Environment and Behavior
The online version of this article can be found at:
2008 40: 355Environment and Behavior
Byoung-Suk Kweon, Roger S. Ulrich, Verrick D. Walker and Louis G. Tassinary
Anger and Stress: The Role of Landscape Posters in an Office
On behalf of:
Environmental Design Research Association
can be found at:Environment and BehaviorAdditional services and information for
What is This?
- Apr 15, 2008Version of Record >>
at Texas A&M University - Medical Sciences Library on February 19, 2014eab.sagepub.comDownloaded from at Texas A&M University - Medical Sciences Library on February 19, 2014eab.sagepub.comDownloaded from
Anger and Stress
The Role of Landscape Posters in
an Office Setting
University of Michigan
Roger S. Ulrich
Texas A&M University
Verrick D. Walker
Pag e S outher l a n dPage
Louis G. Tassinary
Texas A&M University
Anger and stress management have become important issues in the modern
workplace. One out of four American workers report themselves to be chroni-
cally angry, which has been linked to negative outcomes such as retaliatory
behavior, revenge, interpersonal aggression, poor work performance, absen-
teeism, and increased turnover. We hypothesized that people who work in office
environments decorated with aesthetically engaging art posters would experi-
ence less stress and anger in response to task-related frustration. Two hundred
and ten college students were randomly assigned to different office conditions
where abstract and nature paintings were hung on the walls. Participants per-
formed four mild anger-provoking computer tasks and then reported their levels
of state anger and stress. Results indicate that different office conditions had a
significant influence on state anger and stress for males but not for females.
Males experienced less state anger and stress when art posters were present.
Through mediation analysis, we found that increased proportions of nature paint-
ings decreased state anger because of decreased levels of stress.
Keywords: state anger; stress; landscape; office environments; art posters
Environment and Behavior
Vo l u m e 4 0 N u m b e r 3
May 2008 355-381
© 2008 Sage Publications
Authors’ Note:This research was supported by a grant from the College of Architecture
Research and Interdisciplinary Council at Texas A&M University. Partial results were pre-
sented at the Environment Design Research Association Conference in Albuquerque, NM,
2004. The authors would like to thank the participants in our study. We also thank the two
anonymous reviewers for their helpful comments. Correspondence concerning this article
should be addressed to Byoung-Suk Kweon (email@example.com) and Louis G. Tassinary
at Texas A&M University - Medical Sciences Library on February 19, 2014eab.sagepub.comDownloaded from
Anger in the Workplace
Anger has become increasingly recognized in recent decades as a major
problem in the American workplace. It is common to see in the daily newspa-
per or on the nightly news broadcast a story about an overstressed, disgruntled
employee attacking or even killing coworkers. Indeed, recent studies show that
one of four American workers is chronically angry at work (Gibson & Barsade,
1999), contributing to more than 16,000 threats and 700 attacks in offices
across the United States each work day (Kaufer & Mattman, 2004). Anger has
also been linked to other, more insidious outcomes, such as decreased produc-
tivity, increased absenteeism, ineffective work relationships, and a variety of
health complaints, including anxiety, stress, depression, high blood pressure,
and heart disease (Begley, 1994; Diamond, 1982; Friedman & Roseman, 1974;
Gibson & Barsade, 1999; Neuman & Baron, 1997).
These adverse outcomes are estimated to cost American businesses billions
of dollars each year (Hughes, 2001). As a result, many organizations have
begun to implement programs to address workplace anger. These programs
typically include conflict-resolution training, counseling services, and anger
management workshops (Rai, 2002). Often overlooked in these efforts, how-
ever, is the physical work environment and its impact on anger in the work-
place. Because the physical setting forms the framework in which work
activities occur, it is quite possible that particular features are related to feel-
ings of anger. Understanding these relationships, then, could go a long way
toward ameliorating the problem of workplace anger and violence.
But what is anger, and what are the eliciting factors? Spielberger (1996)
describes two types of anger: state and trait. In general, the former is a tem-
porary emotional state that consists of feelings of annoyance, rage, or both,
with concomitant activation of the autonomic nervous system (Spielberger,
1996). The primary external causes of state anger are obstructions to goal-
directed behavior and acts perceived to be unjust. People also experience
anger when they are harassed, assaulted, or attacked (Spielberger &
Sydeman, 1994; Törestad, 1990). Trait anger, on the other hand, refers to
a disposition over time that influences whether situations are perceived
as anger provoking, as well as how often state anger is experienced.
Individuals high in trait anger “are likely to perceive a wide range of situa-
tions as anger-provoking, and to respond to such situations with elevations
in state anger” (Spielberger, 1996, p. 7).
In general, younger individuals such as adolescents and college students
have higher state and trait anger levels than older persons (Spielberger,
356 Environment and Behavior
at Texas A&M University - Medical Sciences Library on February 19, 2014eab.sagepub.comDownloaded from
1996). Gender plays a distinctive role as well. Men and women experience
state anger differently, with men typically experiencing higher levels of
state anger in the same situations (Forgays, Forgays, & Spielberger, 1997;
van der Ploeg, 1988).
Environments and Anger
Research on environments and anger has focused primarily on ambient
characteristics of public spaces; very little is known about the impact of the
physical work environment on anger. Ozone levels and higher daily tem-
perature have been found to be positively associated with family distur-
bances, as well as assaults against persons (Rotton & Frey, 1985). There is
also evidence that persons living in noisy neighborhoods tend to be more
annoyed than persons living in quiet neighborhoods (Evans, Hygge, &
Bullinger, 1995). Other research has related crowding to hostility, increased
defensive postures, and negative remarks (Evans, 1979). One study with a
closer link to office environments found that high room temperature and air
pollution were linearly linked to anger (Baron & Bell, 1975; Rotton, Frey,
Barry, Milligan, & Fitzpatrick, 1979).
A growing number of studies suggest that exposure to natural elements like
water and trees—whether it is simulated or actual—tends to mitigate anger.
Residents of buildings surrounded by vegetation, for example, reported less
aggression against their partners than residents of buildings surrounded by
built elements (Kuo & Sullivan, 2001). Similarly, people who viewed video-
tapes of natural settings reported lower scores for the Anger and Aggression
factor of the Zuckerman Inventory of Personal Reactions than persons view-
ing urban environments (Ulrich et al., 1991). Feelings of anger also decreased
among people who had walked through a nature reserve but increased among
people who had walked in urban settings without vegetation (Hartig, Evans,
Jamner, Davis, & Gärling, 2003). Finally, nature scenes, with and without
coordinated nature sounds, have been found to reduce agitated and aggressive
behaviors (Ulrich, 1979; Whall et al., 1997).
Stress in the Workplace
Aside from anger, stress is another well-documented workplace problem.
