Article

Collagen-chitosan-laminin hydrogels for the delivery of insulin-producing tissue

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Abstract

Islet transplantation is an emerging strategy for treating patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Although the proof of concept for cellular replacement therapy in diabetes has been firmly established, vascularity of the transplant site and the long-term survival and function of transplanted islets remains suboptimal. In the present study, human circulating angiogenic cells (CACs) and porcine islet cells embedded in collagen-chitosan hydrogels, with and without laminin, were investigated as potential engineered biomaterials for the treatment of type 1 diabetes. Hydrogels were evaluated in vitro for their physical properties (compression, degradation, porosity and wettability) and cell compatibility. Increasing the chitosan content in the collagen-based hydrogel resulted in increased stiffness (p ≤ 0.04) and time to gelation (p < 0.001), but reduced porosity (from 22-28% to 16-19%). The material design formulations (10:1 vs 20:1 collagen:chitosan ratio) directly affected the cell properties. The viability of both human CACs and porcine islets embedded in the 20:1 collagen-chitosan matrix was higher at 24 h compared to the 10:1 formulation. For islet function, glucose stimulation indices for the 20:1 formulation at 24 h compared favourably with values reported in the literature, more so than the 10:1 formulations. While laminin improved the short-term viability of CACs, its presence did not confer any benefit to islet viability or function. Overall, the design features outlined in this study provided the degree of control required to establish viable tissue with potential for islet transplantation and neovascularization. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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... In the pancreas, BM is predominant: it surrounds the acinar cells of the exocrine pancreas, duct vessels, and pancreatic islets (53). More specifically, pancreatic islets are embedded in ECM-based structures with a specific and balanced protein composition, hierarchical organization, and determined architectural features, which are strictly related to the correct endocrine function (54)(55)(56)(57). Islet ECM can be subdivided into an external and incomplete peripheral capsule, the peri-islet ECM, and an internal ECM, the inner matrix (IM) (58). ...
... Therefore, the use of ECM-based polymers to bioengineer endocrine pancreas is another necessary aspect to consider. ECM proteins, alone or in combination with synthetic materials, have been used to fabricate scaffolds for β-cell replacement (54,56,57,(150)(151)(152)(153)(154)(155). However, the microenvironment of the pancreatic endocrine side is characterized by a specific ECM design with a fine balanced protein composition; therefore, a simple mixture of ECM-derived polymers may not be sufficient to reproduce the complexity of the mechanobiology involved (156). ...
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... combined with other materials such as collagen (McBane et al., 2013;McEwan et al., 2016) or gelatine (K. C. Yang et al., 2008), providing protection from the immune response and favouring islet survival and function. ...
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... scaffolding component in bone, vasculature, skin, cartilage and liver tissue engineering due to its excellent mechanical strength, biocompatibility, and biodegradability.(McEwan et al., 2016;Hozumi and Nomizu, 2018;Tiwari, Patil and Bahadur, 2018).The hydroxyl groups of hydroxyproline in collagen, play a significant role in hydrogen bonding between collagen chains whereas the side groups such as the -COOH and -NH2 are able to interact with other molecules. These side chains are especially important in the reaction with the p ...
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Islet transplantation is associated with a high rate of early graft failure, a problem that remains poorly understood. It is probable that the destruction of the islet microenvironment and loss of tropic support that occur during isolation lead to compromised survival. The purpose of this study was to determine the role of matrix-integrin interactions on beta-cell survival and function following islet isolation. Canine islets were obtained by conventional methods. Immediately after isolation, the peri-insular basement membrane (BM) was absent. The ability of islets maintained in suspension culture to attach to a collagen matrix declined progressively over 6 days. Attachment could be blocked by an arginine-glycine-aspartate (RGD) motif-presenting synthetic peptide, thereby implicating an integrin-mediated process. Characterization of cell surface integrins by immunocytochemistry (ICC) demonstrated that the expression of integrins alpha3, alpha5 and alphaV diminished during the culture period. This change was coincident with both a decrease in beta-cell function (proinsulin gene expression, islet insulin content and stimulated insulin release) and a rise in beta-cell death from apoptosis, as determined by in situ cell death detection (TUNEL) assay. These adverse events were prevented or delayed by exposure of islets to matrix proteins. In conclusion, routine islet isolation disrupts the cell-matrix relationship leading to a variety of structural and functional abnormalities, including apoptotic cell death. These alterations can be diminished by restoration of a culture microenvironment that includes matrix proteins.
