Article

Dynamic Duos A Case Review of Effective Mentoring Program Evaluations

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Abstract

How can mentors maximize their positive relationships with “at-risk” youth? Youth mentoring program evaluations at the Boys & Girls Club of McAllen Metro (BGCMM) yield a framework that illuminates the content of relating inside mentoring relationships. The mentoring model identified is established primarily by qualitative methods with a phenomenological approach and supported by young adult alumni findings from a Harris Poll Interactive Survey. The case review of mentoring program evaluations is significant in that it fills a gap in the mentoring literature regarding the content of mentor-mentee relating. The summary of evaluation findings is also important because the inquiry occurs with 98 percent Latino youth population between the ages of 8 and 17. (The regional success of youth mentoring programs is meaningful to the nation in large part because South Texas is the one location where Latinos comprise a demographic majority). Given the academic achievement gap of Latino students, nationally with Latino high school drop-out rates approaching 50 percent and the overrepresentation of minority populations incarcerated, this simple replicable strategy for the successful mentoring program design and evaluation is timely. The interactionist sociological analysis examines what happens inside the mentor-mentee relationship as it is perceived to be impactful by the youth themselves with their definitions. The mentoring model informed by the case review is a practical tool in planning, implementing, and facilitating effective dyads between mentor and mentee that can inform mentor training and program evaluations.