Stress is widely defined as the process by which an individual responds to a
situation that is challenging, demanding, or threatening to his or her well-
being (Baum, Fleming, & Singer, 1985). Recent surveys indicate that 40% of
U.S. workers experience stress in their workplace, and 75% of workers believe
that today’s workers have more on-the-job stress than workers of a generation
Kweon et al. / Anger and Stress 357
at Texas A&M University - Medical Sciences Library on February 19, 2014eab.sagepub.comDownloaded from
ago (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health [NIOSH], n.d.).
Wo rker s who are m or e s tr es se d f ee l l es s c omp et ent , w he n c om pa re d w it h
workers who experience less stress (Bhagat & Allie, 1989), make fewer ratio-
nal decisions (Keinan, 1987), and want to quit their jobs (Chen & Spector,
1992). Stress is also related to absenteeism, lack of productivity, and increased
turnover (Jackson, 1983), and can lead to sabotage, interpersonal aggression,
hostility, poor health, and even injury (Chen & Spector, 1992; NIOSH, n.d.).
Thus, stress in the workplace poses a threat not only to the well-being of work-
ers but also to the health of organizations.
Environments and Stress
Several investigations have found that exposure to nature such as trees,
grass, and flowers can effectively reduce stress (Ulrich, 1979, 1981; Ulrich
et al., 1991). A prospective controlled experiment showed that stressed
blood donors had lower pulse rates and blood pressure on days when a tele-
vision in a waiting room displayed a nature videotape compared with days
when an urban videotape or daytime television was played (Ulrich, Simons,
& Miles, 2003). Individuals sitting in a room with views of trees experi-
enced more rapid declines in diastolic blood pressure, indicating greater
stress reduction than persons sitting in a viewless room (Hartig et al., 2003).
Individuals exposed to nature-dominated roadside environments, compared
with those exposed to built-dominated roadsides, subsequently evidenced
less physiological (sympathetic) reactivity when they worked on challeng-
ing tasks (Parsons, Tassinary, Ulrich, Hebl, & Grossman-Alexander, 1998).
By contrast, ambiguous and abstract environmental features have been
shown to increase negative emotions such as aggression and anxiety and to
adversely impact health. For example, heart surgery patients exposed to pic-
tures of water and trees had lower anxiety and required fewer doses of strong
painkillers than those who were exposed to abstract pictures (Ulrich, Lundén,
& Eltinge, 1993). In another study, patients were observed to vandalize abstract
pictures on walls of a mental health unit (Ulrich, 1986). Although certain
abstract pictures were torn down, thrown on the floor, and smashed, there were
no observed instances where nature pictures were the targets of aggressive acts.
Surprisingly, little research has been devoted specifically to studying the
benefits of nature in an office setting. One study found that people with
views of nature from their office desks had lower levels of job stress, fewer
health problems, and higher levels of life satisfaction than people with
views of built environment views or with no outdoor views (Kaplan, Talbot,
& Kaplan, 1988). A European study of employees in different workplaces
found that window views of nature buffered job stress and increased
358 Environment and Behavior
reported health-related well-being (Leather, Cox, & Farnsworth, 1990).
Similarly, another study suggested that office workers with nature views
have fewer ailments, are less frustrated, and are more satisfied with and
enthusiastic about their jobs (Kaplan, 1995).
Gender and individual differences have been found to moderate many of
the relationships described above. Taylor, Kuo, and Sullivan (2002) found
that green space outside the home helped girls lead a self-disciplined
lifestyle but did not help boys. In certain contexts, men have been found to
prefer complex and high-tension paintings, whereas women prefer quiet,
romantic nature scenes (Zuckerman, Ulrich, & McLaughlin, 1993). These
researchers also found that high-sensation seekers liked tension-evoking
nature paintings, whereas low-sensation seekers liked realistic portrayals of
nature. Finally, Hartig and his colleagues (2003) recently observed that
males and females experienced sad emotions differently in response to nat-
ural and urban environments.
Anger and Stress Links
Previous research indicated that state anger is correlated with state anxiety
and state curiosity (Spielberger, 1996), but the relationship between anger and
stress is not clear. Some research findings indicate that stress might be a prece-
dent of anger. For example, stressful working positions increase both blood
pressure and frustration (Bongard & al’Absi, 2003). Others indicate that anger
might be a precedent of stress. Expressing anger is highly stress-inducing
(Tavris, 1989). Previous research has shown that depressed people can have
strong feelings of anger (fight) and desires to run away (flight), but these
fight/flight defenses can become blocked, inhibited, and arrested, increasing
stress (Gibert & Gilbert, 2003). The direction of the relationship between
anger and stress has not been determined and merits further investigation.
There are two primary alternative explanations of how visual environments
affect anger and stress. Evolutionary and distraction theories can suggest how
the specific content of visual surroundings can lead to positive benefits.
Evolutionary theory has been used routinely to understand the positive
outcomes of natural surroundings. For example, it has been claimed that
positive responses to nature have a partly genetic basis (Appleton, 1996;
Kaplan & Kaplan, 1995; Ulrich et al., 1991). The general argument is that the
Kweon et al. / Anger and Stress 359
human species has evolved within natural environments over a long period
of time and has relied on nature for such things as gaining shelter, food, as
well as aesthetic pleasure (Appleton, 1996). Consistent with this reasoning,
settings that contain nature are consistently preferred to settings that do not
contain nature (Browne, 1992; Getz, Karow, & Kielbaso, 1982; Herzog,
Kaplan, & Kaplan, 1976; Sullivan, 1994). Previous research also found that
unthreatening forms of nature help to reduce stress more than built envi-
ronments (Ulrich et al., 1991, 2003). These findings indicate that exposure
to natural elements plays an important role in reducing stress and anger.
Nature also has been shown to contribute to recovery from mental fatigue
resulting from sustained directed attention. Mentally fatigued individuals
suffer from (a) a lowered ability to concentrate, think clearly, and solve
problems; (b) heightened irritability and a disinclination to be helpful or
even civil; (c) an inability to get along in the world; and (d) a tendency to
be accident-prone (Herzog, 1997). Lowering levels of mental fatigue by
exposing oneself to nature would thus be expected to reduce levels of frus-
tration and anger.
Distraction theories provide an alternative perspective that relies on the pre-
sumed innate tendency of all positive events, natural or otherwise, to both spon-
taneously attract attention and concurrently decrease the potency of negative
events. For example, directing attention to a more pleasant and positive experi-
ence “sidetracks” attention from an unpleasant experience such as concurrent
pain (Fernandez, 1986). Kaplan and Kaplan (1995) explain that “the nervous
system seems to be structured in such a way that pleasure and pain tend to
inhibit each other; thus the experience of pleasure tends to reduce or eliminate
pain” (p. 189). Coss (1973) also indicates in his cutoff hypothesis that people
distract themselves by switching attention between modalities to avoid uncom-
fortable situations. Consistent with this line of reasoning, distraction techniques
have been used effectively to divert patients’ pain during invasive medical pro-
cedures (Diette, Lechtzin, Haponik, Devrotes, & Rubin, 2003).