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The development of suitable three-dimensional matrices for the maintenance of cellular viability and differentiation is critical for applications in tissue engineering and cell biology. The structure and composition of the extracellular matrix (ECM) has been shown to modulate cell behavior with respect to shape, movement, proliferation, and differentiation. Although collagen and chitosan have separately been proposed as in vitro ECM materials, the influence of chitosan--collagen composite matrices on cell morphology, differentiation, and function is not well studied. To this end, gel matrices of different proportions of collagen and chitosan were examined ultrastructurally and characterized for their ability to regulate cellular activity. A three-chamber system with circulating hydraulic fluids was used to evaluate the gel stability under fluid force. Results indicated that overall matrix integrity increased with the proportion of chitosan. Scanning electron microscopy indicated that the addition of chitosan greatly influences ultrastructure and changes collagen fiber cross-linking, reinforcing the structure and increasing pore size. K562 cells cultured in three-dimensional gels were examined for cell proliferation and differentiation. Although cell proliferation was inhibited with an increasing proportion of chitosan, cell function based on cytokine-release was greatly augmented. Results suggest that a hybrid chitosan--collagen matrix may have potential biological and mechanical benefits for use as a cellular scaffold.
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Since its inception just over a half century ago, the field of biomaterials has seen a consistent growth with a steady introduction of new ideas and productive branches. This review describes where we have been, the state of the art today, and where we might be in 10 or 20 years. Herein, we highlight some of the latest advancements in biomaterials that aim to control biological responses and ultimately heal. This new generation of biomaterials includes surface modification of materials to overcome nonspecific protein adsorption in vivo, precision immobilization of signaling groups on surfaces, development of synthetic materials with controlled properties for drug and cell carriers, biologically inspired materials that mimic natural processes, and design of sophisticated three-dimensional (3-D) architectures to produce well-defined patterns for diagnostics, e.g., biological microelectromechanical systems (bioMEMs), and tissue engineering.
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Islet transplantation can restore endogenous beta-cell function to subjects with type 1 diabetes. Sixty-five patients received an islet transplant in Edmonton as of 1 November 2004. Their mean age was 42.9 +/- 1.2 years, their mean duration of diabetes was 27.1 +/- 1.3 years, and 57% were women. The main indication was problematic hypoglycemia. Forty-four patients completed the islet transplant as defined by insulin independence, and three further patients received >16,000 islet equivalents (IE)/kg but remained on insulin and are deemed complete. Those who became insulin independent received a total of 799,912 +/- 30,220 IE (11,910 +/- 469 IE/kg). Five subjects became insulin independent after one transplant. Fifty-two patients had two transplants, and 11 subjects had three transplants. In the completed patients, 5-year follow-up reveals that the majority ( approximately 80%) have C-peptide present post-islet transplant, but only a minority ( approximately 10%) maintain insulin independence. The median duration of insulin independence was 15 months (interquartile range 6.2-25.5). The HbA(1c) (A1C) level was well controlled in those off insulin (6.4% [6.1-6.7]) and in those back on insulin but C-peptide positive (6.7% [5.9-7.5]) and higher in those who lost all graft function (9.0% [6.7-9.3]) (P < 0.05). Those who resumed insulin therapy did not appear more insulin resistant compared with those off insulin and required half their pretransplant daily dose of insulin but had a lower increment of C-peptide to a standard meal challenge (0.44 +/- 0.06 vs. 0.76 +/- 0.06 nmol/l, P < 0.001). The Hypoglycemic score and lability index both improved significantly posttransplant. In the 128 procedures performed, bleeding occurred in 15 and branch portal vein thrombosis in 5 subjects. Complications of immunosuppressive therapy included mouth ulcers, diarrhea, anemia, and ovarian cysts. Of the 47 completed patients, 4 required retinal laser photocoagulation or vitrectomy and 5 patients with microalbuminuria developed macroproteinuria. The need for multiple antihypertensive medications increased from 6% pretransplant to 42% posttransplant, while the use of statin therapy increased from 23 to 83% posttransplant. There was no change in the neurothesiometer scores pre- versus posttransplant. In conclusion, islet transplantation can relieve glucose instability and problems with hypoglycemia. C-peptide secretion was maintained in the majority of subjects for up to 5 years, although most reverted to using some insulin. The results, though promising, still point to the need for further progress in the availability of transplantable islets, improving islet engraftment, preserving islet function, and reducing toxic immunosuppression.
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Islet transplantation is associated with a high rate of early graft failure caused by early immune attack and poor functionality of islets. Apoptosis of islet cells appears soon after islet isolation and primarily involves the beta-cell. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of ligation to extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins on survival of the islets of Langerhans following islet isolation. Islets that had been cultured for 24 h on collagen type I showed an islet survival of 59.7 +/- 8.7%, while islets that had been cultured on collagen type IV and laminin showed an islet survival of 88.6 +/- 10.3 and 94.3 +/- 5.6%, respectively. Islets that had been pretreated with anti-beta1 antibodies and argenin-glycin-aspartic acid (RGD) peptides showed a decrease in the level of apoptosis by a factor of 2.5 and 3.1, respectively, and an increase of phospho-Akt Ser 473 activity by a factor of 3.1 and 2.9, respectively, compared with untreated islets. When detached from their natural ECM surrounding in the pancreas, islet cells undergo apoptosis, unless islets are cultured on collagen IV or laminin or treated with anti-beta1 integrin antibodies or RGD peptides to mimic ECM ligation. These results indicate that inhibition of anoikis may offer opportunities to improve function and viability of islet cells.
