing the moderated mediation analysis. The results show that the indirect impact of workplace ostracism on job performance through depressed mood becomes weak for individuals with high political skills and vice versa. The present study contributes to the existing stream of knowledge by providing how workplace ostracism transforms into poor performance outcomes by investigating the underpinning mechanism of depressed mood. It also examines an essential but unexplored boundary condition of political skill that detonates the indirect process for the employees with high political skill compared to low.
... The former focuses on a lack of interpersonal interactions (e.g., people leave when an employee enters a room; Ferris et al., 2008), whereas the latter focuses on how an employee is treated relative to others during interpersonal interactions (e.g., people treat an employee with less respect than other members of the organization; Stucky et al., 2011). Sadly, both ostracism and everyday discrimination are prevalent in organizations (Deitch et al., 2003;O'Reilly et al., 2015;Robinson, O'Reilly, & Wang, 2013), partially because organizational policies are generally focused on preventing explicit forms of mistreatment (e.g., explicit discrimination based on race or gender), but not covert ones, such as workplace ostracism and subtle everyday discrimination. ...
Article
This study examined responses from more than one thousand employed adults across the United States to shed light on the causal directions and temporal dynamics between, on the one hand, the hostile social situations employees face at work (i.e., workplace mistreatment) and, on the other hand, the harmful behaviors that employees enact at work. Using autoregressive cross-lagged panel analyses on a 12-wave longitudinal dataset, we show that employees’ bad behaviors at work (e.g., sabotage, theft, abuse of coworkers) are both a cause and a consequence of experiencing mistreatment from colleagues and supervisors (e.g., ostracism, everyday discrimination, abusive supervision). We investigate the temporal aspects of this reciprocal relationship and find that deviance-to-mistreatment and mistreatment-to-deviance effects both occur over a 1-week time horizon. Moreover, this reciprocal relationship continued across the 12 weeks of the study, and its magnitude neither intensified nor diminished over this time period. Finally, we investigated the role of moral character evaluations in the reciprocal mistreatment-deviance relationship. Our results revealed that individuals whose moral character is more positively regarded by coworkers (i.e., those evaluated as higher in honesty-humility) are less penalized by others in response to their deviance. We discuss theoretical and managerial implications of these results for mitigating deviance and mistreatment in organizations.
... Workplace ostracism is a specific form of ostracism, a phenomenon in which individuals perceive that they are neglected or rejected by others in the workplace, a kind of emotional office abuse (3,26). When employees suffer from ostracism, it will cause them to suffer from self-esteem, generate negative emotions, reduce work efficiency (27,28), and hinder the generation of wellbeing (29). First, when employees perceive ostracism or isolation in the team, interpersonal stress will be generated, which will affect employees' engagement and satisfaction with their work and reduce their wellbeing at work. ...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction As a common phenomenon of workplace ostracism in corporate management, it is urgent to clarify how it affects employee well-being. Methods Based on Conservation of Resource Theory, this study investigates the mechanisms of workplace ostracism on employee well-being and examines the mediating role of emotional exhaustion and the moderating role of team forgiveness climate by surveying 282 employees from 68 companies in mainland China. Results The results show that (1) workplace ostracism negatively affects employee well-being; (2) emotional exhaustion plays a mediating role between workplace ostracism and employee well-being; (3) team forgiveness climate weakens the negative effect of workplace ostracism on emotional exhaustion and negatively moderates the indirect effect of workplace ostracism on employee well-being through emotional exhaustion. Discussion It tries to provide theoretical basis and practical guidance for eliminating the negative effects of workplace ostracism and focusing on employee well-being.
... This conforming behavior prevents excessive attention or even surveillance from other group members and reduces their risk of losing their status within the organization (Fraley, Garner, & Shaver, 2000). Conversely, if employees express their different values authentically, they may be ostracized by other group members or lose their jobs because the expression of different values sends a dissonant signal to the group or organization (Robinson et al., 2013). Such adversity may evoke unpleasant memories of early attachment experiences, and therefore they act inauthentically to prevent or minimize such feelings of vulnerability (Hewlin, 2009). . ...
Article
Full-text available
This study explored relationships between insecure attachment styles (avoidant attachment and anxious attachment) and task performance. We conducted a three-wave survey of 216 employees (42.10% of the participants are females) in China and adopted a moderated mediation model grounded on attachment theory and trait activation theory. Results indicated significant and positive associations between insecure attachment styles and facades of conformity, and facades of conformity mediated the negative relationships between insecure attachment styles and task performance. Task interdependence moderated the relationship between facades of conformity and task performance such that the relationship was weakened when task interdependence was higher. Furthermore, task interdependence moderated the indirect negative relationships between insecure attachment styles and task performance via facades of conformity, such that the negative indirect relationships were attenuated when task interdependence was higher. The results from our study indicate that facades of conformity may serve as a values-regulation explanatory mechanism in the relationships between insecure attachment styles and task performance.
... One approach to thinking about belonging is to consider social inclusion, that is, a group's participation and representation within organisations and institutions, such as the media, politics, business, government and education (Arvanitakis et al., 2020;Australian Social Inclusion Board, 2012;Robinson et al., 2013;Rogers & Ashforth, 2017;Soutphommasane et al., 2018;Tienda, 2013). However, a sense of belonging is also fostered through close personal relationships with family and friends which are characterised by intimacy, care and love McCarthy, 2012;Roseneil & Budgeon, 2004;Weston, 1997). ...
Thesis
Full-text available
From the turn of the century, social attitudes have shifted away from secrecy and anonymity in donor conception in line with broader recognition that children have a right to accurate information about their identity and family. As such, some donor-conceived people are now growing up in families who disclose and discuss donor conception openly while others are unexpectedly learning of their donor-conceived status later in life. Yet, little empirical research has explored the array of actors, processes and technologies that shape experiences of belonging for donor-conceived people. This thesis reports on exploratory research of Australian donor-conceived adults’ experiences. The project adopted an innovative interdisciplinary approach, combining methods and analytic techniques from sociology, social semiotics and media studies to explore everyday social, linguistic and digital practices. Data comprise Hansard from a public hearing of a Senate Committee Inquiry into donor conception; a national online survey with sperm donor-conceived (n=90) and egg donor-conceived (n=1) respondents over 16 years of age; and semi-structured interviews with sperm donor-conceived adults (N=28). The research is also underpinned by vignettes of personal experience to reflexively foreground my own positionality as a donor-conceived person. Findings reveal the significant role that digital technologies play in donor-conceived people’s everyday lives. Donor-conceived peers used digital platforms to exchange experiential knowledge and negotiate meanings ascribed to their collective identity, to educate (prospective) recipient parents and the general public about their perspectives, to trace family members through direct-to-consumer DNA testing, and to strategise for increased recognition in legislation. In terms of family, participants navigated complex and dynamic familial (non) relationships and the lingering consequences of anonymity. However, donor-conceived people also found strategies to help them reckon with secrecy and silence, actively responding to social conditions and challenging the institutions of medicine and the law. Indeed, donor-conceived people drew on experiential and institutional knowledges to position themselves as an authority on donor conception as people with lived expertise. I argue that belonging, for donor-conceived people, is experienced across three planes: in relation to peers, family and the State. In doing so, this thesis underscores how everyday belonging is relational and processual, and achieved through a range of momentous events, everyday encounters and humorous artefacts.
... Η εφαρμογή παθητικής ηγεσίας μειώνει ή απομακρύνει τελείως την καθοδήγηση, ανταλλαγή πληροφοριών και στοιχειώδη επικοινωνία, με αποτέλεσμα να είναι πιθανό να οδηγήσει σε ουσιαστική έλλειψη κοινωνικής συνοχής στο χώρο εργασίας (Robinson, O'Reilly and Wang, 2013). Συστηματική έκθεση σε αυτό το στυλ ηγεσίας μπορεί να επιφέρει αυξημένα επίπεδα απογοήτευσης και να προκαλέσει αρνητικά συναισθήματα στους εργαζόμενους τα οποία θα δυσκολευτούν να τα εκφράσουν καθώς υπάρχει έλλειψη καναλιών επικοινωνίας και ο ηγέτης δείχνει αδιάφορος (Kelloway et al., 2012). ...
... Significantly, these phrases appear to relate to the same basic event because they are frequently employed to denote "a general phase of social rejection or exclusion" [12]. Exclusion, shunning, ignoring and rejecting all have the fundamental trait of excluding socially proper conduct, leading to a sense of not being included, acknowledged or accepted by those targeted, despite semantic and psychological variations between these terms [13]. As a result, we collectively mark such interactions as ostracism which can be described as both omissions and outright acts of social exclusion. ...
Article
Full-text available
The main objective of the current research was the development of the ostracism scale in the Urdu language to shed the light on this invisible harassment and abuse which is the most ignored part of society yet a very common method to exclude people from social groups. A total of 40 items developed through an adequate process with the help of William’s need and threat model. A sample of 200 participants in the age range of 18 to 40 years was selected for data collection through a simple random sampling technique. After analysis, the sample adequacy was 0.915 with 4 factors including self-esteem, control, meaningful existence and belonging which are the four fundamental needs of humans. CFA is .903 with the removal of 18 items in the scale and sample adequacy of the remaining 22 items of the scale is .924 with reliability of α = .937. 7 items subscale “self-esteem” reliability value is α = .866, 6 items subscale “control” reliability is 8.25, 5 items subscale “meaningful existence” reliability value is α = 844 and 4 items subscale “belonging” reliability value is α = .704. In Pakistani culture, it is very common to exclude someone without giving attention to the psychological factors the excluded person will face. This research will provide a direction to further research and awareness about ostracism which is rarely known by individuals but yet faces every day.
