Article

Career Thoughts, Indecision, and Depression Implications for Mental Health Assessment in Career Counseling

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Abstract

This study investigated the relationships among dysfunctional career thoughts and career indecision with respect to symptoms of depression. Such information could be useful to counselors in identifying individuals at the outset of career counseling who may be experiencing emotional distress from life stressors in addition to career stress. One-hundred fifty-eight college students enrolled in a career development course completed measures of dysfunctional career thoughts, an occupational alternative question, and a measure of depression symptoms. Results indicated that dysfunctional career thoughts and occupational indecision were related to depression symptoms, with decision-making confusion being the best predictor. Implications of the findings for practice and research are discussed.

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... In the past ten years, there has been an increased focus on the connection between mental health and career development, as traditionally, career and personal counseling have been separate quests (Rottinghaus, Jenkins, & Jantzer, 2009). However, this distinction has become a notion disapproved by many scholars and practitioners, citing the reciprocal nature of career and mental health concerns Sampson, 2009;Walker & Peterson, 2012). Walker and Peterson (2012) proposed that career concerns are often related to mental health issues, while suggested that the presence of mental health concerns can contribute to problems with career decision making or interfere with the decision-making process. ...
... However, this distinction has become a notion disapproved by many scholars and practitioners, citing the reciprocal nature of career and mental health concerns Sampson, 2009;Walker & Peterson, 2012). Walker and Peterson (2012) proposed that career concerns are often related to mental health issues, while suggested that the presence of mental health concerns can contribute to problems with career decision making or interfere with the decision-making process. Moreover, there is evidence that simply being in a state of career indecision may contribute to mental health issues (Walker & Peterson, 2012). ...
... Walker and Peterson (2012) proposed that career concerns are often related to mental health issues, while suggested that the presence of mental health concerns can contribute to problems with career decision making or interfere with the decision-making process. Moreover, there is evidence that simply being in a state of career indecision may contribute to mental health issues (Walker & Peterson, 2012). ...
Article
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Community ex-offenders seeking employment commonly present a host of unique challenges including a low self-efficacy, and a history of failing at school, work, and in relationships (SAMHSA, 2000; Varghese, Fitzgerald, Chronister, Cummings & Forrest, 2013). Postmodern approaches (e.g., constructivist, solution-focused) have demonstrated effectiveness for addressing the career needs of the general population (Burwell & Chen, 2006) and specifically for ex-offenders (Veysey, Christian, & Martinez, 2013). This article details a career support workshop series designed to address the career development needs of community ex-offenders.
... Previous research has indicated that depression may lead to higher levels of dysfunctional attitudes, negative automatic thoughts, and cognitive distortions such as loneliness, feeling trapped, and hopelessness about the future (Eaves & Rush, 1984;Murgai & Sathyavathi, 1987). Research also indicates a link between depression and the ability to effectively engage in career decision making (Rottinghaus, Jenkins, & Jantzer, 2009;Saunders, Peterson, Sampson, & Reardon, 2000;Walker & Peterson, 2012). Walker and Peterson (2012) suggested that "venturing into the realm of mental health issues has the potential to reveal severe or chronic pathological states or even suicide ideation. . . ...
... Research also indicates a link between depression and the ability to effectively engage in career decision making (Rottinghaus, Jenkins, & Jantzer, 2009;Saunders, Peterson, Sampson, & Reardon, 2000;Walker & Peterson, 2012). Walker and Peterson (2012) suggested that "venturing into the realm of mental health issues has the potential to reveal severe or chronic pathological states or even suicide ideation. . . for which career counselors should be adequately prepared to manage" (p. ...
... Several studies have shown that psychological distress is associated with career decision-making difficulties, and depression and general emotional distress are associated with career concerns and hopelessness (Constantine & Flores, 2006;Fouad et al., 2006;Gati et al., 2011;Lease, 2004). Depression has also been found to have a significant relationship with dysfunctional career thinking (Dagenhart, 2004;Saunders et al., 2000;Walker & Peterson, 2012). ...
Article
Although some research literature focuses on the integration of mental health and career counseling, there has been little that examines both areas in relation to depression and hopelessness. This study investigated the relationship among dysfunctional career thinking, depression, and hopelessness in a sample of 139 undergraduate and graduate students seeking drop-in or individual career counseling services at a university career center. The authors found that two aspects of dysfunctional career thinking, decision-making confusion and commitment anxiety, accounted for a significant amount of variance in depression. Decision-making confusion also accounted for a significant amount of variance in hopelessness. Implications for counseling practice include the need for more careful screening of career clients who present with high levels of anxiety and negative thinking. Future research could involve more diverse client populations, such as unemployed adults, and explore the use of additional screening measures to assess the intersection of career and mental health issues. © 2017 by the National Career Development Association. All rights reserved.
... Part I had questions on age, gender, year of study and Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), which assisted in data collection for screening, evaluating and provisionally diagnosing depression [13][14][15]. Based on the PHQ-9 scores, the level of depression was assessed as minimal depression (0-4), mild depression (5-9), moderate depression (10)(11)(12)(13)(14), moderately severe depression (15)(16)(17)(18)(19), severe depression (20)(21)(22)(23)(24)(25)(26)(27). Presence of depression was further classified as no or minimal depression (0-4) as Non-depressed and mild to severe depression (5-27) as depressed. ...
... Presence of depression was further classified as no or minimal depression (0-4) as Non-depressed and mild to severe depression (5-27) as depressed. Part II of the questionnaire had questions to assess the presence or absence of various stressors identified after in-depth literature review [16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23]. The stressors identified and explored included lifestyle factors like daily use of alcohol or tobacco or marijuana, lack of regular exercise and yoga, stress related to medical curriculum, stress due to impending post graduate entrance examinations , stress due to lifestyle differences as compared to non-medico peers , involvement in mentally straining romantic relationships or break up within the last 6 months, lack of financial/familial support, and feelings of severe home-sickness daily for a period of more than 2 weeks. ...
... Lack of information about personal interests, available career paths, career options, educational and career guidance, family pressure and trends are few difficulties that students face while making career decision. Walker and Peterson (2012) reported that Dysfunctional career thoughts and occupational indecision have been found to be correlated with depression symptoms and decision-making confusion. Student's undecided status was major predictor of lower career decision-making self-efficacy, higher negative career thinking, and CDMD (Bullock-Yowell, McConnell & Schedin (2014). ...
... Moreover, students of university B don't have CDC and CGCS. They may have lack of motivation to use career related intervention are indecisive to make career decision (Leung et al., 2010;Walker and Peterson, 2012). Students are not self-motivation to explore about their desired career, goals, interest, abilities, and values that leads to lack of readiness. ...
Article
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This study investigated career decision-making difficulties (CDMD) of undergraduate university students having provision and non-provision of career guidance and counseling services (CGCS). Final year undergraduate university students (N = 306) were selected through simple random sampling from two universities identified through Career Services Checklist. CDMD were measured through a questionnaire developed by Gati & Saka, 2001. Results revealed that students having non-provision of career guidance and counseling services had high level of CDMD as compared to students having non-provision of career guidance and counseling services. A significant difference was also found on the subscales of CDMD questionnaire (lack of readiness, lack of information and inconsistent information). Study has important implications in terms of determining the need to establish career development centers (CDC) and provide career related services to mitigate CDMD of students.
... develop clients' socio-emotional resources (Walker & Peterson, 2012). In so doing, career counselors can more readily assess for clients' emotional needs and tailor interventions to meet career and mental health needs concurrently. ...
... Addressing both cognitive and socio-emotional variables in career counseling entails creative approaches to interventions (Walker & Peterson, 2012). This is particularly important when working with children and adolescents given their need for non-verbal means of communication during therapy (Ceballos, Bratton, & Meany-Walen, 2017). ...
Article
The Child and Adolescent Career Construction Interview (CACCI) is a developmentally appropriate expressive art intervention designed to facilitate self-expression and career exploration for children nine years and older. The CACCI includes a socio-emotional emphasis; clients are encouraged to explore self-concept and life themes in addition to career awareness and identity. The intervention lends itself to application within both mental health and career counseling contexts because of the integration of personal identity and career identity variables. This article describes the CACCI treatment protocol, critical components of the intervention, and rationale for each session along with related questions. The use of a case example further illustrates the application of the protocol.
... Researchers have found few differences in presenting concerns between clients who report career-related issues and those who do not, indicating that career difficulties do not function in isolation (Pace & Quinn, 2000). In fact, career counseling clients' responses to assessments often indicate fundamental mental health concerns (Walker & Peterson, 2012). Mental health issues may serve as the impetus for career challenges or heighten existing career-related issues. ...
