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Abstract

In this article we discuss how social or group identities affect achievement. We also present a model of identity engagement that describes how a salient social identity can trigger psychological threat and belonging concerns and how these can produce persistent performance decrements, which through feedback loops can increase over time. The character of such processes may be revealed only over time because they are recursive in nature and interact with other factors in chronically evaluative social environments. Finally, we address how this model helped in the development of successful interventions.

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... When underrepresented group members and women lack sense of belonging, they exhibit lower engagement and performance (G. L. Cohen & Garcia, 2008;Good et al., 2012;Walton & Cohen, 2007. Research has also shown that anticipated sense of belonging shapes people's interest in joining an organization or industry (Cheryan et al., 2009, Dasgupta, 2011, Good et al., 2012, a reliable predictor of actual joining (Chapman et al., 2005). ...
... come to experience social identity threat, defined as the concern about being devalued based on one's group membership (Adams et al., 2006;Steele et al., 2002). Social identity threat, in turn, typically leads underrepresented group members and women to question whether they belong to the context inducing this sense of threat (Cheryan et al., 2009;G. L. Cohen & Garcia, 2008;Good et al., 2012;Murphy et al., 2007;Rattan et al., 2018;Steele et al., 2002;Walton & Cohen, 2007Walton et al., 2015). Scholarship on social identity threat has therefore highlighted the importance of identifying and addressing cues that induce threat (e.g., G. L. Cohen & Garcia, 2008;Major & O'Brien, 2005;Murphy et al., 2007;Murphy & T ...
... L. Cohen & Garcia, 2008;Good et al., 2012;Murphy et al., 2007;Rattan et al., 2018;Steele et al., 2002;Walton & Cohen, 2007Walton et al., 2015). Scholarship on social identity threat has therefore highlighted the importance of identifying and addressing cues that induce threat (e.g., G. L. Cohen & Garcia, 2008;Major & O'Brien, 2005;Murphy et al., 2007;Murphy & Taylor, 2012;Steele et al., 2002), though many are structurally longstanding and difficult to change (e.g., low representation, L. L. Cohen & Swim, 1995;Inzlicht & Ben-Zeev, 2000;prejudice, Logel et al., 2009;Swim et al., 2003;exclusionary norms, Hall et al., 2018;Stephens et al., 2012; lay theories about intelligence, Aronson et al., 2002;Bian et al., 2018;Canning et al., 2019;Rattan et al., 2018). ...
Article
Many organizations offer justifications for why diversity matters, that is, organizational diversity cases. We investigated their content, prevalence, and consequences for underrepresented groups. We identified the business case, an instrumental rhetoric claiming that diversity is valuable for organizational performance, and the fairness case, a noninstrumental rhetoric justifying diversity as the right thing to do. Using an algorithmic classification, Study 1 (N = 410) found that the business case is far more prevalent than the fairness case among the Fortune 500. Extending theories of social identity threat, we next predicted that the business case (vs. fairness case, or control) undermines underrepresented groups' anticipated sense of belonging to, and thus interest in joining organizations-an effect driven by social identity threat. Study 2 (N = 151) found that LGBTQ+ professionals randomly assigned to read an organization's business (vs. fairness) case anticipated lower belonging, and in turn, less attraction to said organization. Study 3 (N = 371) conceptually replicated this experiment among female (but not male) Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) job seekers. Study 4 (N = 509) replicated these findings among STEM women, and documented the hypothesized process of social identity threat. Study 5 (N = 480) found that the business (vs. fairness and control) case similarly undermines African American students' belonging. Study 6 (N = 1,019) replicated Study 5 using a minimal manipulation, and tested these effects' generalizability to Whites. Together, these findings suggest that despite its seeming positivity, the most prevalent organizational diversity case functions as a cue of social identity threat that paradoxically undermines belonging across LGBTQ+ individuals, STEM women, and African Americans, thus hindering organizations' diversity goals. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).