... Workplace ostracism is the condition of being rejected or excluded from a work group (Ferris et al., 2008). This includes situations in which an employee feels ignored, marginalized, or experiencing misfit by or in regards to coworkers (Ferris, et al., 2008;Robinson et al., 2013). When a worker has ostracism perceptions, significant repercussions often result for companies and individuals (Howard et al., 2020;Mao et al., 2018;Williams, 2007;Wu et al., 2011). ...
Article
Full-text available
With the unstable work environment brought about by high levels of turnover and employee burnout, many firms have sought fresh human capital to fill critical roles. The strain of having to complete job duties in an understaffed environment made remaining employees feel as though they are not being paid enough to do more work for the same pay. However, incoming workers required higher wages to match market demands. Owing to the existence of pay secrecy policies having the potential of making existing workers feel ostracized because elements of seniority, loyalty, and distrust of their employers, a cycle of cynicism and deeper senses of ostracism likely are occurring. With the support of the literature surrounding workplace ostracism, pay secrecy policies, and cynicism, we sampled general workers in the United States (n = 372) to determine if cynicism had the potential to further impact the negative relationship of perceptions of pay secrecy policies and workplace ostracism. Our findings suggest cynicism moderates the proposed relationship at average and high levels indicating that cynicism will buffer feelings of ostracism in an environment where there are negative perceptions of pay secrecy. We discuss how our findings add to the literature through being the first study to explore our hypothesized relationship. Furthermore, we add to understanding of how the aging workforce likely is experiencing cynicism and ostracism associated with pay secrecy policies. Beyond discussing our findings, we give suggestions for future research.
... Normally, workplace ostracism was studied in terms of illtreatment constructs and was known as different constructs from other mistreatment constructs in the workplace (Robinson et al., 2013). Numerous mistreatment constructs such as sexual harassment, incivility, and workplace bullying as negative behavior toward a recipient, while WO includes the withdrawal behavior of the target employees (Ferris et al., 2008). ...
Article
Full-text available
Unsustainable HR practices impose illegitimate tasks on employees due to a shortage of resources. These illegitimate tasks bring counterproductive work behavior in terms of workplace incivility that creates a sense of ostracism in employees. To address these issues, the study examined the relationship among unsustainable HR practices in terms of illegitimate tasks and workplace ostracism. Whereas workplace incivility is defined as an underlying reason through which this association exists. Adopting a theoretical framework from earlier research, the study used cross-sectional data and subsequently a method of quantitative research, and the sample comprised permanent faculty members of private universities in Pakistan working in different departments with different role titles. Smart PLS was applied to run multiple statistics analyzed on the obtained data. The results from the study supported the hypothesis by depicting a positive and significant association between illegitimate tasks and workplace ostracism. Further, workplace incivility was playing the mediating role between illegitimate tasks and workplace ostracism. The results from the study carry significant implications for managers and researchers. Recommendations and future research directions are also discussed in the paper.
... Significantly, these phrases appear to relate to the same basic event because they are frequently employed to denote "a general phase of social rejection or exclusion" [12]. Exclusion, shunning, ignoring and rejecting all have the fundamental trait of excluding socially proper conduct, leading to a sense of not being included, acknowledged or accepted by those targeted, despite semantic and psychological variations between these terms [13]. As a result, we collectively mark such interactions as ostracism which can be described as both omissions and outright acts of social exclusion. ...
Article
Full-text available
________________________________________________________________________ he main objective of the current research was the development of the ostracism scale in the Urdu language to shed the light on this invisible harassment and abuse which is the most ignored part of society yet a very common method to exclude people from social groups. A total of 40 items developed through an adequate process with the help of William's need and threat model. A sample of 200 participants in the age range of 18 to 40 years was selected for data collection through a simple random sampling technique. After analysis, the sample adequacy was 0.915 with 4 factors including self-esteem, control, meaningful existence and belonging which are the four fundamental needs of humans. CFA is .903 with the removal of 18 items in the scale and sample adequacy of the remaining 22 items of the scale is .924 with reliability of α = .937. 7 items subscale "self-esteem" reliability value is α = .866, 6 items subscale "control" reliability is 8.25, 5 items subscale "meaningful existence" reliability value is α = 844 and 4 items subscale "belonging" reliability value is α = .704. In Pakistani culture, it is very common to exclude someone without giving attention to the psychological factors the excluded person will face. This research will provide a direction to further research and awareness about ostracism which is rarely known by individuals but yet faces every day.
... Успішна адаптація передбачає позитивні зрушення в соціальному та власне психологічному розвитку через культивування самомобілізації та самоактивності, які відбуваються завдяки перевіреним і доречним видам впливу фахівців психолого-педагогічного колективу (Prinstein, 2004: 147 -158). За даними Robinson (2013), вплив остракізму можна було б пом'якшити, впливаючи на два основні фактори: ступінь усвідомленості остракізму та ступінь загрози, яку сприймає остракіз. Усвідомлення існування остракізму в освітньому просторі учасниками навчальних колективів посилить психологічний вплив на остракізаторів (почуття відповідальності, провини, сорому) та мінімізує прояви соціальної ізоляції в освітянському середовищі (Robinson, 2013: 203 -231).Автор стверджує, що коли остракізм несподіваний, його вплив стає більш інтенсивним та може впливати на рівень соціальної адаптації або провокувати реадаптацію особистості. ...
Article
У статті розглядаються ознаки остракізму в процесі адаптації до освітнього середовища. Вивчається розвиток учасників освітнього середовища, оскільки саме рівень психічного здоров’я та навчальних успіхів є основним показником екологічності освітнього простору.Висвітлюється явище психологічної адаптації як синтез складної взаємодії особистості й життєвих ситуацій протягом усього біодромального шляху. Здійснено аналіз взаємозалежності соціально-психологічної адаптації та проявів остракізму всередині навчальних груп: зміна навчального закладу може зумовлювати складність адаптації особистості в новому освітньому просторі та — як наслідок утворення явища остракізму або входження індивіда в нове навчальне середовище з наявністю в ньому остракізаторських тенденцій — провокує формування дезадаптаційних механізмів у цієї особи. Висвітлений основний механізм формування остракізаторських тенденцій у процесі адаптації особистості – проблема прийняття ціннісної системи нового освітнього середовища є вагомим чинником для утворення тенденцій остракізації всередині групи щодо окремого індивіда. Сформовано класифікацію показників соціально-психологічної адаптації: рівень розвитку особистісної інтелектуальної сфери; рівень розвитку емоційної сфери особистості; рівень розвитку комунікативної сфери індивіда. Відмічено, що недостатня розвиненість зазначених показників в остракізованої особистості може провокувати такі адаптаційні порушення: розвиток озлобленості, підозрілості, негативізму або й агресивності, ворожості тощо. Зроблено висновки в системі вивчення ознак остракізму в процесі адаптації до освітнього середовища про те, що успішність соціальної адаптації значною мірою залежить як від індивідуально-психологічних особливостей остракізованої особи, міри її особистісно-соціальної відчуженості, так і від остракізаторського впливу, його тривалості, структури й ієрархії мікросередовища. Подальший розгляд цієї проблеми вбачаємо в більш розгорнутому вивченні проблеми остракізації в навчальному середовищі та створенні корекційних програм для мінімізації вказаного явища в просторі освіти.
... Research has also shown that social exclusion compromises one's sense of belonging (Williams & Nida, 2011) and hampers one's ability to attain self-fulfillment in all aspects of life (Nussbaum, 2006). In studies on organizations, Robinson et al. (2013) and Yang and Treadway (2018) highlighted workplace ostracism, a practice by which intentional social exclusion prevents employees from performing to their full potential. Other studies on social exclusion also emphasized its consequences, such as an impact on life satisfaction (Arslan, 2019), an increase in negative effects such as meaninglessness and lack of emotions (Twenge et al., 2003), an increased likelihood of unethical behaviors (Kouchaki & Wareham, 2015;Yang & Treadway, 2018), a higher possibility of aggressive tendencies (Poon & Wong, 2019), and even the likelihood of becoming radicalized (Renström et al., 2020). ...
Article
Full-text available
Drawing on interviews with decision makers in multinational corporations (MNCs) in South Korea, we examine the role of informal networks in the social exclusion of women in the workforce. Although legislation in the country is in favor of gender equality, we found that informal barriers in the workplace remain difficult to overcome. Informal networks in Korea, yongo, present an ethical issue in the workplace, as they tend to socially exclude women, limiting possibilities for their participation and career progression. We found that informal networks are pervasive and strong because of the informal institutions in which they are embedded and that there is a complex interplay between informal networks and informal institutions that socially excludes women. Due to difficulties accessing yongo, women appear to build inmaek, a network type that is more open and accessible. We also found that MNCs in Korea can compensate for the lack of local informal networks for their female employees. However, despite providing a more supportive environment for women at work, gender equality policies in MNCs are not yet as effective as they could be due to the dynamics of the workplace and the fact that the policies are not tailored to the local context. We have seen evidence in recent years that MNCs can serve as role models for implementing gender equality policies by creating a more inclusive work environment and demonstrating leadership commitment and support.
... Social rejection delineates one situation where an individual denies a request from the target in the social interaction (Leary et al., 1998;Freedman et al., 2017). According to Robinson et al. (2013), two related constructs of social rejection are social exclusion and ostracism. Social exclusion is the fact that one is excluded or devalued from desired relationships or by desired relationship partners or groups (MacDonald and Leary, 2005), while workplace ostracism depicts one's subjective perception of being excluded at work (Ferris et al., 2008). ...
Article
Full-text available
Social rejection is cold and hurtful, but how and why it is formed remains under-investigated. Our study offers one possible explanation from the rejector’s perspective by developing a moderated mediation model on the emotional antecedent and consequence of social rejection. Specifically, envious individuals use social rejection to complement their inferiority, further triggering their negative affect. Drawing on social comparison theory, we conducted an experience sampling methodology (ESM) investigation of 55 frontline workers through a 10-workday-survey (Level 1 n = 515). As predicted, daily envy is positively associated with daily social rejection. Daily social rejection is positively related to daily negative affect. Furthermore, daily social rejection mediates the relationship between daily envy and daily negative affect. These effects are more robust for females than males, including the impact of envy on social rejection and the impact of envy on negative affect via social rejection. We suggest the recipient and the rejector make psychological and behavioral adjustments accordingly. We also recommend that future research extend our current study methodologically and theoretically.