... Mental health issues may serve as the impetus for career challenges or heighten existing career-related issues. Underlying mental health problems may hinder the career counseling process if clients are unable to engage in the cognitive processing and decision-making usually involved in career counseling (Walker & Peterson, 2012). Despite this potential interconnection, perceived divisions between career and general counseling persist (Lara, Kline, & Paulson, 2011) and have the potential to affect career counselors' training experiences, including their process of identifying a preferred career theory and applying it to the counseling context. ...
Article
In many counseling programs, while students are learning about career theory, they may be tasked in a separate course with identifying a theoretical approach to counseling. This may result in a dichotomous situation in which students lack an understanding of the relationship between career theory and counseling theory. Career counselors have long recognized the artificial distinction between career counseling and general counseling. However, counselor education programs generally lag, and there is a dearth of literature regarding the process of identifying and integrating career theory and counseling theory. This phenomenological study examined 6 students’ perceptions of the process of career theory identification and integration. Analysis of in‐depth interviews yielded 5 major themes: theory identification and integration, perceptions of career counseling, resources, personal dimensions, and application across the life span. Findings of this study have the potential to inform counselor education pedagogy regarding career theory identification and its application to the counseling context.
... Mental health disorders such as anxiety and depression were found to be closely related to career indecision. It is commonly accepted that a high level of anxiety is responsible for career indecision (Walker and Peterson, 2012). For instance, individuals with chronic anxiety are more likely to experience career decision-making difficulties (Arbona et al., 2021; due to lack of readiness, lack of information and consistent information (Arbona et al., 2021). ...
... Depression is another psychological issue that is frequently studied. Currently, depression symptoms are found to be linked with career indecision and dysfunctional career thoughts for both men and women (Gadassi et al., 2015;Walker and Peterson, 2012). ...
Article
Purpose The current review sought to bring light to the issue of an underexplored career phenomenon – career indecision. Career indecision is a significant developmental stage in one’s career life and has been a prominent topic in vocational psychology research in the past decades. However, it has received scant scholarly attention in the human resource development (HRD) field. Besides, the career indecision literature, in general, is lacking theoretical refinement and analytical review. The present study aims to stimulate HRD scholars’ interests by providing an introductory context for understanding the richness and potentialities of researching career indecision in the HRD area. Design/methodology/approach To address the gap, the author conducted an integrative review (Torraco, 2005, 2016) of 60 peer-reviewed articles and synthesized the existing knowledge of career indecision. More importantly, antecedent and outcome factors associated with career indecision were identified and analyzed. Findings A nomological network about career indecision was provided. Besides, the results of the integrative review revealed several omissions in the career indecision literature. Building upon that, implications for HRD research and practice are presented and discussed. Originality/value As an initial attempt to synthesize career indecision literature, this study sought to stimulate HRD professionals’ interest in examining this underexplored career phenomenon.
... Among the associated factors in this study, career indecision was positively associated with psychological distress (p < 0.05). This result is in line with other research reporting that psychological distress, depression, and anxiety were related to career indecision among college students and emerging adults [35][36][37][38]. Multon et al. also found that psychological distress influences career counseling outcomes [39]. ...
... Hence, career indecision and psychological distress are intertwined and should be treated holistically when conducting the career intervention for students [35,36,39]. Consistent with previous studies [40,41], it is not surprising to find that medical students participating in a career development program had lower career indecision levels. ...
Article
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Abstract Background Medical students experience difficulties in the process of making decisions about their careers, which is referred to as career indecision. This study aimed to examine the difficulties in the career decision-making processes of medical students and to explore the association of coping strategies and psychological health with career indecision. The findings may provide a reference for designing interventions to advance satisfying career decisions for medical students. Methods A cross-sectional survey of 359 medical students was conducted in 5 Chinese medical schools. Students completed an anonymous self-administered questionnaire measuring their career indecision, coping strategies, and psychological health. Independent t-test, F-test, bivariate Pearson’s correlation analysis, and linear regression analysis were applied to test the relation between career indecision and the associated factors. Data were analyzed using SPSS V.22 for Windows. A p-value
... For example, Brown and Brooks recommended that career counselors assess for clients' psychological distress and cognitive clarity at the outset of career counseling. In addition, others (e.g., Walker & Peterson, 2012) have suggested that when career counselors are administering career assessments, it is important for them to attend to the role of psychological distress when scoring and interpreting results. Heightened levels of distress are likely to affect responses to a variety of career-related questions. ...
... To address the relative lack of attention directed toward understanding the linkages between career development and mental health symptomatology DECEMBER 2019 • VOLUME 67 (e.g., Juntunen, 2006;Saunders, Peterson, Sampson, & Reardon, 2000;Walker & Peterson, 2012), career counselors also are encouraged to develop psychoeducational workshops that explicate the relationships among mental health and various career-related constructs and the pursuit of career development opportunities. For example, career counselors are well positioned to illuminate some of the ways that career development tasks (e.g., choosing a major, pursuing a work-based learning opportunity, deciding to participate in mock interviews, or seeking assistance in résumé or cover letter writing) may be affected by psychological distress. ...
Article
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College students experience a number of stressors, such as adjustment to a new environment, postgraduation planning, and the balancing of changing roles and responsibilities. These stressors may contribute to increased rates of psychological distress that have implications for their educational and career development. The purpose of this study was to extend understanding of the nature of the relationships among psychological distress, self‐esteem, and career decision self‐efficacy (CDSE) beliefs. Results from 292 undergraduate students demonstrated support for the proposed hypotheses. Psychological distress negatively related to self‐esteem and to CDSE. Self‐esteem was positively related to, yet distinct from, CDSE, and both self‐esteem and psychological distress contributed unique variance to the prediction of CDSE. Results highlight the importance of attending to student psychological distress in the provision of career counseling services. Future research that centralizes mental health is needed to better understand relationships among career development processes over time and within diverse student populations.
... Em relação aos aspectos afetivos de carreira, os pensamentos negativos demonstram-se quase sempre acompanhados de estados emocionais caracterizados por sentimentos de ansiedade e tristeza, fatores que podem prejudicar a saúde e o rendimento do indivíduo no desenvolvimento de sua profissão, além de fortalecer o pessimismo sobre percepções pessoais e habilidades para o trabalho (Saunders, Peterson, Sampson, & Reardon, 2000;Solomon, 2011). Como demonstrado por Walker & Peterson (2012), correlações significativas são encontradas entre os pensamentos negativos e os sintomas emocionais de depressão (0,40 ≤ r ≤ 0,51; p < 0,001). Da mesma forma, o construto também demonstrou poder preditivo, explicando 26% da variância nos sintomas de depressão. ...
... Os pensamentos negativos de carreira têm se demonstrado um construto associado a diversos fatores considerados como empecilhos para o desenvolvimento profissional do indivíduo (Bullock-Yowell et al., 2012;Sampson et al., 2013), além de ser um fator relacionado a estados emocionais prejudiciais à motivação para manter o engajamento na carreira (Solomon, 2011;Walker & Peterson, 2012). Esses efeitos se expandem a dimensões de satisfação do indivíduo com aspectos de progresso com a carreira, resultando em insatisfação com a mesma (Bullock-Yowell et al., 2011;Chason, 2011), além de influenciar avaliações insatisfatórias em relação à vida (Erdogan, Bauer, Truxillo, & Mansfield, 2012). ...
Article
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This research aimed to develop an instrument to assess negative thoughts about the career. The study was performed on a sample of 848 participants aged 18 to 25 (M = 24.97, SD = 5.22), with 456 women (55.1%). The measure was elaborated from other available scales and interviews. The final version of the EPNC presented indicators of validity and reliability favorable to its use, with factorial structure divided into four factors, namely: Anxiety and Decision Insecurity (AID, ω = 0.91), Career pessimism (PC, ω = 0.86), Market Pessimism (PM, ω = 0.78) and Costs for success (CS, ω = 0.85).
