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Paying Attention to Mindfulness and Its Effects on Task Performance in the Workplace

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Abstract

Although the concept of mindfulness has attracted scholarly attention across multiple disciplines, research on mindfulness in the field of management remains limited. In particular, little research in this field has examined the nature of mindfulness and whether it relates to task performance in organizational and occupational settings. Filling these gaps, the present article delineates mindfulness by (a) defining it as a state of consciousness in which attention is focused on present-moment phenomena occurring both externally and internally, (b) comparing it to a range of other attention-related concepts, and (c) developing theory concerning the factors that determine when mindfulness is beneficial versus costly from a task performance standpoint.

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... Sutcliffe et al., 2016) and attracting attention across various domains of business management, including marketing (Bahl et al., 2016;Luchs & Mick, 2018;Lee & Kim, 2018); tourism (Chen et al., 2017;Tung et al., 2017); information systems (Mu, 2015;Curtis et al., 2017;Addas & Pinsonneault, 2018, Thatcher et al., 2018; human resource management and leadership (Goldman-Schuyler et al., 2017;Frizzell & Banner, 2018, Baron et al., 2018; and, more broadly, organizational behavior (Chandler & Hwang, 2015;Danner-Schroder & Geiger, 2016;Williams et al., 2017). The purpose of management-related mindfulness research has varied a lot, with targeted benefits such as physical and psychological well-being (Hülsheger et al., 2015;Hülsheger et al., 2013;Kiburz et al., 2017;Michel et al., 2014) as well as task and job performance (Dane, 2011;Dane & Brummel, 2014;Glomb et al., 2011;Reb et al., 2012) at the individual level; team decision quality (Curtis et al., 2017), team performance (de Jong & Fodor, 2017), and conflict management (Yu & Zellmer-Bruhn, 2018) at the group level; and reliability, innovation, and organizational learning (Levinthal & Rerup, 2006;Weick et al., 1999;Weick & Sutcliffe, 2006;Weick & Putnam, 2006) at the organizational level. ...
... Unfortunately, mindfulness research has tended to be grounded in distinct and fragmented literatures, making the implications and informed applications of its findings difficult, and ultimately reducing the potential mindfulness will have efficacious outcomes in the workplace. Management scholars have proposed a number of different definitions of mindfulness depending on the ontological level (Dane, 2011;Sutcliffe et al., 2016) and specific management domain (e.g., IT-mindfulness: Thatcher et al., 2018;social mindfulness: Van Doesum et al., 2013). This is not surprising given the historical tendency for mindfulness research to focus on different schools of thought (e.g., Eastern or Western) at different levels of analyses (individual or collective), drawing from different disciplines (e.g., management, psychology, philosophy, information systems), and leveraging different methodological designs. ...
... The first -and most cited -laid the theoretical foundations of mindfulness and defined mindfulness as both a stable personality trait and as a fluctuating state, resulting in greater physical and psychological well-being (Brown et al., 2007). The second, acknowledging a dearth of mindfulness research in work settings, proposed to extend mindfulness research from disciplines concerned with health and well-being (e.g., clinical psychology) to disciplines concerned with performance-related behaviors (e.g., management; Dane, 2011). Research in this cluster regards the attentionrelated aspect of mindfulness as worthy of investigation since the ways in which organizational members focus their attention is key to decision-making, heeding risks, and/or noticing key resources at their disposal, ultimately influencing task performance (Dane, 2011). ...
Article
Over time mindfulness research and practice has taken on diverse basic assumptions and theoretical traditions, and the pseudo‐scientific use of the term has become more prevalent. Given the ubiquitousness of both personal and professional applications of mindfulness, the need for a thorough understanding of its theoretical cornerstones is necessary. In this review, we use bibliometric techniques to uncover the field's intellectual roots (Study 1), and document bibliographic coupling analysis to illuminate current research avenues across management disciplines (Study 2). Our bibliometric process covers 48 references for co‐citation and 238 articles for bibliographic coupling analyses, respectively, published between 2012 and 2020. Co‐citation analysis reveals a shift of focus from the past two historical mindfulness schools of thought (Eastern and Western) to a novel intellectual structure of the mindfulness field articulated around three distinct yet overlapping research streams. We propose integrative ways to advance mindfulness research by unpacking mindfulness processes, dimensions and development, arguing that the integration of these three main foci is necessary to advance understanding of mindfulness. Bibliometric coupling analysis identifies eight management‐related mindfulness research themes. We discuss the extent to which these eight themes have comparably explored the three foci (mindfulness processes, dimensions and development) highlighted in our model. Lastly, we use our theory‐driven review to draw on under‐developed areas of research, identifying profitable directions for future research on mindfulness in the workplace and beyond.
... Referring to this theory directly, we are able to understand how work engagement is achieved in a more fundamental way. In doing so, we also answered the calls of Allen and Kiburz (2012) and Dane (2011) to investigate mindfulness in the workplace and unfolds how it affects workplace engagement. Our focus on the roots of work engagement theory provides solid support to this theory and reinforces the far-reaching impacts of mindfulness at work. ...
... Mindful employees are more likely to demonstrate high job competency firstly due to their focus and wide attention to the present moment. Previous studies have elaborated that mindfulness faciliatates flexible and wide attention and thus boosts individual devotion to their tasks at hand and avoids distractions amid competing demands (e.g., Dane, 2011;Ocasio, 2011). As such, mindful employees are capable of completing their work assignments effectively (Brown et al., 2007), during which, a great sense of job competence may be developed. ...
... Specifically, we follow Kahn's theory of work engagement and articulate that mindfulness enhances work engagement because (a) mindfulness brings out employees' awareness of their work meaningfulness; (b) mindfulness enhances emotion regulation; and (c) high mindful employees have high levels of attention and capabilities in learning new knowledge and skills and thus feel more confident in completing their tasks effectively. In doing so, our study answers the call to investigate work-specific outcomes of mindfulness (Dane, 2011) and the call to explore the mechanisms of mindfulness effects (Shapiro et al., 2006;Allen and Kiburz, 2012). ...
Article
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Drawing from the grounded theory of work engagement, this research aims to explore three essential yet previously unexamined pathways—work meaningfulness, emotion regulation, and job competence in simultaneously transmitting the effects of mindfulness training to employee experience of work engagement. We employed a six-wave quasi-experimental design and recruited 129 employees (77 from experimental group and 59 from control group) to participate in the quasi-experiment, and tested our simultaneous mediating models using the structural equation modeling. Results showed that mindfulness facilitated employees’ work meaningfulness, emotion regulation, and job competence, which in turn enhanced employee work engagement. By doing so, we add to the mindfulness literature by showing that the three essential psychological states are important machanims that link mindfulness to work engagement. Practicially, this research reveals that mindfulness training is an effective tool to influence employees’ psychological states (e.g., meaningfulness, competence), which ultimately develop their work engagement in the workplace.
... As a mindful state is characterized by having a wide attentional breadth combined with a present-moment focus, it theoretically makes for an ideal cognitive state to elicit creativity (Dane, 2011). Indeed, previous studies have linked mindfulness to creativity (Lebuda et al., 2016), although inconsistent findings have been reported, resulting in a call for more studies on the value of mindful attention and awareness for creativity (Baas et al., 2014). ...
... Finally, our research contributes to the literature by addressing the call for studies on how individuals may attain a mindful state (cf. Dane, 2011;Hülsheger et al., 2018). While many scholars have focused on the mostly beneficial consequences of mindfulness, we propose that individuals may use PVM on a daily basis with the aim of achieving a state of mindfulness and, subsequently, a boost in their creative performance. ...
... Along similar lines of thought, Hülsheger et al. (2018) found that fatigue in the morning was negatively related to subsequent mindfulness states, a finding explained by the idea that people need physical and mental energy to be mindful and engage in effortful attention regulation. Finally, mindfulness may be defined as a state of consciousness in which attention is focused on present-moment phenomena occurring both externally and internally (Dane, 2011). When individuals are intentionally and actively involved in how they feel and how they can mobilize their physical and mental energy, they may automatically become more aware and attuned to such phenomena and cues (i.e., be mindful). ...