Distraction research implies that visual displays such as art posters
would redirect people’s attention away from negative emotions. People in
an office setting with art posters are likely to experience less state anger and
stress than those without any art posters. Also, based on evolutionary
theory, nature is expected to influence various states of well-being in indi-
viduals. However, we know very little about how nature affects people’s
anger and stress in everyday situations—and virtually nothing is known
360 Environment and Behavior
about its effects in stressful, angering work situations. The evolutionary the-
oretical perspective strongly suggests the possibility, however, that scenes of
nature could play a role in reducing peoples’ state anger and stress in an office
setting. People in an office setting with nature posters may experience less
state anger and stress than those with no art or abstract posters.
The purpose of our research is to investigate the possible effects of
nature and/or abstract posters in an office setting on state anger and stress
for both males and females. Another purpose is to explore the interrela-
tionships among environmental settings, stress, and state anger. Our spe-
cific hypotheses are as follows:
1. Participants experience less state anger as the office condition changes
from no art posters to all abstract posters, mixed poster types, and all
2. Participants experience less stress as the office condition changes from
no art posters to all abstract posters, mixed poster types, and all nature
3. Participants with higher trait anger experience higher state anger and
stress than those with lower trait anger.
The direction of our first three hypotheses is clear, based on the litera-
ture review; however, neither the extant literature nor any theories provide
a strong basis for making predictions as to the direction of the relationship
between stress and state anger. Consequently, our last hypothesis embraces
two possible directions:
4. (a) Participants experience lower levels of state anger mediated through
reduced stress as the office condition changes from no art posters to all
abstract posters, mixed poster types, and all nature posters. (b) Participants
experience lower levels of stress mediated through reduced state anger as
the office condition changes from no art posters to all abstract posters,
mixed poster types, and all nature posters.
An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of art posters on
participants’ levels of state anger and stress in a laboratory room similar to
many office workplaces. We created four office conditions: an office with
abstract posters on the wall, an office with nature posters on the wall, an
office with both nature and abstract posters, and finally an office with no
posters on the wall. We changed the office conditions randomly prior to
each run of the experiment.
Kweon et al. / Anger and Stress 361
The office setting was created in the Environmental Psychophysiology
Laboratory at Texas A&M University. The windowless space had an area of
approximately 167 square feet (9′-6″× 17′-6″). Four posters were hung on
two office walls—two posters on each wall (see Figure 1). A small black-
board was mounted on a third wall. A computer desk and chair were ori-
ented toward the poster walls, equipped with an 18-in. color monitor,
keyboard, mouse pad, and mouse. The room also had other generic office
furniture such as bookshelves and file cabinets.
A total of 210 psychology students participated for partial course credit.
Participants were randomly assigned to each office condition: 36 participants
in an office with no art posters, 36 participants in an office with abstract
posters, 105 participants in an office with both abstract and nature posters,
and 33 participants in an office with nature posters. In the condition with both
abstract and nature posters (105 participants), there were 35 participants with
362 Environment and Behavior
The Office Arranged With a Computer Desk and Chair Oriented
Toward Four Posters Hanging on Two Adjacent Walls
one abstract and three nature posters, 34 participants with two abstract and
two nature posters, and 36 with three abstract and one nature posters. Among
the 210 participants, 100 were female and 110 were male. Participants ranged
from 17 to 25 years in age, with an average age of 19.3.
Independent variables.The independent variables consisted of four
different office conditions. We created three different office conditions
using a total of 12 art posters: 6 nature posters and 6 abstract posters (see
Appendix A). The posters were randomly selected to create (a) an office
with abstract posters, (b) an office with nature posters, and (c) an office
with both abstract and nature posters. The total number of posters used in
each condition was four. The fourth office condition did not have any
posters at all. The following posters were chosen by the authors after view-
ing thousands of posters based on the following matching criteria: com-
plexity, color, size, composition, and amount of water and vegetation.
Nature Posters Abstract Posters
“Ile St. Martin,” by Claude Monet “Blue II,” by Joan Miro
“Aft er th e Ra in s,” by “Phenomena: Continental Shelf,” by
Allan Stephenson Paul Jenkins
“Reflections of Spring,” by “Composizione,” by Joan Miro
Joseph Fontaine “Improvisation 31,” by
“A Riv er T hr ough the Woo ds ,” Wass il y Ka nd in sk y
by Christian Zacho “Signal Field,” by Gregg Robinson
“Vetheuil in Summer,” by “Composition Lyrique,” by
Claude Monet Wass il y Ka nd in sk y
“Autumn Tapestry,” by
Dependent variables. The dependent variables were self-reported
state anger and stress. State anger was measured by Spielberger’s (1996)
10-item State-Anger Scale. Examples of state-anger items include “I am
furious,” “I feel like hitting someone,” and “I am burned up.” The partic-
ipants were asked to report the intensity of their feelings “right now, that
is, at this moment” by rating themselves on the following 4-point Likert
scale: not at all,somewhat so,moderately so,and very much so. Unrotated
Kweon et al. / Anger and Stress 363
factor analysis of the 10-item scale generated a single factor. The relia-
bility coefficient (alpha) of the anger factor is .88, and the proportion of
variance accounted for in the factor is 51%.
Stress was measured by a 10-item Stress Adjective Checklist (King,
Burrows, & Stanley, 1983). The reliability coefficient (alpha) of the stress
scale was .86. Examples of stress adjectives include calm,tense, and dis-
tressed. Four categories of response scale were provided for each adjec-
tive: definitely do not feel,do not feel,slightly feel, and definitely feel.
We a ls o v id eo ta pe d p ar ti ci pa nts ’ b eh av io rs re ga rd in g h ow t he y r es po nd ed
to art posters such as looking at the posters, touching the posters, approaching
the posters, and glancing at the posters. Their behaviors were coded into each
category and their frequencies were counted.
Other variable. Trait anger was included in this study to assess the true
effects of office conditions on state anger after controlling the effects of
trait anger on state anger. It was measured by Spielberger’s (1996) 10-item
Trait-Anger Scale. The range of reliability coefficients (alpha) of the Trait-
Anger Scale was .70-.89. Examples of trait-anger items include “I have a
fiery temper,” “I am a hot-headed person,” and “I get angry when I’m
slowed down by others’ mistakes.” The participants were asked to describe
themselves “in general” for each trait-anger statement on the following 4-
point scale: almost never,sometimes,often, and almost always.
