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A demonstration of the importance of temporal considerations in the prediction of newcomer turnover

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Abstract

We theorize about and examine empirically the increase in predictive strength of antecedents of voluntary turnover over the first three years of employment using survival analysis with time-varying covariates and period effects. On the basis of employee survey data gathered from 240 newcomers working in a retail bank and organizational turnover records collected over multiple years, we find that job embeddedness and job satisfaction increase in their ability to predict voluntary turnover as tenure increases. The results of this study emphasize the importance of integrating time into theories to better understand the dynamics of the turnover process. Specifically, additional theorizing about when different effects may be manifest and how long they will persist is critical. Equally important is the development and application of research methods that are suited to dynamic modeling, such as those introduced here.

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... The process of withdrawing from an organization is dynamic; thus, turnover researchers have called for theory and empirical research examining changes in turnover predictors to be integrated into turnover research (Holtom, Tidd, Mitchell, & Lee, 2013). Changes (or lack thereof) in commitment profile membership are likely to have a stronger association with turnover and retention duration than a single assessment, which reflects the level of the commitment mind-sets at only one particular point in time. ...
... They found that increases in job satisfaction had a stronger effect on turnover intentions than decreases in job satisfaction, but Chen et al. cautioned that these findings may not be conclusive given concerns about low statistical power due to the dichotomization of the change variable. Similarly, Holtom et al. (2013) found that the strength of job satisfaction as a predictor of turnover increases over time. ...
... The comparison of a single assessment of commitment profiles with multiple assessments of commitment profiles revealed that changes and time are two important components that should be incorporated into the commitment and turnover research (Chen et al., 2011;Holtom et al., 2013;Hom et al., 2012). Our study indicated that employees with the same profile at one point in time do not all leave at the same time as would be suggested by one survival curve for all employees with the same commitment profile membership at a single point in time (see Figure 1). ...
Article
A unique survey archive of U.S. Army officers’ affective commitment and continuance commitment over a 4-year time period presents an opportunity to test multiple research questions about the extent to which organizational commitment profiles change and their relationship with the occurrence and timing of turnover. These results begin to reconcile competing theories about the stability of commitment and complement theories of organizational attachment, withdrawal, and turnover. First, multigroup latent profile analyses revealed the structure of commitment profiles was relatively consistent across five samples from the same organization. Second, latent transition analysis revealed more within-sample and within-person temporal stability of commitment profiles over a 4-year time period than less stability. Third, value-based profiles assessed at one time period were associated with lower turnover rates and higher organizational tenure compared to weak commitment profiles. Likewise, when predicting the timing of turnover with survival analysis, value-based profiles had a lower turnover hazard and higher survival probabilities over time relative to weak commitment profiles. Additionally, employees who transitioned from a value-based profile to a weak commitment profile had a higher turnover hazard and lower survival probabilities compared to employees who moved in the opposite direction. These findings have implications for turnover theories, as well as applied implications for the timing of interventions designed to enhance organizational commitment and reduce turnover.
... In order to address our research questions, we conducted a Bayesian competing risks survival analysis (Prentice, Kalbfleisch, Peterson, Flournoy, Farewell, & Breslow, 1978;Singer & Willett, 2003; see the Supplemental Material available online for further technical details). Survival analysis has become an increasingly popular tool for studying employee turnover, as it allows examination of both why and when individuals leave their organizations (e.g., Holtom, Tidd, Mitchell, & Lee, 2013;Hom & Kinicki, 2001;Morita, Lee, & Mowday, 1989, 1993Nyberg, 2010;Somers, 1996;Somers & Birnbaum, 1999). However, most survival analyses in the literature have typically coded turnover as a dichotomous event, which does not provide insight into how various factors relate to specific turnover reasons. ...
... In addition, our findings resonate with previous research demonstrating that time plays an important role in turnover predictions (e.g., Chen, Ployhart, Thomas, Anderson, & Bliese, 2011;Holtom et al, 2013;Sturman & Trevor, 2001). More importantly, the present study extends the literature by considering the entire range of employment and taking into account both personality constructs and work attitudes. ...
... 1. On the issue of time, most turnover research to date has focused on changes in work attitudes: Research has shown that employees' attitudes are likely to fluctuate and/or unfold over the course of their employment (e.g., Bentein, Vandenberg, Vandenberghe, & Stinglhamber, 2005;Boswell, Shipp, Payne, & Culbertson, 2009;Lance, Vandenberg, & Self, 2000) and that such changes are meaningfully associated with turnover outcomes, such as intent to quit and actual turnover (Chen, Ployhart, Thomas, Anderson, & Bliese, 2011;Kemmeyer-Mueller, Wanberg, Glomb, & Ahlburg, 2005). Research has also suggested that some well-established predictive relationships in the turnover literature may be moderated by one's organizational tenure (Holtom, Tidd, Mitchell, & Lee, 2013). In light of this, the present study takes into account the time-varying nature of work attitudes themselves (i.e., time-varying predictors) as well as their predictive relationships with turnover outcomes (i.e., time-dependent effects) in our analysis. ...
Article
Recent advances in the personality and turnover literatures suggest the importance of expanding current turnover criteria, incorporating dark personality traits, and examining the role of time in these relationships. The present study investigates these issues by considering both the speed and the reasons for leaving, examining a wider range of personality variables as predictors by including both “bright” and “dark” traits, and exploring the potential moderating effect of time in such predictions. Data were collected from a sample of 617 employees working in an electronics manufacturing firm in the United States. Using a Bayesian survival analysis framework, we found that dark traits were just as useful in predicting turnover outcomes as traditional personality traits and best predicted the specific turnover reasons, “deviant behavior” and “no call no show.” Investigating the role of time showed that job satisfaction and intellectual curiosity (i.e., Openness) grew in predictive strength over the course of organizational tenure but that the time-dependent effects of other predictors were negligible.
... However, the level of implications depends on an array of factors such as the nature of an employee's work, whether an employee works independently or otherwise, and how challenging it would be to replace the employee financially and process-wise. Besides, the cost and time to replace the employee may be different for new employees than employees who have been in the organization for a while (Holtom et al., 2013). Current theories do not give an estimation of how long a disruption of organizational processes (following a turnover event) could last. ...
... Studies indicate that in the United States more than 25% of employees work for an organization for less than one year and 40% of employees stay with an organization for less than three years (Holtom et al., 2013). Employee turnover has been a concern to organizations, particularly managers of SMEs, because of the cost associated with turnover (Inabinett & Ballaro, 2014). ...
Article
Employee turnover leads to increased operational costs and workloads and affects sales performance. Reducing employee turnover is essential for managers of small and medium sized enterprises to minimize costs and increase sales performance. Grounded in the job embeddedness theory, the purpose of this qualitative multiple case study was to explore strategies the managers of small and medium sized enterprises use to reduce employee turnover that negatively affects sales performance. Data were collected using semistructured, face-to-face interviews, and a review of organizational documents. The participants consisted of three managers of small and medium sized enterprises in the Bronx, New York. After conducting the interviews, the interviews were transcribed. The transcripts and organizational documents were then uploaded into NVivo v12 software to analyze the data (i.e., organize data, create codes, and identify themes). The analysis revealed that recognition and rewards, training and career advancement opportunities, effective communication, and pay, compensation, and benefits are effective in helping to reduce employee turnover. Managers of small and medium sized enterprises may use the findings to devise recognition and reward strategies to decrease employee turnover. The findings and recommendations from this inquiry may help managers of small and medium sized enterprises, business leaders or owners, and human resource personnel to reduce employee turnover and improve sales performance, profitability, and competitiveness. Keywords: employee turnover, job embeddedness, employee retention, employee retention strategies, and employee engagement
... The influence of community embeddedness on turnover intention is stronger in collectivism culture [1]. The study of Holtom (2013) found that the predictive power of job embeddedness on turnover enhanced with the increase of working years [2]. Organizational embeddedness has an impact on the performance of 90s' employees from three aspects. ...