Article
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Most research on employee creativity has been focused on relatively distal antecedents, e.g., personality or job characteristics, which has resulted in top‐down organizational approaches to promote employee creativity. However, such approaches overlook the self‐regulating potential of employees and may not explain intra‐individual fluctuations in creativity. In the present research, we build on proactive motivation theory to examine how employees may promote their own creativity on a daily basis through the use of proactive vitality management (PVM). To better understand the PVM – creativity link, we zoom in on this process by examining the role of mindfulness as an underlying mechanism. In two daily diary studies, employees from the US (N = 133 persons, n = 521 data points) and the creative industry in Germany (N = 62 persons, n = 232 data points) reported on their use of PVM and states of mindfulness for five consecutive workdays. Additionally, participants completed a daily creativity test (brainstorming task) in Study 1, while supervisors rated participants’ daily creative work performance in Study 2. In both studies, multilevel analyses showed that daily PVM was positively related to creative performance through daily mindfulness, supporting our hypotheses. These replicated findings suggest that individuals may bring themselves in a cognitive, creative state of mind on a daily basis, emphasizing the importance of proactive behavior in the creative process.
... Digital mindfulness is a state of mind where employees intentionally optimize technology use through evaluating contextual factors and reflecting on their performance. Prior studies documented that mindfulness in digital environments is crucial in maximizing technological potential and improving meaningful technology use (Dane 2011;Sun et al. 2016;Thatcher et al. 2018). However, the link between digital mindfulness (Bishop et al. 2004), and mindful action in a digitally enabled workplace is not yet well explored (Thatcher et al. 2018). ...
... We argue that mindfulness without reflectiveness does not necessarily reduce digital fatigue or enhance digital wellness. More specifically, mindfulness in the absence of reflectiveness only leads to a temporary state of mind (short-term alertness or awareness) without a maintainable effect on mindful actions-for example, due to the frequency, continuity, visibility, and variety of digital stimuli (Dane 2011;Levinthal and Rerup 2006). Reflection, in organizational settings, allows employees to critically analyze their thoughts and feelings and their environment. ...
... Mindfulness is an innate human metacognitive state that varies on an individual level, characterized by a focus on present-moment phenomena while perceptually aware of internal and external stimuli (Dane 2011). Mindfulness is defined as the 'awareness' that arises through intentionally paying attention in a judgment-free manner (Shapiro et al., 2006). ...
Conference Paper
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The unprecedented reliance on digital technology has its costs; while productivity overall is on the rise, so is digital fatigue. This study explores how digital mindfulness can help reduce digital fatigue and increase digital wellness without compromising productivity. After theorizing digital mindfulness, this study introduces reflectiveness as a mediating variable between digital mindfulness and mindful use of digital technology (mindful action). It is argued that mindfulness, in the absence of reflectiveness, only leads to a temporary state of mind (short-term alertness or awareness) without a maintainable effect on mindful actions. However, reflectiveness allows employees to effectively analyze their relationships with digital technology. This mental process can result in knowledge integration and developing new perspectives that are essential for mindful action over time. Therefore, we postulate that digital mindfulness when linked to self-initiated reflection on technology use can reduce digital fatigue and increase digital wellness and ultimately improve the productive use of technology through mindful action.
... Mindfulness has been shown to improve flexibility, alertness, and readiness to see, understand and act in a specific situation (Dane & Brummel, 2014;Good et al., 2015). Dane (2011Dane ( , 2018 argues that being able to engage in various beneficial stimuli in a business environment, characterized by uncertainty and change, 6 helps entrepreneurs aspire to possess important information for their decision making. Moreover, working in uncertain and changing conditions requires individuals to think to adapt and improvise to reduce error rates (Dane & Brummel, 2014;Rerup, 2005). ...
... Moreover, working in uncertain and changing conditions requires individuals to think to adapt and improvise to reduce error rates (Dane & Brummel, 2014;Rerup, 2005). In contrast, Dane (2011) and Good et al. (2015) suggested that low mindfulness can distract an individual from pursuing goals, meaning that he or she spends less time and resources on awareness for performing tasks. Therefore, the next research hypothesis is: ...
... Therefore, as previous literature and studies have found a relationship between mindfulness and intent to behave, dispositional mindfulness can play an important role in social entrepreneurial intention. Based on the concept of mindfulness in the context of performance (Dane 2011;Good et al. 2015) and towards extending Rerup's conceptualization research (2005) in the context of entrepreneurship, this research has proposed a hypothesis on how mindfulness relates to business actions, defined how actions are performed to start an independent business of their own according to their real interests or intention. ...
Article
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Nowadays, governments face a conflict between economic development and addressing social needs, especially in developing countries. Social enterprises have been shown to help them solve this problem. However, universities, which have educated social entrepreneurs, are focusing their attention on corporate social responsibility, while the research on social entrepreneurship has yet to receive adequate attention. The purpose of this study is to find out the relationship between mindfulness and social entrepreneurial intention and the intermediary role of perceived controllability and self-efficacy for giving ideas to universities to make appropriate policies for the development of new social entrepreneur generations. This study used structural equation modeling (SEM) to test the research hypotheses. There were 294 students at all levels (bachelor, master or Ph.D.) of universities in southern Vietnam who participated in this study. The data was collected between August 2019 and October 2019 by using the questionnaires. The results have shown that there is a positive relationship between mindfulness and social entrepreneurial intention (SEI). Besides, students' perceived controllability and self-efficacy can enhance this relationship, especially self-efficacy.
... The first one is called watchfulness or lucid awareness and it refers to an active monitoring of the present moment experience and regulation of the attention. This capability is also ranked with the development of wide attention breath (Dane 2011), as it focuses on both external (one's environment, other people) and internal objects (thoughts, intuitions and emotions) (Leroy et al. 2013). The second feature, the mindful orientation, refers to the development of an opened, curious, accepting and detached orientation to the present experience. ...
... Authentic leadership is based on four compatible qualities of the leader: selfawareness; internalized moral perspective; balanced processing of information; and relational transparency (Walumbwa et al. 2006). It was already suggested in Chapter 2.5 that individual mindfulness practice might support the development of selfawareness and internalized moral perspective (Bergomi et al., 2013;Vago & Silbersweig, 2012;Dane, 2011). I further suggest that the relational mindfulness practice might support the development of relational transparency and balanced processing. ...
Thesis
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The application of mindfulness in management practice and education has recognized notable growth in recent years. The development of mindfulness has shown positive effects in several domains such as stress management, work engagement, well-being and cognitive flexibility. However, the effect of mindfulness training in the domain of interpersonal relationships is still a rather unexplored area. Furthermore, little evidence has so far explored the domain of relational mindfulness that focuses on the development of awareness of one and other’s condition in a social context. In order to address the lack of evidence, the goal of this thesis is to develop and validate an 8- week mindfulness-based intervention (MBI) named Relational Mindfulness Training (RMT). Research was conducted in the pilot (N = 66) and main study (N = 128) that included students of the University of Economics in Prague. Results showed a significant effect of participation in RMT on mindfulness, self-compassion, authentic leadership, compassion, perceived stress and subjective happiness. Results from the main study further confirmed significant effects of RMT participation on mindfulness, self-compassion and perceived stress in the long run, and indicated that individuals who maintained the individual practice after the end of intervention showed notably better results than individuals who did not. However, the individual practice did not affect the level of compassion. It suggests that an increase of compassion was not affected by an individual practice but by a relational practice of RMT. Two studies described in this thesis are the first ones that validate the effects of a relational-based mindfulness program in management education and the first ones to validate the effects of MBI in the Czech Republic. They also suggest that training in relational mindfulness has a potential to become a beneficial part of management education curriculum as it may help future leaders to handle their challenges in more aware and caring way.
... By being more attentive and aware of their thoughts, emotions, and behaviors, employees can adjust better particular situations. The leading theory regarding task performance is Dane's (2011) contingency theory, which is based on the assumption that wide attentional breadth induced through mindfulness practice is positively related to task performance. When employees reduce mind-wandering during work hours with the help of mindfulness, their task performance is likely to increase due to their heightened focus on the task at hand. ...
... In the last decade, researchers have begun investigating whether mindfulness can also be beneficial in workplace settings. Current research includes explorations of the effects of mindfulness on task performance (Dane, 2011), job performance, turnover intentions (Dane and Brummel, 2013), workplace relationships (Glomb et al., 2011;Good et al., 2016), working memory capacity, mind-wandering (Mrazek et al., 2013), work engagement (Gunasekara and Zheng, 2019), and job satisfaction (Hüelsheger et al., 2012). Because many employers have taken interest in the topic of mindfulness at work, the field could benefit from further large, welldesigned studies that verify these preliminary findings. ...