An experimenter welcomed each participant, explained to him or her the
experimental procedure, and obtained from each a signed consent form.
The experimenter told the participants that we were conducting research on
performance of a variety of computer tasks. Participants were then seated
at the computer station in the experimental room and asked to respond to a
series of questions (appearing on the computer screen) about their general
health and personal background. Afterward, each participant completed
two experimental sessions. Each session consisted of two anger- and stress-
provoking computer tasks, 5 (of 10) state anger questions, and 5 (of 10)
stress questions. There were two 2-min breaks: one at the end of each
experimental session. After the second break, each participant answered
questions on their trait anger.
Participants were never asked to look at the posters. The posters were in
the participants’ peripheral view while they focused on the computer tasks.
The posters were simply placed on the wall as background decorations.
364 Environment and Behavior
Two f em a le u niv er si t y s t ud en ts r an t he e xp er im en t. N ei th er w as i nf or m ed of
the experimental hypotheses. The students were trained to follow the same
experimental protocol, to increase experimenter interreliability and to mitigate
potential experimenter effects. They also ran approximately 20 practice ses-
sions monitored by the authors before collecting the actual data. Participants
entered responses directly into the computer, where they were stored in data
files. This was done to eliminate the possibility of errors because of data entry.
Four computer tasks were designed and used as stressors to provoke stress
and anger. These tasks, which are described in Appendix B, were adapted from
pencil-and-paper anger-provoking tests used in previous studies to cause
anger through blocked goal attainment, insult, injustice, personal threat, and
loud noise: the Automated Teller Machine task (Muter, Furedy, Vincent, &
Pelcowitz, 1993), Angle-Matching task (Brissett & Nowicki, 1973), Letter
Detection test (Hodapp, Heiligtag, & Stoermer, 1990), and Etch-A-Sketch
task (Zurawski & Houston, 1983). All these high attention absorbing computer
tasks were very difficult to accomplish. They also provided various negative
feedbacks and were often accompanied by loud beeps.
The results section consists of five parts. First, we compare our sample
means and standard deviations to a normative sample. Second, we report
descriptive statistics for the different office conditions and the correlations
among state anger, trait anger, and stress. Third, we report preliminary analy-
sis that examines the interactions between gender and office conditions on
state anger and stress. Fourth, we carry out an analysis of variance to test the
effects of office environments and trait anger on state anger and stress for both
male and female participants separately. Finally, we report the result of a mul-
tistep mediation test among office conditions, stress, and state anger.
Normative Sample Comparison
Means, standard deviations, 95% lower- and upper-confidence intervals,
minimums, and maximums for state anger and stress are reported in Table 1.
The mean for our study sample for state anger (M=14.68) is higher than for
other college students (M=14.10). However, the normative value mean is
Kweon et al. / Anger and Stress 365
within the 95% confidence interval of our study sample. The mean for trait
anger (M=18.29) is significantly lower than the normative sample
(M=20.22). In addition, the mean for stress (M=3.26) is significantly
higher than the normative value (M=2.38). Our sample is roughly compa-
rable to previous samples of state anger and stress. The mean differences
366 Environment and Behavior
Descriptive Statistics for Major Dependent Variables
Value Study Sample
Mean Mean SD 95% CI Lower 95% CI Upper Min Max
State anger 14.10a14.68 5.20 13.97 15.39 10 39
Trait a nger 20.22a18.29 5.33 17.56 19.01 10 34
Stress 2.38b3.26 2.77 2.88 3.63 0 9
a. College students (Spielberger, 1996).
b. Diverse groups of civilians, army personnel, and patients (King, Burrows, & Stanley, 1983).
Means and Standard Deviations (SD) for State Anger and Stress for
Different Office Conditions
State Anger Stress
Office Male Female Total Male Female Total
Conditions Mean (SD) Mean (SD) Mean (SD) Mean (SD)Mean (SD)Mean (SD)
No poster 18.45 (7.41) 13.00 (2.78) 16.03 (6.38) 4.50 (2.44) 3.06 (2.77) 4.02 (2.66)
Abstract posters 14.61 (4.69) 15.33 (6.04) 14.97 (5.34) 3.44 (2.96) 4.17 (3.85) 3.79 (3.42)
Mixed 14.51 (4.60) 14.19 (5.47) 14.35 (5.03) 2.30 (2.15) 3.67 (2.78) 2.92 (2.50)
Nature poster 14.63 (4.40) 13.00 (3.06) 13.94 (3.92) 2.74 (2.38) 3.07 (3.15) 3.03 (2.75)
Intercorrelations Among Major Variables
State anger 1.00
Trait a nger .38**** 1.00
Stress .63**** .25***
***p< .001. ****p< .0001.
for state anger and stress may have been caused by the four computer tasks
that were used in this study as stressors. The normative tests for state and
trait anger did not have any stressor, whereas the normative tests for stress
had a nondemanding visual search detection task before completing the
Stress-Arousal Checklist (King et al., 1983; Spielberger, 1996).
Descriptive and Correlational Statistics
The means and standard deviations for both state anger and stress are
presented in Table 2. The descriptive statistics indicated that male and
female participants have somewhat different responses to the various office
conditions. Male participants experience the highest levels of state anger
and stress in an office setting with no art posters at all, whereas female par-
ticipants experience the highest levels of state anger and stress in an office
setting with all abstract posters. Also, male participants experience the
lowest levels of state anger and stress in an office setting with mixed art
posters, whereas female participants experience the lowest levels of state
anger and stress in an office setting with all nature posters.
Correlations among the three dependent variables are reported in Table 3.
State anger is positively correlated with trait anger (r=.38, p<.0001) and
stress (r=.63, p<.0001). Stress is also positively correlated with trait
anger (r=.25, p<.001).
Kweon et al. / Anger and Stress 367
The Graphs of State Anger and Stress by Office Condition Show
Significant Gender Effects, as Well as Interaction Effects Between
Office Conditions and Gender
368 Environment and Behavior
The effects of office conditions on state anger and stress should be ana-
lyzed separately for males and females. This determination comes from the
following preliminary data analysis. Significant main gender effects were
found, as well as interaction effects between office conditions and gender
(see Figure 2). It seems that male participants experience the highest state
anger and stress in no art office conditions, whereas female participants
experience the lowest state anger and stress in the same office condi-
tion. Our decision to separate the data by gender is also supported by
the findings of previous research (Forgays et al., 1997; Taylor et al., 2002;
van der Ploeg, 1988; Zuckerman et al., 1993).
To in vesti ga te wh et he r male s a nd fe ma le s r espon de d d if feren tl y t o t he
posters in the office, we ran a ttest. The mean frequency of looking for
males is 8.90 (SD =5.15), and the mean for females is 8.06 (SD =5.33).