... The influence of community embeddedness on turnover intention is stronger in collectivism culture [1]. The study of Holtom (2013) found that the predictive power of job embeddedness on turnover enhanced with the increase of working years [2]. Organizational embeddedness has an impact on the performance of 90s' employees from three aspects. ...
... This, in turn, will lead to feelings of comfort and "fit," which attaches employees to the organization. The level of fit increases and stabilizes during the early years of employment (Holtom, Tidd, Mitchell, & Lee, 2013). Unlike the level of fit, the number of links in the organization will develop over time. ...
... Unlike the level of fit, the number of links in the organization will develop over time. Initially, relationships between employees and their supervisors are likely to be superficial (Holtom et al., 2013), but over time they will develop into deeper emotional bonds as both parties learn to trust each other and employees begin to identify with their supervisors and to categorize them as one of their ingroup members. Furthermore, a paternalistic leader will facilitate employees to actively form and nurture broader links within the organization. ...
Article
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This study investigated the mediating effect of on-the-job embeddedness on the relationship between trust in supervisor and turnover. Survey data were collected among 471 employees of a restaurant chain in Indonesia. Results showed that job embeddedness mediated the relationship between trust in supervisor and turnover intentions. Turnover intentions were positively correlated with actual voluntary turnover 15 months later. The results confirmed that the trustworthiness of supervisors affects the quality of the relationships between supervisors and employees. Hence, low levels of trust must be addressed as soon as possible in order to maintain a healthy environment in which employees are able to develop their job embeddedness.
... In an economic crisis, however, upon graduation, an oversupply of nurses then occurs because there are not enough jobs to match the number of graduates due to reduced income into the health care system. The literature subsequently reflects hiring delays for new graduates (Holtom, Tidd, Mitchell, & Lee, 2013). Furthermore, in tighter job markets, employers seek to hire graduates from the best programmes; so how long it takes a new graduate nurse to get a job may reflect the programme's quality reputation. ...
Article
Aim: This study will critically evaluate forecasting models and their content in workforce planning policies for nursing professionals and to highlight the strengths and the weaknesses of existing approaches. Background: Although macro-level nursing workforce issues may not be the first thing that many nurse managers consider in daily operations, the current and impending nursing shortage in many countries makes nursing specific models for workforce forecasting important. Method: A scoping review was conducted using a directed and summative content analysis approach to capture supply and demand analytic methods of nurse workforce planning and forecasting. The literature on nurse workforce forecasting studies published in peer-reviewed journals as well as in grey literature was included in the scoping review. Results: Thirty six studies met the inclusion criteria, with the majority coming from the USA. Forecasting methods were biased towards service utilization analyses and were not consistent across studies. Conclusion: Current methods for nurse workforce forecasting are inconsistent and have not accounted sufficiently for socioeconomic and political factors that can influence workforce projections. Additional studies examining past trends are needed to improve future modelling. Implications for nursing management: Accurate nursing workforce forecasting can help nurse managers, administrators and policy makers to understand the supply and demand of the workforce to prepare and maintain an adequate and competent current and future workforce.
... Our data demonstrates a slightly different situation is China, as compared to that in the USA and Europe where male nurses were associated with a greater intention to leave [39]. Holtom et al. theorizes that in an organizational setting, an increase in the tenure corresponds to an increase in the job embeddedness and job satisfaction, thereby corroborating with a decrease in the turnover [40]. Consequently, corrective measures to withhold the younger nurses for longer than 3 years through counseling, skill management, and learning could effectively assist to reduce the percentage of turnover. ...
Article
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Background Nurses' turnover is a major contributor to nursing shortages, strongly influenced by nurses’ intentions to leave. Several factors influencing the turnover intention have been well identified in Western countries and large cities in China. However, whether these factors also contribute to nurses' work stress in Midwest China are still unclear. The main purpose of this study was to examine the work pressure and associated factors influencing the nurses’ intent to leave. MethodsA cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey with multistage sampling was conducted by recruiting 800 employed registered nurses with >1 year of work experience. Chi-square test and multi-factor logistic regression were applied to attain the relative comparisons. Sub-group analysis was conducted to explore the different turnover intention patterns in different age groups. ResultsThe turnover intention was classified as strong/very-strong (19%), weak (62%), and very-weak (19%). Among the factors influencing the nurses’ desire to leave the profession, work pressure was the most prominent. The predominantly associated factors contributing the work stress were age, experience, and workload. However, the scale of income did not affect the intent to leave decision. Pediatrics was identified to be the highest tormented department with a significant (P < 0.05) turnover of nurses. Among different age sub-groups, 30–39 age group nurses in Secondary hospitals demonstrate a stronger intent to leave. Conclusion Nurses’ turnover intentions were associated with stress, age, job duty, and career commitment in Shaanxi Province. The intent to leave is dynamically multifactorial, and effective managements and supportive strategies are needed to reduce the nurses work stress accordingly.
... In a predictive sense, if one were to examine the relationship between job attitudes and turnover intentions, this effect size would likely decrease as a function of increased time between measurement, based on common method variance issues (Podsakoff, Mackenzie, Lee, & Podsakoff, 2003). However, if behavior were the outcome, this relationship would likely increase with greater measurement separation (Holtom, Tidd, Mitchell & Lee, 2013), as more employees would have had more time to make a quit decision. As such, although intentions can indeed be a legitimate research interest-to identify those who might be on the verge of leaving, in order to intervene-it is fallacious to assume that the presence of one (i.e., thoughts) assures the other (i.e., behavior). ...
Article
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Recent narrative reviews (e.g., Hom, Mitchell, Lee, & Griffeth, 2012; Hom, Lee, Shaw, & Hausknecht, 2017) advise that it is timely to assess the progress made in research on voluntary employee turnover so as to guide future work. To provide this assessment, we employed a three-step approach. First, we conducted a comprehensive meta-analysis of turnover predictors, updating existing effect sizes and examining multiple new antecedents. Second, guided by theory, we developed and tested a set of substantive moderators, considering factors that might exacerbate or mitigate zero-order meta-analytic effects. Third, we examined the holistic pattern of results in order to highlight the most pressing needs for future turnover research. The results of Step 1 reveal multiple newer predictors and updated effect sizes of more traditional predictors, which have received substantially greater study. The results of Step 2 provide insight into the context-dependent nature of many antecedent-turnover relationships. In Step 3, our discussion takes a birds-eye view of the turnover “forest” and considers the theoretical and practical implications of the results. We offer several research recommendations that break from the traditional turnover paradigm, as a means of guiding future study. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
... In a predictive sense, if one were to examine the relationship between job attitudes and turnover intentions, this effect size would likely decrease as a function of increased time between measurement, based on common method variance issues (Podsakoff, Mackenzie, Lee, & Podsakoff, 2003). However, if behavior were the outcome, this relationship would likely increase with greater measurement separation (Holtom, Tidd, Mitchell & Lee, 2013), as more employees would have had more time to make a quit decision. As such, although intentions can indeed be a legitimate research interest-to identify those who might be on the verge of leaving, in order to intervene-it is fallacious to assume that the presence of one (i.e., thoughts) assures the other (i.e., behavior). ...