Article
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This paper provides an overview of the mindfulness literature up until the end of 2020 by (a) uncovering its underlying intellectual structure, (b) identifying the most influential and popular themes, and (c) presenting new directions for future research on mindfulness. To this end, a systematic quantitative review based on bibliometric methods was conducted, which is perhaps less prone to researcher bias and can complement existing meta-analyses and qualitative (narrative) structured reviews as an objective approach. Three bibliometric techniques—document co-citation analysis, co-word (co-occurrence and content) analysis, and bibliographic coupling—were applied to explore the past, present, and future of mindfulness research. The co-citation analysis showed that measurement, mechanisms, mindfulness-based interventions, and examinations of the efficacy of mindfulness interventions are among the key theoretical knowledge bases from which the field of mindfulness is derived. The content analysis demonstrated the beneficial effects of mindfulness meditation for physical and mental health conditions. The bibliographic coupling revealed novel directions in cognitive behavioral therapy, emotion regulation, the application of mindfulness practice to children and adolescents, mindfulness at work, and the role of mindfulness in positive psychology. The large sample of articles that was analyzed allowed us to provide a broader and more objective overview than possible with other forms of literature reviews. The combination of the three bibliometric techniques granted deeper insights into the complex multidisciplinary field of mindfulness, along with specific suggestions for future research.
... Mindfulness can be defined as "Paying attention in a particular way on purpose, in the present moment and in a non-judgmental manner" (Kabat-Zinn, 1994).In past few decades mindfulness has seen an extraordinary growth among clinical and counselling settings and sufficient number of literatures on mindfulness and meditation has documented that meditation practice enhances mindfulness and there by promote psychological health in clinical and non-clinical samples (Chiesa & Serretti, 2009;Grossman et al., 2004).Recently mindfulness has started gaining attention in organization psychology literature. Various scholarly theoretical articles have suggested that mindfulness has an important role in work related outcomes like task performance (Dane, E. 2011;Glomb, T. M et al.,2011), job satisfaction (Jha, S. 2021). Despite this literature, empirical research of mindfulness in workplace is still scanty. ...
... Against the backdrop of these issues, the goal of organisational behaviour research is to better understand individual and collective behaviour inside a company, to help the organisation become more effective, productive, and efficient. Mindfulness as a personal resource and Family supportive supervisor behaviours as a social support have been linked to a number of positive work outcomes like task performance (Dane, E. 2011;Glomb, T. M et al.,2011), job satisfaction (Jha, S. 2021), job engagement (Mathews, Mills, Trout and English, 2014) and job satisfaction respectively. For this reason, the goal of this present correlational study was to examine the relationship between mindfulness, fssb, job satisfaction and work engagement among college teachers residing in various parts of Jammu district (J&K, India). ...
Article
Empirical evidences through literature review of various studies have shown that social support and personal resource are positively related to work outcomes. Using a survey data from 128 college teachers working at various government degree colleges of Jammu, this study aims to analyse the correlation relationship among mindfulness as a personal resource, family supportive supervisor behaviour (FSSB) as a social support, job satisfaction and work engagement. Findings: Descriptive statistics and inferential statistics were done on the data and it was found that there exists a significant positive correlation between mindfulness with FSSB, Job satisfaction and Work engagement. There also exists a positive correlation between FSSB's with Job satisfaction and Work engagement. Implications: As both mindfulness and FSSB's can be acquired with the help of already available training modules the findings of the study can be implied for fostering the job outcomes among the employees for future research.
... Research findings suggest that mindfulness can improve organisational performance (Weick, 2006), especially in high performance work environments (Dane, 2011) where individuals are required to make a series of interdependent decisions in real time (Gonzalez, 2005). Employees who demonstrate high trait mindfulness or high dispositional mindfulness (Brown and Ryan, 2003;Glomb et al., 2011) experience less emotional exhaustion (Reb et al., 2016) and exhibit enhanced task performance (Dane, 2011). ...
... Research findings suggest that mindfulness can improve organisational performance (Weick, 2006), especially in high performance work environments (Dane, 2011) where individuals are required to make a series of interdependent decisions in real time (Gonzalez, 2005). Employees who demonstrate high trait mindfulness or high dispositional mindfulness (Brown and Ryan, 2003;Glomb et al., 2011) experience less emotional exhaustion (Reb et al., 2016) and exhibit enhanced task performance (Dane, 2011). In addition, higher levels of wellbeing and social relationships have been observed amongst mindful employees (Glomb et al., 2011;. ...
Thesis
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The aim of this research is to explore mindfulness-in-action in moments of leadership performance and the degree to which it may enhance leadership excellence. To this end, this research answers two interrelated research questions. Firstly, what are the embodied experiences described by leaders that arise in the present moment of leadership and which they feel may hinder their ability to lead successfully? This question is explored through the analysis of a series of interviews with research participants. As an extension to my first research question, a group of leaders from various organisations were then taught mindfulness in an action-oriented way by means of a bespoke workshop that focused on utilising martial arts-based movements to teach the concept of mindfulness. My second research question explores to what extent mindfulness taught in an experiential, action-oriented way aids leaders in managing their leadership difficulties. Here the focus shifts to the leadership difficulties my research participants had previously described (i.e. in Research Question 1), as well as how, as leaders, they defined leadership before and after mindfulness-in-action training. The outcome of the research, via the analysis of interviews, was bolstered further by exploring participants’ trait or dispositional mindfulness through applying the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale both before and at two additional time points after the training. Overall, the analysis and findings of this research show that it is indeed possible to design and implement a training approach to mindfulness that is both experientially and action oriented, and which in turn has positive effects on moments of leadership performance. This research thus adds valuable insight in understanding leadership, learning and mindfulness, explored through moments of leadership performance.
... Nevertheless, mindfulness levels can be increased through mindfulness-based training (Falkenström, 2010). Mindfulness results in positive outcomes such as increased task performance (Dane, 2011), life satisfaction (Kong et al., 2014), job satisfaction, decreased turnover intentions (Andrews, Kacmar & Kacmar, 2014) and emotional exhaustion (Hülsheger, Alberts, Feinholdt, & Lang, 2013). The extant literature also suggests that mindfulness is beneficial for job performance and career satisfaction (Bajaba, Fuller, Marler, & Bajaba, 2021;Butcher, 2020). ...
... Grounded on the above rationale and existing literature displaying that mindfulness has positive effects on job performance and career satisfaction (Butcher, 2020;Dane, 2011), it also affects selfefficacy (Luberto et al., 2014), and self-efficacy correlates positively to job performance and career satisfaction (Carter et al. 2018;Ngo & Hui, 2018), in the present study both direct and indirect relationships between the variables are concerned. Therefore, based on the discussed literature leading to the anticipation of both the direct and indirect effects (through self-efficacy) of mindfulness on job performance and career satisfaction, the mediating influence is predicted partially. ...
Article
Bu çalışmanın amacı bilinçli farkındalık ve iş performansı ile kariyer tatmini arasındaki ilişki üzerinde öz yeterliliğin aracılık etkilerini incelemektir. Bu amaçla, Türkiye'deki çeşitli kuruluşlardaki 479 çalışandan oluşan örneklem, farkındalık, öz yeterlilik, iş performansı ve kariyer tatmin düzeylerini değerlendiren anketleri doldurmuştur. Yapısal Eşitlik Modellemesi (YEM) kullanılarak yapılan aracı analizleri, bilinçli farkındalığın iş performansı ve kariyer tatmini üzerindeki dolaylı etkisinin öz-yeterlilik yoluyla ortaya çıktığını göstermiştir. Çoklu grup analizi yapılarak elde edilen aracılık modelinin cinsiyete göre düzenleyici rolü olmadığı tespit edilmiş ve böylece oluşturulan aracılık modelinin sağlamlığı desteklenmiştir. Elde edilen bulgular, çalışanların bilinçli farkındalık düzeylerinin iş performanslarını ve kariyer tatminlerini, öz yeterlilik algıları yoluyla nasıl etkilediğinin anlaşılmasına imkan sağlamıştır. Araştırma sonuçları, sosyal bilişsel teoriyi ve kaynakların korunması teorisini desteklemektedir.