... Perhaps unsurprisingly, students from negatively stereotyped groups tend to report lower levels of confidence and sense of belonging in science, compared to their non-stereotyped counterparts (Walton & Cohen 2007, Rainey et al. 2018, Gopalan & Brady 2020. Negative affective experiences can have an adverse impact on participation, performance, and persistence (Cohen & Garcia 2008, Schmader & Sedikides 2018. In particular, a low sense of belonging can affect how students interpret and respond to adversity (Wheeler & Petty 2001, Cohen & Garcia 2008. ...
... Negative affective experiences can have an adverse impact on participation, performance, and persistence (Cohen & Garcia 2008, Schmader & Sedikides 2018. In particular, a low sense of belonging can affect how students interpret and respond to adversity (Wheeler & Petty 2001, Cohen & Garcia 2008. For example, if a student receives a low exam score, they may interpret the score as confirmation that "people like them" cannot succeed in the course and do not belong in STEM. ...
... For example, if a student receives a low exam score, they may interpret the score as confirmation that "people like them" cannot succeed in the course and do not belong in STEM. This can lead to a self-fulfilling cycle of low performance and low sense of belonging that may result in withdrawal from STEM (Cohen & Garcia 2008, Rainey et al. 2019. ...
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Doubts about belonging in the classroom are often shouldered disproportionately by students from historically marginalized groups, which can lead to underperformance. Ecological-belonging interventions use a classroom-based activity to instill norms that adversity is normal, temporary and surmountable. Building on prior studies, we sought to identify the conditions under which such interventions are effective. In a chemistry course (Study 1), students from underrepresented ethnic backgrounds underperformed relative to their peers in the absence of the intervention. This performance gap was eliminated by the intervention. In an introductory biology course (Study 2), there were no large performance gaps in the absence of the intervention, and the intervention had no effect. Study 2 also explored the role of the instructor that delivers the intervention. The intervention boosted scores in classrooms of instructors with a fixed (versus growth-oriented) intelligence mindset. Our results suggest that ecological-belonging interventions are more effective in more threatening classroom contexts.
... While many URM students enter undergraduate institutions with the express intent to pursue a STEM career, few emerge with STEM degrees (Hrabowski et al., 2011;Scientific Management Review Board, 2015). Potential root causes for this inequity include factors associated with low socioeconomic status and inconsistent access to relevant curricula (Scientific Management Review Board, 2015), as well as lack of mentorship, limited research internship opportunities (Cohen & Garcia, 2008), and lack of community due to being in environments that are not representative (Chang, Sharkness, Hurtado, & Newman, 2014;Clark Blickenstaff, 2005;Harrison & Tanner, 2018;Moss-Racusin et al., 2012). In 2010, URM individuals made up 29.3% of the U.S. population yet 8.3% of STEM doctoral degree recipients, and 7.3% of faculty positions (Estrada et al., 2016). ...
... Graduate fields and degree programs differ in their financial support for students (National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics, 2018b, 2018c) and students' path selection can influence accrued student debt (National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics, 2018a). Financial and class barriers compound the challenges of less access to mentorship and research (Cohen & Garcia, 2008). URM students receive doctorate degrees at lower rates than non-URM students (National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics, 2018d; NSF, 2015) and they are more likely to have graduate debt and higher amounts owed across STEM fields, especially in social sciencerelated STEM fields (National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics, 2018e). ...
Article
Research experience provides critical training for new biomedical research scientists. Students from underrepresented populations studying science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) are increasingly recruited into research pathways to diversify STEM fields. However, support structures outside of research settings designed to help these students navigate biomedical research pathways are not always available; nor are program support components outside the context of laboratory technical skills training and formal mentorship well understood. This study leveraged a multi-institutional research training program, Enhancing Cross-Disciplinary Infrastructure and Training at Oregon (EXITO), to explore how nine institutions designed a new curricular structure (Enrichment) to meet a common goal of enhancing undergraduate research training and student success. EXITO undergraduates participated in a comprehensive, 3-year research training program with the Enrichment component offered across nine sites: three universities and six community colleges, highly diverse in size, demographics, and location. Sites’ approaches to supporting students in the training program were studied over a 30-month period. All sites independently created their own nonformal curricular structures, implemented interprofessionally via facilitated peer groups. Site data describing design and implementation were thematically coded to identify essential programmatic components across sites, with student feedback used to triangulate findings. Enrichment offered students time to critically reflect on their interests, experiences, and identities in research; network with peers and professionals; and support negotiation of hidden and implicit curricula. Students reported the low-pressure setting and student-centered curriculum balanced the high demands associated with academics and research. Core curricular themes described Enrichment as fostering a sense of community among students, exposing students to career paths and skills, and supporting development of students’ professional identities. The non-formal, interprofessional curricula enabled students to model diverse biomedical identities and pathways for each other while informing institutional structures to improve diverse undergraduate students’ success in academia and research.