Article
More than two decades have passed since Griffeth, Hom, & Gaertner (2000) published the last comprehensive meta-analysis of voluntary turnover. Considering the criticality of voluntary turnover as an organizational outcome and the volume of research that has been conducted since the year 2000, it seems prudent to provide an updated empirical assessment of the voluntary turnover literature. In this paper, we first conduct a comprehensive meta-analysis of the voluntary turnover literature, highlighting the similarities and differences in results to the Griffeth et al. work. We then propose and test a meta-analytic path model that connects the distal antecedents (i.e., emotional stability, autonomy, pay, job satisfaction) to turnover via multiple mediating mechanisms (withdrawal cognitions, job search, lateness and absenteeism). We theorize four distinct exit routes via which the distal antecedents may translate into turnover. Analyses support the powerful role of withdrawal cognitions in explaining the relationship between the distal predictors of turnover and turnover itself. We also found support for a path where withdrawal cognitions flow through all withdrawal behaviors of job search, lateness and absenteeism to the ultimate withdrawal of turnover. We discuss the implications of the results for theory and practice.
... Schneider (1987) stated that the fit dimension is the best example of the attraction-selection-attraction paradigm. Further, person-organization fit increases the chances of employees to stay overtime (Holtom et al., 2013). According to , when employees enjoy their lives while working in an organization or living in a community, it will motivate them to stay further. ...
Article
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This study intends to scrutinize the findings of existing studies on five motivational factors affecting employee retention in a developing country, Pakistan. The present study is exploratory in nature that employees content analysis of 18 published articles in Pakistan. While, 52 articles are from other countries, extracted through google scholar, Scopus database and web of science database. The present study revealed that work-life balance, job security, job autonomy and social supports indicates both positive and negative association with employee retention. While, it is concluded that job embeddedness is a relatively new and less explored concept as compared to other factors; thus, its relationship with employee retention needs further investigation in Pakistan. The present study only incorporated empirical work that is related to motivational factors i.e. work-life balance, job security, job embeddedness, job autonomy and social support. Other than that, various motivational factors can be added in the study to explain the ongoing issue of employee retention. This is a comprehensive review study that focused exclusively on employee's motivational factors affecting employee retention, by analyzing 72 articles from the period (1984-2019).
... Trust is associated with perceptions of fit and attachment to the organization, which stabilize during early employment. The links in the organization gradually develop over time because deep and authentic relationships will not exist the moment employees join an organization (Holtom et al., 2013). Strong links support job embeddedness and make it difficult for employees to resign, mainly because they will put valued relationships at risk if they decide to resign. ...
... Intent to Quit Intent to quit is a traditional distal indicator of successful socialization (Saks & Ashforth, 1997b) and forewarns the organization of turnover potential, representing the possibility of wasted effort for both new employees and their employing organization (Allen & Shanock, 2013). Holtom and colleagues suggest that uncertainty plays a significant role for newcomers thinking of leaving, indicating that newcomer learning and sensemaking are important (Holtom, Tidd, Mitchell, & Lee, 2013). Allen and Shanock (2013) proposed that newcomers are more likely to stay when they are linked into the organization, through both local relationships with colleagues and developing relevant organizational sensemaking frameworks. ...
Article
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Models of organizational socialization situate newcomer understanding and social integration as critical proximal outcomes, yet researchers have identified both theoretical and psychometric weaknesses in existing survey measures. Drawing on prior research, we provide an aggregated critique of four previous measures of socialization content; propose a conceptualization of socialization content along three core domains, of role, relationships, and organization; and, leveraging the items from the four previous measures, use an iterative item assessment process to retain the best items in each of the three domains. We evaluate the psychometric properties of the revised measure, named the Newcomer Understanding and Integration Scale (NUIS), including evidence for reliability and convergent, discriminant, criterion-related, and incremental validity, using data from 1818 newcomers across six samples in four countries. While the NUIS performs well, some limitations are noted. We outline a range of practical applications for the scale.
... For instance, it means quitting an organization possibly will lead to individual losses such as surrendering colleagues, fascinating tasks, or financial dividends. When a worker discovers that what he or she is giving is significant, the workers may not want to quit the organization(Holtom, Tidd, Mitchell, & Lee, 2013). Although a worker may be so concerned about salary and benefits, the control costs, which include new health care or pension plans, should be seriously considered. ...
Article
The purpose of this paper is to develop a research framework and hypotheses based on a thorough review of the conceptual and empirical research in organizational behavior literature. Previous research has shown that there is an important relationship between on-the-job, off-the-job embeddedness, organizational continuance commitment, and employee’s intention to stay. Organizational continuance commitment is hypothesized to have a mediating effect on the relationship between on-the-job, off-the-job, and intention to stay. Implications for testing these hypotheses are articulated from research and practice perspectives. Research framework from this paper will be used at the preliminary stage of the research on ICT industry that can be expected to contribute to the development of ICT workers in Malaysia.
... (See also, for example, discussions in Adkins, 1995;Haski-Leventhal and Bargal, 2008;Scott and Myers, 2010). The last stage is often defined as one of achievement of 'embeddedness' or becoming 'enmeshed meaningfully in the organization' (Holtom et al., 2013(Holtom et al., : 1340, through accumulation over time of social resources such as information (Fang et al., 2011). Socialization into corrupt organizations similarly requires transition through stages: newcomers become co-opted by rewards and incremental introduction to increasingly immoral acts (Anand et al., 2005;Gonzalez and Pérez-Floriano, 2015). ...
Article
Socialization, the transition from newcomer to embedded organizational citizen, is an inevitable feature of organizational life. It is often a painful and traumatic experience, but why this is so, and how its difficulties can be ameliorated, is not well understood. This article addresses this issue by developing a new person-centred model of socialization. We introduce the concept of kin-work, i.e. the replication of one’s first experiences of becoming part of a family, to explain how ‘successful’ socialization is achieved. Drawing on the methodology of memory work and psychoanalytical theories of object relations, we illustrate how entry into new jobs involves the unconscious re-enactment in adult life of the infant’s initiation into the family. On entry as a stranger to a new organization, one’s sense of self is fractured; processes of kin-work knit the pieces back together and one develops a sense of personhood and being at home. However, there is a sting in this tale: the homely contains its uncanny, unhomely opposite, so socialization is always ambivalent – one can never be at home in this place that feels like home.
... When this happens, it is most likely that the commitment level will be low and employees' intention-to-stay will be affected. Wong, Gardiner, Lang, & Coulon [36] state that high motivation levels are achieved when a professional's team works on leading-edge technology. ...
Article
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This paper explicitly clarifies an employee’s goal to voluntarily stay in his/her current employment. A large volume of research has concentrated on corporate environments on the causes of workforce turnover. Nevertheless, little was done to investigate workers’ desire to remain, which was the essential parameter in determining their stay in the construction sector. Therefore, this research was undertaken to explore the relationship between job embeddedness (off-the-job and on-the-job and the intent of staying in Malaysian construction companies with the mediating impact of continuance commitment. For the analysis, a simple random under probability sampling technique was used. Of the overall 280 samples surveyed, 243 responded and used it in the report, 86.8% of the response rate. A structural equation modeling approach was used to analyze the direct and indirect relationships as drawn by the hypotheses. This research showed that the component of the off-the-job, on-the-job embeddedness and intention to stay were substantially linked. At the same time, continuance commitment plays a full mediation between the convergence of off-the-job, on-the-job and the intention to stay. These findings suggest that construction companies in Malaysia need to consider organizational and community embeddedness relationships along with continuance commitment in the invention of programs designated to influence workers’ intention to stay on their current jobs.
... Indeed, Mitchell and colleagues did not intend for their provisional measure to be a "well established, standard scale." Instead, they explicitly described their measure as "preliminary and evolving" (Holtom et al. 2013;Lee et al. 2004, p. 720). Thus, comparative research between a reflective and a causal indicator model is interesting but perhaps premature. ...
Article
In this article, we examine the history and development of job embeddedness, beginning with the story of the idea's conception, theoretical foundation, and original empirical structure as a major predictor of employee voluntary turnover. We then consider more recent expansions in the theoretical structure and empirical measurement of job embeddedness, exploring job embeddedness as a causal indicator model versus a reflective model. Next, we review some promising expansions of embeddedness to new domains (e.g., family embeddedness) as well as important contingency factors that enhance or diminish its impact. Finally, we describe how job embeddedness affects important organizational outcomes beyond turnover, including job performance, organizational citizenship behavior, innovation, and the development of social and human capital. Throughout the article, we provide our opinions on how the theory and research on embeddedness have progressed as well as ideas on how it can be improved.