... When negative thoughts center on the career decision-making process, they are called dysfunctional career thoughts. Correlates of dysfunctional career thinking include career indecision (e.g., Austin, Wagner, & Dahl, 2004;Bullock-Yowell, Peterson, Reardon, Leierer, & Reed, 2011;Kleiman et al., 2004;Sampson, Peterson, Lenz, Reardon, & Saunders, 1998), as well as mental health concerns such as life stress (Bullock-Yowell et al., 2011), depression (Saunders, Peterson, Sampson, & Reardon, 2000;Walker & Peterson, 2012), hopelessness (Dieringer, 2013); anxiety (Saunders et al., 2000), and perfectionism (Andrews, Bullock-Yowell, Dahlen, & Nicholson, 2014). Other psychopathologies found to be present with extremely elevated dysfunctional career thoughts include somatic concerns, obsessive-compulsive concerns, and personality disorders (Finklea, 2016). ...
... Mental health issues and disability would be seen as potentially impacting one's capability to make decisions. Research supports this, in that career indecision has been correlated with anxiety (Brown & Rector, 2008;Morgan, Kadir, & Soheil, 2011;Santos, 2001) and depression (Rottinghaus, Jenkins, & Jantzer, 2009;Saunders et al., 2000;Walker & Peterson, 2012). ...
Article
Youth with juvenile justice (JJ) interactions and/or adjudications face a number of challenges as they transition back into their community, including college and career readiness needs. In addition to the typical concerns of adolescents facing postsecondary decisions, these youths’ decisions are complicated by a myriad of other factors, often including an arrest record, poor social support, substance abuse issues, low socioeconomic status, and mental health concerns. While some career development research has centered on the career development of offenders, and the call for integrative career programs has been voiced, no scholarly articles were found that described the application of a career counseling model to youthful offenders. In this article, a well-researched career delivery model, cognitive information processing (CIP), and potential applications for youthful offenders are described. A case scenario is provided, and implications for research, practice, and consultation are outlined.
... However, when these individuals have strong career decision-making skills, they experience fewer mental health concerns and have a greater sense of life satisfaction and power (Walker & Peterson, 2012). ...
... The researchers involved in a study featuring individuals with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder also showed that those with elevated levels of commitment anxiety and external conflict are more likely to demonstrate a weaker sense of vocational identity (Dipeolu, Sniatecki, Storlie, & Hargrave, 2013). Other researchers showed that dysfunctional career thoughts are associated with negative emotions, such as anxiety and depressive symptoms (Walker & Peterson, 2012), which are also likely to impede vocational development. Although reconsideration is not always seen as negative-because it also includes the ability to be flexible in one's identity-carrying dysfunctional thoughts is likely to evoke doubts about oneself, eventually leading to the reconsideration of one's career. ...
Article
In the present study, we examined the associations between cognitive processes and vocational identity development. A sample of 318 Korean emerging adults participated in the study. Using three-wave longitudinal data and applying multilevel modeling, we tested within- and between-person-level associations. We found that individuals who are higher in career self-efficacy than others are more likely to be engaged in exploration and commitment. Those who exhibit more dysfunctional career thoughts are less likely to be engaged in commitment but more likely to reconsider their identities. We found a similar pattern at the within-person level: At times when one exhibits high self-efficacy than usual, one is more likely to be engaged in exploration and commitment; however, at times when one exhibits more dysfunctional thoughts than usual, one is less likely to be committed to a career and more likely to reconsider. We discuss the implications of the study results. © 2018 Society for the Study of Emerging Adulthood and SAGE Publishing.
... Nevertheless, it is seen in literature that for those adults who have experienced CSA as a child, there is a lower tendency to complete a university degree, an increase in unemployment, and CSA has an effect on career choices (Currie & Widom, 2010;Hyman, 2000;Robst & VanGilder, 2011). Moreover, there are findings related to the fact that individuals in a negative emotional state, such as depression (Walker & Peterson, 2012) and anxiety (Pouyaud, Vignoli, Dosnon, & Lallemand, 2012;Vignoli, Croity-Belz, Chapeland, de Fillipis, & Garcia, 2005), have maladaptive behaviors in their career choices, and these emotions and behaviors cause difficulties in their career decisions. ...
Article
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Child sexual abuse (CSA) is not only a serious danger for children and families, but it is also a problem that concerns society economically and spiritually. The aim of this study is to examine career choices and educational problems of individuals who have experienced CSA. Participants of this study consist of 73 CSA victims. The data have been collected via a telephone survey. According to the findings, 83.6% of the victims attended their formal education during the time they reported CSA, and only 38 participants (51%) continued into higher education. Also, it was determined that approximately 51% of them dropped out of school, and 72% of them experienced problems at school due to CSA. When the victims’ reasons for dropping out of school were examined before and after CSA, it was seen that victims dropped out of school due to CSA (44.2%) mostly. In addition to these, it was found that approximately 25% of victims could not concentrate on classes, 56% of them had a drop in their academic success, 30% of them were reluctant to go to school or had absence, 25% of them repeated a grade, and 23% of them switched schools. Also, it was determined that 56.2% of the participants wanted to continue their education. Findings were discussed in the light of relevant literature. © 2018 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature
... The higher the OAQ score, the less decided the individual. The OAQ has been found to have convergent validity with other measures of career indecision, including the Satisfaction with Career Scale, the Vocational Decision Making Difficulties Scale, and the Career Decision Scale (Slaney, Stafford, & Russell, 1981;Walker & Peterson, 2012). ...
... This personalized dimension brings the material alive and makes the career counseling content more understandable (McAuliffe & Eriksen, 2011). Thus, students' experience and practice with assessment tools will promote further inquiry and future application as new professionals (Peavy, 1994;Sangganjanavanich & Headley, 2014;Walker & Peterson, 2012). As students and educators enter the classroom with (a) expectations, (b) prior knowledge, and (c) different ways of thinking and acting (McAuliffe & Eriksen, 2011), it is crucial for counselor educators to model a safe, growthpromoting environment that parallels the counseling session and therapeutic relationship (Dillman Taylor et al., 2017). ...
Article
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In this investigation, a sample of counselors-in-training’s (CITs) work values, occupational engagement, and professional quality of life were explored at pre- and post-completion of a career counseling course. In relation to work values, participants highly valued balance, support, helping, and honesty within their careers, while power, competition, and risk-taking were least valued. Overall, participants increased their levels of occupational engagement from pre- to post-assessment over the course of the career counseling course. Finally, participants experienced moderate levels of compassion satisfaction and experienced low levels of burnout and compassion fatigue in relation to their professional quality of life. Implications of these findings for counselors, counselor educators, and CITs include: (a) incorporation of constructivist pedagogy; (b) discussion of essential counseling-related factors (e.g., burnout, compassion fatigue, compassion satisfaction); (c) the importance of wellness support; and (d) incorporation of assessments in counseling classrooms.
... Department of Health and Human Services [DHHS], 2012) with female emerging adults at even greater risk of heightened depressive symptomology compared to their male counterparts (Cyranowski, Frank, Young, & Shear, 2000;Patton et al., 2008). Depressive symptomology is systematically linked to adverse implications for personal well-being as well as career and vocational success (Eisenberg, Gollust, Golberstein, & Hefner, 2007;Walker III & Peterson, 2012), thus identifying mechanisms and protective factors that reduce emerging adults' risk of depressive symptomology is a critical area of development, particularly factors that can readily be modified or enhanced, such as social leisure engagement. ...
Article
This research note applied self-determination theory to the study of social leisure and well-being among collegiate emerging adults. Self-determination theory posits that individuals seek out environments that promote basic psychological needs; among these needs is the need for relatedness. We examined the relationship between social leisure engagement (conceptualised as an environment that promotes connections to others) and emerging adults’ depressive symptomology. More specifically, we hypothesised that this need-supportive environment would be related to higher levels of peer support (a form of relatedness) and would promote better mental health. Participants (N = 270) were between the ages of 18 and 25. Using path models, we found that there was a significant negative relationship between social leisure engagement and depressive symptomology. Furthermore, peer support served as a significant linking mechanism between social leisure and depressive symptomology. Results provide evidence for the application of self-determination theory to the study of social leisure engagement as a need-supportive environment that can facilitate relatedness and better mental health among emerging adults.
... Akkermans, Brenninkmeijer In addition, some papers also studied specific disorders, such as depression (e.g. Walker and Peterson, 2012), ADHD (e.g. Dipeolu et al., 2015), and Asperger's syndrome (e.g. ...