... As compared to other forms of mistreatments, workplace ostracism is a subtler mistreatment (Howard et al., 2020). That is to say, ostracism is a nonaction mistreatment, hence ostracized employees prefer to retaliate in a covert manner (Bartlett and Bartlett, 2011); harassment (Robinson et al., 2013), among others. It is thus easy for employees to engage in workplace ostracism because there is no such penalty levied upon such incidences. ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose Employee silence is a pervasive workplace phenomenon that can cause severe economic losses to service organizations. Drawing on conservation of resource theory, the present research aims to investigate interpersonal antecedents of employee silence, specifically workplace ostracism while considering the moderating role of negative reciprocity beliefs (NRBs). Design/methodology/approach Two-wave data collected from 355 employees working in service organizations in Pakistan supported the theorized model. The study used SmartPLS (v 3.2.7) to examine the measurement model and the structural model. Findings As projected, the authors found that workplace ostracism was positively related to acquiescence silence and defensive silence, but not related to prosocial silence. Besides, this study’s findings supported two-way interaction involving workplace ostracism and NRB on acquiescence silence and defensive silence, but not on prosocial silence. In particular, the presence of high NRB makes the adverse effects of workplace ostracism even worse. Originality/value This study explores the boundary conditions under which employee silence is more likely or less likely to occur. This just makes the current research all the more salient that why and when ostracized employees resort to remain silent in the workplace.
... Robinson et al., 2013). Neglect and abuse in the workplace is any personal situation in which an employee initiates alternative negative actions or stops standard positive actions toward another employee (Spector et al., 2014). ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: The purpose of this thesis is to identify the strategic momentum and its role in reducing neglect in the workplace. Design-Methodology-Entry: A structured questionnaire will be used to collect data by employees of the Najaf refinery, The population of our current study represented the owners of the Najaf refinery, which numbered (800), and the research sought to test a number of hypotheses related to the relationships of influence and the correlation between the research variables represented by strategic momentum and ostracism in the workplace. The data was processed through statistical methods using the program (SPSS). Conclusion: The results of the statistical analysis of the data collected through the questionnaire tool prepared for this purpose, in addition to the theoretical conclusions, including the ability of the Najaf refinery to reduce ostracism in the workplace among its employees through strategic momentum.
Article
Okullar toplumların aydınlanmasını sağlayan, girdisi ve çıktısı insan olan özel kurumlardır. Dışlanma, okulların enerjisini ve etkinliğini azaltmakta olduğu için dışlanma gibi sosyal olguların iyi anlaşılması gerekmektedir. Bu araştırmada, Milli Eğitim Bakanlığı’na bağlı ortaöğretim okullarında görev yapan öğretmen ve okul yöneticilerinin deneyimlerine dayanarak okullarda dışlanma olgusunu, nedenlerini ve etkilerini betimlemek, dışlanma sonucu ortaya çıkan sorunlarla baş etmeye ilişkin öneriler ortaya koymak amaçlanmıştır. Araştırmaya, 2020-2021 akademik yılında Aydın ilinde kamuya bağlı ortaöğretim okullarında görev yapan 15 öğretmen ve beş okul yöneticisi katılmıştır. Araştırma nitel araştırma desenlerinden fenomenoloji desenine göre yürütülmüştür. Veriler araştırmacılar tarafından geliştirilen görüşme formu ile toplanmış ve içerik analizi yöntemi ile analiz edilmiştir. Elde edilen bulgulara göre olumsuz bir deneyim olarak algılanan dışlanma, çoğunlukla gruba kabul edilmeme ve önemsenmeme olarak betimlenmiştir. Dışlama genel olarak öğretmenler arasında ve yöneticiden öğretmene doğru uygulanmakta olup, öğretmenden yöneticiye yönelik de olabilmektedir. Dışlanmanın nedenleri arasında sendikal ayrışmalar, dünya görüşü farklılıkları, okul yönetiminin adil olmaması gibi unsurlar öne çıkmıştır. Dışlanmayla baş etmek için tayin isteme en çok başvurulan yöntem iken; performans düşüklüğü, mutsuzluk, psikolojik problemler gibi örgütsel ve bireysel etkileri olduğu tespit edilmiştir. Araştırma sonucunda, okulda dışlanmanın önlenmesi için adil ve hoşgörülü bir okul yönetiminin olması, okul içerisinde yapılacak sosyal etkinlikler ile örgüt kültürünü geliştirmeye yönelik çalışmalar yapılması gibi öneriler sunulmuştur.
Article
Full-text available
Background: Recent events like the global pandemic and geopolitics leading to war bring to bear the evergreen importance of psychological well‐being (PWB) among workers and how it can further influence business growth and performance. Furthermore, the complexity of today's job requirements has created enormous life pressures for individuals, negatively hurting their PWB. Method: This article took the format of a literature review of existing research work by pursuing the keywords in the SCOPUS database to retrieve the articles published on PWB in the field of business and economics from 1978 to 2022. The data were analyzed to elaborate, interpret and graphically display the results, in particular, authors, sources, documents, and social structure of the existing bibliography. The Bibliometrix R package is used for robust analysis of retrieved data. Results: The findings showed that the last decade saw a rise in scholarly work on PWB. However, in 2021, its sharp expansion stalled. It further revealed that academics from four countries had a significant role in accessing PWB in the business and economics fields, namely the United States, the United Kingdom, Australia, and Canada. The reports also indicate themes such as mental health, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‐19), and depression are emerging themes, whereas niche themes include unemployment, quality of life, and job loss. Conclusion: This study suggests these new areas be studied in contemporary literature to provide cogent room to improve policy decisions on PWB within the business world.
Article
Social exclusion has a myriad of negative effects on students’ psychological and social well-being. One way to combat such negative effects is to raise awareness about social exclusion in schools. Here, we describe and evaluate a training program that was carried out across schools in The Netherlands. The program relies on basic experiential learning principles and a well-established social exclusion paradigm to make participants experience and discuss social exclusion. We had two goals in the current paper: (1) discussing previous work supporting the feasibility of such programs and (2) presenting a secondary analysis of the data generated by the program. The analyses are based on 14,065 participants (ages 12–19) and a subset of those who evaluated the program later (n = 386). Our review of the literature supports the feasibility of the program. The results of the secondary data analyses indicate that participants found the program insightful, talked to others about the program, and applied the knowledge gained from the program to their own lives. Taken together, this provides a proof of concept for the evaluated training program.
Article
The negative effect of workplace ostracism on employees has attracted increasing attention. This research, drawing on the perspective of negative reciprocity belief, in combination with the self-regulation theory and the person-environment theory, proposes and tests the positive effect of workplace ostracism on interpersonal deviance, which is negatively moderated by self-control (two-way) and further negatively moderated by negative affect (three-way). Based on a three-wave survey of 233 employees in China, we find that workplace ostracism is positively related to interpersonal deviance. This positive relationship is stronger when employees are low in self-control. Furthermore, this moderating effect exits only when employees’ negative affect is high. Therefore, this research theoretically explicates the positive relationship between workplace ostracism and interpersonal deviance and the boundary conditions of this relationship, and also proposes a practical way to help managers reduce the occurrence of employees’ interpersonal deviation. The theoretical contributions and practical implication have also been discussed.
Article
Given the empirical evidence indicating the relationship between workplace ostracism and counterproductive work behavior, this study aims to tackle, in a collectivistic culture, the impact of workplace ostracism on service performance. EFA and CFA were run on the quantitative data collected, online, from 242 respondents. Reliability and validity were assessed. The findings reveal that the relationship between workplace ostracism and service performance is partially mediated by job tension, organizational identification, and work engagement. Organizational identification, in such a collectivistic context, is shown to buffer the negative impact of workplace ostracism on service performance, supporting the results of earlier studies. Different implications are highlighted and recommendations for future research are communicated too.
Article
Research on coping with workplace ostracism has mainly focused on victims' behaviors. This study provides additional insights by focusing on victims' cognitive processes and emotion regulation to determine how workplace ostracism leads them to reflect and act on their emotions. Drawing on emotion regulation theory and ego depletion theory, we proposed a moderated mediation model to examine the mediating role of reflective learning in the relationships between workplace ostracism and emotional labor and the moderating effect of anger on the process. We conducted an experimental vignette study with 199 working adults in China. When the participants reported low levels of anger in response to workplace ostracism, they engaged in more surface acting and deep acting through reflective learning. However, when the participants reported high levels of anger, they did not use reflective learning effectively. We discuss the implications of these results for both research and practice.
Article
Globalleşen rekabet ortamı örgütlerin rekabet gücünde sahip oldukları insan sermayesinin belirleyici bir faktör haline gelmesine neden olmuştur. Örgüt içerisindeki çeşitli sosyal ilişkiler bu sermayeyi olumlu veya olumsuz olarak etkileyebilmektedir. Çalışanların bulundukları örgütte diğerleri tarafından yok sayılması, görmezden gelinmesi, değersiz hissettirilmesi; yaptıkları işten zevk alamamalarına, örgüt için yararlı, yenilikçi fikir ve görüşleri dile getirmemelerine neden olabilmektedir. Buradan hareketle çalışmamız örgütsel dışlanmanın, çalışan sesliliğine ve iş akış deneyimine etkisini konu almıştır. Literatür taramasının yapıldığı dönemde örgütsel dışlanmasının çalışan sesliliğine etkisi yabancı yazında araştırılmışken, yerli yazında herhangi bir çalışmaya rastlanılmamıştır. Örgütsel dışlanmanın iş akış deneyimine etkisini konu alan bir çalışmaya ise hem yerli hem de yabancı yazında rastlanılmamıştır. Bu açıdan çalışmanın keşifsel ve öncül bir özellik taşıdığı düşünülmektedir. Araştırmanın evreni olarak cam sektöründe faaliyet gösteren bir firmanın mavi yakalı 200 çalışanı seçilmiştir. Araştırma sonuçları, algılanan örgütsel dışlanmanın, çalışan sesliliğini ve iş akış deneyimini negatif yönde etkilediğini göstermektedir. Aynı zamanda örgütsel dışlanmanın, iş akış deneyiminin işten zevk alma boyutunu negatif yönde etkilediği de tespit edilmiştir. Diğer taraftan algılanan örgütsel dışlanma ile iş akış deneyiminin kendini işine verme ve içsel motivasyon boyutları arasında anlamlı bir ilişki tespit edilememiştir.