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This study examines workplace respect as an important condition that promotes increases in perceived organizational embeddedness. I especially focus on young, educated employees’ perceptions of organizational embeddedness, as these employees strongly desire being respected and valued. Guided by social exchange theory, I propose that increases in perceived respect promote increases in gratitude toward the organization, which in turn promote increases in perceived organizational embeddedness over time. Increases in perceived organizational embeddedness are in turn related to lower turnover. Data collected from a young, college-graduate sample (average age = 25) at five points over an 18-month period demonstrated that (a) within-person increases in perceived respect were associated with within-person increases in gratitude over 12 months, (b) within-person increases in gratitude were associated with within-person increases in perceived organizational embeddedness over 12 months, and (c) employees who reported greater increases in perceived organizational embeddedness over 12 months were less likely to leave their organizations six months afterward. In summary, this study illustrates that even workers in the early stages of their careers can feel increasingly embedded in their organizations when they feel increasingly respected by their colleagues. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
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Les nombreux modèles de turnover que l’on peut trouver dans la littérature en Gestion des Ressources Humaines illustrent l’importance de la fidélisation des salariés à l’entreprise. L’objectif de cette recherche est d’insérer l’étape de carrière du salarié dans un modèle de turnover classique pour en mesurer l’effet sur ses facteurs de fidélisation. A cette fin, une enquête par questionnaires a été réalisée en janvier 2011 auprès de salariés français d’une entreprise franco-américaine et de deux entreprises françaises. L’échantillon est composé de 478 répondants : 206 vendeurs, 150 techniciens, 76 salariés de fonctions support et 46 de fonctions indéfinies. La population étudiée a un niveau de qualification faible à moyen (CAP/BEP/BAC à BAC+2/BTS). Les données sont analysées à l’aide de la technique des équations structurelles. Les résultats confirment (1) le rôle central de la satisfaction extrinsèque au travail et de l’implication organisationnelle affective dans un modèle de turnover et (2) l’influence du score à l’étape de carrière d’un individu sur les facteurs de fidélisation à l’entreprise. Enfin, le lien entre l’âge ou les différentes formes d’ancienneté et les étapes de carrière n’est pas systématique.
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At least two thousand articles on voluntary employee turnover have been published in the last one hundred years. In turn, numerous authors have reviewed the theory and research on employee turnover. Our intent with this paper is therefore not to provide a comprehensive literature review as excellent ones are available elsewhere. Instead, the purpose of this article is to summarize major contributions in the present and provide our perspectives on the future directions of turnover research. Following a relatively terse review of the turnover literature, we elaborate on how organizational scholars can further enhance the understanding of turnover by (a) probing into the turnover process with a better consideration of time, (b) studying the role of volitional control on employees' leaving/staying, (c) further investigating how the context in which employees reside influences leaving, and (d) opening up the "black box" of the collective turnover process.
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Purpose Employees’ turnover intention is a key problem that hotel managers face daily. This is partially explained by the inevitability of performing tasks with little significance and low identity. This study aims to understand how job embeddedness and job satisfaction could lessen the undesirable effect of task characteristics on turnover intentions. Design/methodology/approach A sample of 525 employees operating in 46 Portuguese hotels was used in this study. The questionnaire included demographic variables and four reliable instruments used to measure job satisfaction, job characteristics, job embeddedness and turnover intentions. The study used a multilevel statistical approach considering both the individual and the hotel levels of analysis. Findings Through multilevel statistics, the findings suggest that both at the individual level and the hotel level of analysis, job satisfaction and job embeddedness fully mediated the relationship between different task characteristics (significance and identity) and turnover intentions. Research limitations/implications Despite a possible absence of common method variance, due to the confirmatory factor analysis, social desirability bias may exist because of the self-reported nature of the survey. Practical implications Managers should increase the perceived costs of employees leaving the hotel by introducing training programs and plans for career development. Also, to increase job embeddedness, managers should also rethink the organizational dynamics of this industry. Originality/value This research provides empirical evidence of the antecedents and mediators of employees’ intentions to leave the hotel industry both at the individual and at the hotel level (multilevel approach).
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Purpose The purpose of this paper is to ask if customer experiences in public houses (pubs) go wrong because of poor initial and subsequent training for front-line staff, while questioning if enough is being made of employee engagement and socialization as a means to improve consistency within the pub service encounter. Design/methodology/approach The study applies a critical review of the literature with a focus on the initial and subsequent training of front-line employees in the context of managed and entrepreneur-led pub-retailing operations. Findings The delivery and impact of a well-designed initial training programme may not only enhance long-term employee engagement and loyalty, but also provide competitive advantage for pub-retail operations through a more consistent service delivery. The paper questions the suitability of the approach currently being adopted within the sector and suggests that change is needed in order to ensure the longer-term survival of pub-retail businesses. Practical implications Can reliable and consistent customer experiences be delivered without a more progressive approach to the initial training and engagement of front-line employees? Originality/value While the importance of initial and subsequent training is widely accepted, the potential for its poor delivery has an almost predictable impact on many customer experiences. The paper recommends a review of the methods used by managed house and entrepreneurial (tenanted and leasehold) pub-retailing businesses to enhance employee socialization, engagement and loyalty to fuel the sector’s drive to generate greater competitive advantage.
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Cet essai théorique propose d’éclairer les tenants et aboutissants de la propagation chez les cadres du discours prophétique invitant à considérer le phénomène « génération Y » comme un défi à relever, voire un problème à résoudre, en vue d’assurer la survie et la pérennité des organisations professionnelles dont ils ont la charge. Prenant appui sur les récentes recherches sur le sujet, nous montrons d’abord que l’explication sociocognitive sous-jacente au concept de génération ne tient pas et que le phénomène « génération Y » relève du mythe. Ensuite, nous établissons que le discours sur les aspirations des jeunes travailleurs s’est transformé au fil du temps en un discours stigmatisant un ensemble de comportements problématiques pour la gestion des ressources humaines, puis nous décodons ces comportements en montrant qu’ils découlent de caractéristiques propres à la jeunesse et des transformations récentes du monde du travail. Enfin, nous avançons l’hypothèse selon laquelle le discours ambiant sur la « génération Y » revêt les allures d’une plainte existentielle et revendicatrice émanant de cadres et de gestionnaires et faisant écho aux difficultés et aux frustrations que ces derniers rencontrent dans cette société managériale postfordiste.
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In recent years, several investigations of the medical clowning profession have appeared in the literature. However, few studies have focused on factors associated with turnover among medical clowns early in their careers. The current study examined whether individual differences in humor disposition predict turnover behavior. Participants included 111 medical clowns in a three-phase longitudinal study. While humor disposition was measured in the first week of their training, clowns' job satisfaction two months later, and turnover six months later. Results showed that humor appreciation decreased actual turnover through the mediating role of job satisfaction, whereas individual differences in humor creation directly decreased turnover. In addition, previous traumatic experiences moderated the associations between humor appreciation and turnover. Overall, our research findings support the notion that humorous disposition can help predict which clowns remain in the hospital.
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Objective: This study compares and contrasts new graduate nurse attributes and perceptions using findings from a 2010 study and a recent analysis of new graduate nurses participating in the same residency program. Background: As millennials saturate the healthcare work environment, their unique views and needs will influence the evolution of new graduate nurse residencies. Methods: This study used previously reported data on new graduate nurses between 1999 and 2009 and compared it with a secondary analysis of data collected on new graduate nurses between 2011 and 2016. Results: This study provides evidence that millennial new graduate nurses' levels of commitment and satisfaction do not moderate turnover intentions in the 1st 2 years of practice as they did in the previous group of new graduate nurses. Conclusions: Job embeddedness, a construct that measures the likelihood of whether a person is going to stay, may be a better measurement among new graduate nurses than commitment or satisfaction because millennials, a generation that is predominant in current new graduate nurses, are more engaged than loyal.