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Purpose Virtually all contemporary scientific papers studying careers emphasize its changing nature. Indeed, careers have been changing during recent decades, for example becoming more complex and unpredictable. Furthermore, hallmarks of the new career – such as individual agency – are clearly increasing in importance in today’s labor market. This led us to ask ourselves the question of whether these changes are actually visible in the topics that career scholars research. In other words: we set out to discover the trending topics in careers. Design/methodology/approach To achieve this goal, we analyzed all published papers from four core career journals (i.e., CDI, CDQ, JCA, and JCD) between 2012 – 2016. Using a 5-step procedure involving three researchers, we formulated the 16 most trending topics. Findings Some traditional career topics are still quite popular today (e.g., career success as the #1 trending topic), whereas other topics have emerged during recent years (e.g., employability as the #3 trending topic). In addition, some topics that are closely related to career research – such as unemployment and job search – surprisingly turned out not to be a trending topic. Originality/value In reviewing all published papers in CDI, CDQ, JCA, and JCD between 2012-2016, we provide a unique overview of currently trending topics, and we compare this to the overall discourse on careers. In addition, we formulate key questions for future research.
... Saunders and colleagues (2000) noted that through the use of initial screening questions (e.g., decision-making difficulties) in career counseling, individual's mental health concerns (e.g., depression and anxiety) could potentially be identified. Thus, it is important that career practitioners, who may not have direct training in clinical mental health, are able to identify client's underlying mental health concerns early on in the counseling process as this could benefit the effectiveness of career development services (Walker & Peterson, 2012). ...
... Saunders and colleagues (2000) noted that through the use of initial screening questions (e.g., decision-making difficulties) in career counseling, individual's mental health concerns (e.g., depression and anxiety) could potentially be identified. Thus, it is important that career practitioners, who may not have direct training in clinical mental health, are able to identify client's underlying mental health concerns early on in the counseling process as this could benefit the effectiveness of career development services (Walker & Peterson, 2012). ...
... İşlevsel olmayan kariyer inançlarının ayrıca bireylerin duygu durumları üzerinde de oldukça etkili olabileceği düşünülmektedir. Örneğin Walker ve Peterson (2012), üniversite öğrencilerinde işlevsel olmayan kariyer düşünceleri ve kariyer kararsızlığı ile depresyon arasındaki ilişkileri inceledikleri çalışmalarında, işlevsel olmayan kariyer düşüncelerinin arttıkça depresyon düzeylerinin de arttığını ve bu düşüncelerin depresyonun anlamlı yordayıcısı olduğunu bulmuşlardır. Kariyer karar sürecinde duygu ve düşüncelerin önemini vurguladıkları çalışmalarında Bullock-Yowell, Peterson, Reardon, Leierer ve Reed (2011) kariyer ve yaşam stresinin üniversite öğrencilerindeki işlevsel olmayan kariyer inançlarını arttırdığını ve bu inançlardaki artışın kariyer seçimlerindeki kararsızlık ve memnuniyetsizlik üzerinde etkili olduğunu bulmuşlardır. ...
Article
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The purpose of the current study was to examine the dysfunctional career beliefs of university students that they believe as barriers to achieve their ideal jobs. With this purpose, 247 (110 female, 137 male) students from various faculties and departments were given open-ended questionnaire forms and the responses were taken literally. The results of the analyses yielded that there were four main themes, namely “Individual Factors” , “External Factors” , “Family, Society, and Environmental Effects” and “Generalizations.” The results yielded that almost half of the students participated in the study has several dysfunctional beliefs about their career and these beliefs were grouped in to main themes and subthemes. The findings of the study would help counselors in designing career intervention programs especially for university students to help them during their career decision process. Most of the previous research demonstrated that many of these dysfunctional career beliefs stem from the lack of accurate information about careers. Counselors may help students change their dysfunctional career beliefs with the accurate information by exploring information about specific careers and informative job interviews with people from their preferred field of work. Further studies would use this information as a basis for the development of instruments to assess the variation of these beliefs among university students and pretest-posttest evaluation of the career guidance and counseling programs.
... Among the academic/institutional variables, 'not feeling content with institution', 'always feeling like workload is too much', 'not meeting teachers' expectations', 'always feeling like not being engaged in preferred extra-curricular activities', and 'career-personal life conflict' were linked with depression in students and too were consistent with other regional studies [1,11,12,14,29]. Interestingly, the other common predictor found in the students of both the institutions was 'always feeling like someone else is being favoured in academics/extra-curricular activities'. ...
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Objectives: Depression amongst undergraduates has been widely reported, however its correlates have been inadequately identified. Furthermore, a comparison, between the two most stressful curriculum is lacking. We aimed to highlight the prevalence and predictors associated with depression in Undergraduate Medical and Engineering students, with the hope of guiding mental health experts to implement policies that would benefit said individuals. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study in two institutes of Lahore, Pakistan namely Shaikh Khalifa Bin Zayed Al-Nahyan Medical College, and University of Engineering and Technology, in 2013. A structured, self-administered questionnaire was used to segregate the predictors associated with depression, and Beck’s Depression Inventory II was used to diagnose depression. Results: The overall response rate was 94.7%. Among the 451 responders, 87 were clinically depressed with a mean BDI-II score of 28.72 ± 5.144. The difference in prevalence amongst the two, 22.5% for Engineering and 15.0% for Medical was statistically significant (P = 0.047, 95% Confidence Interval). There was, however no significant difference in the severity of depression or gender preponderance. Using Binomial Logistical Regression Analysis the predictors found to be associated with depression irrespective of gender and institute were ‘always observed arguments between parents’, ‘loved ones taking drugs’, ‘college discontentment’, ‘always feeling like daily workload is too much’, ‘never feeling satisfied with academic performance’, ‘sometimes feeling someone else is being favoured academically’, ‘difficulty meeting parents’ expectations’, ‘always feeling bullied’, ‘always felt socially isolated’. Predictors more significant in Medical students were ‘not satisfied with living environment’, ‘career-personal life conflict’, ‘college discontentment’, and ‘always feeling bullied’. For Engineering students, ‘dropping out of college’, ‘not being satisfied with hair’, ‘always felt socially isolated’, ‘recent breakup’, and ‘sexual abuse’ were significant. Conclusion: The results identify possibly modifiable psychosocial and academic predictors of depression which need to be further addressed through prospective studies.
... The higher the OAQ score, the less decided the individual. The OAQ has been found to have convergent validity with other measures of career indecision, including the Satisfaction with Career Scale, the Vocational Decision Making Difficulties Scale, and the Career Decision Scale (Slaney, Stafford, & Russell, 1981;Walker & Peterson, 2012). ...
... The higher the OAQ score, the less decided the individual. The OAQ has been found to have convergent validity with other measures of career indecision, including the Satisfaction with Career Scale, the Vocational Decision Making Difficulties Scale, and the Career Decision Scale (Slaney, Stafford, & Russell, 1981;Walker & Peterson, 2012). ...
... Given its direct relevance to the outcome of career decision-making and its high prevalence as a presenting concern in career counseling (Gati, Krausz, & Osipow, 1996;Osipow, 1999), career indecision has been a central topic of vocational psychology and career counseling for nearly a century (Osipow, 1999;Xu & Bhang, in press). Research has also repeatedly supported the associations between career indecision and major/academic satisfaction (Jadidian & Duffy, 2012;Komarraju, Swanson, & Nadler, 2014) and well-being (Saunders, Peterson, Sampson, & Reardon, 2000;Walker & Peterson, 2012). Xu and Bhang (in press) summarized previous research and found that a four-factor structure (Brown et al., 2012) comprehensively and parsimoniously represents indecision factors in Western contexts: neuroticism/negative affectivity, choice/commitment anxiety, lack of readiness, and interpersonal conflicts. ...
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Although career adaptability and constructivist beliefs both capture important aspects of career construction, previous research has predominantly focused on career adaptability and ignored the importance of constructivist beliefs. Drawing on career construction theory and decision-making science, the current study proposes two factors (i.e., satisficing decision and agentic creation) of constructivist beliefs in career decision-making (CBCD) and develops and initially validates a scale measuring the two factors. Study 1 develops the CBCD Scale and supports the two-factor structure of the CBCD through exploratory factor analysis. Study 2 supports the internal consistency reliability of the CBCD and cross-validates the two-factor structure of the CBCD through confirmatory factor analysis. Additionally, Study 2 finds support for the incremental predictions of the CBCD for career indecision and career decision ambiguity management over and beyond career adaptability. The theoretical and practical implications of the CBCD are discussed, as are the limitations and suggestions for future research.
... Metaanalyses of the careers outcome literature indicates that engaging students with their career development promotes careers awareness, employability and wellbeing (Brown & Roche, 2016;Gedye, Fender, & Chalkley, 2004;Mayston, 2002;Watts & Hawthorn, 1992;Whiston, Sexton, & Lasoff, 1998). Indeed, students' career development and mental health are considered interconnected, with career indecision related to depression (Walker & Peterson, 2012;Zunker, 2008) and lower anxiety levels leading to increased engagement in career preparation processes (i.e. self-efficacy and job search intentions; see Deer, Gohn, & Kanaya, 2018). ...