Article
Although existing studies suggest the relationship between ostracism and ingratiation, the knowledge about why and when ostracism promotes ingratiatory behaviors remains limited. Drawing from identity process theory, the current study examines the influence of ostracism on ingratiatory behaviors through the mediating role of self-identity threat on a daily timescale and the cross-level moderation of core self-evaluation. Through a diary study of 117 Chinese college students across 14 consecutive days, we found that daily ostracism had a positive indirect effect on daily ingratiatory behaviors through daily self-identity threat. Core self-evaluation of students weakened the indirect effect, such that only students with low core self-evaluation engaged in daily ingratiatory behaviors to cope with self-identity threat from ostracism. More importantly, supplemental analyses suggested that averaged daily ingratiatory behaviors were negatively related to perceived ostracism one week later. We discussed several theoretical and practical implications of these findings and proposed future research directions.
Chapter
Workplace aggression is a serious problem for workers and their employers. As such, an improved scientific understanding of workplace aggression has important implications. This volume, which includes chapters written by leading workplace aggression scholars, addresses three primary topics: the measurement, predictors and consequences of workplace aggression; the social context of workplace aggression; and the prevention of workplace aggression. Of note, the book encompasses the various labels used by researchers to refer to workplace aggression, such as 'abusive supervision', 'bullying', 'incivility' and 'interpersonal conflict'. This approach differs from those of previous books on the topic in that it does not focus on a particular type of workplace aggression, but covers an intentionally broad conceptualization of workplace aggression - specifically, it considers aggression from both the aggressors' and the targets' perspectives and includes behaviors enacted by several types of perpetrators, including supervisors, coworkers and customers.
Article
The main purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of workplace ostracism perceptions of hotel employees on their job satisfaction levels and turnover intentions. The model developed for this purpose has been tested empirically. In order to obtain the data used in the research, 345 people working in 4 and 5 star hotels in Konya were reached. The data were collected by questionnaire technique. Statistical analyzes of the research were evaluated with the help of SPSS 25 and G*Power programs. The hypotheses of the research were carried out by linear regression analysis. The power of the study was determined as 89% with 5% Type 1 error and d= 0.5 effect size. As a result of the study, it was determined that workplace ostracism affects job satisfaction negatively and affects turnover intention positively. The results of the study are expected to contribute to the widespread knowledge framework about workplace ostracism. Limitations of the research and suggestions that can be developed for the accommodation industry in line with the results are discussed at the end of the study.
Article
Although team deviance is known to detract from team functioning, extant literature largely focuses on deviance that is independently enacted and directed internally toward other members. This relatively narrow focus poses limitations to the practical application of strategies to reduce the incidence and negative impact of team deviance. We offer a four-dimensional typology that takes into account features of team deviance that are important yet undertheorized: level of coordination and target membership. We use this typology to summarize current research, highlight the narratives on team deviance that underlie each dimension, and discuss how to advance the research domain.
Article
In the environment of changes in working life and competition, organizations employ their employees by interacting with different individuals. These employees contribute to their organizations by working with many colleagues and managers. This study aims to examine the mediating effect of workplace ostracism on workplace loneliness and organizational silence. Individuals working in health services in public institutions in the Marmara Region constitute the study group. The study data were collected using an online survey method. This study concluded that workplace ostracism has a positive effect on workplace loneliness. Workplace ostracism and workplace loneliness affect organizational silence positively. In addition, workplace loneliness has a mediating role in the effect of workplace ostracism on organizational silence.
Chapter
Full-text available
Past research has primarily focused on the negative impact of workplace mistreatment or aggression on the individuals involved, workgroups, and organizations. Certain circumstances, however, create paradoxical effects in which mistreatment positively relates to desirable workplace outcomes and characteristics at the individual and/or organizational level. Reviewing the theoretical and empirical evidence of beneficial outcomes provides researchers and practitioners with a more comprehensive understanding of the progression of workplace mistreatment, allowing them to target specific mechanisms to mitigate detrimental effects and potentially discover important avenues that lead to desired outcomes. A qualitative review of 14 articles demonstrated that different forms of aggression such as bullying, abusive supervision, incivility, and ostracism have positive relationships with paradoxical outcomes and characteristics such as resilience, prosocial behaviors, socially desirable behaviors, job performance, job satisfaction, and creativity. The authors caution against leveraging mistreatment as a method for producing these desired outcomes; instead we encourage researchers and practitioners to utilize the information to further their understanding of the nomological network of workplace mistreatment and its underlying mechanisms, such as cognitive reappraisal and social learning.
Article
Full-text available
استهدف البحث الحالي قياس الدور الوسيط للصمت التنظيمي وسلوك إخفاء المعرفة في العلاقة بين النبذ في مكان العمل ونية ترك العمل بمنظمات الملابس الجاهزة بالمنطقة الحرة العامة ببورسعيد، وتم الاعتماد على أسلوب العينة العشوائية البسيطة، باستخدام (342) مشاركا، وتم اختبار فروض البحث باستخدام نموذج المعدلات الهيكلية، بواسطة برنامج AMOS V.25. كشفت النتائج عن وجود تأثير معنوي إيجابي (طردي) للنبذ في مكان العمل على سلوك إخفاء المعرفة، ووجود تأثير معنوي إيجابي (طردي) للنبذ في مكان العمل على الصمت التنظيمي، ووجود تأثير معنوي إيجابي (طردي) للصمت التنظيمي على نية ترك العمل، ووجود تأثير معنوي إيجابي لسلوك إخفاء المعرفة على نية ترك العمل، ودعمت النتائج أيضًا وجود تأثير معنوي إيجابي (طردي) للنبذ في مكان العمل على نية ترك العمل. كما توصلت النتائج أيضًا إلى وجود تأثير وسيط (غير مباشر) للنبذ في مكان العمل على نية ترك العمل من خلال الصمت التنظيمي؛ الأمر الذي يشير إلى أن الصمت التنظيمي زاد من تأثير النبذ في مكان العمل على نية ترك العمل. كما أوضحت النتائج وجود تأثير وسيط (الغير مباشر) للنبذ في مكان العمل على نية ترك العمل من خلال سلوك إخفاء المعرفة؛ الأمر الذي يشير أيضا إلى أن سلوك إخفاء المعرفة زاد من تأثير النبذ في مكان العمل على نية ترك العمل؛ وبالتالي يجب على الإدارة القضاء على النبذ في مكان العمل وتهيئة بيئة العمل لخلق وتعزيز روح التعاون وزيادة الأنشطة الاجتماعية التي من شأنها أن تشجع على التفاعل الاجتماعي، وإتاحة الفرصة لسماع آراء الجميع للقضاء على الصمت التنظيمي، وأيضا العمل على تشجيع مشاركة المعرفة. The current research aimed to measure the mediating role of organizational silence and knowledge hiding in the relationship between workplace ostracism and turnover intention in the ready-made clothes industry in the public free zone in Port Said, and it relied on the simple random sampling method, using 342 participants, and the research hypotheses were tested using structural equation modelling by AMOS V.25. The results revealed that there was a significant positive effect of workplace ostracism on knowledge hiding behavior; a significant positive effect of workplace ostracism on organizational silence; a significant positive effect of organizational silence on turnover intention; a significant positive effect of knowledge hiding behavior on turnover intention; and the results also supported a significant positive effect of workplace ostracism on turnover intention. The results also found a mediating (indirect) effect of workplace ostracism on turnover intention through organizational silence, which suggests that organizational silence increased the influence of workplace ostracism on turnover intention. The results also indicated that there is a mediating (indirect) effect of workplace ostracism on turnover intention through knowledge hiding behavior, which also indicates that knowledge hiding behavior increased the impact of ostracism in the workplace on turnover intention. Thus, management must eliminate workplace ostracism and create a work environment to create and enhance a spirit of cooperation and increase social activities that would encourage social interaction, provide the opportunity to hear everyone's views to eliminate organizational silence, and work to encourage knowledge sharing.
Article
Full-text available
The current research seeks to determine the nature of the relationship between positive psychological capital and its impact on smoothing the relationship between job engagementand workplace boycott. This was tested by analyzing the relationship between the main variables of research, the interactive variable (positive psychological capital), and the independent variable (place district work), and the approved accredited (job immersion).The research started from a basic problem, which is what is the level of the impact of positive psychological capital in smoothing the relationship between job engagementand boycotting the workplace. which was adopted in the research community, Al-Rafidain University College), and the main tool for data collection was(The questionnaire) which was distributed to the sample of (114) individuals and the data collected was analyzed using the statistical program (SPSS), and the research reached a set of conclusions and recommendations.