... They may also be guided by cues they observe in their academic environment, cues that could affect their sense of belonging in academia (Walton and Cohen, 2007;Purdie-Vaughns et al., 2008) and their perceived social support in their department. Cues that signal belonging foster greater connection to an academic setting and shape an individual's self-concept (Cohen and Garcia, 2008;Walton et al., 2012), and interventions that secure belonging in potentially threatening academic environments can lead to long term positive outcomes (see Walton and Brady, 2020 for review). For URM students 1 and those who are the first of their family to attend college (hereafter first-generation students or FG), there may be additional uncertainty surrounding their graduate school experiences that may further impact their feelings of belonging in academia (Walton and Cohen, 2007;Byars-Winston, 2014;Mosley and Hargrove, 2014;Council of Graduate Schools, 2015). ...
... When students realize that they are interested in pursuing non-academic careers, they may see themselves as misaligned with their advisors' interest, and they may persist in thinking that their advisors want them to pursue research. These students more interested in non-research careers are discrepant from what they see as normative in their departments, and this discrepancy is associated with students feeling a lack of belonging and social support, factors which are associated with academic performance (Cohen and Garcia, 2008). ...
Article
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The landscape of graduate science education is changing as efforts to diversify the professoriate have increased because academic faculty jobs at universities have grown scarce and more competitive. With this context as a backdrop, the present research examines the perceptions and career goals of advisors and advisees through surveys of PhD students (Study 1, N = 195) and faculty mentors (Study 2, N = 272) in science, technology, engineering, and math disciplines. Study 1 examined actual preferences and career goals of PhD students among three options: research careers, teaching careers, and non-academic careers in industry, and compared the actual preferences of students with what they perceived as being the normative preferences of faculty. Overall, students had mixed preferences but perceived that their advisors had a strong normative preference for research careers for them. Moreover, students who ranked research positions as most desirable felt the most belonging in their academic departments. Further analyses revealed no differences in career preferences as a function of underrepresented minority (URM) student status or first-generation (FG) status, but URM and FG students felt less belonging in their academic departments. Study 2 examined faculty preferences for different careers for their advisees, both in general and for current students in particular. While faculty advisors preferred students to go into research in general, when focusing on specific students, they saw their preferences as being closely aligned with the career preference of each PhD student. Faculty advisors did not perceive any difference in belonging between their students as a function of their URM status. Discrepancies between student and faculty perceptions may occur, in part, because faculty and students do not engage in sufficient discussions about the wider range of career options beyond academic research. Supporting this possibility, PhD students and faculty advisors reported feeling more comfortable discussing research careers with each other than either non-academic industry positions or teaching positions. Discussion centers on the implications of these findings for interpersonal and institutional efforts to foster diversity in the professoriate and to create open communication about career development.
... 12,13 Students with a high belonging uncertainty may be more likely to be aware of and interpret perceived negative cues as supporting evidence to the hypothesis that they belong to a social group that does not belong in the course. 12,14 In this study, the broad concept of social belonging was investigated as two separate but correlated course-level measures, sense of belonging and belonging uncertainty, adding to the literature by extending a previous study relating social belonging to GC performance 9 to a broader population of students and examining the Identity Engagement Model 14 of social belonging in GC1. ...
... Hence, this study's research questions were guided by the Identity Engagement Model proposed by Cohen and Garcia. 14 A secondary purpose was to explore the generalization of the effect of course-level social belonging on GC1 student performance with a broader population of students in terms of academic preparation and first-generation status. To meet both purposes, the following research questions were posed: ...