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Tissue engineering is a newly emerging biomedical technology, which aids and increases the repair and regeneration of deficient and injured tissues. It employs the principles from the fields of materials science, cell biology, transplantation, and engineering in an effort to treat or replace damaged tissues. Tissue engineering and development of complex tissues or organs, such as heart, muscle, kidney, liver, and lung, are still a distant milestone in twenty-first century. Generally, there are four main challenges in tissue engineering which need optimization. These include biomaterials, cell sources, vascularization of engineered tissues, and design of drug delivery systems. Biomaterials and cell sources should be specific for the engineering of each tissue or organ. On the other hand, angiogenesis is required not only for the treatment of a variety of ischemic conditions, but it is also a critical component of virtually all tissue-engineering strategies. Therefore, controlling the dose, location, and duration of releasing angiogenic factors via polymeric delivery systems, in order to ultimately better mimic the stem cell niche through scaffolds, will dictate the utility of a variety of biomaterials in tissue regeneration. This review focuses on the use of polymeric vehicles that are made of synthetic and/or natural biomaterials as scaffolds for three-dimensional cell cultures and for locally delivering the inductive growth factors in various formats to provide a method of controlled, localized delivery for the desired time frame and for vascularized tissue-engineering therapies.
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This review reports recent advances in the field of the blends of natural and synthetic polymers as new biomaterials. These materials have attracted both academic, and, for several blends, industrial attention because they exhibit improvements in properties required in the biomedical field. Herein, the structure, preparation and properties of the blends of natural and man-made polymer are discussed in general, and detailed examples are also drawn from scientific literature and practical work. The most common natural polymers: collagen, chitosan, elastin, keratin and silk are discussed as a components of blends with man-made polymers.
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To make an implantable bioartificial liver (IBL), a new biocompatible collagen/chitosan/heparin complex was prepared using a crosslinking agent. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), mechanical strength and biocompatibility with whole blood and hepatocytes were measured. The collagen/chitosan/heparin complex resulted in a superior blood compatibility compared to 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-carbodiimide (EDC) crosslinked collagen matrix. The morphology and behavior of the cells on the collagen/chitosan/heparin membrane were found to be different from those on the collagen and collagen/chitosan membranes. Cells on the collagen membrane formed smaller three-dimensional aggregates than those on the collagen/chitosan membrane, while on the collagen/chitosan/heparin membrane, a round shape with no junctions were manifested. No adverse effects were found on the viability and function of the hepatocytes on the collagen/chitosan/heparin membrane compared to the collagen and collagen/chitosan membranes. These results suggest that this collagen/chitosan/heparin matrix is a potential candidate for hepatic tissue engineering.
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Intraportal transplantation of islets of Langerhans is followed by marked islet loss, mainly caused by instant blood-mediated inflammatory responses (IBMIR). We previously developed a method of co-immobilizing sCR1 and heparin on islets. Here we examined whether this process could reduce islet loss following intraportal islet transplantation in a syngeneic mouse model. sCR1-heparin islets or unmodified islet controls were transplanted into the livers of streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. Transplantation of 100 and 125 sCR1-heparin islets normalized blood glucose levels in 8 of 9 (88.9%) and 9 of 9 diabetic mice (100%), respectively, whereas transplantation of 100 and 125 non-treated islets induced normoglycemia in 0 of 9 and 2 of 9 diabetic mice, respectively. Fibrin staining and plasma insulin measurements indicated that, compared to non-treated islets, sCR1-heparin islet transplantation was associated with fewer blood clots around islets, and significantly less insulin leakage from damaged islets at 1 h post-transplantation. Long-term follow-up of the sCR1-heparin islet group showed islet cells in the livers and insulin expression. In conclusion, co-immobilization of sCR1 and heparin on islets could effectively reduce islet damage by IBMIR, and might be useful to enable transplantation with only one donor and one recipient.
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Recent studies have shown that an artificial-pancreas system can improve glucose control and reduce nocturnal hypoglycemia. However, it is not known whether such results can be replicated in settings outside the hospital. In this multicenter, multinational, randomized, crossover trial, we assessed the short-term safety and efficacy of an artificial pancreas system for control of nocturnal glucose levels in patients (10 to 18 years of age) with type 1 diabetes at a diabetes camp. In two consecutive overnight sessions, we randomly assigned 56 patients to receive treatment with an artificial pancreas on the first night and a sensor-augmented insulin pump (control) on the second night or to the reverse order of therapies on the first and second nights. Thus, all the patients received each treatment in a randomly assigned order. The primary end points were the number of hypoglycemic events (defined as a sensor glucose value of <63 mg per deciliter [3.5 mmol per liter] for at least 10 consecutive minutes), the time spent with glucose levels below 60 mg per deciliter (3.3 mmol per liter), and the mean overnight glucose level for individual patients. On nights when the artificial pancreas was used, versus nights when the sensor-augmented insulin pump was used, there were significantly fewer episodes of nighttime glucose levels below 63 mg per deciliter (7 vs. 22) and significantly shorter periods when glucose levels were below 60 mg per deciliter (P=0.003 and P=0.02, respectively, after adjustment for multiplicity). Median values for the individual mean overnight glucose levels were 126.4 mg per deciliter (interquartile range, 115.7 to 139.1 [7.0 mmol per liter; interquartile range, 6.4 to 7.7]) with the artificial pancreas and 140.4 mg per deciliter (interquartile range, 105.7 to 167.4 [7.8 mmol per liter; interquartile range, 5.9 to 9.3]) with the sensor-augmented pump. No serious adverse events were reported. Patients at a diabetes camp who were treated with an artificial-pancreas system had less nocturnal hypoglycemia and tighter glucose control than when they were treated with a sensor-augmented insulin pump. (Funded by Sanofi and others; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01238406.).