... At work, employees are embedded in task-oriented workflows, processes, and employment relationships (Zivnuska et al., 2016). Hence, prior research has theorized that workplace mindfulness depends on the particular context-namely, the work environment (Dane & Brummel, 2014)-and focusing on this specific setting can help mindfulness scholars tackle issues of theoretical importance and practical concern (Dane, 2011;Dane & Brummel, 2014). Further, scholars have indicated that some employees may be more mindful at work than others due to specific experiences they have accrued (Dane & Brummel, 2014). ...
... Individuals have awareness when they are able to observe their own thoughts and feelings as well as what is occurring in the environment. Thus, mindfulness entails awareness of "phenomena occurring both externally and internally" (Dane, 2011(Dane, , p. 1000). This understanding is embedded in metacognitive skills, in the sense that employees' conscious return to mindfulness is an actionable practice that involves recognizing that multiple response options exist for every stimulus encountered at work (Dane & Brummel, 2014;Zivnuska et al., 2016). ...
Article
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While mindfulness has garnered increasing attention in organizations, few studies have operationalized workplace mindfulness and developed a valid measurement of this construct. Given this limitation, it is difficult to obtain a comprehensive understanding of workplace mindfulness or to promote theoretical and empirical research investigating this construct. To address this issue, the current research aims to examine the conceptualization of workplace mindfulness and seeks to develop a psychometrically sound scale assessing this construct. Based on the mindfulness literature, we propose a multidimensional model of workplace mindfulness consisting of three dimensions: awareness, attention, and acceptance. Across seven phases with six independent samples, and using both qualitative and quantitative approaches, our results provide support for the proposed multidimensional structure and reveal sound reliability and validity of the developed scale. This new instrument will be a valuable tool for both researchers and practitioners to assess employees’ mindfulness in working situations.
... The findings of previous studies revealed a positive association between mindfulness and creativity [37,96]. Likewise, [28] suggested that Content courtesy of Springer Nature, terms of use apply. Rights reserved. ...
... This would be a useful tool for dealing with stress and enhancing work motivation and performance to achieve project success. There is good reason to believe that mindful employees are more engaged, productive, and practical [28]. Furthermore, employee mindfulness increases project success via innovative work behaviour, and the study showed that employee mindfulness plays a key role in shaping innovative work behaviour. ...
Article
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This study investigates the relationship between project employee mindfulness and project success using innovative work behaviour as a mediator and the project manager’s inclusive leadership style as a moderator. Project Manager with high inclusive behaviour will strengthen the relationship of employee’s mindfulness and innovative work behaviour. The data were collected in three-time intervals from a total of 347 information technology project employees. The study findings validated the proposed model wherein employee personality traits, such as mindfulness, have a key impact on the initiation of project employees’ innovative work behaviour. Information Technology projects require innovation due to rapid technical improvements. The study confirms that innovative work behaviour adds to the project’s success. Furthermore, inclusive leadership helps mindful employees become innovative. Thus, the leadership roles should also be emphasised in IT projects.
... Tablo 1"de iĢ yaĢam dengesinin belirleyicileri, doğası ve sonuçlarını göstermek için bir özet sunulmaktadır. Beauregard ve Henry, 2009;Dane, 2011;Korkmaz ve Erdoğan, 2014;Roy, 2016: 81;Gerçek vd. 2015;Singh, 2017). ...
... -ÇalıĢanların iĢ dıĢı yaĢamları için daha iyi planlar yaparak zaman yönetimlerinin yapabilmelerine olanak sağlar. -Akıl, ruh ve beden sağlığının geliĢmesini sağlar.Kaynak:Beauregard ve Henry, 2009;Dane, 2011; Korkmaz ve Erdoğan, 2014; Roy, 2016: 81; Gerçek vd. 2015;Singh, 2017"den derlenerek çalıĢmanın yazarı tarafından oluĢturulmuĢtur. ...
Chapter
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Sağlık Kurumlarında Oryantasyon
... Bu nedenle bilinçli farkındalığa sahip bir birey ne geleceği ne de geçmişi düşünmeli yalnız bu anda yaşamalıdır (Dane, 2011). Şimdiki anda olanları dikkatli ve objektif bir şekilde değerlendirerek olanlara karşı uygun tutum düşünce ve davranış geliştirebilmek bilinçli farkındalığın en önemli özelliklerinden birisi olarak kabul edilebilir. ...
... Task performance involves the behaviors explicitly required in the job description (Shoss et al., 2012), it represents an employee's abilities in completing his/her core job responsibilities (Singh, 2019). A substantial body of research has found that employee's characteristics such as state mood (Miner & Glomb, 2010), mindfulness (Dane, 2011), and trait emotional intelligence (Hui-Hua & experience diverse positive feelings such as greater wellbeing and higher work engagement and positive affect (Bakker & Van Woerkom, 2018;Bakker et al., 2019), and are more apt to innovate at work and to achieve higher job performance (Miglianico et al., 2020). Importantly, strengths theory suggests that strengths-based approaches can significantly foster individual's positive affect, which in turn, brings out positive outcomes such as greater well-being and job performance (e.g., Ding et al., 2021b;Van Woerkom & Meyers, 2015). ...
Article
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Although strengths-based approaches have reaped substantial interest from researchers and practitioners alike, little attention was paid to strengths mindset. This study investigated the relationship between employee strengths mindset and positive affect and job performance (i.e., task performance and innovative behavior), and considered the mediating role of positive affect in the strengths mindset-job performance relationship. Data with a sample of 407 employees from different industries in China were collected using a time-lagged research design. Structural equation modeling analysis was employed to test our research hypotheses. Analytical results illustrated that strengths mindset positively relates to positive affect and job performance. More importantly, positive affect was found to significantly mediate the relationship of strengths mindset with task performance and innovative behavior. This study contributes to advancing strengths mindset theory and research, and identifies a new pathway for improving employee job performance.
... The latter, however, regards it as a short-term skill that relies on an individual's circumstances and reasons at a specific time. This viewpoint proposes that people have been or at the very least are capable of being mindful at some point (Dane, 2011). Researchers have also contended that mindfulness can be improved through interferences and exercises (Kabat-Zinn, 2003;Baer and Lykins, 2011). ...
Article
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To manage the undesirable effect of anxiety on students, a wide scope of research has been dedicated to determining the triggers of anxiety and pedagogical interferences that can assist students with mitigating anxiety. Mindfulness is a relaxation strategy that has been related to constructive impacts when utilized as a managing technique for stress and anxiety. Originating from the construct of mindfulness, there is a multidimensional conception acknowledged as resilience as one of the notions in the Positive Psychology (PP) literature, which highlights the organizations and individuals’ strengths and self-control to comply with accidental states. Given the eminence of mindfulness and resilience in learning situations, the present study sets forth to examine the role of these constructs in alleviating English as a foreign language (EFL) learners’ anxiety. To meet this objective, 502 Chinese EFL learners took part in this research. They were asked to respond to the three questionnaires, namely resilience, mindfulness, and anxiety. To answer the research question of the study, a linear multiple regression was run and the findings demonstrated that mindfulness and resilience together could significantly predict anxiety. Consistent with the findings, some recommendations are presented concerning the implications of the present research.
... During socialization and training processes, employees learn their jobs as a set of routines (Nelson & Winter, 1982;Van Maanen & Schein, 1979). Research has long shown that repeated enactment of routines makes them automatic, to the point that employees often do not reflect on whether these routines can be changed (Ashforth & Fried, 1988;Bargh & Chartrand, 1999;Dane, 2011;Langer, 1989;Parker et al., 1997Parker et al., , 2019. Thus, even employees in high-ranking, autonomous positions may come to view their jobs as relatively fixed (Berg et al., 2010). ...
Article
Past research on growth mindsets has focused on the benefits of viewing the self as flexible rather than fixed. We propose that employees can make more substantial agentic changes to their work experiences if they also hold growth mindsets about their job designs. We introduce the concept of dual-growth mindset-viewing both the self and job as malleable-and examine its impact on employee happiness over time. We hypothesize that fostering a dual-growth mindset yields relatively durable gains in happiness, while fostering a growth mindset about either the self or job is insufficient for sustainable increases in happiness. We tested these predictions using two experimental studies: a field quasi-experiment in a Fortune 500 technology company and a controlled experiment with employees in a variety of organizations and occupations. Across the two experiments, fostering dual-growth mindset yielded gains in self-reported and observer-rated happiness that lasted at least 6 months. Fostering growth mindsets about either the self or job alone did not generate lasting increases in happiness. Supplementary mediation analyses suggest dual-growth mindsets boosted happiness by enabling employees to plan more substantial job crafting. Our research suggests that durable gains in happiness at work depend on holding flexible mindsets about the job, not only the self. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).