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Are socially irresponsible employment practices, such as abusive discipline and wage theft, systematically tied to manufacturing outcomes in emerging-market countries? Drawing on a stream of stakeholder theory that emphasizes economic interdependencies and insights from the fields of industrial relations and human resource management, we argue that working conditions within a firm are facets of a systemic approach to value creation and value appropriation. Some manufacturers operate “low road” systems that rest on harmful practices. Others operate “high road” systems in which the need to develop employees’ human capital deters socially irresponsible employment practices. To test the theory, we conduct a large-scale study of labor violations and manufacturing outcomes by analyzing data on over four thousand export-oriented small manufacturers in 48 emerging-market countries. The analysis demonstrates that socially irresponsible employment practices are associated with inferior firm-level manufacturing outcomes even after controlling for the effects of firm size, industry, product mix, production processes, host country, destination markets, and buyer mix. The theory and results suggest an opportunity for multinational corporations to improve corporate social performance in global value chains by encouraging their suppliers to transition to systems of value creation that rely on the development of worker human capital.
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This study uses state‐level staffing data to analyze the five‐year career trajectories of all 231 first‐year secondary science teachers in New Jersey who began teaching during the 2010‐2011 school year. The person‐position framework for studying teacher retention is introduced in this analysis, and the authors present a case for the importance of specifying both location and duration in empirical reporting on teacher retention, as well as distinguishing between the employers’ and individual teachers’ perspectives on retention. In the cohort studied here, the 5‐year retention‐by‐employer rate was 38%, but the retention‐in‐profession rate for those actively teaching was 65%. An additional 24% of science teachers changed districts during or immediately after their first year, and were retained in their second districts for four or more years. 16% of the science teachers in the cohort identified as non‐White or Hispanic and these teachers were retained at similar rates to their White/non‐Hispanic counterparts. Alternate route preparation programs attracted many more secondary science teachers who identified as non‐White or Hispanic, but teachers from these programs had a far lower 5‐year retained‐in‐profession rate (45%) than non‐White or Hispanic traditional route teachers (75%). It was more common for science teachers in higher SES districts to transfer to lower SES districts than the reverse. The position turnover rate for science teachers was slightly lower in higher SES districts. As a category, charter schools had the lowest 5‐year science teacher retention rate (13%). There was no identifiable relationship between the age, sex, subject area certification, or starting salary of science teachers and the measures of retention used in this study. The authors discuss the characterization of retention itself in research, including the use of descriptors related to retention. Implications relating to science teacher education policy are discussed, as is the future use of state‐level data systems in retention research.
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We focus on the contributions to research generated by considering attitudes and behaviors as dynamic over time and across different levels. Using turnover research as an example, we demonstrate how a past, present, and future focus, across levels, may enhance both theory and methodology. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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How do members' and leaders' social network structures help or hinder team effectiveness? A meta-analysis of 37 studies of teams in natural contexts suggests that teams with densely configured interpersonal ties attain their goals better and are more committed to staying together; that is, team task performance and viability are both higher. Further, teams with leaders who are central in the teams' intragroup networks and teams that are central in their intergroup network tend to perform better. Time sequencing, member familiarity, and tie content moderate structure-performance connections. Results suggest stronger incorporation of social network concepts into theories about team effectiveness.
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Although information-seeking efforts during organizational entry are of critical importance to newcomers' successful organizational assimilation, the means by which new hires seek information has received scant research attention. Consequently, in this article we develop a theoretical model depicting factors that may affect newcomers' information-seeking behaviors, examine the means or tactics by which they seek information, and present a series of heuristically-oriented propositions concerning newcomers' use of these tactics.
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Theory supporting the key premise of the leader-member exchange (LMX) approach to leadership, that leaders differentiate between subordinates, has not been fully developed. We address this deficiency by (a) returning LMX research to its historical roots in exchange processes by introducing a framework for understanding relationship quality that is based on reciprocity, and (b) extending the traditional domain of LMX research beyond the formal leader-subordinate relationship in order to offer a more complete explanation of the differentiation process. We employ insights derived from social network analysis to describe how social structure facilitates the exchange processes through which leaders assist in incorporating some members into the inner life of an organization but exclude others.
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The current research literature on voluntary employee turnover exhibits at least four shortcomings: low predictive validity, excessive exuberance with predictors, low rigor, and little relevance. Existing theories of voluntary employee turnover research are under specified, as none contains the full range of variables originally hypothesized by March and Simon as contributing to individual employees' decisions to quit their jobs. March and Simon (1958) contributed to the current state of affairs by making at least one assumption that subsequent results do not support. Subsequent efforts to expand theory and to detect and integrate new explanatory constructs have led to a much deeper understanding of the same small portion of turnover variance explained in employee decisions to quit. Deficiencies in current approaches and what a nondeficient model of voluntary employee turnover might look like are described. Directions for future voluntary turnover research are identified, as are past trends that need to be discontinued.
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Given the extensive research on the topic of voluntary employee turnover in the past decade as well as new managerial approaches to employee retention, labor market dynamism, and evolution in research methodology and technology, it is important that researchers evaluate the current state of the field. In this chapter, we critically review prior research to provide a solid foundation and clear perspective to guide future research. Some of the major trends of the past decade include: (1) new individual difference predictions of turnover (e.g., personality, motivating forces); (2) increased emphasis on contextual variables with an emphasis on interpersonal relationships (e.g., leader–member exchange, interpersonal citizenship behaviors); (3) enhanced focus on factors looking specifically at staying (e.g., organizational commitment and job embeddedness); and (4) dynamic modeling of turnover processes with the consideration of time (e.g., changes in job satisfaction). We believe these trends point to a number of important issues to consider in the next decade, including the influence of social networks, differences across cultures, temporal aspects (e.g., early vs. late turnover), consequences of turnover, multi‐level investigations of turnover and other types of withdrawal (e.g., retirement).