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The encapsulation of islets of Langerhans (islets) and insulin-secreting cells within a semi-permeable membrane has been suggested as a safe and simple technique for islet transplantation to attenuate early graft loss and avoid immunosuppressive therapy. The total volume of these implants tends, however, to increase upon encapsulation of the islets and cells within the polymer membrane, limiting transport between encapsulated cells and the surrounding tissue. Ultra-thin membranes could potentially overcome these diffusion limitations to provide for clinically applicable implants. Here we propose a method to encapsulate islets and cells within a stable ultra-thin polymer membrane using poly(ethylene glycol)-conjugated phospholipid bearing a maleimide group (Mal-PEG-lipids) and multiple interactive polymers (e.g., 4-arm PEG-Mal and 8-arm PEG-SH). When Mal-PEG-lipids were added to islet and cell suspensions, spontaneous incorporation into a cell surface occurred from the micelles at an equilibrium state. The addition of 4-arm PEG-Mal and 8-arm PEG-SH to the mixture induced a substantial increase in the membrane thickness because a number of Mal-PEG-lipid micelles were involved in the membrane formation at the micrometer level. No appreciable increase in islet volume was observed after microencapsulation by this method. Microencapsulation of islets with the polymer membranes, which showed semi-permeability, did not impair insulin release in response to glucose stimulation, even after 7 days. The polymer membrane structure surrounding the islets and cells was well maintained for at least 30 days. In addition, the membrane formed showed much lower thrombogenicity and inhibited complement activation upon exposure to human whole blood and serum.
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Oligomerization efficiency of amino acids in aqueous solution has been compared under different conditions (temperature, activating agent, etc.) using 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide (EDC) and 1,1′-carbonyldiimidazole (CDI) as coupling agents. Glycine (H2N–CH2–COOH) and α-alanine (H2N–CH(CH3)–COOH) were chosen as α-amino acids and β-alanine (H2N–CH2–CH2–COOH) as the β-amino acid. The coupling reaction between EDC and glycine was shown to occur but does not go to completion either at ambient temperature or at 70 °C. The presence of a carboxylic activating agent such as N-hydroxysuccinimide improves the EDC-mediated coupling reaction, and the amino acid structure (α- or β-) was shown to have an influence on the oligomerization efficiency, with β-alanine polymerisation being more efficient. These findings are explained by reference to the reaction mechanism.
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The individual and synergistic effects of extracellular matrix interactions on isolated islet function in culture were investigated within a three-dimensional poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogel encapsulation environment. First, we observed similar glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from unencapsulated murine islets and islets photoencapsulated in PEG gels. Then islets were encapsulated in gels containing the basement membrane proteins collagen type IV and laminin, individually and in combination, at a total protein concentration of 100μg/ml, and islet insulin secretion in response to high glucose was measured over time. Specific laminin interactions were investigated via islet encapsulation with adhesive peptide sequences found in laminin as well as via functional blocking of cell surface receptors known to bind laminin. Over 32days, islet interactions with collagen type IV and laminin localized within the three-dimensional extracellular environment contributed to two-fold and four-fold increases in insulin secretion, respectively, relative to islets encapsulated without matrix proteins. Hydrogel compositions containing both matrix proteins and > 75% laminin further increased islet insulin secretion to approximately six-fold that of islets encapsulated in the absence of matrix proteins. Encapsulation with the peptide sequence IKVAV resulted in increased islet insulin secretion, but not to the extent observed in the presence of whole laminin. Increased insulin secretion in the presence of laminin was eliminated when islets were exposed to functionally blocking anti-α6 integrin antibody prior to islet encapsulation with laminin. Our results demonstrate the potential of specific matrix interactions within an islet encapsulation microenvironment to promote encapsulated islet function.