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Undergraduate biomedical science degree-programs are considered to be non-vocational, with a diverse range of career outcomes. At our university, student and academic feedback indicated that biomedical science students were anxious and uncertain about their career options. In response to this careers anxiety, an in-curriculum, course-wide and assessed professional development program (PDP) was developed and delivered into the biomedical science degree-program by an integrated team of careers educators and biomedical academics. This program aimed to engage a large cohort of biomedical students (>1000) with their career development, improving their careers awareness and reducing their anxiety about careers options. The impacts of the program on students’ career and employability skills development, as well as their self-reported levels of psychological distress, were evaluated with on-line anonymous student surveys. Student engagement with the program was linked with program assessment submission rates and student interactions with the University Careers Service. Completion of the program increased students’ careers knowledge and confidence, enhanced their awareness of career options and employability skills and increased their engagement with the University Careers Service. It did not alter students’ self-reported levels of depression, anxiety and stress, but students who rated themselves poorly on careers awareness and confidence statements were more likely to have severe depression, anxiety and stress. This program provides a practical approach for students’ career and employability skills development in large cohorts, but could be expanded to include an intervention to reduce student anxiety.
... Although career indecision is not necessarily conceived as a problem (Krumboltz, 2009), it is admittedly a common presenting issue for clients and has career and mental health implications (Gati et al., 1996;Lipshits-Braziler et al., 2016;Osipow, 1999). Research has found associations of career indecision with important indicators of career development and general mental health, such as major/academic satisfaction (Jadidian & Duffy, 2012;Komarraju et al., 2014) and depression (Saunders et al., 2000;Walker & Peterson, 2012). Like the diagnostic system of general mental health counseling, the factor structure of career indecision has garnered wide clinical and empirical attention because of its utility in helping counselors make differential conceptualizations and accordingly design appropriate treatments (Kelly & Lee, 2002;Xu & Tracey, 2017). ...
Article
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Although research has made progress in searching for an integrative factor structure of career indecision in Western cultural contexts, such an integrative structure of career indecision remains understudied in East Asia. To search for a culturally appropriate integrative factor model of career indecision in China and South Korea, the current study used a data-driven approach to summarize correlational data of indecision-related constructs in China and South Korea. Based on 16 and 21 correlational matrices in China and South Korea, respectively, results suggested that a five-factor structure (i.e., neuroticism/negative affectivity, need for information, choice/commitment anxiety, lack of readiness, and interpersonal conflicts) can adequately and parsimoniously capture major indecision factors in these two countries. By offering a universal framework of career indecision in China and South Korea, the integrative model shows potential to accelerate knowledge accumulation regarding career indecision in this cultural context. Notably, this study suggests that need for information and choice/commitment function as separate factors in China and South Korea, while neuroticism/negative affectivity, lack of readiness, and interpersonal conflicts are culturally universal across Eastern and Western cultural contexts. Thus, this study has potential to enable cross-cultural comparison and accumulation of indecision research in these two cultural contexts.
... The relevance of executive processing with the current pandemic is highlighted in the connection between negative career thoughts and constructs of mental health. Negative career thoughts are related to hopelessness and depression (Dieringer et al., 2017;Walker & Peterson, 2012). Being in a state of worry, certainly pertinent within the context of COVID-19, is also associated with negative career thoughts . ...
Article
The COVID‐19 pandemic has had a world‐wide impact on all areas of individuals’ health, including physical, psychological, financial, familial, social, and vocational. In the United States, the unemployment rate rose from 3.5% (5.8 million) to 13.3% (21 million) in May 2020 before dropping to 7.9% in October 2020. Cognitive information processing (CIP)is one career theory that addresses career needs of clients and society. In this article, we examine the impact of COVID‐19 on mental health and wellness, highlight differences for marginalized groups, and demonstrate how CIP theoretical elements may have been impacted by COVID‐19, and provide strategies enhancing client growth in these domains during a time when largescale social and physical distancing is recommended. The CIP‐based differentiated service delivery model is also described as a means for extending and providing access to career services.
... Table 1 indicates that medical, mental disorders and mental health information are regularly sought and used by at least one in five practitioners in the sample (while over 60% reported working with populations with these characteristics). This observation is consistent with studies highlighting the growing complexity of guidance interventions due in particular to issues other than career among the populations served (Walker & Peterson, 2012). On the other side, results also show that information related to support measures (mental health, psychosocial, etc.) is not frequently sought. ...
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Although career development theories underline the central role of information in career choice and studies show that guidance practitioners are among the main information sources of people making career choices, the actual information practices of these practitioners in their career interventions remain fragmented. Moreover, the studies on the theme of career choice associating information, information sources and information practices (whether it is among guidance practitioners or individuals in career choice) offer little conceptualization on these notions. In order to fill this gap, an online survey of 330 guidance practitioners in Quebec was conducted to document specifically their career information practices (information sources consulted and categories of career information sought). Statistical analysis show that the main career information sought relates to central elements of career choice (training programs and occupations) and the main information sources consulted are non-human and institutional. In addition, some contextual elements are associated with seeking and selecting certain categories of information and sources. The discussion highlights the importance of digital sources in the information practices of these practitioners, the association between the populations served and the choice of information sources and categories of career information and the role of co-workers as information support on career and beyond.
... An independent decision-maker is defined as an individual who sets adaptive goals and takes appropriate actions to achieve their desires [7]. Making career planning contributes to students" abilities effectively as a transition through college, improvement of effective decision-making skills, and positive mental health factors [8] [9]. ...
... The DSM-5 states that "mental disorders are usually associated with significant distress or disability in social, occupational or other important activities". Previous studies have found that long-term unemployment or inaction can lead to depression (Rottinghaus, Jenkins, & Jantzer, 2009;Saunders, Peterson, Sampson, & Reardon, 2000;Walker & Peterson, 2012) and anxiety (Gati, Asulin-Peretz, & Fisher, 2012;Gati et al., 2007;Nauta et al., 2012). Moreover, mental health problems not only had significant impact on adolescent's growth and development as well as psychiatric disorders when they grow up, but also cause huge social and economic costs to society (Wu et al., 2017). ...
Article
The mechanism of how career adaptability could contribute to adolescent’s mental health problems remains unclear in mainland China. The present study aims to explore the relationship between career adaptability, resilience, and mental health problems in a sample of Chinese adolescents. A total of 372 Chinese high school students aged 14 to 19 years (M = 17.25; SD = 0.53), including 141 (37.9%) boys and 231 (62.1%) girls participated. The results found that career adaptability negatively predicted mental health problems and resilience mediated the relationship between career adaptability and mental health problems. In light of these results, several managerial suggestions related to career education and career counseling practices for adolescents, as well as implications for future researches are provided. These findings could provide cross-cultural for theoretical implications and contribute to evidence-based social policy and social work intervention to promote adolescent’s mental well-being.
... Various conceptualizations of psychological functioning, such as the wellness model (Myers & Sweeney, 2004), highlight the interconnectivity of career development aspects with other domains of functioning . In addition, connections between career development and mental health have been found in numerous studies (Cardoso, 2016;Constantine & Flores, 2006;Corbière, Mercier, & Lesage, 2004;Gati et al ., 2011;Osborn, Hayden, Peterson, & Sampson, 2016;Rottinghaus, Jenkins, & Jantzer, 2009;Saunders, Peterson, Sampson, & Reardon, 2000;Walker & Peterson, 2012) . The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed .; ...
Article
Effective instructional strategies are needed for career practitioner training. Experiential learning theory (ELT; A. Y. Kolb & Kolb, 2009) provides an instructional foundation from which awareness of the various components of career development can be enhanced. Support for ELT as an effective method of instruction exists in various fields (Hoover, Giambatista, Sorenson, & Bommer, 2010; Ti et al., 2009). ELT integrates 6 shared propositions derived from John Dewey, Jean Piaget, William James, Carl Jung, and Carl Rogers (A. Y. Kolb & Kolb, 2009). This article outlines components of ELT and their application in training career service practitioners.
... . , Kim, & Choi, 2015;DeRoma, Leach, & Leverett, 2009;Kisch, Leino, & Silverman, 2005;Walker & Peterson, 2012), (Rao et al., 1995). ...