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In the present study, the authors examined the importance of time in the voluntary turnover process. The researchers used a representative sample of early-career individuals in the American workforce. Moderating effects of time were found for both job satisfaction and cognitive ability. The relationships of these predictors with turnover decreased as a function of time. The temporal nature of effects inherent in the voluntary turnover process is discussed in detail, and the importance of considering changing effects across time is emphasized. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Research and theory on leader-member exchange (LMX) is reviewed and categorized according to antecedents and consequences of LMX. The review demonstrates that LMX is determined by a number of antecedents, and in turn, influences a wide range of individual and organizational outcomes. Despite the importance of LMX research to the literature, the authors identify a number of ways in which theory and empirical research on LMX can be enhanced. In terms of theory, it is argued that although role theory has provided the framework for LMX research, much can be gained by introducing concepts from social exchange theory. Using a reciprocity in social exchange framework allows for an examination of the way in which LMXs are embedded in a larger network of exchange relationships. This leads to a 2nd extension of LMX theory, which is the examination of LMX context. In terms of empirical research, the authors contend that LMX measurement can be improved. First, in order to capture the complexity of LMX, the authors provide support for a new multidimensional measure of the construct. Second, in conjunction with theory development concerning the larger context in which LMXs are embedded, the development of a supplemental LMX measure based on reciprocation in social exchanges is suggested. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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This longitudinal field study examined the combined effects of dispositions, entry stressors, and behavioral plasticity theory in predicting newcomers' adjustment to work after four and 10 months of organizational entry. Recent graduates completed a questionnaire prior to entry that measured two dispositions (negative affectivity and general self-efficacy), and a questionnaire four months after entry that measured four entry stressors (role conflict, role ambiguity, role overload, and unmet expectations). Measures of work adjustment were taken after four and 10 months. Based on behavioral plasticity theory, it was expected that the effects of the entry stressors would be most negative for the adjustment of newcomers with low general self-efficacy. Limited support was found for behavioral plasticity theory. Those interactions that were significant indicated that increasing levels of role conflict were associated with lower organizational commitment and identification for newcomers with low general self-efficacy. The results also provided weak support for a dispositional theory of work adjustment. The dispositions only predicted three of seven adjustment variables at four and 10 months. However, the entry stressors significantly predicted all seven adjustment measures. The results are discussed in terms of the predominant role played by the organizational setting in predicting newcomers' adjustment to work. Copyright © 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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Please note that gray areas reflect artwork that has been intentionally removed. The substantive content of the article appears as originally published. WINTER 2005 MIT SLOAN MANAGEMENT REVIEW 35 ow do managers and organizations quickly transform new hires into productive employees, a process called "rapid on-boarding"? This question is hardly trivial. Whether a com-pany is growing to take advantage of a new market opportunity, restructuring to remain competitive or simply trying to cope with attrition resulting from retirements and turnover, one thing is certain — more and more employees are newcomers to work groups, departments or organizations. In today's volatile economy, more than 25% of all workers in the United States have been with their company less than a year and more than 33% less than two years. Americans will, on average, change jobs 10 times between the ages of 18 and 37. 1 And, of course, new employees are only part of the challenge — the constant state of internal restructuring in most organizations continu-ally pushes managers to assimilate waves of employees sud-denly transferred into new work roles and relationships. The Challenges The first and most obvious challenge with newcomers is jump-starting their productivity. Initially, newcomers are typically a net drain on productivity, drawing a salary, incurring training and orientation expenses, and consuming co-workers' time without providing much in return. A recent study by Mellon Financial Corp. found that lost productivity resulting from the learning curve for new hires and transfers was between 1% and 2.5% of total revenues. On average, the time for new hires to achieve full productivity ranged from eight weeks for clerical jobs to 20 weeks for professionals to more than 26 weeks for executives. 2 In the past, managers were often con-tent to wait months (or even years) for their new arrivals to get up to speed. But in today's fast-paced, competitive environment, many managers simply don't have that luxury. The second challenge is tapping into the creativity of new hires. Newcomers represent one of a company's most important and underutilized assets — a source of fresh ideas, perspectives, expertise and industry contacts that an organization can leverage to become more innovative and competitive. However, most newcomers (whether college recruits or senior executives) express frustration in getting their ideas heard and accepted.
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A sample of 154 new auditors was surveyed to investigate how patterns of social relationships affected socialization. Characteristics of the newcomers' informational networks (size, density, strength, range, and status) related to three different indicators of learning: organizational knowledge, task mastery, and role clarity. Also, the structure of the newcomers' friendship networks related to their social integration and organizational commitment. By linking socialization outcomes to social network structure, this study sheds new light on the role of relationships in newcomer learning and assimilation.
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We examine the idea that an individual’s employability subsumes a host of person-centered constructs needed to deal effectively with the career-related changes occurring in today’s economy. We argue that employability represents a form of work specific (pro)active adaptability that consists of three dimensions—career identity, personal adaptability, and social and human capital. Reciprocal relationships among these dimensions are also discussed. The impact of employability on organizational behavior is illustrated through applications to the research literatures on job loss and job search.
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We examine the impact of employee turnover on operating performance in settings that require high levels of knowledge exploitation. Using 48 months of turnover data from U.S. stores of a major retail chain, we find that, on average, employee turnover is associated with decreased performance, as measured by profit margin and customer service. The effect of turnover on performance, however, is mitigated by the nature of management at the store level. The particular aspect of management on which we focus is process conformance--the extent to which managers aim to reduce variation in store operations in accordance with a set of prescribed standards for task performance. At high-process-conformance stores, managers use discipline in implementing standardized policies and procedures, whereas at low-process-conformance stores, managers tolerate deviations from these standards. We find that increasing turnover does not have a negative effect on store performance at high-process-conformance stores; at low-process-conformance stores, the negative effect of turnover is pronounced. Our results suggest that, in settings where performance depends on the repetition of known tasks, managers can reduce turnover's effect by imposing process discipline through standard operating procedures. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Organization Science is the property of INFORMS: Institute for Operations Research and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)
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A new construct, entitled 'job embeddedness,' is introduced. It includes individuals' (1) links to other people, teams, and groups, (2) perceptions of their fit with job, organization, and community, and (3) what they say they would have to sacrifice if they left their jobs. We developed a measure of job embeddedness with two samples. The results show that job embeddedness predicts the key outcomes of both intent to leave and 'voluntary turnover' and explains significant incremental variance over and above job satisfaction, organizational commitment, job alternatives, and job search. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Academy of Management Journal is the property of Academy of Management and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)
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The model of employee turnover described in this paper applies constructs and concepts from decision making, statistics, and social psychology to facilitate understanding and to redirect theory development and empirical research. The process of employee turnover is modeled by four distinctive decision paths; each decision path involves distinctive foci, psychological processes, and external events. Further, five specific contributions of the model are suggested, and recommendations for empirical testing and future research are offered. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Academy of Management Review is the property of Academy of Management and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)
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In response to traditional approaches' limited success in explaining voluntary turnover, we explored a paradigmatic shift in turnover research. Using a large national sample, we found we could more successfully model voluntary turnover by recognizing that job (dis)satisfaction and ease of movement importance depend on the group of leavers being studied. For example, ongoing job satisfaction had smaller effects for turnover driven by certain shocks (unsolicited job offers and family-related reasons), which accounted for 40 percent of all quits. Moreover, the prevalence of unsolicited job offers may necessitate rethinking the role of ease of movement in turnover decisions. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Academy of Management Journal is the property of Academy of Management and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)
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This study extends theory and research on job embeddedness, which was disaggregated into its two major subdimensions, on-the-job and off-the-job embeddedness. As hypothesized, regression analyses revealed that off-the-job embeddedness was significantly predictive of subsequent "voluntary turnover" and volitional absences, whereas on-the-job embeddedness was not. Also as hypothesized, on-the-job embeddedness was significantly predictive of organizational citizenship and job performance, whereas off-the-job embeddedness was not. In addition, embeddedness moderated the effects of absences, citizenship, and performance on turnover. Implications are discussed. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Academy of Management Journal is the property of Academy of Management and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)
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This research developed and tested a model of turnover contagion in which the job embeddedness and job search behaviors of coworkers influence employees' decisions to quit. In a sample of 45 branches of a regional bank and 1,038 departments of a national hospitality firm, multilevel analysis revealed that coworkers' job embeddedness and job search behaviors explain variance in individual "voluntary turnover" over and above that explained by other individual and group-level predictors. Broadly speaking, these results suggest that coworkers' job embeddedness and job search behaviors play critical roles in explaining why people quit their jobs. Implications are discussed. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Academy of Management Journal is the property of Academy of Management and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)
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To better understand the effects of recruitment source on the level and timing of organizational departure, a turnover model incorporating dynamic predictors was examined. A large, longitudinal sample containing both stayers and leavers was analyzed with parametric survival models. Results indicate that the turnover hazard function for individuals recruited through personal recruitment sources was lower early in an employee's tenure than for individuals recruited through formal sources. Moreover, the peak of the turnover hazard was delayed significantly for such employees. However, the turnover rate differential due to the use of personal recruitment methods clearly diminished as tenure increased. Further, the recruitment source effect on the turnover hazard was partially mediated by job satisfaction. The pattern of results observed expands understanding of the unfolding model of turnover.