This revealed no gender differences in how much attention is paid to the
posters or wall (in the no poster condition) in terms of looking, touching,
approaching, and glancing at the posters or walls, t(196) =–1.13, p=ns
(two tailed). We also investigated how frequency of looking influences both
genders’ state anger and stress for different office conditions (see Figure 3).
Both males and females were engaged in more frequent looking behaviors
in office conditions with posters than office conditions with no posters at
all. For females, there is a suggestion that looking behaviors are positively
related to state anger and stress, but the relationships are not significant. For
males, it appears that looking behaviors are negatively related to state anger
and stress, but only the relationship between state anger and looking behav-
iors is significant (β=–.21, p=.04).
The Effects of Office Conditions and Trait Anger on State
Anger and Stress for Males and Females
We invest ig at ed t he p os si bl e effe ct s of d if fe rent off ice set ti ng s, a nd t ra it
anger on state anger and stress. To better understand the interaction effects
between office conditions and gender on state anger and stress, we ran a
two-way analysis of variance for both male and female separately. Our first
hypothesis is that participants experience less state anger and stress as the
office condition changes from no art posters to all abstract posters, mixed
poster types, and all nature posters. Our second hypothesis states that par-
ticipants with higher trait anger experience higher state anger and stress
than those with lower trait anger.
Kweon et al. / Anger and Stress 369
No poster Abstract Mixed Nature
86420 10 12
Abstract Mixed Nature
The Influence of Looking Behaviors on State Anger and Stress for
Different Office Conditions
As seen in Table 4, we found that different office conditions do not influ-
ence female participants’ state anger and stress. Only trait anger signifi-
cantly influenced participants’ levels of state anger. For example, female
participants with high trait anger experience significantly higher levels of
state anger than those with low trait anger.
For male participants, office conditions have a significant influence on
state anger, F(3, 102) =3.09, p=.03, and a significant influence on stress,
F(3, 102) =4.84, p=.004 (see Table 5). The LSD post hoc comparisons
reveal that male participants in an office with no art posters experience
significantly higher levels of state anger than those in an office with
abstract art (∆=– 3.84, p=.02), mixed art (∆=–3.94, p=.003), and
nature art posters (∆=–3.82, p=.02). In other words, male participants
experience less anger when there are art posters (any type) in the office
setting than when there are no art posters at all. Also, results show that
male participants in an office with no art posters experience significantly
higher levels of stress than those in an office with mixed art (∆=–2.20,
p=.001) and all nature art posters (∆=–1.76, p=.02). It seems that as
long as there are some nature posters in an office, male participants expe-
rience less stress.
Trait anger also significantly affected male participants’ levels of state
anger F(1, 102) =9.26, p=.003 and stress F(1, 102) =7.29, p=.008. In
other words, male participants with high trait anger experienced signifi-
cantly higher levels of state anger and stress than those with low trait
Mediation Models Testing Office Conditions,
Stress, and State Anger for Male Participants
Because the existing literature does not specify the clear direction of the
relationship between state anger and stress, we ran two mediational analy-
ses. The first analysis designates stress as a mediator between office condi-
tion and state anger. The second analysis indicates that state anger precedes
stress. In other words, art posters in an office setting help to decrease par-
ticipants’ levels of state anger, which in turn affect stress.
Does stress precede state anger? For the first mediational analysis, we
hypothesize that male participants experience lower levels of state anger
through reduced stress as the office condition changes from no art posters to
all abstract posters, mixed poster types, and all nature posters. In other words,
art posters in an office setting help to decrease people’s levels of anger because
of decreased levels of stress. Baron and Kenny (1986) indicate that a success-
ful mediation requires the following three conditions: (a) the independent vari-
able must significantly affect the mediator in the first regression analysis, (b)
the independent variable must significantly affect the dependent variable in the
second regression analysis, and (c) the mediator must significantly affect the
dependent variable while the effects of the independent variable on the depen-
dent variable must be zero to be a perfect mediator in the third multiple regres-
sion analysis. For a partial mediator, the independent variable must be
significantly less in the third analysis than in the second. These mediation
effects are tested using ordinary least square regression analyses in the method
prescribed by Baron and Kenny (1986) and Evans and Lepore (1997). To show
mediation effects, the independent variable (office conditions) must be a sig-
nificant predictor of possible mediators (stress) and the dependent variable
(state anger), respectively. As we see in the first and second columns of Table
6, these two steps have been satisfied; office conditions are significantly
related to stress (β=–.31, p<.001), as well as state anger (β=–.20, p<.05)
The next step in the mediation test is to conduct a multiple regression
using the independent variable and the potential mediating variables to
predict the dependent variable. In this particular case, the potential media-
tor (stress) must significantly predict the dependent variable (state anger)
while the effects of office conditions are reduced to an insignificant level.
Accordingly, we ran a multiple regression, using office conditions and
stress to predict state anger. As can be seen in the third column of Table 6,
the possible mediator (stress) significantly predicts state anger (β=.73,
370 Environment and Behavior
Kweon et al. / Anger and Stress 371
Analysis of Variance of State Anger and Stress As a Function of
Office Conditions and Trait Anger for Female Participants
State Anger Stress
Source df F ηPower FηPower
1. Office conditions 3 1.78 .22 .44 .65 .14 .18
2. Trait anger 1 5.10* .22 .60 .96 .09 .15
1 × 2 3 2.01 .24 .49 .65 .14 .18
Analysis of Variance of State Anger and Stress As a Function of
Office Conditions and Trait Anger for Male Participants
State Anger Stress
Source df F ηPower FηPower
1. Office conditions 3 3.09* .27 .71 4.84** .34 .91
2. Trait anger 1 9.26** .28 .87 7.29** .24 .77
1 × 2 3 .32 .09 .11 .21 .07 .09
p<.0001), whereas the effects of office conditions reduced to almost zero
(β=.03, p=ns). Thus, stress mediates the relationship between office
conditions and state anger. These results indicate that office conditions
affect participants’levels of stress, which in turn affects state anger. In other
words, art poster changes from no art posters to all abstract posters, mixed
poster types, and all nature posters in office settings help to decrease
people’s levels of anger because of decreased levels of stress.
Does state anger precede stress? For the second mediational analysis,
we hypothesized that male participants experience lower levels of stress
through reduced state anger as the office condition changes from no art
posters to all abstract posters, mixed poster types, and all nature posters.
The mediation effects of state anger on the relationship between office con-
ditions and stress can only be sustained if the following three relationships
are satisfied: (a) office conditions must significantly affect state anger,
(b) office conditions must significantly affect stress, (c) state anger must
372 Environment and Behavior
significantly affect stress while the office conditions regression coefficient
must be zero to be a perfect mediator (or significantly less than the coeffi-
cient in second regression to be a partial mediator).