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Sixty‐nine Amazon Mechanical Turk workers completed the Penn State Worry Questionnaire (Berle et al., 2011), the Career Thoughts Inventory (Sampson et al., 1996a), and the Career State Inventory (Leierer et al., 2017). Worry was significantly correlated with negative career thinking and its dimensions of decision‐making confusion and commitment anxiety, with readiness and its dimensions of clarity and certainty, and with the self‐assessed cognitive information processing skills of self‐knowledge, options knowledge, decision‐making, and executive processing. Worry was also found to predict the degree of readiness for career decision‐making, negative career thinking, and cognitive information processing requisite skills.
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Les enjeux reliés à la carrière sont particulièrement préoccupants pour les étudiants universitaires, qui traversent généralement une période d’instabilité et de possibilités, ce qui génère de l’anxiété. Selon la théorie de l’autodétermination, la poursuite de buts autoconcordants (c.-à-d. motivation autonome) est reliée à un meilleur bien-être, alors que la poursuite de buts non concordants (c.-à-d. motivation contrôlée) nuit au bienêtre des individus. Plusieurs recherches démontrent qu’une plus grande disposition à la présence attentive est associée à des comportements motivés pour des raisons plus autonomes, soit en lien avec ses intérêts et ses valeurs. D’un autre côté, les études démontrent que les interventions basées sur la présence attentive permettent une réduction des symptômes de stress et de dépression, ainsi qu’une augmentation du bienêtre. Cette étude à devis expérimental a pour but d’évaluer le lien de causalité entre un court exercice de présence attentive et l’autoconcordance des buts ainsi que le bienêtre d’étudiants universitaires. L’échantillon est composé de 61 participants, assignés aléatoirement à la condition expérimentale (balayage corporel) ou à la condition contrôle (lecture de magasines). Les participants se sont fixé entre un et trois buts professionnels en fonction d’un scénario fictif. Une série de questionnaires a permis d’évaluer l’autoconcordance des buts, la satisfaction de vie ainsi que les affects positifs et négatifs des participants. Des analyses de covariances et de médiations ont été menées pour tester les différentes hypothèses. Les résultats démontrent que l’exercice de balayage corporel permet d’augmenter l’état de présence attentive et deux composantes du bien-être : la satisfaction de vie et les affects positifs (marginalement). Cependant, aucun effet significatif n’a été trouvé sur les affects négatifs et sur l’autoconcordance des buts. De plus, l’autoconcordance n’était pas un médiateur significatif dans la relation entre le balayage corporel et le bien-être. En sommes, ces résultats démontrent qu’un seul exercice de présence attentive de 15 minutes peut avoir un impact sur certains éléments du bien-être d’étudiants universitaires, ce qui contribue au corpus de connaissances sur les interventions basées sur la présence attentive. Les professionnels en orientation pourraient faire appel à ce type d’intervention pour favoriser le bien-être des étudiants.
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Eighty-six individuals seeking counseling at a university career center completed the Career Thoughts Inventory and the Self-Directed Search, 5th Edition, agreeing to participate in the present study exploring relationships among dysfunctional career thoughts (DCTs), profile elevation, and RIASEC skills. Multiple regression analyses indicated that DCTs captured 16% of variance in profile elevation and 16% of variance in RIASEC skills. Seven percent of the variance in DCTs were predicted by RIASEC skills and profile elevation. A discussion includes examination of results and limitations, as well as implications for theory, research, and practice.
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Background: Physical activity greatly affects human physical and mental health. This study investigated the effect of college students' physical activity levels on depression and personal relationships. Methods: Participants were 525 college students from five Korean cities. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire, Beck's Depression Inventory, and Leary's interpersonal orientation paper test measured physical activity volume, depression, and interpersonal relationships, respectively. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, reliability analysis, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), and Pearson's correlation analysis. Results: The results revealed significant differences among emotional, cognitive, and synchronous symptoms of depression across activity level groups. Regarding interpersonal relationships according to physical activity, for the sociometric disposition, there were differences between groups in the sympathetic-acceptable and sociable-friendliness factors and, for the expressive disposition, in the competitive-aggressive and rebellious-distrustful factors. Conclusions: There were statistical correlations between the physical activity volume and depression and the physical activity and interpersonal relationships. Subsequent research should examine college students' physical activities and causal relationships among various psychological variables.
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The study investigated the relationship between the psychosocial adjustment and dysfunctional career thoughts for adults with multiple sclerosis. The Reactions to Impairment and Disability Inventory measured psychosocial adjustment, and the Career Thoughts Inventory measured dysfunctional career thoughts. The results found that (a) higher levels of depression were associated with higher levels of decision-making confusion and commitment anxiety and (b) higher levels of adjustment were associated with lower levels of decision-making confusion. Rehabilitation counselor implications are discussed.
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Student veterans may experience challenges as they transition from military to student life, including adjusting to the academic environment, coping with mental health concerns, and redefining their identities. Research indicates that veterans may have difficulty finding meaning and purpose outside of the military (Brenner et al., 2008; Doenges, 2011). This study explored variables that may affect meaning and purpose in student veterans' lives, specifically negative career thoughts and depression. One hundred thirty‐two student veterans at U.S. institutions were surveyed. The results revealed that both negative career thoughts and depression were statistically significant predictors (p < .001) of the presence of meaning in life, with 46% of the variance in the presence of meaning in life scores accounted for by participants' negative career thinking and depression levels. Pearson correlations indicated that all variables were statistically significant (p < .01). Future research could explore how other career readiness and self‐assessment constructs are related to meaning and purpose in student veterans' lives, as well as the intersection of mental health and career factors. Interventions that focus both on the presence of negative career thoughts and depressive symptomatology may positively influence student veterans' report of meaning and purpose in life.
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The current study sought to determine if student employment was a significant moderator of the relationship between congruence with college major, academic major satisfaction, and academic major success. Correlation results suggested that student employment has a negative relationship with academic success as measured by grade point average. No study hypotheses were supported but regression analyses showed significant impact of cognitive influences on academic major satisfaction and academic major success. Clinicians are encouraged to aid students in planning the relationship between required work and educational responsibilities, as well as consider implications of negative career thinking on academic satisfaction and success.
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Attention‐deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is known to cause significant difficulties in interpersonal relationships. Empirical research in career development has demonstrated that close, supportive relationships are associated with positive vocational behaviors (Kenny et al., 2018). We examined dysfunctional career thoughts and perceived quality of parental relationships in high school students with ADHD. One hundred two adolescents (76 boys, 26 girls) with ADHD responded to measures of career thoughts and interpersonal relationship quality. Preliminary exploratory analysis, using multiple linear regression, showed that male participants' dysfunctional career thoughts were statistically significantly related to their relationships with their mothers. For female participants, relationships with fathers represented an area for further exploration. Results suggest that career professionals can enhance positive outcomes of decision‐making and problem‐solving issues in adolescence with additional focus on relational interventions. Future research should incorporate the influence of gender and race/ethnicity on crucial relationships and focus on paternal relationships using cognitive information processing–based interventions with this population.
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Özet: Bu araştırmada adalet meslek yüksekokulu öğrencilerinin kariyer stres düzeylerinin, psikolojik iyi oluş düzeyleri üzerindeki yordayıcı rolünün incelenmesi amaçlanmıştır. Aynı zamanda bu araştırmada, öğrencilerin kariyer stresi ve psikolojik iyi oluş puanlarının cinsiyet, okudukları bölümü isteyerek seçip seçmeme durumlarına ve iş bulmaya yönelik umut düzeylerine göre anlamlı olarak farklılaşıp farklılaşmadığı incelenmiştir. Araştırmanın çalışma grubunu Ege Bölgesi’nde bir ilde bulunan Adalet Meslek Yüksekokulu’ndaki 148 kadın ve 76 erkek olmak üzere 224 üniversite öğrencisi oluşturmaktadır. Veri toplama aracı olarak Kariyer Stres Ölçeği ve Psikolojik İyi Oluş Ölçeği kullanılmıştır. Araştırmada okudukları bölümü istemeyerek seçen öğrencilerin kariyer stres düzeylerinin isteyerek seçen öğrencilerden daha yüksek olduğu ve psikolojik iyi oluş düzeylerinin ise daha düşük olduğu sonucuna ulaşılmıştır. Ayrıca mezuniyet sonrasında iş bulmaya yönelik umudu fazla olan öğrencilerin, iş bulmaya yönelik umudu az olan öğrencilere göre kariyer streslerinin düşük ve psikolojik iyi oluş düzeylerinin yüksek olduğu saptanmıştır. Son olarak, araştırmada kariyer stresinin psikolojik iyi oluşu negatif yönde anlamlı bir şekilde yordadığı sonucuna ulaşılmıştır. ______________________________________________________________________________ Abstract: In this study, it was aimed to investigate the predictive role of career stress levels of the students of the vocational high school of justice on their psychological well-being levels. At the same time, in this study, it was investigated whether the students' career stress and psychological well-being scores differ significantly according to their gender, their unwillingness to choose the department they read and their level of hope for finding a job. The study group of the research consists of 224 university students, including 148 women and 76 men in the Vocational School of Justice in a province in the Aegean Region. Career Stress Scale and Psychological Well-Being Scale were used as data collection tools. In the study, the career stress levels of students who unwillingly chose the department they read were found to be higher than those who voluntarily chose and psychological well-being levels were lower. In addition, it was found that students with high hope for finding a job after graduation had lower career stresses and also higher levels of psychological well-being than those who had little hope for finding a job. Finally, it was concluded in the research that career stress significantly predicted psychological well-being in a negative way.