... According to a review on the literature related to mindfulness theory and environmental management, the notion of mindfulness has been less used in the research of environmental management [6,28,29], although the mindfulness concept has been deliberated in numbers of studies across diverse disciplines or subjects [30][31][32][33]. To fill the research gap, this paper considers that it is necessary to keep mindfulness in implementing environmental management within firms, and proposes the concept of green mindfulness. ...
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While many companies take the environmental environment as a fundamental part of their business strategies, managers are facing the challenges to explore the integration of environmental concepts and business operations. Although there are an amount of studies about environmental management in the literature, only a few of them applied the concept of mindfulness to environmental management. Mindfulness is regarded as a way of operation marked by the willingness to consider alternative perspectives, focus on the present, attention to operational detail, and interest in exploring and understanding failures. This study suggests that companies require keeping mindfulness in environmental management implementation. Therefore, this paper aims to explore the application of mindfulness theory to environmental management, and propose a conceptual model of antecedents and consequences of green mindfulness. The proposed multilevel model describes the influences of organizational and individual antecedents on green mindfulness, and the organizational and individual consequences of green mindfulness.
... Trait mindfulness is associated with better job performance. According to contingency theory (Dane, 2011), mindfulness involves expanding the attentional breadth. Thereby, the individual will see more peripheral stimuli. ...
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Interesting case study related to the role of Mindfulness in improving an employee's psychological wellbeing.
... Mindful employees may play a vital role in bringing attention to the project complexities to cope with the current situation, stress, and negative emotional reactivity (Good et al., 2016). Being conscious of stimuli both inside and outside of the task reduces the likelihood of errors, which improves performance (Dane, 2011). Mindfulness, as a personal resource, may help employees to accept their current level of resources, to be less dependent on available resources in their environment, and to perceive more alternative resources (Kroon et al., 2015). ...
Article
The psychological distress of the employees is a global issue that affects project success in many organizations. Based on the conservation of resources theory, our study highlights the importance of employees’ psychological resources, specifically resilience and mindfulness, to mitigate the detrimental effects of psychological distress on project success. Using purposive sampling, data were collected from 336 respondents working in various project-based organizations of Pakistan. Our findings suggest that employees’ resilience and mindfulness act as buffers against the negative impact of psychological distress on project success. Therefore, the current study proposed directions to minimize psychological distress among project employees and ultimately bring attention to the successful completion of the project. Theoretical and practical implications of the study are also discussed.
... State of prudence and work performance -As has been repeatedly confirmed in the professional literature, prudence affects the achievement of higher levels of work performance in several ways. The contingent theory of Dane's author starts from the fact that the state of thought influences the expansion of the range of attention, so that the employee is able to notice many peripheral stimuli (Dane, 2011). ...
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The paper presents the importance, basic determinants, as well as the best world practice of one of the leading insurance companies in Europe, If P&C Insurance and technology giant Google in the field of application of innovative Mindfulness concept with the aim of improving the total performances of employees. The above examples are addressed in the argument of growing importance and broader application of the innovative concept towards the development of employee potential through the development of emotional intelligence, cognitive abilities, but also through stress reduction. The main goal is to point out to the management of companies, as well as to other authors and researchers, the importance of this concept, which gives ever more positive results in the direction of improving the overall performance of employees and, consequently, the overall performance of organizations in order to achieve a sustainable competitive advantage.
... However, there a need for more empirical research on relations between mindfulness and organizational outcomes (Reb et al., 2020) and this may be particularly true with respect to variations in dispositional mindfulness, relative to mindfulness-based interventions (Kersemaekers et al., 2018). Furthermore, there is a lack of research on contextual workplace behaviors (Organ, 2018), relative to other outcomes such as job performance (Dane, 2011). With respect to contextual workplace behaviors, it may be that mindful employees are better employees because they are less prone to the feelings that give rise to hostile workplace behaviors and/or because they are more prone to the feelings that give rise to prosocial workplace behaviors. ...
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Mindfulness, defined in terms of greater attention and awareness concerning present experience, seems to have a number of psychological benefits, but very little of this research has focused on possible benefits within the workplace. Even so, mindfulness appears to buffer against stress and negative affect, which often predispose employees to deviant behaviors. Conversely, mindful employees may be more engaged with their jobs, which could support organizational citizenship. Two studies (total N = 418) pursued these ideas. In Study 1, part-time employees who were higher in dispositional mindfulness were less prone to job negative affect, which in turn predicted lower levels of workplace deviance. In Study 2, more mindful full-time employees were more engaged, and less stressed, and these variables mediated a portion of the relationship between mindfulness and organizational citizenship. Collectively, the two studies link mindfulness to both traditional forms of voluntary work behavior while highlighting mediational pathways.
... According to Good et al. (2015) and Dane (2010), individuals with deeper awareness are more efficient personally and socially. It seems likely that higher levels of awareness in teachers of students with visual impairments (TVI) regarding their levels of deprivation and prosocial behavior can positively affect their students' academic success. ...
Article
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Prosocial behaviors are positive social behaviors that benefit others. Deprivation is an observable and provable measure of absence in one's social living standards depending on the society or country to which they belong. The present study examines levels of and correlations between prosocial skills and deprivation in Teachers of Students with Visual Impairment student (TVIs). Environmental Deprivation Scale for Teachers was developed by the researchers with 751 teacher participants. As one of the quantitative research methods, this descriptive study was conducted using correlation and screening to examine the relationship between two or more variables and obtain clues about cause and effect. 68 TVIs in Turkey and 73 TVIs in the USA participated in our web-based scale. The participants were also asked an open-ended question about the reason(s) for choosing their profession. The answers were analyzed, and themes and sub-themes were created. The study's main conclusion is that the American TVIs have higher levels of prosocial skills and lower levels of deprivation. In addition, there is a positive and significant relationship between prosocial skills and deprivation. The reasons teachers choose their profession fell under four themes and eight sub-themes for the American TVIs and six themes and nine sub-themes for the Turkish ones. Several factors, such as the differences in the education systems of the two countries and the levels of development, may impact prosocial skills and deprivation levels.
... Many managers may not share the metaphysical commitments of Buddhism but it is a fact that in today's global economy where most things are interconnected, no work is accomplished in complete isolation without connecting the worker with other persons and with the natural world. There are evidence-based studies that indicate how harmonious interpersonal relationship in the workplace, perceiving one's job to benefit some greater good, and work-life balance are positively connected with MW (Fouche 2017 ;Fourie 2015;Munn 2013;Steger, et al 2012;Duchon and Petchsawanga 2012;Dane 2011;Marques 2010;Valentine et al 2010;Lips-Wiersma and Morris, 2009;Ayers, et al 2008). Service to the community is identified as a source of meaning for what some degrade as dirty work, e.g. ...
Article
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This study adds to the existing literature on meaningful work by offering a cross-cultural perspective. Since work shapes the kind of person that we are and plays an important role in our well-being, some theorists have adopted a virtue theory approach to meaningful work using Aristotelian-MacIntyrean framework. For lack of a better term, I will call this a western virtue theory. This paper presents a contemporary virtue-focused Buddhist perspective on the topic. While a virtue-ethics interpretation of Buddhism is now widely accepted and has been applied to several issues, not much has been written about meaningful work using a Buddhist-Aristotelian comparative framework. Buddhism is an important cultural component not only of countries that are predominantly Buddhist, but of other societies that have come in contact with it. To develop a Buddhist framework, I draw heavily from the works of Buddhist scholars, particularly in the West who use a virtue framework in interpreting Buddhism. The aims of my essay are dual. The first is to articulate a straightforward application of Buddhism on the contemporary ethical discussion of meaningful work. The second is to discuss the similarities, clarify the differences, and demonstrate the strengths and weaknesses relative to each other of the Buddhist and the Western virtue theory perspectives. In my analysis, I argue that consideration of Buddhist perspective enables us to construct a cross-cultural, inclusive, and pluralistic conceptual model for the deliberation of meaningful work that complements the Western virtue theory.