As can be seen in Table 7, office conditions are significantly related to
state anger (β=–.20, p<.05). Second, office conditions are significantly
related to stress (β=–.31, p=.0009). Finally, as can be seen in the third
column of Table 7, state anger is significantly related to stress (β=–.69,
p<.001); however, the effects of office conditions are not reduced to 0 or
an insignificant level (β=–.18, p<.01). Consequently, state anger fails to
mediate the relationship between office conditions and stress.
In summary, we empirically assessed the direction of the relationship
among office conditions, state anger, and stress and concluded that the most
conservative explanation for our results is that stress mediates the relation-
ship between office conditions and state anger. Conversely, state anger does
not mediate the relationship between office conditions and stress.
Stress Mediates the Relationship Between Office Conditions and State
Anger for Male Participants
Regression 1 Regression 2 Regression 3
Stress State Anger State Anger
Variables B SE B βBSE BβBSE B β
Office conditions –.78 .23 –.31*** –1.01 .48 –.20* .16 .36 .03
Stress 1.50 .14 .73****
R2.10 .04 .52
*p<.05. **p<.01. ***p<.001. ****p <.0001.
State Anger Fails to Mediate the Relationship Between Office
Conditions and Stress for Male Participants
Regression 1 Regression 2 Regression 3
State Anger Stress Stress
Variables BSE BβBSE B βBSE B β
Office conditions –1.01 .48 –.20* –.78 .23 –.31*** –.44 .17 –.18**
State anger .34 .03 .69****
R20.04 .10 .55
*p<.05. **p<.01. ***p<.001. ****p <.0001.
This study investigated the possible effects of art posters in an office set-
ting on state anger and stress. More specifically, we examined differences
in state anger and stress when office settings included posters with abstract
art, nature art, mixed abstract and nature art, and no posters at all. Results
clearly indicated that trait anger, gender, the existence or absence of art
posters, and the content of art posters all play important roles in affecting
state anger and stress in an office setting.
Different office conditions had a significant influence on state anger and
stress for male participants but not for female participants. One possible
explanation for the lack of a relationship between different office condi-
tions and female participants’ state anger and stress is that females experi-
ence their state anger and stress differently from males. Forgays et al.
(1997) found that expressing anger is a more distinctive and significant
decision for females than for males. In other words, females are likely to
express anger less readily than males. Moreover, the gender differences
within normative college student samples were substantial. Female college
students have a much lower state anger score (M=12.30) than their male
counterparts (M=15.89) (Spielberger, 1996). Another explanation may be
that our anger-provoking tasks were more effective for males than for
females. However, we have no data to support this explanation. Future
research should examine how females’ state anger and stress are influenced
by different office conditions with different anger-provoking procedures
and different environmental stimuli.
For males, we found that participants in an office with no art posters
experienced significantly higher levels of state anger than those in an
office with abstract art, mixed art, and nature art posters. In other words,
male participants experienced less state anger when there were art
posters (of any type) in the office setting than when there were no art
posters at all. In this finding, both abstract and nature posters were pos-
itive distractions and could have sidetracked participants’ attention away
from their concurrent state anger. This finding is somewhat conflicting
with previous research findings. Abstract paintings and sculpture were
found to have a negative influence on people’s behaviors and emotions
(McLaughlin, Beebe, Hirshfield, Lindia, & Gubbbanc, 1996; Ulrich,
1986; Ulrich et al., 1993). One possible explanation for the abstract
posters being positive distractions is that many of our abstract posters
were playful, curvilinear, inspired by nature, and more organic than geometric
Kweon et al. / Anger and Stress 373
374 Environment and Behavior
Also, results show that male participants in an office with no art posters
experience significantly higher levels of stress than those in an office with
mixed art and all nature art posters. It seems that as long as there are at least
some nature posters in an office, male participants experience less stress.
This finding is consistent with many research findings that test evolution-
ary theory. Exposure to nature slides, views, pictures, parks, or wilderness
has been found to reduce stress (Kaplan, 1995; Kaplan et al., 1988; Ulrich,
1979, 1981; Ulrich et al., 1991).
We f ou nd th at s tr ess m ed ia te d t he r elati on sh ip betw ee n off ic e con di ti on s
and state anger. In other words, office conditions affect levels of stress,
which in turn affects state anger. Stress has been an important final outcome
variable in scientific environment and behavior research. By extending the
path to anger, this research makes an important contribution to the environ-
ment and behavior research community. By documenting this systematic
link in an office setting, these findings may help to create a less stressful
and more peaceful workplace setting.
Stress and anger in the workplace have been a threat to employees and
employers, as well as to society. This study investigated how different
office conditions influence state anger and stress. We found that nature and
abstract art posters have a significant influence on state anger and stress for
male participants but not for female participants. Male participants experi-
enced less state anger when there are art posters on the wall of the office
setting than when no art posters are present. They also experienced less
stress when there were mixed abstract and nature art posters or all nature
art posters. We also found a systematic link between office conditions,
stress, and state anger. Stress mediated the relationship between office con-
ditions and state anger. In other words, people tend to be less stressed in
offices with art posters and, as a result, experience decreased levels of anger
(i.e., are less likely to become angry). This (stress- and anger-reducing)
effect of posters tends to be greatest when nature content is present in the
posters. A large percentage of Americans experience stress in their work-
place. One simple way to reduce their state anger and stress may be to hang
some nature art posters on the wall.
Kweon et al. / Anger and Stress 375
Reflections of Spring - Fontaine
Vetheuil in Summer - Monet Autumn Tapestry - Forsberg
A River through the Woods - Zacho
After the Rains -Stephenson
Ile St, Martin - Monet
Nature and Abstract Art Posters
376 Environment and Behavior
Blue II - Miro Phenomena: Continental Shelf - Jenkins
Composizione - Miro Improvisation 31 - Kandinsky
Signal Field - Robinson Composition Lyrique - Kandinsky
Appendix A (continued)
Kweon et al. / Anger and Stress 377
Computer Task Descriptions
Automated Teller Machine Task
This task was based on automated teller machines that can be found at most banks.
Participants in this research conducted some transactions such as deposit, with-
drawal, and transfer. The system was user-hostile, and it involved negative feedback
such as “You are TOO SLOW” with a loud beep when participants had not com-
pleted their transactions within a short time limit. It also provided vague instructions
such as “UNPACK BYTES” to confuse participants.
The task consists of 28, 1 × 1 square inch example cards with different angles (5-degree
intervals) on the bottom of the computer screen, and a 2 × 2 square inch instruction
card with a target angle on the top of the computer screen. The angles were rotated
in different directions, and the sides had unequal lengths. Participants were required
to choose angles from the example cards that matched the target angle on the
instruction card. However, none of the angles on the example cards matched the tar-
get angle on the instruction card exactly. Participants received screen messages dur-
ing the task informing them that their answers were wrong and at the end of the task
informing them that their performance was under average.