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Impaired functioning in occupational domains is a diagnostic characteristic of posttraumatic stress disorder, and yet the interactions between trauma and career remain understudied. This study examined the relationships between trauma symptoms, posttraumatic growth, and career adaptability in college students who identified as trauma survivors (N = 215). Results indicated that (a) trauma symptoms and posttraumatic growth were both significantly predictive of career adaptability and (b) posttraumatic growth moderated the relationship between trauma and career adaptability. The impact of demographic factors and implications for career counselors and counselor educators are also discussed.
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The authors examined the relationships between career and cultural characteristics among 53 international and 54 domestic students at a large university in the southeastern United States. One‐way multivariate analysis of variance results showed an overall significant difference between groups for mainstream acculturation, but not for vocational identity, dysfunctional career thoughts, goal instability, or heritage acculturation. Regression results indicated that 71% of the variance in vocational identity of domestic college students was explained by dysfunctional career thoughts and acculturation, whereas dysfunctional career thoughts were the only significant predictor of vocational identity for international college students. Thus, a key implication from this study is for career practitioners to address and challenge the dysfunctional thinking of all students to improve their vocational identity. Future researchers should also explore how other potential moderator variables (e.g., age, gender, race/ethnicity, parental education) may influence vocational identity, as well as include more qualitative approaches to better understand an individual’s worldview, including career and cultural characteristics. Full text available here: http://fsu.digital.flvc.org/islandora/object/fsu%3A623467
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Mindfulness has been a focus of psychological research and practice in recent decades. Yet, there is limited research on the relationship between mindfulness and vocational decision‐making. This study’s purpose was to examine the role of mindfulness in a career context by investigating the relationships among mindfulness, decision‐making style, negative career thoughts, and vocational identity. The sample included 258 undergraduate students (204 women, 54 men) at a large southeastern U.S. university. Mindfulness was significantly (p < .01) associated with fewer negative career thoughts, external and thinking‐based decision‐making styles, and higher vocational identity. Multiple regression procedures found that mindfulness, coupled with decision‐making style, accounted for 31% of the variance in negative career thoughts and 22% of the variance in vocational identity. These findings suggest that more holistic career counseling interventions could incorporate mindfulness techniques to help reduce anxiety and negative thoughts while increasing self‐clarity and problem‐solving skills. Future research could include more diverse samples, additional constructs (e.g., choice volition, self‐efficacy), and a pretest–posttest design to examine the efficacy of mindfulness‐based career interventions.
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Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is known to cause significant difficulties in interpersonal relationships. Empirical research in career development has demonstrated that close, supportive relationships are associated with positive vocational behaviors. We examined dysfunctional career thoughts and perceived quality of parental relationships in high school students with ADHD. A total of 102 adolescents (26 girls, 76 boys) with ADHD responded to measures of career thoughts and interpersonal relationship quality. Preliminary exploratory analysis, using multiple linear regression, showed that males’ dysfunctional career thoughts were statistically significantly related to their relationships with their mothers. For females, relationships with fathers represented an area for further exploration. Results suggest career professionals can enhance positive outcomes of decision-making and problem-solving issues in adolescence with additional focus on relational interventions. Future research should incorporate the influence of gender and ethnicity on crucial relationships, and focus on paternal relationships using CIP-based interventions with this population.
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Despite its importance as a core counselling competency, less attention is given to career counselling than to other counselling specialties and it is often dismissed as a non-essential category in the counselling field. Because students’ perceptions of career counselling are affected by peer and faculty attitudes it is important to examine the training needs and experiences of graduate counselling students. Therefore, in the current study we utilised a phenomenological approach to examine students’ perceptions of a career counselling curriculum, and its impact on overall views of career counselling. Analysis of in-depth interviews yielded five major themes: View of Career Counselling, Course Delivery, Theory, Application of Knowledge, and Connection between Career Counselling and Personal Counselling.
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Black students experience a unique form of pervasive trauma based on their racial identity. Discrimination—a social determinant of health (Social determinants of health)—results in racial trauma that negatively affects students’ college and career outcomes, such as career adaptability, career thoughts, career decision making, and postsecondary attainment. We share recommendations for school counselors to adopt an antiracist and trauma-informed approach to implementing career development interventions that address SDOH-related challenges for Black students.
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The human stress response has been characterized, both physiologically and behaviorally, as "fight-or-flight." Although fight-or-flight may characterize the primary physiological responses to stress for both males and females, we propose that, behaviorally, females' responses are more marked by a pattern of "tend-and-befriend." Tending involves nurturant activities designed to protect the self and offspring that promote safety and reduce distress; befriending is the creation and maintenance of social networks that may aid in this process. The biobehavioral mechanism that underlies the tend-and-befriend pattern appears to draw on the attachment-caregiving system, and neuroendocrine evidence from animal and human studies suggests that oxytocin, in conjunction with female reproductive hormones and endogenous opioid peptide mechanisms, may be at its core. This previously unexplored stress regulatory system has manifold implications for the study of stress.
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In this article it is argued that “career” and “personal” counseling should not be viewed as different types of counseling because: (a) the holistic philosophy of counseling emphasizes helping “whole” persons whose lives contain many important and meaningful roles; (b) recent research on the implications of gender and race for career development further demonstrates the inseparability of our career and “personal” lives; and (c) there are numerous commonalities in the “career” and “personal” counseling process.
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The present study examined the relationships between two measures of career readiness and difficulties—the Career Thoughts Inventory (CTI) and the Career Decision-Making Difficulties Questionnaire (CDDQ)—as well as the relations between these measures and the individual’s degree of decidedness regarding his or her career plans. A total of 192 university students enrolled in a career-planning class filled out both questionnaires. As hypothesized, the two measures overlapped significantly. There was a highly significant correlation (corrected for attenuation) between the total scores of the questionnaires (r= .82), but the correlations between the questionnaires’ subscales varied between –.03 and .83. Both the CTI and the CDDQ distinguish among individuals at different stages of the career decision-making process. As hypothesized, participants with a higher degree of decidedness reported lower levels of difficulties. Implications of the unique features of each of the measures for career-related interventions and further research are discussed.
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This article discusses training issues related to the new paradigm proposed by Robitschek and DeBell, in which vocational topics in counseling psychology are viewed as primary issues and contextual factors in people’s lives. Specifically, the new paradigm is conceptualized as a truly integrative career-personal perspective in the training of delivery of counseling services. Existing literature regarding the overlap of career and social-emotional counseling is reviewed in the context of the new integrative paradigm, with particular focus on evidence related to foundational assumptions underlying the paradigm. Suggestions for how to implement a truly integrative career-personal perspective throughout graduate training are offered.
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Further investigations are necessary to explore the interface between personal-emotional and career-related factors. The authors examined links between participants' emotional life, including depression and positive/negative affect, and career decision status and average level of vocationally relevant self-efficacy in a sample of 388 university students. Participants who had made a career decision were significantly less depressed, as measured by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, than those who were undecided about their career. Furthermore, the authors found no significant difference in the average level of positive affect or negative affect, as measured by the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, across career choice status groups. Gender accounted for 8.4% of the variation in overall average level of self efficacy, as measured by the Kuder Skills Assessment—College and Adult Version, and positive affect significantly contributed incremental variance (12.7%). The importance of addressing depression and affectivity in vocational research and practice is discussed.