Article
Bu araştırmada COVID-19 pandemisi nedeniyle uygulanan uzaktan eğitim sürecinde öğretmen ve öğrencilerin etiketleme olgusunu nasıl deneyimlediklerinin derinlemesine anlaşılması amaçlanmıştır. Çalışma, amaca uygun olarak nitel araştırma yöntemlerinden iç içe geçmiş tek durum deseni içinde tasarlanmış ve yürütülmüştür. Araştırma katılımcıları amaçlı örneklem yöntemlerinden maksimum örnekleme yöntemi ile belirlenmiştir. Araştırma verileri, 2020-2021 eğitim-öğretim yılında Uşak’ta bulunan bir ortaöğretim kurumunda görev yapan öğretmenler ve öğrenim gören öğrencilerle yapılan görüşmelerden elde edilmiştir. Görüşme katılımcılardan izin alınarak kayıt edilmiştir. Elde edilen veriler içerik analiz yolu ile analiz edilmiştir. Her durum öncelikle kendi içinde ayrı ayrı analiz edildikten sonra çapraz durum analizi yapılmıştır. Analiz sonucunda, uzaktan eğitim sürecinde öğretmen, öğrenci ve okul yöneticileri arasında etkileşimin sınırlı olmasına rağmen çeşitli etiketlerin kullanıldığı belirlenmiştir. Öğrenciler ve öğretmenler yapılan etiketlemelerin canlı derslere katılım, mesleki yeterlik ve performans, teknolojik yeterlik, insan ilişkileri ve iletişim gibi etkenlerden kaynaklandığını belirtmişlerdir. Bunun yanı sıra öğrencilerle yapılan görüşmelerde kişilerin yetenek ve çalışma hevesleri ile yaş etkeni, öğretmenlerle yapılan görüşmeler de ise kişilerin sosyo-ekonomik düzeyinin kişilerin etiketlenmesinde etken olarak belirlenmiştir. Ayrıca yapılan etiketlemelerin kişilerin etiketleri kabul etmesi, süreçten ve kişilerden uzaklaşması, etikete layık olma ve etiketleri ciddiye almama gibi tepkilerle sonuçlandığı ortaya konmuştur. Bu yönüyle araştırma etiketleme olgusunun uzaktan eğitim döneminde yoğun olarak yaşandığını göstermektedir. Araştırma sonuçlarına göre özellikle olumsuz etiketler eğitim öğretim süreçlerini ve okul içindeki ilişkileri olumsuz etkileyebilmekte, öğrencileri eğitim-öğretim süreçlerinden uzaklaştırabilmektedir. Bu nedenle öğrenci, öğretmen ve okul yöneticileri arasında yapılan etiketlemelerin (özellikle olumsuz ) azaltılmasına yönelik farkındalığın oluşturulması önerilmektedir.
Article
Full-text available
Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menguji pengaruh supervision incivility pada psychological safety serta apakah terdapat efek moderasi dari atribusi performance promotion motives dan injury initiation motives. Partisipan penelitian ini adalah 118 karyawan yang memiliki atasan langsung. Pengumpulan data dilakukan melalui survei daring berisi Workplace Incivility Scale (WIS), skala atribusi performance promotion motives dan injury initiation motives, dan skala psychological safety. Analisis data dilakukan menggunakan uji moderated regression menggunakan Jamovi 1.6.23. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa supervision incivility berpengaruh negatif terhadap psychological safety. Lebih lanjut, pengaruh negatif supervision incivility terhadap psychological safety dimoderasi oleh atribusi performance promotion motives dan injury initiation motives dalam kondisi yang berbeda.
Article
Despite its centrality in person-environment fit theorizing, employees’ perceptions of misfit are not well understood. One reason is that misfits are very difficult to study because misfit tends to be a temporary condition and misfits are concealed, relatively scarce, disconnected from each other, widely dispersed, and their occurrence largely unpredictable. To circumvent these logistic challenges, this empirical paper explores employees’ perceptions of misfit through their public online blogs about their lived experience of being a misfit at work. Netnography was used to trawl the internet for first-person expressions of misfit. 72 narratives were captured and analysed. The findings show that in 73% of cases where the form of misfit could be identified, these people talk about a form of misfit grounded in the social world at work. Two forms of this socially oriented misfit could be teased apart: episodic and repeating misfit. Being a misfit was a negative, confusing, and unwanted condition revolving around difficulties in social communication, social interaction, social integration, and differences between people rather than differences between people and organizations. The paper ends with a discussion of how the findings complement existing knowledge about perceived misfit and suggests avenues for future research.
Article
Purpose This study aims to test a holistic model that investigates the direct influence of workplace ostracism on employee initiative behaviour, along with the mediating role of organisational identity and work well-being. Design/methodology/approach A series of questionnaire surveys were conducted to collect data in three time lags and multiple sources; 261 supervisor–subordinate matched samples were finally obtained. The hypothesized relationships were tested using structural equation modelling and the ProClin program. Findings The results suggest that workplace ostracism is negatively related to employee initiative behaviour, and organisational identity and work well-being play mediating roles. The analysis further confirms that organisational identity and work well-being play a chained double mediating role between workplace ostracism and employee initiative behaviour. Originality/value This study demonstrates the influence of negative work situation on employee initiative behaviour, specifically the role of workplace ostracism, and expands the theoretical foundation of the relationship. It further provides inspiration and serves as a reference for local Chinese management practices.
Article
Purpose Coworker relationships are important in every organization and especially in higher educational institutions (HEIs); however, ostracism is one of the factors that deteriorate these relationships. This study aims to analyse the impact of coworker ostracism on coworker directed knowledge hiding through the mediating role of relational identification and the moderating role of perceived harming intention. Design/methodology/approach A total of 241 teaching faculty members working in HEIs of Lahore were surveyed. By using the bootstrapping technique, mediation and moderated mediation analysis was conducted via PROCESS models 4 and 7. Findings The results concluded that perceived harming intention moderates the indirect relationship between coworker ostracism and coworker-directed knowledge hiding through relational identification with coworkers. Such that when more harmful intention is perceived the impact of coworker ostracism on coworker-directed knowledge hiding through reduced relational identification would be stronger. Practical implications This study offers managerial implications for HEIs management and faculty for reducing coworker ostracism, improving relational identification and training about attribution techniques to minimize the impact of ostracism on knowledge hiding. Originality/value This study has complimented and augmented the research strand of ostracism and knowledge hiding research from emphasizing lateral workplace relationships. Intertwining the Conservation of Resources Theory with Attribution theory a novel insight into the above-stated association is illuminated through the mediating role of relational capital and moderating role of perceived harming intention.
Article
Purpose Drawing on conservation of resources theory, this study explores the relationships of decent work (DW) with in-role performance (IRP) and organizational citizenship behavior toward the organization (OCBO) by focusing on the mediating role of career satisfaction (CS) and the moderating role of supervisor ostracism (SO). Design/methodology/approach Hypotheses were tested using latent moderated structural equations method with two-wave data from 376 employees in a South China industrial park. Findings DW is positively associated both directly and indirectly, via the mediation of CS, with IRP and OCBO; the positive relationship between DW and CS is negatively moderated by SO. Practical implications The findings show that employee performance can be improved by implementing discernible DW activities that foster CS, but that this effect can be weakened by SO. It is, therefore, critical to create a DW environment for employees and lessen the incidence of SO in the organization. Originality/value This research enriches the literature by addressing the previously unexplored relationship between DW and employee performance by focusing on the mediating role of CS and the moderating role of SO.
Article
Full-text available
Bu çalışmada, nevrotik kişilik özelliğinin, rol davranışı üzerindeki doğrudan etkisi ve işyerinde dışlanmanın bu ilişkideki aracılık rolü Aidiyet Kuramı kapsamında incelenmiştir. Araştırmanın örneklemini, Kütahya Dumlupınar Üniversitesinde çalışan 315 akademik personel oluşturmaktadır. Araştırma nicel tasarıma sahiptir ve veriler anket yöntemiyle toplanmıştır. Araştırmada Goldberg (1992) tarafından geliştirilen nevrotik kişilik ölçeği, Ferris vd. (2008) tarafından geliştirilen işyerinde dışlanma ölçeği ve son olarak için Williams ve Anderson (1991) tarafından geliştirilen rol davranışı ölçeği kullanılmıştır. Toplanan veriler, SPSS 21.0 ve LISREL 8.51 programları aracılığıyla çok değişkenli analiz yöntemleri kullanılarak test edilmiştir. Araştırma bulgularına göre işyerinde dışlanma, nevrotik kişilik özelliği ile rol davranışı arasındaki ilişkide kısmi aracı role sahiptir.
Article
Full-text available
Dijital araçların iş yapış süreçlerinde aktif bir şekilde kullanımı COVİD-19 pandemisiyle birlikte gelişerek daha önce görülmemiş oranlarda artış göstermektedir. Bu araçların yaygın bir şekilde kullanımı işyeri içerisinde gösterilen birçok davranışın dijital kanallara uyum sağlamasına ve dijital kanallar üzerinden gösterilmesine yol açmıştır. Bu araştırma ile dijital araçların kötüye kullanımının yol açabileceği durumlardan biri olan örgütsel dışlanmanın nasıl etkilediğinin test edilmesi amaçlanmaktadır. Bu çalışmada dijital zorbalığın örgütsel dışlanmayla ilişkisiyle, uzaktan çalışma gerçekleştirme sıklıklarının bu iki kavram üzerindeki etkileri incelenmiştir. İstanbul’da yer alan 15 farklı sektörden 404 katılımcıyla anket yoluyla gerçekleştirilen araştırmanın sonuçlarına göre çalışanların dijital zorbalığa maruz kalmasının örgütsel dışlanmayla anlamlı bir şekilde ilişkili olduğu, dijital zorbalığın iki alt boyutundan birey odaklı dijital zorbalığın örgütsel dışlanmayı negatif yönde, iş odaklı dijital zorbalığın ise örgütsel dışlanmayı pozitif yönde etki ettiği bulgulanmıştır. Ayrıca uzaktan çalışmanın örgütsel dışlanma ve dijital zorbalık ile ilişkilerinin anlamlı olmadığı tespit edilmiştir. Araştırmanın sonucuna göre işe yönelik dijital zorbalığa maruz kalmanın örgütten dışlanmışlığa yol açtığı sonucuna ulaşılmıştır.