Letter Detection Test
The task consisted of a moving train of letters B–F, proceeding from right to left or
left to right on a computer screen. For each trial, a target letter was defined. At the
occurrence of a target letter, participants needed to place the cursor on the target
letter. This task was difficult because of the quick movement of the letters. In addi-
tion, participants received a mild sound stimulus. Participants were told that this
noise would go away if their task performance was superior to that of a comparable
student sample. However, the noise was not removed.
Object Tracing Task
The task was to ultimately trace an eight-pointed star using the mouse on a com-
puter screen within a short period of time. It is based on the Etch-A-Sketch task
(Zurawski & Houston, 1983). The mouse was programmed to move the cursor in
random directions other than the standard mouse direction and to occasionally
freeze. Also, screen messages were programmed to provide negative feedback such
as “You are 35% accurate, whereas other participants typically were 75% accurate.”
378 Environment and Behavior
Appleton, J. (1996). The experience of landscape. New York: John Wiley.
Baron, R. A., & Bell, P. A. (1975). Aggression and heat: Mediating effects of prior provoca-
tion and exposure to an aggression model. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,
Baron, R. M., & Kenny, D. A. (1986). The moderator-mediator variable distinction in social
psychological research: Conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. Journal of
Personality and Social Psychology, 51, 1173-1182.
Baum, A., Fleming, R., & Singer, J. E. (1985). Understanding environmental stress: Strategies
for conceptual and methodological integration. In A. Baum & J. E. Singer (Eds.),
Advances in environmental psychology V: Methods and environmental psychology
(pp. 185-205). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Begley, T. M. (1994). Expressed and suppressed anger as predictors of health complaints.
Journal of Organizational Behavior, 15, 503-516.
Bhagat, R., & Allie, S. (1989). Organizational stress, personal life stress and symptoms of life
strain: An examination of the moderating role of a sense of competence. Journal of
Vocational Behaviour, 35, 231-253.
Bongard, S., & al’Absi, M. (2003). Domain-specific expression assessment and blood pres-
sure during rest and acute stress. Pe rs ona li ty a nd I nd iv id ua l Di ff ere nc es , 3 4, 1383-1402.
Brissett, M., & Nowicki, S. (1973). Internal versus external control of reinforcement and reac-
tion to frustration. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 25, 35-44.
Browne, C. (1992). The role of nature for the promotion of well-being of the elderly. In D. Relf
(Ed.), The role of horticulture in human well-being and social development: A national
symposium (pp. 75-79). Portland, OR: Timber.
Chen, P. Y., & Spector, P. E. (1992). Relationships of work stressors with aggression, with-
drawal, theft and substance use: An exploratory study. Journa l of Occupational P sychology,
Coss, R. G. (1973). The cut-off hypothesis: Its relevance to the design of public places. Man-
Environment Systems, 3, 417-440.
Diamond, E. L. (1982). The role of anger and hostility in essential hypertension and coronary
heart disease. Psychological Bulletin, 92, 410-433.
Diette, G. B., Lechtzin, N., Haponik, E., Devrotes, A., & Rubin, H. R. (2003). Distraction ther-
apy with nature sights and sounds reduces pain during flexible bronchoscopy. Chest, 123,
Evans, G. W. (1979). Behavioral and physiological consequences of crowding in humans.
Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 9, 27-46.
Evans, G. W., Hygge, S., & Bullinger, M. (1995). Chronic noise and psychological stress.
Psychological Science, 6, 333-338.
Evans, G. W., & Lepore, S. J. (1997). Moderating and mediating processes in environment
behavior research. In G. T. Moore & R. W. Marans (Eds.), Advances in environment,
behavior, and design (pp. 255-285). New York: Plenum.
Fernandez, E. (1986). A classification system of cognitive coping strategies for pain. Pain, 26,
Forgays, D. G., Forgays, D. K., & Spielberger, C. D. (1997). Factor structure of the state-trait
anger expression inventory. Journal of Personality Assessmen t, 69, 497-507.
Kweon et al. / Anger and Stress 379
Friedman, M., & Roseman, R. H. (1974). Typ e- A be ha vio r a nd y ou r he ar t. Greenwich, CT:
Getz, D. A., Karow, A., & Kielbaso, J. J. (1982). Inner city preferences for trees and urban
forestry programs. Journal of Arboriculture, 8, 258-263.
Gibert, P., & Gilbert, J. (2003). Entrapment and arrested fight and flight in depression: An
exploration using focus groups. Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research &
Practice, 76, 173-188.
Gibson, D. E., & Barsade, S. G. (1999, August). The experience of anger at work: Lessons
from the chronically angry. Paper presented at the Academy of Management, Chicago.
Hartig, T., Evans, G. W., Jamner, L. D., Davis, D. S., & Gärling, T. (2003). Tracking restora-
tion in natural and urban field settings. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 23, 109-123.
Herzog, T. R. (1997). Reflection and attentional recovery as distinctive benefits of restorative
environments. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 17, 165-170.
Herzog, T. R., Kaplan, S., & Kaplan, R. (1976). The prediction of preference for unfamiliar
urban places. Po pu la ti on a nd E nvi ron me nt , 5 , 43-59.
Hodapp, V., Heiligtag, U., & Stoermer, S. W. (1990). Cardiovascular reactivity, anxiety and
anger during perceived controllability. Biological Psychology, 30, 161-170.
Hughes, S. (2001). Violence in the workplace: Identifying costs and preventative solutions.
Security Journal, 14(1), 67-74.
Jackson, S. (1983). Participation in decision making as a strategy for reducing job related
strain. Journal of Applied Psychology, 68,3-19.
Kaplan R. (1995). The role of nature in the context of the workplace. Landscape and Urban
Planning, 26, 193-201.
Kaplan, R., & Kaplan, S. (1995).The experience of nature (2nd ed.). New York: Cambridge
Kaplan, S., Talbot, J. F., & Kaplan, R. (1988). Coping with daily hassles: The impact of nearby
nature on the work environment. Project Report. USDA Forest Service, North Central
Forest Experimental Station, Urban Forestry Unit Cooperative Agreement 23-85-08.
Kaufer, S., & Mattman, J. W. (2004). Wo rk p la c e v i ol e nc e : An e m pl o ye r ’s g u id e . Workplace
Vio len ce R ese ar ch I ns tit ute . R etr ieve d J uly 18 , 20 05, fr om h ttp :// ww w.wor kev iol enc e. com /
Keinan, G. (1987). De cision making under stress: Scanning of alt ernatives under controllable
and uncontrollable threats. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52, 639-644.