... Despite diversity and difficulty of these definitions, looking at generally accepted definitions about the concept, it is notable that three main features are commonly emphasised. (e.g., Brown and Ryan, 2003;Brown et al., 2007;Dane, 2011;Glomb et al., 2012;Herndon, 2008;Kabat-Zin, 2005): ...
Article
Despite the growing number of studies demonstrating its substantial potential in workplace settings, empirical studies on effects of workplace mindfulness on individual and organizational outcomes are still at a very early stage. Furthermore, the number of studies on how to improve attitudes and behaviours of hotel employees to a much higher level is insufficient. In this regard, based on self-regulation theory, this study examined the relationship between hotel employees' mindful behaviours and guest satisfaction in the form of Booking.com overall ratings. To that end, 286 employees from 20 hotels in Mula province of Turkey constituted the study's sample. The results of the analyses revealed a significant relationship between workplace mindfulness and customer (guest) satisfaction. We expect that this study can make a significant contribution to filling the current theoretical gap in relevant literatures. We suggest that it may be very beneficial for hotel operators to invest in training and supporting of their employees to improve their mindful job attitudes and behaviours if they want to increase guest satisfaction so that they can become and remain competitive in the sector.
... However, the mechanisms underlying the negative relationship between flow and mind-wandering remain unclear. According to the attentional model, the experience of flow involves the narrowing of attention and enhancement of moment-tomoment orientation, whereas mind-wandering involves the broadening of attention and reduction of moment-to-moment orientation (Dane, 2011;Dust, 2015); both states thus rely on attention control. Mind-wandering has been referred to as the "dynamic redistribution of attention resources, " in which individuals' attention drifts away from external tasks to ongoing internal thoughts (Smallwood and Andrews-Hanna, 2013;Smallwood and Schooler, 2015;Thomson et al., 2015;Smallwood et al., 2021). ...
Article
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Background Individuals with mind-wandering experience their attention decoupling from their main task at hand while others with flow experience fully engage in their task with the optimum experience. There seems to be a negative relationship between mind-wandering and flow. However, it remains unclear to what extent mind-wandering exerts an impact on flow. And it is also elusive whether physical activity and mindfulness, which are as important factors that affected individuals’ attentional control and psychological health, are beneficial in explaining the association between mind-wandering and flow. The current study investigated the relationship between mind-wandering and flow, and the potential mediation effects of physical activity and mindfulness in this association. Methods A cross-sectional exploratory study design, including multiple scales such as the Mind-Wandering Questionnaire (MWQ), the International Physical Activity Questionnaire Short Form (IPAQ), Mindfulness Attention and Awareness Scale (MAAS), and the Short Dispositional Flow Scale (S-DFS) was applied. Descriptive statistics and bivariate correlation coefficients were applied in the analysis of these data. A multiple mediation model was used to examine the relationships between mind-wandering, flow, physical activity, and mindfulness. Results Mind-wandering was inversely associated with physical activity, mindfulness and flow, respectively; and flow was positively related to physical activity and mindfulness, respectively. Moreover, multiple mediation results demonstrated that physical activity and mindfulness, respectively, mediated the relationship between mind-wandering and flow. Conclusion These findings are helpful to understand how our minds attend to the present moment, and the crucial roles of physical activity and mindfulness in the association between mind-wandering and flow. An implication of these is the possibility that the effective strategies aimed at enhancing both the levels of physical activity and mindfulness are needed to reduce the negative impact of mind-wandering on flow.
... Rumination reduces concentration in the workplace, it favors the development of negative moods, and thereby, it decreases the individual's efficiency. Dane [94] stated that mindfulness is positively correlated with performance. According to him, mindfulness practice broadens the individual focus to internal experiences (intuitions) and external experiences: these qualities are very important for making decisions. ...
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The main objective of this work is to explore the concept of mindfulness and its growing popularity within organizations with the introduction of the concept of mindful leadership in the management literature. This paper is one of the first in a pair of papers to explore the concept of mindful leadership in organizations. The first section of the paper provides a brief inquiry into the history of mindfulness, the definitions of mindfulness and the neurobiological mechanisms of mindfulness meditation. In the second section, the author considers mindfulness in the organizational research before conducting discussion on the concept of mindful leadership in the third section. The paper claims that while many studies have been conducted on mindfulness in diverse research areas, mindful leadership research is still developing, and the author vows for its adoption by business leaders for positive transformation within their organizations. Putting mindfulness into perspective as an energy resource that can activate a spiral of gains, the paper calls for greater research into the concept of mindful leadership. The paper offers a starting point for researchers and organizational development professionals to consider the possibility that mindfulness can be used as an efficient tool for the benefit of business executives.
... Pendekatan tradisional ini juga sejalan dengan pendekatan sekuler mindfulness/kesadaran batin, dimana untuk mencapai kesadaran tinggi yang tinggi manusia harus memiliki kesempatan untuk memperhatikan segala sesuatu dengan seksama baik fenomena eksternal maupun internal (Brown & Ryan, 2003;Dane, 2011). Dalam mendesain fitur detail desain dalam hunian, yang perlu dijadikan pertimbangan adalah peran fitur detail tersebut sebagai media untuk mendukung pencapaian mindfulness/kesadaran batin. ...
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Pandemi COVID-19 memberikan beragam dampak negatif kepada masyarakat luas. Selain kesehatan fisik, salah satu dampak yang dirasakan adalah peningkatan permasalahan kesehatan mental, terutama gangguan kecemasan. Dalam ilmu psikologi, salah satu penanganan pasien dengan gangguan kecemasan adalah melalui pelatihan agar pasien memiliki mindfulness/kesadaran batin dan kemudian mampu menghadapi gangguan kecemasan yang ada. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah merumuskan prinsip dasar desain hunian yang mendukung tercapainya mindfulness/kesadaran batin sebagai respon desain arsitektural  terhadap pandemi COVID-19 dan meminimalisir dampak negatif pandemi COVID-19, baik melalui pendekatan yang bersifat preventif, maupun restoratif. Penelitian dilakukan melalui metode kajian literatur baik buku maupun hasil penelitian melalui jurnal ilmiah yang sudah dipublikasikan sebelumnya, untuk kemudian dielaborasi dan dieliminir untuk menemukan prinsip desain yang bersifat operasional dalam ranah arsitektur
... Also, mindfulness can be regarded as a state in which an individual focuses his/her attention on presentmoment events without non-intentional judgments. Distinct from similar present-moment focused states, such as absorption (Rothbard, 2001) and flow (Csikszentmihalyi and Csikzentmihaly, 1990), mindfulness at the individual level involves a wide breadth of attention from external events and phenomena to internal experiences (Dane, 2011). Empirical distinctions between mindfulness and flow were also given by Sheldon et al. (2015). ...
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Organizational resilience is vital to the survival and thriving of enterprises, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic. Although there has been an increasing interest in organizational resilience, the effects from the entrepreneur perspective receive scant attention. Based on upper echelons theory (UET) and personality psychology, we propose a model in which entrepreneurial mindfulness and entrepreneurial resilience could influence organizational resilience of SMEs. We empirically analyzed a sample of 180 entrepreneurs managing small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in China during the COVID-19 pandemic, using SmartPLS software. The research findings indicated that entrepreneurial mindfulness is positively associated with organizational resilience and such relationship is partially mediated by entrepreneurial resilience. These findings convey important theoretical implications in this field of research as well as practical implications for SMEs in China or other countries with similar nature.
... Mindfulness, as a trait, is defined as "a purposeful focus on an awareness of the present moment and a curious and non-judgmental acceptance of present experience" (Glomb et al., 2011). Trait mindfulness is a relatively stable personality disposition (Brown et al., 2007;Dane, 2011), and mindfulness is a valuable concept for understanding relatively stable differences in people's attitudes, feelings, and behaviors (Chiesa and Serretti, 2009). According to conservation of resources theory, this kind of Frontiers in Psychology 05 frontiersin.org ...