Article
Full-text available
In this chapter a theory of motivation and emotion developed from an attributional perspective is presented. Before undertaking this central task, it might be beneficial to review the progression of the book. In Chapter 1 it was suggested that causal attributions have been prevalent throughout history and in disparate cultures. Studies reviewed in Chapter 2 revealed a large number of causal ascriptions within motivational domains, and different ascriptions in disparate domains. Yet some attributions, particularly ability and effort in the achievement area, dominate causal thinking. To compare and contrast causes such as ability and effort, their common denominators or shared properties were identified. Three causal dimensions, examined in Chapter 3, are locus, stability, and controllability, with intentionality and globality as other possible causal properties. As documented in Chapter 4, the perceived stability of a cause influences the subjective probability of success following a previous success or failure; causes perceived as enduring increase the certainty that the prior outcome will be repeated in the future. And all the causal dimensions, as well as the outcome of an activity and specific causes, influence the emotions experienced after attainment or nonattainment of a goal. The affects linked to causal dimensions include pride (with locus), hopelessness and resignation (with stability), and anger, gratitude, guilt, pity, and shame (with controllability).
Article
Full-text available
Ostracism is a common, yet painful social experience. Given the harmful consequences of ostracism, why would groups ostracize their members? Previous research suggests that ostracism is a form of social control used to influence those group members perceived as burdensome. The authors propose that individuals will ostracize a group member only when it is justified (i.e., the member seems burdensome) but will compensate a member who is ostracized undeservedly. In Study 1, a group member was ostracized undeservedly by the other players during an online ball-tossing game. Participants allocated more tosses to that ostracized group member than an included one, compensating the ostracized member. In Study 2, participants continued to compensate an ostracized group member, unless that member was burdensome. Participants indicated punitive motives for ostracizing a burdensome group member. These experimental studies extend research on when individuals use ostracism as social control.
Article
Full-text available
Ostracism means being ignored and excluded by one or more others. Despite the absence of verbal derogation and physical assault, ostracism is painful: It threatens psychological needs (belonging, self-esteem, control, and meaningful existence); and it unleashes a variety of physiological, affective, cognitive, and behavioral responses. Here we review the empirical literature on ostracism within the framework of the temporal need-threat model.
Article
Full-text available
Two studies examined whether ostracizing someone depletes psychological resources in the ostracizer. In Study 1, people who followed instructions to avoid conversation with a confederate for 3 minutes later showed decrements in persistence on unsolvable problems. In Study 2, ostracizers showed subsequent impairments in physical stamina on a handgrip task. Although ostracism affected mood too, mood did not appear to mediate the main findings. Past work has shown that ostracism has negative consequences for the victim, but the present results indicate that ostracism has a harmful impact on the ostracizer too.
Article
Full-text available
Individuals are ostracized nearly on a daily basis, which thwarts the satisfaction of fundamental needs and is painful (Williams, 2007). While facing prejudice or discrimination, possessing a group membership can be self-protective (Crocker & Major, 1989) or harmful, depending on group identification (Schmitt & Branscombe, 2002a). How will individuals react to ostracism when a group membership attribution is available? Participants were ostracized or included during Cyberball, a virtual online ball-tossing game, while possessing a temporary, permanent, or no group membership. Participants reported need satisfaction and mood during the game and after a short delay to assess recovery. Initially, ostracized participants felt equally distressed. Possessing a permanent group membership resulted in slower recovery compared to possessing a temporary group membership.
Article
Full-text available
Research examining the relationship between neuroticism and coping has been limited by reliance on dispositional and retrospective methodologies. The current experiments evaluated the utility of a ball-throwing game used in ostracism research, as an experimental stressor with which to examine neuroticism-related differences in coping. Experiment 1 revealed that being excluded during Cyberball is associated with lowered mood and self-esteem, even when widely-used measures are employed. Being ostracised also evoked an emotion-focused coping response. Experiment 2 increased the sensitivity of response-scales and introduced an ambiguous Cyberball condition. When exclusion was ambiguous, high-neuroticism participants perceived themselves as having less control during the game. Being excluded evoked emotion-focused and avoidance coping responses. Consistent with previous research high-neuroticism participants engaged in more emotion-focused coping. Future research should consider the utility of ambiguous conditions in examining experimental manipulations, as well as individual differences in sensitivity to social ostracism.
Article
Full-text available
Respondents wrote 2 stories, 1 about a time they were given the silent treatment and 1 about a time they used the silent treatment on another. Content analyses indicated that targets who were unable to attribute the ostracism to a specific cause suffered greater threats to belongingness and self-esteem than those who understood the reasons for their treatment. Targets who felt that others were oblivious to their presence reported stronger threats to belongingness, self-esteem, and meaningful existence and were more likely to affiliate with others than were targets who generated alternative reasons for their treatment. People high in self-esteem were more likely than those low in self-esteem to (a) use ostracism as a means of terminating the relationship and (b) terminate relationships with their ostracizing partners. People low in self-esteem, conversely, were more likely to ostracize others in defense against criticism or rejection, ostracize others in general, and report being ostracized by others. Finally, perspective differences indicated that sources portrayed the ostracism as a useful interpersonal tactic that ultimately led to conflict resolution, whereas targets emphasized feelings of withdrawal and resentment.
Article
Full-text available
This article presents the first meta-analysis of experimental research on rejection, sampling 88 studies. The results are consistent with a needs account, which states that rejection frustrates basic psychological needs, but not with a numbness account, which states that rejection causes physical and emotional numbness. Rejection moderately lowers mood (d = -0.50) and self-esteem (d = -0.70), but does not decrease arousal or flatten affect. Both belonging (d = 0.69) and control (d = 1.16) are frustrated by rejection. Aggressive responses to rejection, considered paradoxical by some, appear to be due to attempts to gain control; measures that contrast belonging and control (d = -1.17) cause antisocial responding, whereas measures that do not allow for control to be restored cause prosocial responding (d = 1.21). These findings suggest that rejection makes individuals feel bad-ready to act to restore control or belonging-and that they will prioritize restoring control even if it requires being antisocial. © 2009 Association for Psychological Science.
Article
Full-text available
This research examined the relationships between structural positions and influence at the individual level of analysis. The structure of the organization was conceptualized from a social network perspective. Measures of the relative positions of employees within workflow, communication, and friendship networks were strongly related to perceptions of influence by both supervisors and non-supervisors and to promotions to the supervisory level. Measures included criticality, transaction alternatives, and centrality (access and control) in the networks and in such reference groups as the dominant coalition. A comparison of boundary-spanning and technical-core personnel indicated that contacts beyond the normal work requirements are particularly important for technical core personnel to acquire influence. Overall, the results provide support for a structural perspective on intraorganizational influence.
Article
Full-text available
It is argued that (a) social identification is a perception of oneness with a group of persons; (b) social identification stems from the categorization of individuals, the distinctiveness and prestige of the group, the salience of outgroups, and the factors that traditionally are associated with group formation; and (c) social identification leads to activities that are congruent with the identity, support for institutions that embody the identity, stereotypical perceptions of self and others, and outcomes that traditionally are associated with group formation, and it reinforces the antecedents of identification. This perspective is applied to organizational socialization, role conflict, and intergroup relations.
Article
Full-text available
Focusing on the symbolic processes that create “outsiders-within,” this article examines the discourse surrounding employees within an organization who are excluded from the everyday rites and rituals that signify organizational membership. What symbolic constructions typify the discourse of those who fall between the cracks of the day-to-day cultural system? Rather than assume that organizational shunning is an infrequent and brief process, this analysis illustrates how the organized silence invoked during shunning transforms organizational paradoxes and competing values into individual personality problems that can be safely located outside the boundaries of the sense-making processes of the organization. In this way, organizational shunning functions as a disciplinary practice that affirms power relations and simultaneously reifies partisan decision-making premises and priorities.
Article
Full-text available
Over the course of 5 consecutive days, each author agreed to be ostracized for a day at work by the other four coauthors. All coauthors’ offices were in close proximity and were located solely on a single floor and wing of their academic building. Each morning, the name of that day's ostracized individual was drawn, and a scarlet letter “O” was placed above that individual's office door. Ostracizers were instructed to ignore the “Os” by not looking at them, speaking to them, or responding to anything they said. Open-ended individual event-contingent diaries were kept to record participants’ thoughts, feelings, and behaviors each time they were reminded of the ostracism. Despite foreknowledge and consent, attributional confusion surfaced and strong aversive reactions were reported. Findings are framed in terms of Williams's (1997) model of ostracism
Article
Full-text available
Unreciprocated romantic attraction was explored by comparing narrative accounts. Unrequited love emerged as a bilaterally distressing experience marked by mutual incomprehension and emotional interdependence. Would-be lovers looked back with both positive and intensely negative emotions, whereas rejectors were more uniformly negative in their accounts. Unlike rejectors, would-be lovers believed that the attraction had been mutual, that they had been led on, and that the rejection had never been communicated definitely. Rejectors depicted themselves as morally innocent but still felt guilty about hurting someone; many rejectors depicted the would-be lover's persistent efforts as intrusive and annoying. Rejectors constructed accounts to reduce guilt, whereas disappointed lovers constructed them to rebuild self-esteem. Rejectors saw would-be lovers as self-deceptive and unreasonable; would-be lovers saw rejectors as inconsistent and mysterious. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Full-text available
Reviews research that attempts to replicate and extend B. Latané and J. M. Dabbs's (1970) discovery that the presence of other people inhibits an individual from intervening in an emergency. Particular attention is paid to the nature of the precipitating incident, the ambiguity of the helping situation, laboratory vs field settings, characteristics of the Ss, victims, and other bystanders, and the amount and kinds of communication among bystanders. It is concluded that, despite the diversity of styles, settings, and techniques among the studies, the social inhibition of helping is a remarkably consistent phenomenon; however, victims are more likely to receive assistance when only a single individual witnesses the emergency. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Full-text available
Five experiments involving 447 undergraduates used a self-probe methodology in both simulated and real conditions to demonstrate that individuals do engage in spontaneous attributional search. Results show that this search is most likely when the outcome of an event is negative and unexpected. Content analysis of attributional questions also suggests that causal search is biased toward internality after failure but toward externality following success. Data reveal that the most commonly used heuristic in attributional search is to center on the locus and control dimensions of causality. (29 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Full-text available
The current research examined the impact of workplace ostracism on work-related attitudes and behaviors. Participants read a vignette describing a series of workplace interactions between the participant and two coworkers. During the interactions, participants were included in a group discussion, ostracized by coworkers in English or ostracized in Spanish. Consistent with predictions, ostracized participants reported lower levels of organizational commitment and organizational citizenship behaviors than included participants. Ostracism by language resulted in lower work group commitment and higher levels of symbolic threat compared with included participants and those ostracized in English. Increased prejudice was also reported by participants exposed to language ostracism. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for general attitudinal processes and employee-related work attitudes and behaviors. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Social exclusion was manipulated by telling people that they would end up alone later in life or that other participants had rejected them. These manipulations caused participants to behave more aggressively. Excluded people issued a more negative job evaluation against someone who insulted them (Experiments 1 and 2). Excluded people also blasted a target with higher levels of aversive noise both when the target had insulted them (Experiment 4) and when the target was a neutral person and no interaction had occurred (Experiment 5). However, excluded people were not more aggressive toward someone who issued praise (Experiment 3). These responses were specific to social exclusion (as opposed to other misfortunes) and were not mediated by emotion.