King, M. G., Burrows, G. D., & Stanley G. V. (1983). Measurement of stress and arousal:
Va l i da t i o n o f t h e s t re s s / a r o u s a l a d je c t i v e c h e ck l i s t . British Journal of Psychology, 74,473-479.
Kuo, F. E., & Sullivan W. C. (2001). Aggression and violence in the inner city: Effects of envi-
ronment via mental fatigue. Environment and Behavior, 33, 543-571.
Leather, P., Cox, T., & Farnsworth, B. (1990). Violence at work: An issue for the 1990s. Work
& Stress, 4,3-5.
McLaughlin, J., Beebe, J., Hirshfield, J., Lindia, P., & Gubbbanc, D. (1996). Duke University’s
Bird Garden. Proceedings of the 1996 Annual Conference of the Society for the Arts in
Healthcare (pp. 449-463). Durham, NC: Durham Arts Council and Duke University
Muter, P., Furedy, J. J., Vincent, A., & Pelcowitz, T. (1993). User-hostile systems and patterns
of psychophysiological activity. Computers in Human Behavior, 9, 105-111.
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. (n.d.). Stress at work (DHHS
Publication No. 99-101). Washington, CD: Author.
380 Environment and Behavior
Neuman, J. H., & Baron, R. A. (1997). Aggression in the workplace. In R. Giacalone &
J. Greenberg (Eds.), Antisocial behavior in organizations (pp. 37-67). Thousand Oaks,
Parsons, R., Tassinary, L. G., Ulrich, R. S., Hebl, M. R., & Grossman-Alexander, M. (1998).
The view from the road: Implications for stress recovery and immunization. Journal of
Environmental Psychology, 18, 113-140.
Rai, S. (2001). Preventing workplace aggression and violence—A role for occupational ther-
apy. Work, 18, 15-22.
Rotton, J., & Frey, J. (1985). Air pollution, weather, and violent crimes: Concomitant time-series
analysis of archival data. Journal of Personality and Social Psycholog y, 49, 1207-1220.
Rotton, J., Frey, J., Barry, T., Milligan, M., & Fitzpatrick, M. (1979). The air pollution expe-
rience and physical aggression. Journal of App lied Soc ial Psychology, 9, 397-412.
Spielberger, C. D. (1996). State-trait anger expression inventory: Professional manual.
Tam pa , F L: P sy ch ol og ic al As se ss me nt R eso ur ce s.
Spielberger, C. D., & Sydeman, S. J. (1994). State-trait anxiety inventory and state-trait anger
expression inventory. In M. E. Maruish (Ed.), The use of psychological testing for treat-
ment planning and outcome assessment (pp. 292-321). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Sullivan, W. C. (1994). Perceptions of the rural-urban fringe: Citizen preferences for natural
and developed settings. Landscape and Urban Planning, 29, 85-101.
Tavris, C. (1989). Anger: The misunderstood emotion. New York: Touchstone.
Taylor, A. F., Kuo, F. E., & Sullivan, W. C. (2002). Views of nature and self-discipline:
Evidence from inner city residence. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 22, 49-63.
Törestad, B. (1990). What is anger provoking? A psychophysical study of perceived causes of
anger. Aggressive Behavior, 16,9-26.
Ulrich, R. S. (1979). Visual landscapes and psychological well-being. Landscape Research, 4,
Ulrich, R. S. (1981). Natural versus urban scenes: Some psychophysiological effect. Environment
and Behavior, 13, 523-556.
Ulrich, R. S. (1986). Effects of hospital environments on patient well-being. Research Report
from Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Medicine, 9(55). Trondheim, Norway:
Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Medicine, University of Trondheim.
Ulrich, R. S., Lundén, O., & Eltinge, J. L. (1993). Effects of exposure to nature and abstract
picture on patients recovering from heart surgery [Abstract]. Psychophysiology, 17, 7.
Ulrich, R. S., Simons, R. F., Losito, B. D., Fiorito, E., Miles, M. A., & Zelson, M. (1991).
Stress recovery during exposure to natural and urban environments. Journal of Envi ronmental
Psychology, 11, 201-230.
Ulrich, R. S., Simons, R. F., & Miles, M. A. (2003). Effects of environmental simulations and
television on blood donor stress. Journal of Architectural and Planning R esearch, 20,38-47.
van der Ploeg, H. M. (1988). The factor structure of the state-trait anger scale. Psychological
Reports, 61, 978.
Whall, A. L., Black, M. E., Groh, C. J., Yankou, D. J., Kupferschmid, B. J., & Foster, N. L.
(1997). The effect of natural environments upon agitation and aggression in late stage
dementia patients. American Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease, September/October, 216-219.
Zuckerman, M., Ulrich, R. S., & McLaughlin, J. (1993). Sensation seeking and reactions to
nature paintings. Pe rs on ali ty and Ind iv id ua l Di ff ere nc es , 15 , 563-576.
Zurawski, R. M., & Houston, B. K. (1983). The Jenkins Activity Survey measure of Type A
and frustration-induced anger. Motivation & Emotion, 7, 301-312.
Kweon et al. / Anger and Stress 381
Byoung-Suk Kweon is a research investigator at the Institute for Social Research and an
adjunct assistant professor in the School of Natural Resources and Environment at the
University of Michigan. She conducts interdisciplinary research that involves understanding
human-environment relationships. Her research focuses on how natural and built environ-
ments influence people’s well-being such as stress, social integration, neighborhood satisfac-
tion, physical activities, and active transportation.
Roger S. Ulrich is the Rita and Craig Beale Professor of Health Facilities Design in the
College of Architecture at Texas A&M University, where he is also a professor in the
Department of Architecture and Department of Landscape Architecture and Urban Planning.
His research addresses the effects of experiences with built and natural environments on
psychological well-being, stress, and health outcomes.
Verrick D. Walker is an architectural programmer and planner with PageSoutherlandPage, an
architecture and engineering firm in Houston, Texas. His professional activities have included
strategic consulting, facility programming and planning, and land planning services on a range
of science/technology, health care, education, and corporate/commercial projects in the United
States and abroad. His research activities have focused on examining how visual characteris-
tics of built and natural environments influence human perception and behavior, particularly
with regard to health outcomes and housing market dynamics.
Louis G. Tassinary is a professor of architecture and an adjunct professor of psychology, as
well as the associate dean for Research and the director of Graduate Studies in the College
of Architecture at Texas A&M University. He is the coeditor and contributing author of two
editions of the Handbook of Psychophysiology. His current research interests are in the areas
of perception and evolutionary psychology, with an emphasis on the morphological cues to
biological sex, gender, and attractiveness. He thinks everyone should read John Spivak’s
autobiography, A Man in His Time (1967).