... Identity safety research points to those in minoritized positions being leery of obvious and hidden motivations in crafting DIRE policy statements because they assume an inherent possibility that those who hold power will often exercise it in hidden ways or attempt to gain profitoften unequally distributedat the expense of those without power. 2,4,29,30 Thus, assessing internal and external organizational factors threats, goals, culture, values, strengths, challenges, change drivers, and opportunitiesis a necessary preliminary step. 31−34 Environmental scans form the evidence for framing the organization's DIRE policy statement. ...
... Example: (2) [Name Organization] do not condone discrimination of any kind. (3) This statement affects all employees as we value the rights, dignity, voice, and worth of all employees. ...
Article
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In light of the Black Lives Matter movement, the Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) community has had to reflect on how their organizations can address their disparities in identity representation. To that end, the ACS Committee on Minority Affairs (CMA) has been called upon to advise various levels of the chemistry enterprise in their interventions, such as structured and actionable policy statements. As a result, this work was created to provide a model for all organizations to write catalytic diversity, inclusion, respect, and equity (DIRE) policy statements. The model herein acknowledges active tensions and leverages theory, analysis, and practical experiences in an eight-sentence structure completed in four steps. It also provides criteria for evaluating and updating existing statements.
... While these programs serve an important function, accelerated nursing students face unique challenges to their academic tenacity given the fast pace, content-heavy coursework, and swift transition into complex clinical learning environments. Academic tenacity is described as a student perspective that is resilient and oriented towards long-term outcomes; key components include self-regulation abilities, a growth-oriented mindset, and a sense of social belonging (Cohen & Garcia, 2008;Dweck et al., 2014). In addition to the faster pace of their coursework, accelerated nursing students are also frequently met with skepticism about the quality and efficacy of these fast-track programs by staff nurses, clinical instructors, and even faculty teaching within these programs (Bowie & Carr, 2013;Hegge & Hallman, 2008). ...
... It is well established that the experience of belonging and social connection supports motivation, positive self-concept, and learning, and that the absence of belonging can increase stress, anxiety, and depression (Baumeister & Leary, 1995;Cohen & Garcia, 2008;Dweck et al., 2014;Maslow, 1987). Levett-Jones and colleagues (Borrott et al., 2016;Levett-Jones et al., 2007;Levett-Jones & Lathlean, 2008) have explored the concept of "belongingness" in nursing clinical education and demonstrated that belongingness impacts nursing students' positive self-concept, confidence, motivation for learning, and resilience in clinical contexts. ...
... Sense of belonging and identity compatibility can be powerful motivators for academic commitment and achievement (Chemers et al. 2011;Goodenow 1993;Goodenow and Grady 1993). Indeed, feelings of isolation have been shown to be greater for URMs in STEM (Cohen and Garcia 2008) and linked to (i) doubts about their ability to succeed and (ii) stereotype threat activation. Students with religious backgrounds also report feelings of alienation in biology classrooms (Barnes et al. 2017c). ...
Article
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Background Although personal, familial, and community conflict with evolution have been documented in the literature, these scales require conceptualization as a construct and operationalization as a measure. The Scales of Conflict with Evolution Measure (SECM) instrument was developed in response to these needs. Using a construct validity framework, the content, internal structure, convergent, and substantive validity of the SECM were evaluated using Rasch analysis, Structural Equation Modeling (SEM), and follow up questioning. The conceptual utility of the instrument was explored by examining whether it added explanatory insights into evolution acceptance above and beyond religiosity, evolution knowledge, and background variables. Results A literature review and expert consultation indicated that construct of evolutionary conflict perception should (i) encompass the hierarchical nature of human social structures (personal, family, community) and (ii) probe conflict as it relates to human values, cultures, and beliefs. A three-dimensional construct was operationalized as a nine-item rating scale measure. Using Rasch analyses of SECM responses from a diverse sample of > 1000 students studying evolution, the instrument met criteria of robust measurement, including: fit to model expectations; three-dimensional structure; high reliability; good rating scale function; measurement invariance with time; and convergence with a similar construct. SEM showed that: (i) family and community conflict had unique causal contributions to personal conflict, with family showing a stronger and modest impact, and (ii) personal conflict had a significant and modest causal impact on evolution acceptance above and beyond the contributions of religiosity, evolution knowledge, and background variables. Conclusion The SECM is an easy-to-administer instrument to measure conflict with evolution and is supported by several forms of validity evidence. The SECM has potential for facilitating measurement of evolutionary conflict in educational settings, thereby raising instructor awareness of conflict levels in students, promoting rigorous evaluations of educational interventions designed to reduce conflict, and fostering conceptual advances in the field of evolution education. Future work is needed to gather additional forms of validity evidence and to test current validity claims in additional participant samples. SECM measures should also be incorporated into more complex SEM models that treat evolution knowledge and religiosity as part of the structural paths to evolution acceptance. Such models could provide insights into the most worthwhile targets for the development of educational interventions to mitigate conflict at multiple scales.