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Objectives Previous studies on negative workplace gossip have neglected the role of gossip targets of supervisors. The purpose of this paper is to deepen our understanding of how subordinates’ negative workplace gossip affects supervisors’ work-related behaviors. Drawing upon conservation of resource theory, the authors propose that subordinates’ negative gossip leads to supervisor emotional exhaustion. In turn, such emotional exhaustion provokes supervisors to exhibit undermining toward their subordinates. Additionally, the authors propose that a trait factor, namely, supervisor mindfulness, mitigates the relationship between such negative workplace gossip and supervisors’ emotional exhaustion. Method Data were collected from employees (e.g., subordinates) and their immediate supervisors in 35 organizations located in Jiangsu and Anhui Provinces in China. The data were obtained at three time points, each time interval was 2 weeks, and finally, 362 valid data points were obtained. Results The following findings were obtained: (1) perceived subordinates’ negative gossip has a significant positive effect on supervisor undermining; (2) supervisor emotional exhaustion mediates the relationship between perceived subordinates’ negative gossip and supervisor undermining; and (3) supervisor mindfulness moderates the relationship between perceived subordinates’ negative gossip and supervisor emotional exhaustion and moderates the mediating effect of supervisor emotional exhaustion on the relationship between perceived subordinates’ negative gossip and supervisor undermining. Conclusion Using multisource data and a moderated mediation model, we found that subordinates’ negative workplace gossip predicts supervisor undermining through supervisor emotional exhaustion. We also discovered that supervisor mindfulness can buffer the positive relationship between perceived subordinates’ negative workplace gossip and supervisor undermining. These findings have important implications for the literature on negative gossip in the workforce, especially the impact of subordinates’ negative workplace gossip on supervisors’ responses.
... First, mindfulness may enhance performance levels. According to Dane's [31]contingency, mindfulness expands attention span. Effective attention means reducing the cost of attention, suggesting that mindfulness allows for more steady and controlled attention in everyday environments where individuals are prone to errors caused by attention lapses. ...
... For instance, it has been argued that stress can both be relieved by taking regular breaks or leave from work (Cartwright & Cooper, 1997;Hatchard, 2008;Hargreaves et al., 2020;St-Arnaud et al., 2007) and through increased physical activity (Fang et al., 2019;Rook & Zijlstra, 2006). It has also been suggested that organizational productivity, goal achievement (Hochwarter et al., 2007) and mental wellbeing can be enhanced through employee engagement (Hatchard, 2008;Tse, 2004) and through mentoring, coaching, mindfulness training and stress management techniques (e.g., Dane, 2011;Lungu et al., 2020;Watanabe et al., 2019;Wong et al., 2017). ...
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The worldwide spread of work‐related mental unhealth suggests that this is a major problem affecting organizations and employees on a global scale. In this paper, we therefore provide a thematic review of the literatures that address this issue in management and organization studies (MOS) and related fields. While these literatures examine how employee mental health is affected by organizational and occupational structures and managed by organizations and employees, they have paid relatively little attention to the capitalist labour relations which underpin the unhealthy conditions of contemporary working life. They have paid even less attention to how these conditions may be resisted. To help future scholarship in MOS challenge this state of affairs, we draw on some of the most basic but central notions of exploitation, alienation and resistance in classic and current critiques of capitalism, optimistic that this may help strengthen the field's capacity to confront mental unhealth in settings of work and organization.
... Although previous studies, such as those by Eisenbeiss and van Knippenberg (2015), Liang et al. (2016) and Reb et al. (2014), have articulated the association between trait mindfulness and authentic leadership, ethical leadership, and abusive supervision, to our knowledge no attention has been paid to the relationship between trait mindfulness and PLB. The application of trait mindfulness to PLB is essential because high trait mindfulness enables individuals to excel in dynamic contexts (see Dane, 2011). Our study provides support for this notion, by unraveling how high trait mindfulness helps paradoxical leaders promote follower performance, and how low trait mindfulness of both paradoxical leaders and their followers interferes with follower performance. ...
Article
Despite increased interest in the role of paradox in organizations, our understanding of paradoxical leader behavior (PLB) remains limited. We analyze PLB through the lens of cognitive dissonance theory and argue that trait mindfulness represents an important boundary condition shaping the effectiveness of PLB as a leadership style. This research sheds light on mindfulness and PLB, by investigating whether leader and follower trait mindfulness changes the impact of PLB on follower performance. Our analyses of multilevel, multisource, and multiphase data from 561 employees working in 54 teams show that PLB is positively related to follower performance when followers have high trait mindfulness. Furthermore, when followers and leaders are both low on trait mindfulness, PLB hurts follower performance. We thereby advance research on managing paradox, trait mindfulness, and the effectiveness of paradoxical leader behaviors for promoting follower performance.
... In other words, prosociality has a fully mediating role in the relationship between mindfulness and positive teaching. Similar studies show that dispositional mindfulness is related to work commitment, high performance, and better social relationships among professionals in various professions (Dane, 2011;Glomb, Duffy, Bono, & Yang, 2011;Sutcliffe, Vogus, & Dane, 2016;Weick, Sutcliffe, & Obstfeld, 1999). Although dispositional mindfulness and mindfulness in teaching are related yet different concepts (Aslan-Gördesli et al., 2019), it is observed that mindfulness in teaching is an important predictor of prosociality similar to dispositional mindfulness. ...
Article
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The importance of the influence of teachers on the development of individuals is often emphasized; It is accepted that positive teacher characteristics have positive effects on both teachers and students. However, it is seen that studies on variables that affect positive teacher characteristics are mainly concerned with intrapersonal psychological processes. For this reason, it is thought that considering the variables that may affect positive teacher characteristics in the context of interpersonal and educational environments will contribute to the literature on positive teacher characteristics. This study examines the mediating role of prosocialness in the relationship between mindfulness in teaching and positive characteristics in teachers. ÖZET Öğretmenlerin, bireylerin gelişimleri üzerindeki etkilerinin önemi sıklıkla vurgulanmakta; pozitif öğretmen özelliklerinin hem öğretmenler hem de öğrenciler üzerindeki olumlu etkileri kabul edilmektedir. Ancak pozitif öğretmen özelliklerinde etkili olan değişkenlere yönelik çalışmaların ağırlıklı olarak kişi-içi psikolojik süreçlerle ilgilendiği görülmektedir. Bu nedenle pozitif öğretmen özelliklerinde etkili olabilecek değişkenlerin kişilerarası ve eğitim ortamı bağlamında ele alınmasının pozitif öğretmen özelliklerine dair alanyazına katkı sağlayacağı düşünülmektedir. Bu çalışma, öğretimde bilinçli farkındalık ile öğretmenlerdeki olumlu özellikler arasındaki ilişkide prososyal davranışların aracı rolünü incelemektedir. Araştırmaya çeşitli eğitim kademelerinde görev yapan toplam 398 öğretmen katılmıştır. Yapısal eşitlik modelinin kullanıldığı bu çalışmada öğretimde bilinçli farkındalık ile pozitif öğretmenlik arasındaki ilişkide prososyal davranışların tam aracı olduğu bulgusuna ulaşılmıştır. Araştırmanın bulguları incelendiğinde, öğretmen yetiştirme ve hizmet içi eğitimlerinde öğretimde bilinçli farkındalık ve prososyal davranışlara yer verilmesinin önemli olduğu görülmüştür.
... Within management research, the positive implications of mindfulness at the individual level have been documented for physical and psychological well-being Hülsheger et al., 2013;Kiburz et al., 2017;Michel et al., 2014) as well as task and job performance (Dane, 2011;Dane & Brummel, 2014;Glomb et al., 2011;Reb et al., 2012). At the team level, mindfulness has been found to improve team decision quality (Curtis et al., 2017), foster team performance (de Jong & Fodor, 2017), and play a safeguarding role against conflict transformation and social undermining (Yu & Zellmer-Bruhn, 2018). ...
Article
Mindfulness is receiving growing attention in the project management community, probably due its proven beneficial effects at individual, team and organization levels in other management domains. Indeed, 80% of the 50 publications identified in this paper were published over the last decade. This review addresses the disparate extant publications related to mindfulness in the field of project management to date and seeks to establish how mindfulness is studied in the management of projects. We first recall the two historical schools of thought, their respective perspective on mindfulness and highlight a recent, reconciling conceptualization of the mindfulness construct termed meta-cognitive practice. Next, we review existing project management works that have included mindfulness theory and categorize them into six main research themes. Project management scholars have studied mindfulness as an enabler of (1) high reliability project organizing, (2) change and innovation, (3) agility and flexibility, (4) mindfulness-based behaviours to be compared with routine-based ones, (5) project actors and project team self-regulation, and (6) megaprojects performance. Third, we provide an overall framework of how mindfulness may benefit the project management field, together with an overall discussion of issues to be addressed. Last, we provide research avenues to foster future research in each of the identified themes. In sum, as the first review on the application of mindfulness in project management research, we contribute to the understanding of how mindfulness can contribute to overall project performance.