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... To determine the type of leadership desired, the Six Domains of Leadership Model mentions that the development of leadership skills is up until the monitoring level (Sitkin & Lind, 2006). Hence, to explore the process of leadership development skills, the coaching technique (Reagan-Porras, 2013) provides the perspective of acquiring knowledge and social skills, which also incorporates the process of legitimate peripheral participation (Lave & Wenger, 1991;Wenger, 1998;Wenger et al., 2002). ...
... Usually, coach come from a different generation than the coachee (Bickel & Brown, 2005;Chen & Krauskopf, 2013) and this does not necessarily depend on age (Harvey et al., 2009). Adult coach may not experience any problem to socialize and communicate with youths as their coachee, but they may have different interpretations during the two-way communication (Reagan-Porras, 2013). In the context of today's youth leadership development, coachee born between 1980 to 2000 are known as Generation Y or Millennial (Hershatter & Epstein, 2010), compared to the more senior coach from Generation X or Baby Boomers (Dannar, 2013). ...
... This is because, according to Kram and Ragins' (2007) coaching theory, coaching process is not static, in which it portrays different functions, experiences and forms of interaction that may be expanded in youth development. Youth potential in leadership can be amplified through developmental programmes (MacNeil, 2006;Hastings, Human & Bell, 2011;Reagan-Porras, 2013). The emphasis on reciprocal learning through coaching requires coachee to develop positive values through the roles they play in mirroring what have been done by their coach (Schwartz et al., 2013). ...
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... In addition, researchers established there was a connection between mentoring and academic success (Gordon et al., 2009). The dropout problem, however, has not been eliminated (Reagan-Porras, 2013). Miller, Barnes, Miller, and McKinnon (2012) proposed that more research is needed to examine programmatic aspects such as the correlation between successful mentoring and effective mentoring relationships; thus, there was a need to more fully examine mentoring. ...
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... Youth potential in leadership can be amplified through developmental programmes (MacNeil, 2006;Hastings, Human, & Bell, 2011;Reagan-Porras, 2013). The emphasis on reciprocal learning through mentoring requires proteges to develop positive values through the roles they play in mirroring what have been done by their mentors. ...
... Such skills created unique experiences that fostered sense of belonging among peers and program staff. While skill building activities are not typically associated with sense of belonging, youth may feel a sense of togetherness when all youth involved in the activity are learning something new (Reagan-Porras, 2013). In addition, skill building activities may aid in reducing perfectionistic or imposter thought patterns, as program staff can normalize making mistakes throughout the learning and application process. ...
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... This mentoring process has directly developed each of the '5Cs' elements in PYD, which is demonstrated through the contribution made by the youths ( Lerner et al., 2013). Hence, to explore the process of leadership development skills, the mentoring technique ( Reagan-Porras, 2013), provides the perspective of acquiring knowledge and social skills, which also incorporates the opportunity for legitimate peripheral participation among the students and graduates ( Lave & Wenger, 1991;Wenger, 1998;Wenger et al., 2002). Through mentoring, learning happened through participation and 'the sense of becoming' involved in the continuous construction of one's identity within communities of practice. ...
... Although several studies, many using quantitative data, have examined the outcomes of mentoring [9], we know little about the relational process of mentoringthat is, the nature, quality, and course of mentoring relationshipson the basis of qualitative data [17,28]. Moreover, we know little about how mentors can be present and helpful in challenging times for young women; this is one indication of a successful mentorprotégé bond [29], and more knowledge of this aspect can help inform the training of mentors [8]. Few studies have examined mentoring programs targeted specifically at female populations, and even fewer have focused on late-adolescent and emerging-adult women, among whom mental health problems increase drastically [2]. ...
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Article
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... Generally, mentoring is a relationship between two parties, in which one party (the mentor) guides the other (the mentee) through a period of change and towards an agreed objective, or assists him or her to become acquainted with a new situation (Kay & Hinds, 2012). Furthermore, leadership mentoring highlights the learning process of a one-to-one relationship, especially in traditional mentoring (Reagan-Porras, 2013), with the more senior and experienced individual as the mentor who supports the protégé's career development (Ragins & Kram, 2007;Eller, Lev & Feurer, 2013). Chaudhuri and Ghosh (2012), assert that traditional mentoring builds normative impression towards the process in which a mentor helps a mentee through a period of change. ...
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Article
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One approach that promotes Positive Youth Development (PYD) among youth is being involved in leadership activities. Focusing on the mentoring process in a leadership development program serves as the foundation for cultivating these positive aspects for the young generation. The purpose of this study is to explore the character development process in promoting developmental assets through youth leadership mentoring. The study was conducted using qualitative research informed by the case study paradigm that involved 13 informants through in-depth interview, participant observation and document analysis as data collections. Empirical findings from the study show that mentoring process such as the display of prudent characteristics, integrity development and preferred leadership style among youth leaders lead to character development. In conclusion, the data indicated that mentoring clearly had the potential to constitute the process of character building among youth. This youth leadership mentoring process contributes to the development of their capabilities in leadership and enhances the implementation of effective youth leadership mentoring processes.
... Generally, mentoring is a relationship between two parties, in which one party (the mentor) guides the other (the mentee) through a period of change and towards an agreed objective, or assists him or her to become acquainted with a new situation (Kay & Hinds, 2012). Furthermore, leadership mentoring highlights the learning process of a one-to-one relationship, especially in traditional mentoring (Reagan-Porras, 2013), with the more senior and experienced individual as the mentor who supports the protege's career development (Ragins & Kram, 2007;Eller et al, 2013). Chaudhuri and Ghosh (2012), assert that traditional mentoring builds normative impression towards the process in which a mentor helps a mentee through a period of change. ...
... Generally, mentoring is a relationship between two parties, in which one party (the mentor) guides the other (the mentee) through a period of change and towards an agreed objective or assists them to become acquainted with a new situation (Kay & Hinds, 2012). Furthermore, leadership mentoring highlights the learning process of a one-to-one relationship, especially in traditional mentoring (Reagan-Porras, 2013), with the more senior and experienced individual as the mentor who supports the protégé's career development (Ragins & Kram, 2007;Eller et al, 2013). Chaudhuri and Ghosh (2012), assert that traditional mentoring builds normative impression towards the process in which a mentor helps a mentee through a period of change. ...
... Leadership mentoring highlights learning input at one-on-one basis, especially in traditional mentoring (Reagan-Porras, 2013), with the more senior and experienced individual as the mentor who supports the protégé's career development (Ragins & Kram, 2007;Eller et al, 2013). Chaudhuri and Ghosh (2012), assert that traditional mentoring builds normative impression towards the suitable age to become a mentor and protégé, so as to ensure in-depth mentoring. ...
Chapter
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Thesis
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Mentoring programs pose some special challenges for quality assessment because they operate at two levels: that of the dyadic relationship and that of the program. Fully assessing the quality of youth mentoring relationships requires understanding the characteristics and processes of individual relationships, which are the point of service for mentoring. Yet we also must consider the program components that support their development. A number of factors have been indicated to contribute to quality mentoring relationships, including frequency and consistency of contact, feelings of connection between mentor and protégé, and the mentor's approach. Program features linked with quality relationships include mentor screening and training and expectations for frequency of contact. Assessing the quality of the relationship directly requires measuring both the mentor's and protégé's perceptions of important dimensions of the relationship, such as goals, engagement, and closeness. Single-point-in-time surveys or interviews, using both validated measures and open-ended questions, may be used as tools for assessing individual relationships at the conclusion of programs. Short surveys, logs, and observations may be useful for periodic or ongoing assessment of quality for support and intervention purposes. Focus groups and surveys of mentors may also provide useful information for assessing program components needed to support the development and maintenance of high quality relationships. The benefits and drawbacks of each of these methods for assessing relational quality are discussed. Mentoring programs are provided with references for specific tools that may be used to assess relational quality.