... There exists a relationship between belongingness with grit and academic performance (Charles, 2018). There are studies associated with social identity and belongingness with academic achievements (Walton, 2007a;Cohen, 2008;Miller, 1975). These studies state that when people identify themselves with a particular set of groups, their performance is influenced by the Identity and nature of that group. ...
Article
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Grit is a combination of passion and perseverance which is creating a new wave in the field of Psychological research in individual's achievement and success. The purpose of the study was to determine whether Maslow's hierarchical needs influence a person’s grit growth. A sample of 182 college students was taken for this research. The tools which were employed for the purpose of collecting the data were Short-grit S scale, General belongingness scale, Rosenberg self-esteem scale and self actualization inventory. The data was then statistically analysed using the Pearson correlation test, simple linear regression and multiple linear regression. Later on, it was concluded that there is a relationship between the Grit of an individual and their need for belongingness, self-esteem and self-actualization. It was also seen that growth of grit and Maslow's hierarchical needs are co-dependent on each other.
... Das Wissen, dass die eigene Gruppe z. B. als leistungsschwach oder unmotiviert gilt, kann das Zugehörigkeitsgefühl gefährden (Cohen & Garcia, 2008;Walton & Brady, 2017). Die internationale Forschung zeigt, dass Kinder und Jugendliche mit Migrationshintergrund oder aus sozial benachteiligten Familien ein geringeres Zugehörigkeitsgefühl zur Schule berichten (Willms, 2003). ...
Chapter
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Im vorliegenden Beitrag wird fokussiert, wie die soziale Eingebundenheit und das Zugehörigkeitsgefühl von Kindern und Jugendlichen in heterogenen Klassen mit der jeweiligen Mitgliedschaft in den Heterogenitätskategorien (z. B. Geschlecht, ethnische Herkunft, Religion) zusammenhängen. Es wird theoretisch abgeleitet, inwiefern Ingroup- und Outgroup-Differenzierungen für Kinder und Jugendliche identitätsstiftend und selbstwertsteigernd sind, wobei allerdings die positiven Effekte des Zugehörigkeitsgefühls zur eigenen Ingroup mit der Abwertung von Outgroups einhergehen können. Auch kann die Zugänglichkeit der Ingroup-Mitgliedschaft variieren und ist entsprechend nicht für alle Personen oder in allen Situationen gleichermaßen bedeutsam. Aktuelle Befunde zur Homophilie von Peer-Netzwerken hinsichtlich Geschlecht, Herkunft und Religion belegen insgesamt jedoch die Segregation von Klassenverbänden entlang dieser sozialen Gruppenzugehörigkeiten. Zudem ist auch das subjektive Gefühl, ein respektiertes und wertgeschätztes Mitglied der Klasse oder Schule zu sein (Zugehörigkeitsgefühl), mit diesen Heterogenitätskategorien assoziiert. Mitglieder negativ stereotypisierter Gruppen fühlen sich der Schule oft weniger zugehörig. Abschließend wird diskutiert, welche Bedingungen erfüllt sein müssen, um der Segregation in homogene Netzwerke und dem geringeren Zugehörigkeitsgefühl von unterrepräsentierten Gruppen entgegenzuwirken.