Article
Öğretmenlerin, bireylerin gelişimleri üzerindeki etkilerinin önemi sıklıkla vurgulanmakta; pozitif öğretmen özelliklerinin hem öğretmenler hem de öğrenciler üzerindeki olumlu etkileri kabul edilmektedir. Ancak pozitif öğretmen özelliklerinde etkili olan değişkenlere yönelik çalışmaların ağırlıklı olarak kişi-içi psikolojik süreçlerle ilgilendiği görülmektedir. Bu nedenle pozitif öğretmen özelliklerinde etkili olabilecek değişkenlerin kişilerarası ve eğitim ortamı bağlamında ele alınmasının pozitif öğretmen özelliklerine dair alanyazına katkı sağlayacağı düşünülmektedir. Bu çalışma, öğretimde bilinçli farkındalık ile öğretmenlerdeki olumlu özellikler arasındaki ilişkide prososyal davranışların aracı rolünü incelemektedir. Araştırmaya çeşitli eğitim kademelerinde görev yapan toplam 398 öğretmen katılmıştır. Yapısal eşitlik modelinin kullanıldığı bu çalışmada öğretimde bilinçli farkındalık ile pozitif öğretmenlik arasındaki ilişkide prososyal davranışların tam aracı olduğu bulgusuna ulaşılmıştır. Araştırmanın bulguları incelendiğinde, öğretmen yetiştirme ve hizmet içi eğitimlerinde öğretimde bilinçli farkındalık ve prososyal davranışlara yer verilmesinin önemli olduğu görülmüştür.
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Organizations are facing an ever-growing need to implement continuous transformational change. This has led to an increase in interest in change leadership. However, this has not been supported by empirical research and the need for it has been widely recognized. In parallel, and related to, these developments there have been a significant growth in interest in the concept of mindfulness and in particular in its relationship to leadership. However, whist there is a lot of evidence of its value in clinical contexts, there is limited organizationally based evidence and a paucity of studies that explore mindfulness and leadership. In spite of this, there is an increasing interest in mindful leadership amongst practitioners and a growth in related development programs on offer. This paper reports a study that explored the nature of leader mindfulness and change leadership behaviors in the context of implementing organizational change. It was based on interviews with 63 leaders from 56 organizations. Analyses of the data showed clear relationships between leaders’ facilitating and engaging behaviors and leader mindfulness in the context of change.
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The article investigates mindfulness mechanisms and leadership attributes as reflected by performing artists. This qualitative study analyses major categories to develop a theoretical framework of mindful leadership development employing performing arts. The present study uses interpretivism to explore respondents’ experiences and unique phenomena. The grounded theory (GT) methodology aided in exploring grounded data and theory construction. Abstract core category ‘immense concentration and self-control’ captured the abstract and inclusive meaning as understood by the participants in this study. The qualitative coding analysis helped explore the data-driven abstract phenomena. Results of the present study exhibited that all performing artists require high concentration and self-control to exemplify mesmerizing Koodiyattam performing arts. Theoretical reflections on the relationships between the relevant categories are provided in depth. The connections of five major categories between mindfulness mechanisms, leadership attributes, motivation components, values and beliefs, and personality dispositions are particularly intriguing.
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Based on self-regulation theory this study proposed a moderated mediation model between innovation-oriented HRM, TMT reflexivity and organizational change, with CEO leader mindfulness as the moderator. A sample of 113 matched data located in China suggested that innovation-oriented HR management is positively related to organizational change via TMT reflexivity. In addition, the results also indicated that CEO leader mindfulness reinforced the indirect effect of TMT reflexivity between Innovation-oriented HRM and organizational change. These findings have important implications for HRM research and managerial practices.
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This article addresses the question: How should mindfulness be understood? Three views are considered. The first is that mindfulness should be understood as a cognitive ability. According to this view, people differ in their capacity to think in a mindful way, much as people differ in memory or intelligence. The second view is of mindfulness as a personality trait. According to this view, mindfulness is a stable disposition, much as would be extraversion or neuroticism. The third view is of mindfulness as a cognitive style. According to this view, mindfulness represents a preferred way of thinking. Mindfulness has characteristics of all three but seems closest to being a cognitive style. Construct validation is needed in order to address this and related questions.
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The concept of intuitive judgment is traditionally associated with the heuristics and biases research of Kahneman, Tversky, and others. Within this paradigm, subjective probabilities are numerical expressions of beliefs concerning uncertain events that may be assessed using heuristics that reduce complex computational tasks to simpler judgmental ones. Such intuitive judgments can be economical and effective, but they accrue negative outcomes when rules for inference are used which are founded on false assumptions or when errors of logic are used which have attendant biases. Intuitive judgments based upon the heuristics of representativeness, availability, and anchoring and adjustment can be useful, but they may also lead to severe and systematic errors. However, as well as the "heuristics and biases" perspective, intuition has been viewed from a variety of different standpoints, some of which are summarized in this article.
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Resent research suggests that improvisation is a prevalent and important form of action that takes place throughout the entrepreneurial process (Baker, Miner, & Eesley, 2003). Despite the central role that improvisation appears to play in the daily decisions of entrepreneurs, there is a lack of theoretical work on the topic within the entrepreneurship literature. In response, the current article outlines factors that are likely to influence the incidence and effectiveness of entrepreneurial improvisation.
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The article discusses the effect of experience on effective decision making. Examples are cited from research which involved interviews with trial attorneys, observation of their decisions in the course of felony criminal trials, and the Martindale-Hubbell peer-based rating system. It is said that a useful distinction can be drawn between static and dynamic decision making. Experience is said to be clearly beneficial in the context of dynamic situations, but evidence that it may be less so in a static context is presented.
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We define organizational improvisation as the degree to which the composition and execution of an action converge in time, and we examine the theoretical potential of this definition. We then propose that both organizational procedural memory (skill knowledge) and declarative memory (fact knowledge) moderate improvisation's impact on organizational outcomes in distinct ways. We also suggest that improvisation influences organizational memory by (1) generating experiments and (2) permitting the development of higher-level competency in improvisation, Contemporary technological changes related to the nature of organizational memory intensify the salience of these issues.
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This systematic introduction to Buddhist ethics is aimed at anyone interested in Buddhism, including students, scholars and general readers. Peter Harvey is the author of the acclaimed Introduction to Buddhism (Cambridge, 1990), and his new book is written in a clear style, assuming no prior knowledge. At the same time it develops a careful, probing analysis of the nature and practical dynamics of Buddhist ethics in both its unifying themes and in the particularities of different Buddhist traditions. The book applies Buddhist ethics to a range of issues of contemporary concern: humanity's relationship with the rest of nature; economics; war and peace; euthanasia; abortion; the status of women; and homosexuality. Professor Harvey draws on texts of the main Buddhist traditions, and on historical and contemporary accounts of the behaviour of Buddhists, to describe existing Buddhist ethics, to assess different views within it, and to extend its application into new areas.
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Proponents of a popular view of how individuals respond to ethical issues at work claim that individuals use deliberate and extensive moral reasoning under conditions that ignore equivocality and uncertainty. I discuss the limitations of these "rationalist approaches" and reconsider their empirical support using an alternative explanation from social psychological and sensemaking perspectives. I then introduce a new theoretical model composed of issue construction, intuitive judgment, and post hoc explanation and justification. I discuss the implications for management theory, methods, and practice.
Article
Over the past two decades, there has been an upsurge in theoretical frameworks alluding to the existence of two different processing systems that supposedly operate according to different rules. This article critically examines the scientific advance offered by these theories (in particular advances in the domains of reasoning, decision making, and social cognition) and questions their theoretical coherence as well as the evidence for their existence. We scrutinize the conceptual underpinnings of two-system models and explicate the assumptions underlying these models to see whether they are reasonable. We also evaluate the empirical paradigms used to validate two-system models and ponder about their explanatory strength and predictive power. Given the popularity of these models, we discuss the appeal of two-system theories and suggest potential reasons for their prevalence. We comment on the potential costs associated with these models and allude to the desired nature of potential alternatives. We conclude that two-system models currently provide little scientific advance, and we encourage researchers to adopt more rigorous conceptual definitions and employ more stringent criteria for testing the empirical evidence in support for two-system theories. © 2009 Association for Psychological Science.