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Myopathies of skeletal muscle are prevalent diseases worldwide. To address this, regenerative therapies are being developed to restore perfusion to ischemic muscle and to reverse muscle wasting. There are adult stem cell populations that inherently possess these therapeutic properties; however, cell transplantation trials in the clinic have shown modest results at best, being limited by poor cell persistence and viability post-transplantation, and by cell relocation to non-target sites. Many materials exist that can elicit and enhance beneficial cell responses - these materials can be applied directly, or used as stem cell delivery vehicles, for regenerative therapies. In particular, components of the body's extracellular matrices may be advantageous for therapeutic application because cells already have a pre-disposition for recognizing them, and also because their usage carries a low probability of inducing negative immune responses. This review will survey the major components of the extracellular matrix and their interactions with relevant stem cell populations for the regeneration of muscle. Future material-based therapies will benefit from a more precise control over therapeutic cell populations implicated in the regenerative response.
Article
Tissue engineering is a newly emerging biomedical technology, which aids and increases the repair and regeneration of deficient and injured tissues. It employs the principles from the fields of materials science, cell biology, transplantation, and engineering in an effort to treat or replace damaged tissues. Tissue engineering and development of complex tissues or organs, such as heart, muscle, kidney, liver, and lung, are still a distant milestone in twenty-first century. Generally, there are four main challenges in tissue engineering which need optimization. These include biomaterials, cell sources, vascularization of engineered tissues, and design of drug delivery systems. Biomaterials and cell sources should be specific for the engineering of each tissue or organ. On the other hand, angiogenesis is required not only for the treatment of a variety of ischemic conditions, but it is also a critical component of virtually all tissue-engineering strategies. Therefore, controlling the dose, location, and duration of releasing angiogenic factors via polymeric delivery systems, in order to ultimately better mimic the stem cell niche through scaffolds, will dictate the utility of a variety of biomaterials in tissue regeneration. This review focuses on the use of polymeric vehicles that are made of synthetic and/or natural biomaterials as scaffolds for three-dimensional cell cultures and for locally delivering the inductive growth factors in various formats to provide a method of controlled, localized delivery for the desired time frame and for vascularized tissue-engineering therapies.
Article
Injectable hydrogels are increasingly being developed for biomedical applications due to their ability to be delivered in a minimally invasive manner. One potential use for such materials is in cell delivery for cardiac regeneration. While the materials' properties are often characterized, how these properties (and in particular gelation) are affected by the addition of the therapeutic agent(s) they are designed to deliver is often overlooked. The aim of this study was to examine the interactive effects between collagen-based hydrogels and different additives (cells and microspheres). The results demonstrated that the incorporation of either cells or microspheres to a collagen hydrogel decreased its gelation time and increased its viscosity. Increased concentrations of the EDC/NHS cross-linker resulted in greater loss of cell viability. However, it was found that this cell loss could be minimized by delivering cells with the cross-linker scavenger glycine. A better understanding of how materials and cells (and other additives) respond to each other will help towards the goal of improving scaffolds being developed for regenerative therapy.
Article
The field of regenerative medicine offers the potential to significantly impact a wide spectrum of healthcare issues, from diabetes to cardiovascular disease. In particular, the design of tailored biomaterials, which possess properties desired for their particular application, and the development of superior implant environments, which seek to meet the nutritional needs of the tissue, have yielded promising tissue engineering prototypes. In this commentary, we examine the novel approaches researchers have made in customized biomaterials and promoting angiogenesis that have led to significant advancements in recent years.
Article
Biomaterials that have the ability to augment angiogenesis are highly sought-after for applications in regenerative medicine, particularly for revascularization of ischemic and infarcted tissue. We evaluated the culture of human circulating angiogenic cells (CAC) on collagen type I-based matrices, and compared this to traditional selective-adhesion cultures on fibronectin. Culture on a collagen matrix supported the proliferation of CD133(+) and CD34(+)CD133(+) CACs. When subjected to serum starvation, the matrix conferred a resistance to cell death for CD34(+) and CD133(+) progenitors and increased phosphorylation of Akt. After 4days of culture, phenotypically enriched populations of endothelial cells (CD31(+)CD144(+)) and progenitor cells (CD34(+)CD133(+)) emerged. Culture on matrix upregulated the phosphorylation and activation of ERK1/2 pathway members, and matrix-cultured cells also had an enhanced functional capacity for adhesion and invasion. These functional improvements were abrogated when cultured in the presence of ERK inhibitors. The formation of vessel-like structures in an angiogenesis assay was augmented with matrix-cultured cells, which were also more likely to physically associate with such structures compared to CACs taken from culture on fibronectin. In vivo, treatment with matrix-cultured cells increased the size and density of arterioles, and was superior at restoring perfusion in a mouse model of hindlimb ischemia, compared to fibronectin-cultured cell treatment. This work suggests that a collagen-based matrix, as a novel substrate for CAC culture, possesses the ability to enrich endothelial and angiogenic populations and lead to clinically relevant functional enhancements.