... Ethnic-racial discrimination is defined as the differential treatment based on ethnicity-race or on inadequately justified factors (e.g., socioeconomic status [SES]) other than ethnicity-race that disadvantage an ethnic-racial group, and such experiences are interpersonally and structurally pervasive in American schools (National Research Council, 2004). Interpersonal forms of ethnic-racial discrimination include harassment from peers (Hughes, Harding, Niwa, Del Toro, & Way, 2017) and severe school discipline sanctioning from educators (Amemiya, Mortenson, & Wang, 2019), whereas structural forms of discrimination are manifested in belonging uncertainty (Cohen & Garcia, 2008) and negative racial climates (Watkins & Aber, 2009). Consequently, adolescents who experience more discrimination have also reported less favorable academic outcomes, including low grades, poor attendance, and negative psycho-educational outcomes (Benner et al., 2018). ...
Article
Historic racial disparities in the United States have created an urgent need for evidence‐based strategies promoting African American students’ academic performance via school‐based ethnic‐racial socialization and identity development. However, the temporal order among socialization, identity, and academic performance remains unclear in extant literature. This longitudinal study examined whether school cultural socialization predicted 961 African American adolescents’ grade point averages through their ethnic‐racial identities (49.6% males; Mage = 13.60; 91.9% qualified for free lunch). Results revealed that youth who perceived more school cultural socialization had better grades 1 and 2 years later. In addition, identity commitment (but not exploration) fully mediated these relations. Implications for how educators can help adolescents of color succeed in schools are discussed.
... A related phenomenon that has received significant scholarly attention involves "stereotype threat"a concern with affirming a negative stereotype about one's social identity (e.g., low academic achievement of African Americans, low achievement of women in math and engineering, Steele & Aronson, 1995). Research has demonstrated that the heightened self-worth concerns associated with stereotype threat undermine motivation and performance (Cohen & Garcia, 2008;Ryan & Ryan, 2005;Steele, Spencer, & Aronson, 2002). ...
Chapter
Educational psychology is a field of inquiry that involves the application of psychological science to the investigation and improvement of educational phenomena, and reciprocally, to the enhancement of psychological science itself. Surprisingly, until relatively recently, the concept of identity has been mostly missing from the extensive educational psychological literature. Much more common has been the use of the related concept Self, reflecting diverging theoretical traditions that identity scholars and educational psychologists have drawn upon. However, during the past two decades this has been changing. In the current chapter, we provide a framework to consider the diverse ways by which educational psychologists have employed the concept of identity to conceptualize and investigate learning, motivation, and achievement in educational settings. We begin by briefly reviewing three different categories of perspectives on identity and their complementary foci: (1) social cognitive and social psychological perspectives that foreground identity content; (2) psychosocial perspectives that foreground identity structure and formation processes; and (3) social cultural perspectives that foreground the role of culture in identity and its formation. We then describe an emerging integrative perspective of identity as a complex dynamic system and its application in educational psychological scholarship. We conclude by noting several emergent areas of identity research in educational psychology and by emphasizing the potential of identity research from integrative perspectives to bridge educational psychological scholarship with educational practice and policy.
... The role of inclusive mentoring practices (e.g., sponsoring, counseling, networking, and advocating: Fig. 2) is unequivocal in providing essential tools to foster justice, equity, diversity, and inclusion for mentees, preventing toxic mentor-mentee relationships, and overcoming barriers and access in STEMM careers [93,94]. Social belonging and valuing of multiple identities in science reinforces achievement [9,82,95,96], and diverse teams have been shown to increase the rate of innovation and collective creativity [97][98][99]. While good mentorship can foster a sense of belonging in science for the mentee, relationships of many mentees from marginalized groups with their mentorswho are often from the majority groupare not positive, leading to health issues such as insomnia and anxiety [100], and lower retention of these groups in science (reviewed in [79,90]. ...
... Enabling healing-centered school systems that deeply understand and effectively respond to the needs of students impacted by adverse life events can be facilitated through the integration of culturally responsive practices (Mayfield & Garrison-Wade, 2015). Culturally responsive pedagogy posits the learning experiences of students are highly impacted by how the school culture incorporates salient aspects of students' identities (Boykin, 1983;Cohen & Garcia, 2008). Banks (2006) outlines that culturally responsive school environments involve actively challenging prejudicial assumptions in curriculum while positioning educators to create an equitable school climate responsive to students' learning styles and cultures. ...