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To better understand the process of organizational withdrawal, a turnover model incorporating dynamic predictors measured at 5 distinct points in time was examined by following a large occupationally and organizationally diverse sample over a 2-year period. Results demonstrated that turnover can be predicted by perceived costs of turnover, organizational commitment, and critical events measured soon after entry into the organization. Occupational unemployment rates, job satisfaction, and search for alternative jobs also become significant predictors when measured over time. Critical events predicted turnover in a manner distinct from the operation of attitudes, consistent with the unfolding model (Lee & Mitchell, 1994). The path to turnover was marked by consistently low perceived costs of turnover and satisfaction, decreases in commitment, and increases in job search over time.
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This project revisits the perennial debate over the relationship between job performance and turnover. Disputing traditional findings, C. Trevor, B. Gerhart, and J. Boudreau (1997) observed that high and low performers quit more than do average performers. They further challenged received wisdom by showing that promotions can induce turnover, especially among poor performers, by signaling ability. The authors sought to replicate and extend these unconventional findings by exploring curvilinear and moderating effects on the performance-exit relationship among 11,098 Swiss nationals employed in a bank. Survival regression revealed that performance is curvilinearly related to quits and that bonus pay deterred superior performers from leaving more than did pay increases. Further, the average number of job levels advanced per promotion rather than promotion rate increased quit risks. Cultural and organizational moderators of performance-termination associations and effective strategies for retaining top performers are discussed.
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Findings from 20 corporations from the Attrition and Retention Consortium, which collects quit statistics about 475,458 professionals and managers, extended and disputed established findings about who quits. Multilevel analyses revealed that company tenure is curvilinearly related to turnover and that a job's past attrition rate strengthens the (negative) performance- exit relationship. Further, women quit more than men, while African Americans, Hispanic Americans, and Asian Americans quit more than White Americans, though racial differences disappeared after confounds were controlled for. African American, Hispanic American, and Asian American women quit more than men of the same ethnicities and White Americans, but statistical controls nullified evidence for dual discrimination toward minority women. Greater corporate flight among women and minorities during early employment nonetheless hampers progress toward a more diversified workforce in corporate America.
Article
The article focuses on the development of a theory. A discussion is presented about steps involved in developing a theory, such as seeing which factors logically should be considered as part of the explanation of the social or individual phenomena of interest. The authors assert that authors developing theories are considering these factors, they should err in favor of including too many factors, recognizing that over time their ideas will be refined. The article presents information about the importance of sensitivity to the competing virtues of parsimony and comprehensiveness.
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This study examines factors affecting employees' perceptions that their psychological contract has been breached by their organization, and factors affecting whether this perception will cause employees to experience feelings of contract violation. Data were obtained from 147 managers just prior to their beginning of new job (time 1) and 18 months later (time 2). It was found that perceived contract breach at time 2 was more likely when organizational performance and self-reported employee performance were low, the employee had not experienced a formal socialization process, the employee had little interaction with organizational agents prior to hire, the employee had a history of psychological contract breach with former employers, and the employee had many employment alternatives at the time of hire. Furthermore, perceived breach was associated with more intense feelings of violation when employees both attributed the breach to purposeful reneging by the employer and felt unfairly treated in the process. Theoretical and practical implications of these results are discussed. Copyright (C) 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
Hom, Griffeth, and Sellaro's (1984) theoretical alternative to Mobley's (1977) turnover model was investigated in two studies. In Study 1, conceptual distinctions among model constructs and operationalizations of those constructs were validated. 206 nurses were surveyed, and constructs were assessed with multiple indicators. Although discriminating most constructs, structural equation modeling (SEM) identified a more parsimonious conceptualization in which a general construct underlies withdrawal cognitions. Other SEM analyses supported the indicators' construct validity and Hom et al.'s structural network. In Study 2, a longitudinal analogue of Hom et al.'s model was tested. A survey of 129 new nurses measured model constructs on three occasions. SEM disclosed that some causal effects in this model materialized contemporaneously, whereas others emerged after a lengthy time. Moreover, these causal effects systematically changed during newcomer assimilation. Implications for future research of turnover models are discussed.
Article
This work reports further theoretical development of Lee and Mitchell's (1994) unfolding model of voluntary turnover, which describes different psychological paths that people take when quitting organizations. Ambiguities in the model were identified, and hypotheses aimed at resolving these ambiguities were tested on a sample of 229 former employees from the "Big 6" public accounting firms. The results provide a theoretical and quantitative extension of an earlier qualitative assessment of the unfolding model. Implications are discussed.
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This article reports the results of a comprehensive meta-analysis of turnover antecedents, extending an earlier one by Hom and Griffeth (1995). As such, this updated meta-analysis represents the most wide-ranging quantitative review to date of the predictive strength of numerous turnover antecedents. Importantly, the present investigation identifies various moderators of antecedent-turnover correlations. The implications of these findings for both theory and practice are discussed.
Book
Change is constant in everyday life. Infants crawl and then walk, children learn to read and write, teenagers mature in myriad ways, and the elderly become frail and forgetful. Beyond these natural processes and events, external forces and interventions instigate and disrupt change: test scores may rise after a coaching course, drug abusers may remain abstinent after residential treatment. By charting changes over time and investigating whether and when events occur, researchers reveal the temporal rhythms of our lives. This book is concerned with behavioral, social, and biomedical sciences. It offers a presentation of two of today's most popular statistical methods: multilevel models for individual change and hazard/survival models for event occurrence (in both discrete- and continuous-time). Using data sets from published studies, the book takes you step by step through complete analyses, from simple exploratory displays that reveal underlying patterns through sophisticated specifications of complex statistical models.
Article
The model of employee turnover described in this paper applies constructs and concepts from decision making, statistics, and social psychology to facilitate understanding and to redirect theory development and empirical research. The process of employee turnover is modeled by four distinctive decision paths; each decision path involves distinctive foci, psychological processes, and external events. Further, five specific contributions of the model are suggested, and recommendations for empirical testing and future research are offered.
Article
Theory supporting the key premise of the leader-member exchange (LMX) approach to leadership, that leaders differentiate between subordinates, has not been fully developed. We address this deficiency by (a) returning LMX research to its historical roots in exchange processes by introducing a framework for understanding relationship quality that is based on reciprocity, and (b) extending the traditional domain of LMX research beyond the formal leader-subordinate relationship in order to offer a more complete explanation of the differentiation process. We employ insights derived from social network analysis to describe how social structure facilitates the exchange processes through which leaders assist in incorporating some members into the inner life of an organization but exclude others.
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The author proposes that socialization tactics influence newcomer turnover by embedding newcomers more extensively into the organization. Hypotheses are tested with a sample of newcomers in a large financial services organization. Results reveal that socialization tactics enable organizations to actively embed new employees; collective, fixed, and investiture tactics were positively related to on-the-job embeddedness. Results also indicate that on-the-job embeddedness is negatively related to turnover and mediates relationships between some socialization tactics and turnover.
Reviews the literature on newcomer socialization and identifies important issues and directions for future research. In particular, it addresses issues related to socialization in the context of 3 trends: the increasing cultural diversity of the workforce, the changing nature of employment to more temporary relationships, and downsizing. We begin by providing a synopsis of C. D. Fisher's (1986) review of the socialization literature. We then discuss the progress that has been made in the subsequent decade, and provide a review of the empirical research literature over the course of that time. We conclude with a demonstration of how scholars can better understand socialization by considering it in the context of each of the trends we have identified. We offer several testable propositions to stimulate and guide research, along with a discussion of methodological issues that we believe could help generate a broader understanding of the socialization process. An appendix of socialization study design summaries is included. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
In any investigation of a causal relationship between an X and a Y, the time when X and Y are measured is crucial for determining whether X causes Y, as well as the true strength of that relationship. Using past research and a review of current research, we develop a set of X,Y configurations that describe the main ways that causal relationships are represented in theory and tested in research. We discuss the theoretical, methodological, and analytical issues pertaining to when we measure X and Y and discuss the implications of this analysis for constructing better organizational theories.