Article
In this article we introduce the concept of workplace incivility and explain how incivility can potentially spiral into increasingly intense aggressive behaviors. To gain an understanding of the mechanisms that underlie an "incivility spiral," we examine what happens at key points: the starting and tipping points. Furthermore, we describe several factors that can facilitate the occurrence and escalation of an incivility spiral and the secondary spirals that can result. We offer research propositions and discuss implications of workplace incivility for researchers and practitioners.
Article
We find that ostracism negatively impacts belongingness, which in turn relate to lower performance and higher withdrawal. We further find that the impact of ostracism is unique compared to that of bullying. Finally, we demonstrate that the impact of ostracism is intensified when one has social support outside of work.
Article
What makes us human? Why do people think, feel, and act as they do? What is the essence of human nature? What is the basic relationship between the individual and society? These questions have fascinated people for centuries. Now, at last, there is a solid basis for answering them, in the form of the accumulated efforts and studies by thousands of psychology researchers. We no longer have to rely on navel-gazing and speculation to understand why people are the way they are; we can instead turn to solid, objective findings. This book not only summarizes what we know about people; it also offers a coherent, easy-to-understand though radical, explanation. Turning conventional wisdom on its head, the author argues that culture shaped human evolution. Contrary to theories that depict the individual's relation to society as one of victimization, endless malleability, or just a square peg in a round hole, he proposes that the individual human being is designed by nature to be part of society. Moreover, he argues that we need to briefly set aside the endless study of cultural differences to look at what most cultures have in common; because that holds the key to human nature. Culture is in our genes, although cultural differences may not be. This core theme is further developed by a tour through the main dimensions of human psychology. What do people want? How do people think? How do emotions operate? How do people behave? And how do they interact with each other? The answers are often surprising, and along the way, the author explains how human desire, thought, feeling, and action are connected.
Article
Ostracism is such a widely used and powerful tactic that the authors tested whether people would be affected by it even under remote and artificial circumstances. In Study 1, 1,486 participants from 62 countries accessed the authors' on-line experiment on the Internet. They were asked to use mental visualization while playing a virtual tossing game with two others (who were actually computer generated and controlled). Despite the minimal nature of their experience, the more participants were ostracized, the more they reported feeling bad, having less control, and losing a sense of belonging. In Study 2, ostracized participants were more likely to conform on a subsequent task. The results are discussed in terms of supporting K. D. Williams's (1997) need threat theory of ostracism.
Article
Exclusion is an essential aspect of stigmatization. Excluding the stigmatized serves several functions for those who exclude, including self-esteem enhancement, anxiety reduction, system justification, and reduction of the costs associated with group living. Exposure to stigma-based exclusion is a stressor, however, for those who are excluded. We propose that how individuals respond to this stressor is a function of (a) how they regulate exposure to the stressor of stigma-based exclusion, (b) how they cognitively appraise stigma-based exclusion, and (c) the coping strategies they use to deal with exclusion that is appraised as stressful. Individuals who are potential targets of stigmabased exclusion will not necessarily suffer from lower self-esteem or reduced well-being if they avoid stigma-based exclusion, do not appraise stigma-based exclusion as stressful, or if they use coping strategies that are effective at managing the internal or external demands posed by stigma-based exclusion that is appraised as threatening. Coping strategies discussed include enhancing one's relational desirability, seeking alternative bases of inclusion, withdrawing from domains in which one is likely to be excluded, and attributing exclusion to prejudice rather than personal characteristics.
Article
Much research in sociology and labor economics studies proxies for productivity; consequently, little is known about the relationship between personal contacts and worker performance. This study addresses, for the first time, the role of referral contacts on workers' performance. Using employees' hiring and performance data in a call center, the author examines the performance implications over time of hiring new workers via employee referrals. When assessing whether referrals are more productive than nonreferrals, the author also considers the relationship between employee productivity and turnover. This study finds that referrals are initially more productive than nonreferrals, but longitudinal analyses emphasize posthire social processes among socially connected employees. This article demonstrates that the effect of referral ties continues beyond the hiring process, having long-term effects on employee attachment to the firm and on performance.
Article
This research investigates the role of job characteristics as possible mediating variables in the relationships between the organization's structural context and the attitudes and behaviors of individual employees. The organization is conceptualized as a network of task positions interrelated on the basis of workflow transactions. Three structural relationships of task positions are investigated: (1) the centrality of a task position; (2) the degree to which a task position is critical to the workflow; and (3) the transaction alternatives available to a task position. The results indicate significant relationships between these three relational measures and job characteristics. Further, the findings support the hypothesis that job characteristics mediate the relationship between structure and individual responses.
Article
Social rejection hurts, causing aggression even against innocent people. How can the sting of social rejection be reduced? Based on social impact theory, the authors predicted that aggression would decrease as a power function of the number of people accepting the participant. In Experiment 1, participants included by 0, 1, 2, or 3 players in an online ball-tossing game could aggress against an innocent stranger by requiring him or her to eat very spicy hot sauce. In Experiment 2, participants socially accepted by 0, 1, 2, 3, or 4 other people could aggress against an innocent stranger by administering loud noise. In both experiments, aggression and unpleasant emotions decreased as a power function according to the number of people accepting the participants, with each additional acceptor having a decreasing incremental effect. Acceptance from others numbs the pain of social rejection, making rejected people less likely to lash out against innocent others.
Article
Prior research has yielded mixed findings regarding the relation of ostracism to prosocial behavior, with studies indicating ostracism leads people to become less prosocial, more prosocial, or that prosocial behavior is unaffected by workplace ostracism. By conceptualizing prosocial behavior at work as a social dilemma, we hypothesized that whether or not individuals reduce prosocial behaviors following ostracism can be understood by how individuals manage the conflict between the immediate temptation to treat others poorly and the long-term benefits of not giving into such temptations. Across three studies – a scenario (Study 1), experimental (Study 2), and field study on employed adults (Study 3) – we find support for the hypothesis that individuals who are less (versus more) oriented towards future outcomes engage in less prosocial behaviors with others who have ostracized them during prior interactions. We discuss both the practical and theoretical implications of these findings.
Article
This study examines the effects of personal and situational determinants on work engagement and service performance. Drawing on Conservation of Resources (COR) Theory, we hypothesize that workplace ostracism will reduce work engagement and service performance and that highly neurotic individuals are more susceptible to ostracism. To test the model, we collect longitudinal data from 304 supervisor–subordinate dyads in 19 Chinese hotels. As predicated, we find that: (1) workplace ostracism is negatively related to service performance; (2) workplace ostracism negatively impacts employee service performance via work engagement; and (3) neuroticism strengthens workplace ostracism's direct effect on work engagement and indirect effect on service performance. The implications of these findings, the strengths and limitations of the study, and directions for future research are discussed.
Data
We propose that to understand how rejection perceptions affect immigrants' acculturation orientations, we need to take account of perceptions of rejection and group identification with both the host society and the country of origin. In line with previous work, we found among Romanians and Moroccan immigrants in France that perceived French rejection directly affected French identification and acculturation orientations. In addition, perceived rejection by the country of origin (Romanians and Moroccans in the country of origin) negatively affected immigrants' identification with this group. In turn, identification with the country of origin positively predicted endorsement of integration and separation orientations, and negatively predicted endorsement of assimilation. Overall, results suggest that identification with the country of origin is an additional important factor in determining acculturation decisions. In the acculturation literature, as in the intergroup relations literature more generally, attention tends to be focused on immigrants or minority group members engaged in a struggle (symbolic and/or material) with the dominant group in their 'host' society. In this analysis, acculturation strategies are very much a function of the minority group's needs and desires in relation to the opportunities provided by the majority group (Arends-Toth & van de Vijver, 2003). While we agree that rejection from the host society is an important predictor of acculturation orientations, we believe that the extant literature has overlooked another important component of immigrants' experience: Their relationship and ties with their country of origin. We propose that acculturation orientations are also determined by immigrants' perceived rejection from their friends and family left 'at home' in the country of origin. For example, immigrants may be envied by those in the country of origin, based on the belief that immigrants enjoy a higher quality of life in the host country. Similarly, immigrants may face rejection because they have ostensibly abandoned the values and beliefs of the country of origin (Pedraza, 2006). It is important to examine such instances of rejection because they are likely to shape immigrants' level of identification—or psychological connection—with the country of origin. We propose that rejection by the country of origin lowers identification with this group and that this, in turn, will affect immigrants' level of interest in maintaining their cultural heritage or adopting the host country's culture. We develop this argument below by examining how rejection from the host society and rejection from the country of origin can each independently affect identification with these groups and subsequent acculturation attitudes.