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Career counselling, career guidance, and career interventions are terms in the process of evolution. Historical and contemporary factors in the US experience that have changed and expanded the needs for career counselling and related career interventions are discussed. For many work-adjustment problems, in particular, there is a growing acknowledgement that career and personal counselling must fuse. Where this fusion occurs, on a continuum from choice, indecision, and situational concerns to change, indecisiveness, and personal concerns, is analysed.
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Mindfulness-based stress interventions are well suited to reduce the anxiety of clients living with employment uncertainty. With the advent of globalization, increased job flux, and at-will employment policies, feelings of insecurity are becoming more prevalent, contributing to work-related stress (D. L. Blustein, 2006), which in turn is associated with lowered job satisfaction, elevated turnover intentions, and increased cardiovascular risk (C. D. Spielberger, P. R. Vagg, & C. F. Wasala, 2003). Mindfulness, an intentional consciousness learned through meditation, can reduce psychological suffering by reducing the anticipation anxiety experienced by employed workers who face a high degree of employment uncertainty.
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Describes a procedure for analyzing personnel salary and management costs of a self-directed career decision-making program using actual client data. These data are then compared to hypothetical data for a comparable individual career- counseling program. Discusses policy and management issues related to self-directed and individual career-counseling service delivery program models. (JPS)
Book
The purpose of this book is to demystify clinical work with suicidal patients by grounding this work within a model of suicidal behavior, the interpersonal theory of suicide (Joiner, 2005). The theory is ambitious in that it attempts a comprehensive and empirically defensible answer to the question, Why do people die by suicide? This book focuses on issues that we argue have been resolved, such as aspects of suicidal behavior that heretofore have not received adequate attention—indeed, in some theories have received no mention whatsoever—and that nonetheless are necessary for a full understanding of the phenomenon. The theory's emphasis of these constructs allows clinical work with suicidal patients a new level of rigor and focus. The book is meant as a "guidebook" of sorts. Each chapter in this guidebook addresses a component of clinical work with suicidal patients. The first two chapters address aspects of assessment. In chapter 1, we focus on diagnoses associated with suicide. In chapter 2, we offer theory-based recommendations on what information should be gathered in the process of suicide risk assessments as well as how to optimally obtain and analyze this information. We also provide an overview of available risk assessment frameworks through the lens of the interpersonal theory. The next three chapters address aspects of treatment. In chapter 3, we describe crisis intervention strategies and techniques through the lens of the theory. In chapter 4, we focus on treatments that work for suicidal behavior, surveying various treatment approaches through the lens of the theory and describing in detail one approach that directly targets all components of the interpersonal theory. In chapter 5, we focus on the therapeutic relationship, including a more detailed exploration of the optimal therapeutic stance. We also address between-sessions accessibility by the therapist. The final two chapters use a broader perspective to examine clinical implications of the interpersonal theory. In chapter 6, we address suicide prevention and public health campaigns. In the concluding chapter, we provide an integrative statement on a comprehensive, theory-based protocol for clinical work with suicidal patients. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
This article begins with a review of the use of readiness assessment measures as a strategy for improving career services. A 5-step process model for readiness assessment is then proposed and current readiness measures are identified. Although considerable research has been conducted on career decision-making readiness and numerous measures have been developed, there has been limited literature available on the application of readiness assessment in selecting career interventions to meet specific client needs. This article continues with a theory-based conceptualization of readiness and then links readiness assessment to the selection of career interventions designed to meet clients' needs. The authors conclude by noting that appropriate use of readiness assessment should increase the likelihood that the right career resource will be used by the right person with the right level of support at the lowest possible cost. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Compared the responses of 84 female Ss to the Strong-Campbell Interest Inventory (SCII) and the Vocational Card Sort (VCS). The VCS task included J. L. Holland's themes and used the basic interest and occupational scales from the SCII. The results from both measures were related. The VCS was not significantly different from the SCII in internal consistency. The VCS themes were better predictors of expressed choices than the SCII themes. Comparisons of the instruments by the Ss did not yield clear preferences, and there was a strong tendency for Ss to suggest that a friend take both instruments. Ss perceived sex bias in the SCII but not in the VCS. Overall, the results support the use of the VCS including the Holland themes and the SCII basic interest category. Findings are discussed in relation to their implications for vocational counseling and future research. (28 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Career and personal counseling are inextricably intertwined. Career problems have a strong emotional component. Career indecision and procrastination may be better interpreted as zeteophobia, the fear of career exploration. Trait and factor theory pictures career counseling as unrealistically simplistic and leads neophytes to view it as boring. Training all counselors to integrate career and personal counseling would lead to better service for clients. Case examples are noted. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Equally divided 232 male and female college students into 4 groups based on their responses to the Occupational Alternatives Question. Groups were composed of Ss who had a 1st choice and no alternatives, a 1st choice plus alternatives, no 1st choice but alternatives, and neither a 1st choice nor alternatives. The hypothesis tested was that these groups would differ on dependent variables related to vocational decision making. No significant differences were found on socioeconomic status or on J. L. Holland's constructs of consistency, differentiation, or congruence with career choice. Significant group differences were found on congruence with college major, total number of Vocational Preference Inventory responses, and scales measuring satisfaction with college major and career choice. Significant differences were also found on 2 recent scales measuring vocational indecision; the Vocational Decision Making Difficulty Scale and the Career Decision Scale. Significant sex differences indicate that females were more congruent and satisfied with their college majors. Implications of the results for future research and vocational counseling are examined. (43 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The criterion validity of the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II; A. T. Beck, R. A. Steer, & G. K. Brown, 1996) was investigated by pairing blind BDI-II administrations with the major depressive episode portion of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-I; M. B. First, R. L. Spitzer, M. Gibbon, & J. B. W. Williams, 1997) in a sample of 137 students receiving treatment at a university counseling center. Student BDI-II scores correlated strongly ( r=.83) with their number of SCID-I depressed mood symptoms. A BDI-II cut score of 16 yielded a sensitivity rate of 84% and a false-positive rate of 18% in identifying depressed mood. Receiver operating characteristic analyses were used to produce cut scores for determining severity of depressed mood. In a second study, a sample of 46 student clients were administered the BDI-II twice, yielding test-retest reliability of .96. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
This study compared 66 high-school women, 66 first-year college women, and 66 adult women on four measures of career indecision, the Satisfaction with Career Scale, the Occupational Alternatives Question, the Vocational Decision Making Difficulty Scale, and the Career Decision Scale. The results consistently suggested that the adult women were experiencing more career indecision than the high-school and college women. Intercorrelations among the scales were generally moderate to somewhat low and raised some questions about the use of the Career Decision Scale with adult women. Additional data were gathered on the adult women in an attempt to delineate the sample. Variables included were: marital status, present work experience, the career-related goals and the reasons for pursuing these goals, and possible impediments to reaching the goals. These results are presented and the implications for future research and counseling with adult women are examined.
Article
Depression and dysfunctional career thinking were investigated as components of the state of career indecision. The participants were 215 undergraduate students enrolled in an introductory psychology course at a large southeastern university. The Career Decision Scale was used to measure career indecision, whereas the Beck Depression Inventory and Career Thoughts Inventory were used to measure depression and dysfunctional career thinking respectively. The relative contribution of depression, dysfunctional career thoughts, and selected control variables were ascertained through hierarchical regression. Results support the existence of dysfunctional career thoughts as a significant component of career indecision. Depression associated significantly with career indecision yet captured no significant independent variation in the regression model. Implications for career assessment and career counseling are discussed.
Article
Baer's review (2003; this issue) suggests that mindf ulness-based interventions are clinically efficacious, but that better designed studies are now needed to substantiate the field and place it on a firm foundation for future growth. Her review, coupled with other lines of evidence, suggests that interest in incorporating mindfulness into clinical interventions in medicine and psychology is growing. It is thus important that professionals coming to this field understand some of the unique factors associated with the delivery of mindfulness-based interventions and the potential conceptual and practical pitfalls of not recognizing the features of this broadly unfamiliar landscape. This commentary highlights and contextualizes (1) what exactly mindfulness is, (2) where it came from, (3) how it came to be introduced into medicine and health care, (4) issues of cross-cultural sensitivity and understanding in the study of meditative practices stemming from other cultures and in applications of them in novel settings, (5) why it is important for people who are teaching mind-fulness to practice themselves, (6) results from 3 recent studies from the Center for Mindfulness in Medicine, Health Care, and Society not reviewed by Baer but which raise a number of key questions about clinical applicability, study design, and mechanism of action, and (7) current opportunities for professional training and development in mindfulness and its clinical applications.