Article
Developing tissue engineering approaches to generate functional vascular networks is important for improving treatments of peripheral and cardiovascular disease. Endothelial colony forming cells (ECFCs) are an endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) population defined by high proliferative potential and an ability to vascularize collagen-based matrices in vivo. Little is known regarding how physical properties of the local cell microenvironment guide vessel formation following EPC transplantation. In vitro evidence suggests that collagen matrix stiffness may modulate EPC vessel formation. The present study determined the ability of 3D collagen matrix physical properties, varied by changing collagen concentration, to influence ECFC vasculogenesis in vivo. Human umbilical cord blood ECFCs were cultured within matrices for 18 h in vitro and then fixed for in vitro analysis or implanted subcutaneously into the flank of immunodeficient mice for 14 days. We report that increasing collagen concentration significantly decreased ECFC derived vessels per area (density), but significantly increased vessel sizes (total cross sectional area). These results demonstrate that the physical properties of collagen matrices influence ECFC vasculogenesis in vivo and that by modulating these properties, one can guide vascularization.
Article
Future perspectives Heart disease is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Myocardial infarction leads to permanent loss of cardiac tissue and ultimately heart failure. However, current therapies could only stall the progression of the disease. Thus, new therapies are needed to regenerate damaged hearts to overcome poor prognosis of patients with heart failure. The shortage of heart donors is also a factor for innovating new therapies. Although the cardiac performance by cell-based therapy has improved, unsatisfactory cell retention and transplant survival still plague this technique. Because biomaterials can improve the cell retention, survival and differentiation, cardiac tissue engineering is now being explored as an approach to support cell-based therapies and enhance their efficacy for cardiac disease. In the last decade, cardiac tissue engineering has made considerable progress. Among different kinds of approaches in the cardiac tissue engineering, the approach of injectable cardiac tissue engineering is more minimally invasive than that of in vitro engineered tissue or epicardial patch implantation. It is therefore clinically appealing. In this review, we strive to describe the major progress in the filed of injectable cardiac tissue engineering, including seeding cell sources, biomaterials and novel findings in preclinical studies and clinical applications. The remaining problems will also be discussed.
Article
Human islet isolation leads to the loss of the ECM basement membrane which contributes to eventual apoptosis in vitro. The reestablishment of this environment is vital in understanding the mechanism of islet interaction with its surroundings in order to arrive at conditions favourable to islet culture in vitro. In this study, we investigated the effects of the main ECM components collagen I and IV, fibronectin, and laminin on human islet adhesion, survival, and functionality. Results have provided insight into integrin-mediated effects and behaviour. Collagen I/IV and fibronectin induced adhesion, while fibronectin was the only ECM protein capable of maintaining islet structural integrity and insulin content distribution. Furthermore, islet phenotype was eventually lost, but insulin gene expression was highest in islets cultured on collagen I and IV. However, insulin release was highest on fibronectin, along with a decrease in SUR1 expression, while glucose metabolism, along with GLUT2 and GCK expression, was highest on collagen I and IV surfaces. These findings provide a basis for the future establishment of a modified three-dimensional construct for the culture of human pancreatic islets in vitro.
Article
To provide a new strategy for constructing small vascular graft, the survival conditions of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), which were seeded on two different groups of extracellular matrix (ECM) scaffolds were studied in vitro. The scaffold was made with a mixture of fibrinogen, fibronectin, and laminin, which solidified to form unpressed structure. A 1N force could make it to be pressed. EPCs induced from cultures of rat mesenchymal stem cells were seeded on two different groups of ECM scaffolds: (1) pressed scaffolds; and (2) unpressed scaffolds. The survival conditions of cells on the two groups of scaffolds were reflected by properties below: cell attachment and proliferation detected by cell counting; differentiation of EPCs detected by changes in the cell morphology and the expression of endothelial marker von Willebrand factor (VWF) using immunofluorescence, immuno-blot, and real-time PCR; the two different scaffolds were characterized for their surface ultra-structures by SEM, and torques by a rheometer. The cells grew faster on the pressed scaffold (P<0.001) for the first 7 d. Furthermore, cells on the pressed scaffolds displayed more uniform shapes with morphology resembling that of endothelial cells than those on the unpressed scaffolds. VWF protein expressions were also higher in cells from the pressed scaffold. Real-time PCR showed correlated changes too. In addition, the pressed scaffold with EPCs showed the smallest torque value among all scaffolds (P<0.01). Pressed ECM-like scaffold promoted the survival condition of EPC. It may be used to promote endothelialization within the next generation of vascular grafts in vivo.