Article
The complexity of political, regulatory, and technological changes confronting most organizations has made radical organizational change and adaptation a central research issue. This article sets out a framework for understanding organizational changes from the perspective of neo-institutional theory. The principal theoretical issue addressed in the article is the interaction of organizational context and organizational action. The article examines the processes by which individual organizations retain, adopt, and discard templates for organizing, given the institutionalized nature of organizational fields.
Article
Ostracism, the act of ignoring and excluding, is a universally applied tactic of social control. Individuals who detect ostracism often change their behaviors to be readmitted into the group, even if it means becoming excessively socially susceptible to influence. We tested whether ostracized individuals are more socially susceptible to a subsequent influence attempt. In this study, 65 undergraduates were randomly assigned to a 2 (Inclusion or Ostracism)×3 (Compliance tactic: foot‐in‐the door, target request only, door‐in‐the‐face) between‐participants design. The participants played Cyberball and were either included or ostracized, and then they were approached with a request to donate money. Despite no differences between the three tactics, ostracism increased compliance across all request types. Our discussion focuses on the implications for ostracism‐induced social susceptibility.This material is based on work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 0519209 awarded to the third author. We would like to thank Janice Kelly for her comments, and Jessica Bartman, Katherine Lang, Patrick O'Brien, Vista Ritchie, and Kirsten Zeiser for their excellent acting skills as confederates.
Article
Distrust and suspicion are common and recurring problems within many organizations. Our understanding of the antecedents and consequences of such distrust and suspicion, however, remains far from complete. The present chapter addresses this issue by articulating a framework for conceptualizing the origins and dynamics of a heightened and exaggerated form of distrust and suspicion termed organizational paranoia. Drawing on recent social psychological theory and research, the framework identifies social cognitive processes that contribute to the development and maintenance of organizational paranoia. The framework also explicates a functionalist perspective on the role of paranoid cognition in organizations.
Article
Social perceivers exhibit a diagnosticity bias, whereby they overestimate the extent to which behaviors and events convey the information that they most want to obtain. The authors propose that this bias reflects individuals' eageress to satisfy their prevailing informational goals. They suggest a typology of informational goals and offer an analysis of the antecedents and consequences of these goals. The informational goals framework is then used to analyze attribution biases that social psychologists have previously considered to be distinct phenomena. Finally, implications of the informational goals perspective for inter group relations are discussed.
Article
Elevators were used as a field setting to examine the existence of civil inattention (Goffman, 1963)—the rule that in a transient encounter strangers give visual notice to each other and then withdraw attention. In Sutdy 1, confederates recorded the behavior of single riders in elevators. It was found that about half of all riders gave the confederate a brief visual notice at the beginning of the ride and then refrained from further eye contact. Of the riders, 35% added one or two glances to the initial look; perhaps these riders wanted to renew their acknowledgment of the confederates or perhaps they simply displayed more interest in their fellow passengers. In two more investigations (Study 2 and an exact replication—Study 3) confederates shared elevators with single riders and either followed or violated the rule of civil inattention. In the former they glanced at the subject and then withdrew all further attention; in the latter case they either avoided eye contact altogether or stared at the subject for the duration of the ride. It was found that behaviors consistent with the rule of civil inattention were rated more favorably than those in violation of the rule. The conditions under which civil inattention may be modified or eliminated were discussed.
Article
The psychological contract held by an employee consists of beliefs about the reciprocal obligations between that employee and his or her organization. Violation refers to the feelings of anger and betrayal that are often experienced when an employee believes that the organization has failed to fulfill one or more of those obligations. This article provides a model outlining the psychological sensemaking processes preceding an employee's experience of psychological contract violation. It also identifies factors that affect those processes with the aim of encouraging future empirical research.
Article
We defined linguistic ostracism (LO) as any situation in which people converse in a language that others cannot understand (as opposed to linguistic inclusion [LI], in which people converse in a language that others do understand). Participants were exposed to either LO or LI by two Russian-speaking confederates. Participants then performed a creativity (brainstorming) task expecting to be evaluated individually or to reconvene with their groups and be evaluated collectively. Results revealed that targets of LO compared to LI reported more rejection and anger, less attraction toward their coworkers, and lower perceived team potency. In the group work condition, targets high in social self-efficacy (SSE) performed better following LO (compared to LI), whereas those low in SSE performed worse. No effects emerged in the individual work condition. Targets' levels of rejection sensitivity were positively associated with aggressively charged ideas following LO but not LI. We conclude that LO is psychologically aversive for targets and hampers group-based performance among those who lack confidence in their social abilities. Future areas of research as well as implications for multilingual organizations are discussed.
Article
`Out-of-the-loop' experiences, or situations where people perceive being uninformed of information mutually known by others, pervade people's lives. Two experiments examined the psychological impact of this form of partial ostracism. In Experiment 1, compared to in-the-loop participants, out-of-the-loop participants experienced a variety of deleterious effects (e.g. depleted fundamental needs), even without significant costs for being uninformed. In Experiment 2, out-of-the-loop participants were led to believe that their lack of information resulted from their group members' decisions or chance. Unlike those who experience complete ostracism, participants typically reported negative psychological consequences only when group members were responsible for the exclusion decision. Information exclusion also affected factors related to group dynamics (e.g. liking and trust of group members), which may ultimately harm group functioning. Taken together, these studies demonstrate the social and psychological importance of being in the information loop in group settings.
Article
Mood is distinguished from emotion, and mood regulation is distinguished from coping. A model of mood regulation is presented which draws on principles of control theory, which distinguishes between maximizing pleasure and minimizing psychic pain, and which emphasizes individual differences in several component subprocesses. A preliminary taxonomy of strategies and behaviors for remediating unpleasant affect is presented. Important topics for future research are discussed, including the assessment of successfulness of mood-regulation strategies, affective specificity in strategies (e.g., what works for anger might not work so well for sadness), and person specificity in strategies (e.g., socializing or helping others may be more effective strategies for extraverts than introverts). The relationship of mood regulation to overall life satisfaction and global happiness is discussed.
Article
Tested several hypotheses concerning proactive feedback-seeking behavior (FSB) derived from the general assertion that feedback is a valuable individual resource. As such, feedback was hypothesized to be subjective to active seeking behavior by individuals. FSB was proposed as an instrumental response of employees attempting to achieve their goals within an evaluative context. Hypotheses relating such seeking to both personal (length of tenure, job involvement and tolerance for ambiguity) and organizational (contingency uncertainty and role ambiguity) variables were formulated and tested in a public utility. 172 marketing employees (average age 31.5 yrs) were surveyed on their perceptions of the role ambiguity, contingency uncertainty, tenure within the organization, and job involvement. All variables were found to predict FSB. The relationships between both role ambiguity and contingency uncertainty and proactive FSB were moderated by an S's ability to tolerate ambiguity. (32 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Hypothesized that people sometimes ignore information inconsistent with their expectations, but that outcome dependency (OCD) would increase people's attention to inconsistent information. When the perceiver's outcomes depend on the other person, the perceiver may be more motivated to have a sense of prediction and control, rather than only motivated to maintain the expectation. Attention to inconsistent information potentially increases the perceiver's sense of prediction and control, so it should increase under OCD. Attention to consistent information should be relatively unaffected by OCD. The results of 2 studies with 102 undergraduates support these hypotheses. OCD increased attention to inconsistent information, but did not influence attention to consistent information. In the 2nd study, think-aloud protocols revealed that outcome-dependent Ss made more dispositional comments while attending to inconsistent information, and generated both facilitative and inhibitory dispositional attributions for the inconsistent information. This suggests that whether they integrated the inconsistency or not, they responded with more thought about the other person's stable characteristics. Findings are considered in relation to previous work showing situational attributions for inconsistency and to models of meaning change in impression formation. (49 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Proposes a theory of social impact specifying the effect of other persons on an individual. According to the theory, when other people are the source of impact and the individual is the target, impact should be a multiplicative function of the strength, immediacy, and number of other people. Furthermore, impact should take the form of a power function, with the marginal effect of the Nth other person being less than that of the ( N–2)th. When other people stand with the individual as the target of forces from outside the group, impact should be divided such that the resultant is an inverse power function of the strength, immediacy, and number of persons standing together. The author reviews relevant evidence from research on conformity and imitation, stage fright and embarrassment, news interest, bystander intervention, tipping, inquiring for Christ, productivity in groups, and crowding in rats. (27 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
One hundred sixty-four participants recounted situations in which their feelings had been hurt (victim accounts) or in which they had hurt another person's feelings (perpetrator accounts) and then completed a questionnaire. Hurt feelings were precipitated by events that connoted relational devaluation, and the victims' distress correlated strongly with feelings of rejection. Victims were typically hurt by people whom they knew well, suggesting that familiarity or closeness played a role. Analyses of the subjective experience revealed that hurt feelings are characterized by undifferentiated negative affect that is often accompanied by emotions such as anxiety and hostility. Victims' responses to the event were related to their attributions for the perpetrators' actions, and hurtful episodes typically had negative repercussions for the relationships between perpetrators and victims. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Peer preferences (determined by both positive and negative sociometric choices) and perceptions of African-American and White children attending either majority White or majority African-American classrooms were examined. Results indicate that classroom racial minority status (i.e., being in a classroom in which most classmates are of a different race) is associated with peer rejection of girls but not of boys. Correlates of peer preferences differed for children in majority White vs African-American classes, providing support for the subjective culture hypothesis. Implications of these findings for girls' peer relations and for educational practices regarding classroom racial proportions are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)