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Although time has been included in theory and theory building as a boundary condition, this paper argues that time can and should play a more important role because it can change the ontological description and meaning of a theoretical construct and of the relationships between constructs. We suggest that theorists explicitly incorporate multiple aspects of temporality into the “what, how, and why” building blocks of their theories. First, we describe six important time dimensions that we propose are especially relevant to theory building about people, groups, and organizations: the past, future, and present and the subjective experience of time; time aggregations; duration of steady states and rates of change; incremental versus discontinuous change; frequency, rhythms, and cycles; and spirals and intensity. Second, we put forward a series of time-related questions that can serve as a guide or template for improving theory building through the incorporation of temporality into the what, how, and why of theories. Third, we propose how temporality can be incorporated into theorizing, viewed from a process standpoint. Lastly, we demonstrate how the explicit incorporation of time into theoretical analyses may not only lead to better theorizing and theories but also shed light on ongoing debates in the organizational literature.
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This article proposes a theoretical framework to study organizational embeddedness and occupational embeddedness. Organizational embeddedness is the totality of forces (fit, links, and sacrifices) that keep people in their current organizations, while occupational embeddedness is the totality of forces (fit, links, and sacrifices) that keep people in their current occupations. The proposed framework identifies the antecedents of these parallel processes and when and why they can diverge. It also highlights the role that individuals’ career stages play in the embedding process. The article concludes with a discussion of avenues for future research on job turnover and occupation change and implications for management practice.
Article
There are problems of fit between standard research practices in the domain of turnover research and evolutionary decisional processes like job search. I analyze this problem from methodological, empirical, and conceptual vantage points. Reanalysis of data suggests that the ability to accurately estimate employment opportunity is related to one's temporal positioning within the turnover process. Using cybernetic decision theory as a point of departure, I propose a model conceptualizing employment search processes as a series of decision stages. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Academy of Management Review is the property of Academy of Management and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)
Article
The relationship between job satisfaction and turnover is significant and consistent, but not particularly strong. A more complete understanding of the psychology of the withdrawal decision process requires investigation beyond the replication of the satisfaction-turnover relationship. Toward this end, a heuristic model of the employee withdrawal decision process, which identifies possible intermediate linkages in the satisfaction-turnover relationship, is presented. Previous studies relevant to the hypothesized linkages are cited, and possible avenues of research are suggested. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Journal of Applied Psychology is the property of American Psychological Association and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)
Article
This article reports the results of a comprehensive meta-analysis of turnover antecedents, extending an earlier one by Hem and Griffeth (1995). As such, this updated meta-analysis represents the most wide ranging quantitative review to date of the predictive strength of numerous turnover antecedents. Importantly, the present investigation identifies various moderators of antecedent-turnover correlations. The implications of these findings for both theory and practice are discussed. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Journal of Management is the property of Sage Publications, Ltd. and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)
Article
This article proposes refinements of the constructs of career mobility and career embeddedness and reviews the array of factors that have been found to energize (discourage) employees to change jobs, organizations, and/or occupations. The article also reviews the literature on career success and identifies which types of mobility (and embeddedness) are most likely to lead to objective career success (e.g., promotions) and subjective career success (e.g., career satisfaction). In the final section, the article revisits the utility of viewing careers as "boundaryless" and suggests alternative frameworks for future research on these topics. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Journal of Management is the property of Sage Publications, Ltd. and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)
Article
Growing disillusionment among new members of organizations has been traced to inadequacies in approaches to organizational entry. Current directions of research on organizational entry and their limitations are described, and a new perspective is proposed. The new perspective identifies key features of newcomers' entry experiences, including surprise, contrast, and change, and describes the sense-making processes by which individuals cope with their entry experiences. Implications for research and practice on organizational entry are drawn.
Article
Theory development typically focuses on relationships among theoretical constructs, placing little emphasis on relationships between constructs and measures. In most cases, constructs are treated as causes of their measures. However, this causal flow is sometimes reversed, such that measures are viewed as causes of constructs. Procedures have been developed to identify and estimate models that specify constructs as causes or effects of measures. However, these procedures provide little guidance for determining a priori whether constructs should be specified as causes or effects of their measures. Moreover, these procedures address few of the possible causal structures by which constructs and measures may be related. This article develops principles for specifying the direction and structure of relationships between constructs and measures. These principles are illustrated using examples from psychological, sociological, and organizational research.
Article
This is the core or basic paper in a symposium on the probability approach in psychology. The paper expands on earlier contentions of this author that the environment to which an organism must adjust is semierratic and that therefore all functional psychology is inherently probabilistic, demanding a representative research design of its own, and leading to a special type of high-complexity, descriptive theory. "The expansions beyond the earlier publications concern mainly the use of a behavioral example ; the brief consideration of such semirepresentative policies as "canvassing'; certain comparisons with factorial design and the analysis of variance, as well as with non-functionalistic uses of probability in psychology; and a discussion of actual and potential applications to the clinical-social area and to related domains." 53 references.
Article
Recent research suggests that the turnover process is not fully captured by the traditional sequential model relating job dissatisfaction to subsequent turnover. The present study contributes to this research by modeling within-individual job satisfaction as a function of job change patterns to determine if individual work attitudes change systematically with the temporal turnover process. Specifically, the authors hypothesized that low satisfaction would precede a voluntary job change, with an increase in job satisfaction immediately following a job change (the honeymoon effect), followed by a decline in job satisfaction (the hangover effect). Though this pattern is suggested in the literature, no prior research has integrated and tested this complete temporal model within individuals. Findings based on a sample of managers supported the proposed honeymoon-hangover effect.
Article
Scientists these days tend to keep up a polite fiction that all science is equal. Except for the work of the misguided opponent whose arguments we happen to be refuting at the time, we speak as though every scientist's field and methods of study are as good as every other scientist's, and perhaps a little better. This keeps us all cordial when it comes to recommending each other for government grants. But I think anyone who looks at the matter closely will agree that some fields of science are moving forward very much faster than others, perhaps by an order of mag­ nitude, if numbers could be put on such estimates. The discoveries leap from the head­ lines - and they are real advances in complex and difficult subjects, like molecular biology and high-energy physics. As Alvin Weinberg (1964), says "Hardly a month goes by without a stunning success in molecular biology being reported in the Proceed­ ing of the National Academy of Science." Why should there be such rapid advances in some fields and not in others? I think the usual explanations that we tend to think of-such as the tractability of the subject, or the quality or education of the men drawn into it, or the size of research contracts are important but inadequate. I have begun to believe that the primary factor in scienSource: Science (1965), 146:347-353. Copyright 1965 by the American Association for the Advancement of Science and reprinted by permission.
When staying depends on others: Collective job embeddedness as a predictor of employee turnover
  • Felps W D Hekman
  • Mitchell T T Lee
  • Harman
Felps W, Hekman D, Mitchell T, Lee T, Holtom B and Harman W (2009) When staying depends on others: Collective job embeddedness as a predictor of employee turnover. Academy of Man-agement Journal 52: 545–561.
Turnover and retention research: A glance at the past, a closer review of the present, and a venture into the future Structural equations modeling test of a turnover theory: Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses
  • Mitchell B T Holtom
  • Lee
Holtom B, Mitchell T, Lee T and Eberly M (2008) Turnover and retention research: A glance at the past, a closer review of the present, and a venture into the future. Academy of Management Annals 2: 231–274. at NATIONAL SUN YAT-SEN UNIV on August 18, 2014 hum.sagepub.com Downloaded from Human Relations 66(10) Hom P and Griffeth R (1991) Structural equations modeling test of a turnover theory: Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses. Journal of Applied Psychology 76: 350–366.