Article
Circulating progenitor cells home to and engraft to sites of ischemia, mediated in part by the adhesion molecule L-selectin; however, accumulation in tissues such as the heart is low. In this study, an acellular collagen-based matrix containing sialyl Lewis(X) (sLe(X)), which binds L-selectin, was developed in order to enhance the endogenous progenitor cell therapeutic response. Its effect on progenitor cells and angiogenesis were assessed in vitro and using a hindlimb ischemia model with rats. In culture, the sLe(X)-collagen matrix recruited more CD133(+)CD34(+)L-selectin(+) cells than collagen-only matrix, with adhesion mediated by L-selectin binding. Increased angiogenic/chemotactic cytokine production and improved resistance to apoptosis appeared in cells cultured on sLe(X)-collagen matrix. In vivo, mobilization of endogenous circulating progenitor cells was increased, and greater recruitment of these and systemically injected human peripheral blood CXCR4(+)L-selectin(+) cells to sLe(X)-collagen treated limbs was observed compared to collagen-only. This condition was associated with differences in angiogenic/chemotactic cytokine levels, with greater arteriole density and increased perfusion in sLe(X)-collagen treated hindlimbs. With these factors taken together, we demonstrated that an acellular matrix-bound ligand approach can enhance the mobilization, recruitment, and therapeutic effects of endogenous and/or transplanted progenitor cells, possibly through paracrine and antiapoptotic mechanisms, and could be used to improve cell-based regenerative therapies.
Article
Cell-based therapies are attractive for revascularizing and regenerating tissues and organs, but clinical trials of endothelial progenitor cell transplantation have not resulted in consistent benefit. We propose a different approach in which a material delivery system is used to create a depot of vascular progenitor cells in vivo that exit over time to repopulate the damaged tissue and participate in regeneration of a vascular network. Microenvironmental conditions sufficient to maintain the viability and outward migration of outgrowth endothelial cells (OECs) have been delineated, and a material incorporating these signals improved engraftment of transplanted cells in ischemic murine hindlimb musculature, and increased blood vessel densities from 260 to 670 vessels per mm², compared with direct cell injection. Further, material deployment dramatically improved the efficacy of these cells in salvaging ischemic murine limbs, whereas bolus OEC delivery was ineffective in preventing toe necrosis and foot loss. Finally, material deployment of a combination of OECs with another cell population commonly isolated from peripheral or cord blood, endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) returned perfusion to normal levels in 40 days, and prevented toe and foot necrosis. Direct injection of an EPC/OEC combination was minimally effective in improving limb perfusion, and untreated limbs underwent autoamputation in 3 days. These results demonstrate that vascular progenitor cell utility is highly dependent on the mode of delivery, and suggest that one can create new vascular beds for a variety of applications with this material-controlled deployment of cells. • biomaterial • cell therapy • ischemic diseases • neovascularization • regenerative medicine
Cardiac cell therapy has not yet resulted in long-term clinical benefits or major recovery of myocardial function in humans. To date, most of the cardiac effects of cell-based therapy are believed to be mediated by a local angiogenic response rather than by the formation of neosyncytial contractile units such as had initially been hoped for. Therefore, repopulation of the ischemic or infarcted heart with progenitor cells that have vasculogenic potential may be an important mechanism to improve contractile function, both in the presence of viable and nonviable myocardium. This constitutes a focus within scientific reach; however, the low engraftment and viability of progenitor cells after transplantation necessitate the exploration of novel delivery techniques. Because biomaterials have the capacity to improve cell retention, survival, and differentiation, tissue engineering is now being explored as an approach to support cell-based therapies and enhance their efficacy. In this article, we address current progress made in tissue engineering to support cell therapy for the heart, and summarize our work in the development of biomaterials toward improving cell delivery and vascularization of ischemic tissue.
Chitosan [a (1----4) 2-amino-2-deoxy-beta-D-Glucan] is a unique polysaccharide derived from chitin. Several attempts have been made to use this biopolymer in biomedical field. The use of this material in the development of hemodialysis membranes, artificial skin, drug targetting and other applications are discussed. It appears, this novel biomolecule, biodegradable, and biocompatible, find applications in substituting or regenerating the blood/tissue interfaces. This polysaccharide having structural characteristics similar to glycosaminoglycans, seems to mimic their functional behaviour.
Article
Insulin secretion from the pancreas is pulsatile. The precise site and function of the pacemaker that regulates insulin periodicity in humans have not been determined. We isolated human pancreatic islets from five cadaver organ donors by collagenase digestion and density gradient purification. After 24 h of culture in CMRL-1066 medium at 37 degrees C, aliquots of 200 islets were perifused (1 ml/min for 120 min) with glucose and other secretagogues in oxygenated Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate solution at 37 degrees C. Samples for insulin measurement were taken every minute, and insulin secretion was analyzed by the Clifton and Steiner cycle detection technique. With 3.3 mM glucose (n = 17), insulin oscillations were demonstrated with a periodicity of 9.8 +/- 0.1 min (means +/- SE), mean amplitude was 16.8 +/- 1.8 pM, and overall mean insulin release was 43.8 +/- 4.2 pM. With 16.7 mM glucose (n = 14), no change of insulin periodicity was observed (10.2 +/- 0.9 min), mean amplitude was 41.4 +/- 10.2 pM (P < 0.01 vs. 3.3 mM glucose), and mean insulin release was 118.2 +/- 19.2 pM (P < 0.01 vs. 3.3 mM glucose). Both at 3.3 and 16.7 mM glucose, the addition of 1.4 mM glucagon (n = 4), 15 mM arginine (n = 4), or 100 micrograms/ml tolbutamide (n = 4) caused no change of insulin periodicity but enhanced mean amplitude and mean insulin release compared with glucose alone. These results show that a pacemaker is located within the islets that regulates pulsatile insulin secretion in humans; the pacemaker is remarkably stable, because its periodicity is not affected by factors altering insulin secretion.
Article
Registry data on patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus who undergo pancreatic islet transplantation indicate that only 8 percent are free of the need for insulin therapy at one year. Seven consecutive patients with type 1 diabetes and a history of severe hypoglycemia and metabolic instability underwent islet transplantation in conjunction with a glucocorticoid-free immunosuppressive regimen consisting of sirolimus, tacrolimus, and daclizumab. Islets were isolated by ductal perfusion with cold, purified collagenase, digested and purified in xenoprotein-free medium, and transplanted immediately by means of a percutaneous transhepatic portal embolization. All seven patients quickly attained sustained insulin independence after transplantation of a mean (+/-SD) islet mass of 11,547+/-1604 islet equivalents per kilogram of body weight (median follow-up, 11.9 months; range, 4.4 to 14.9). All recipients required islets from two donor pancreases, and one required a third transplant from two donors to achieve sustained insulin independence. The mean glycosylated hemoglobin values were normal after transplantation in all recipients. The mean amplitude of glycemic excursions (a measure of fluctuations in blood glucose concentrations) was significantly decreased after the attainment of insulin independence (from 198+/-32 mg per deciliter [11.1+/-1.8 mmol per liter] before transplantation to 119+/-37 mg per deciliter [6.7+/-2.1 mmol per liter] after the first transplantation and 51+/-30 mg per deciliter [2.8+/-1.7 mmol per liter] after the attainment of insulin independence; P<0.001). There were no further episodes of hypoglycemic coma. Complications were minor, and there were no significant increases in lipid concentrations during follow-up. Our observations in patients with type 1 diabetes indicate that islet transplantation can result in insulin independence with excellent metabolic control when glucocorticoid-free immunosuppression is combined with the infusion of an adequate islet mass.
Article
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of culture microenvironment on the cell death of isolated rat pancreatic islets. After isolation by the conventional collagenase digestion technique, the islets were cultured in a hydrogel of collagen type I mixed with collagen type III, type IV, and laminin. Irrespective of the type of mixture, islet cell death was significantly suppressed by their co-culture with the collagen hydrogel mixtures, although no change in islet morphology was observed. Co-culture with the collagen mixtures had no influence on the expressed mRNA level of insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin of the islets, or the islet secretion of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), interleukin (IL)-1alpha, and IL-1beta. These findings suggest that three-dimensional culture in the collagen hydrogel and the mixture of laminin is able to maintain the cell viability of islets.
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Endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) in one study group is not the same as EPC in other investigators, suggesting that EPC is not a single type of cell population. In this study, we tried to demonstrate the heterogeneity of EPC. We cultured total mononuclear cells from human peripheral blood to get two types of EPC sequentially from the same donors. We called them early EPC and late EPC. Early EPC with spindle shape showed peak growth at 2 to 3 weeks and died at 4 weeks, whereas late EPC with cobblestone shape appeared late at 2 to 3 weeks, showed exponential growth at 4 to 8 weeks, and lived up to 12 weeks. Late EPC was different from early EPC in the expression of VE-cadherin, Flt-1, KDR, and CD45. Late EPC produced more nitric oxide, incorporated more readily into human umbilical vein endothelial cells monolayer, and formed capillary tube better than early EPC. Early EPC secreted angiogenic cytokines (vascular endothelial growth factor, interleukin 8) more so than late EPC during culture in vitro. Both types of EPC showed comparable in vivo vasculogenic capacity. We found two types of EPC from a source of adult peripheral blood that might have different roles in neovasculogenesis based on the identified differences.
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When suspended in collagen gels, endothelial cells elongate and form capillary-like networks containing lumens. Human blood outgrowth endothelial cells (HBOEC) suspended in relatively rigid 3 mg/ml floating collagen gels, formed in vivo-like, thin, branched multi-cellular structures with small, thick-walled lumens, while human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) formed fewer multi-cellular structures, had a spread appearance, and had larger lumens. HBOEC exert more traction on collagen gels than HUVEC as evidenced by greater contraction of floating gels. When the stiffness of floating gels was decreased by decreasing the collagen concentration from 3 to 1.5 mg/ml, HUVEC contracted gels more and formed thin, multi-cellular structures with small lumens, similar in appearance to HBOEC in floating 3 mg/ml gels. In contrast to floating gels, traction forces exerted by cells in mechanically constrained gels encounter considerable resistance. In constrained collagen gels (3 mg/ml), both cell types appeared spread, formed structures with fewer cells, had larger, thinner-walled lumens than in floating gels, and showed prominent actin stress fibers, not seen in floating gels. These results suggest that the relative magnitudes of cellular force generation and apparent matrix stiffness modulate capillary morphogenesis in vitro and that this balance may play a role in regulating angiogenesis in vivo.