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Movements toward trauma-informed approaches in K12 education settings represent a critical example of how research on adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) has been translated into policy and practice. The proliferation of attention to research on the impact of childhood trauma has increased awareness of the connections between student life experiences and educational outcomes. However, the overall body of research on the translation into K12 education settings is nascent, with the past decade of work characterized by focus on increasing school staff awareness and intervention specific to those students exhibiting trauma symptoms. Work is just beginning to translate this knowledge to a system approach, meaning integrating multiple intersecting components to trauma-informed care in school policies and practices across tiers of service delivery. In this article, we summarize ACE research with focus on manifestation in K12 education research and practice to date, and describe gaps that have emerged in this translation. Finally, directions for future school-based work are explored toward integration of trauma-informed care with whole child, culturally responsive, and healing-centered approach.
... We hypothesize that trust will not only follow from personal and perceived instructor and peer mindset beliefs, but will also be related to a sense of belonging. When individuals enter a new context, they search for ways to determine whether or not they belong or can come to belong (Cohen & Garcia, 2008;Walton & Brady, 2017). One piece of information that could be used to make this determination is school trust. ...
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Undergraduate students in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) programs face unique challenges to their psychological well-being, including their sense of belonging. Recent evidence suggests that beliefs about the malleability of intelligence (growth mindsets) support STEM students’ belongingness, though the mechanisms of this relationship are unclear. We propose and test a model in which students’ personal growth mindset beliefs relate to their sense of belonging by operating as a filter of environmental cues, especially those signaling instructors’ mindsets, peers’ mindsets, and the school’s trustworthiness. Across more than 3000 students in two diverse STEM contexts, we found general support for this model (mean RMSEA = 0.041; mean R² = 39%). Perceived environmental cues fully mediated (Study 1) and partially mediated (Study 2) the total effect of personal growth mindset on belonging. In addition to model generalizability, there was meaningful heterogeneity in the results observed across contexts. These results suggest a novel filtering function of growth mindsets for belonging. Discussion centers on the factors that may account for model variability, as well as theoretical and practical implications of the findings.
... These optimal needs can contribute to one's personal growth and development, as well as one's emotional wellbeing (Archambault et al., 2017;Wang & Degol, 2016;Yu et al., 2018). The three optimal needs included in this group are autonomy, self-efficacy, and self-fulfillment (Cohen & Garcia, 2008). ...
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One of the most significant phenomena among students at risk is low resilience. However, very little is known about teacher-related factors that affect students’ resilience. Therefore, the main aim of this study was to shed light on the relationships between teacher-level (affective and continuance organizational commitment, professional commitment, burnout, and job characteristics) and student-level variables (optimal educational climate, OEC: the needs of belonging, respect from others, autonomy, self-efficacy, and self-fulfillment), as OEC is viewed as a main source of students’ psychological resilience. A sample of 243 teachers and 1777 10th-grade students from 44 nationwide secondary schools in Israel participated in this study. The study included the entire population of this selected cohort. Using hierarchical linear model (HLM) coefficient models, we found two major factors that significantly predicted students’ OEC: teachers’ affective organizational commitment and teachers’ job characteristics. These findings indicate that schools may serve as a protective factor for students at risk, since schools can strengthen teachers’ affective abilities in order to ensure their students’ psychological resilience. These findings are especially important when working with students at risk, who tend to be exposed to a wider range of stress factors, both individually and academically. The importance of these relationships becomes even greater considering the effects of the COVID-19 epidemic, which has had a significant global impact on many aspects, including students’ relationships with schools and teachers.
... In addition, school cultural socialization may have reduced risks that would have otherwise contributed to African American adolescents' school disengagement. Specifically, researchers have identified that belonging uncertainty (Cohen & Garcia, 2008) and anticipating unfair disciplinary practices (Amemiya, Mortenson, & Wang, 2019) predict African American students' disengagement from school. However, we found that school cultural socialization practices improved African American students' school belonging and sense of fairness regarding disciplinary actions, which in turn predicted greater school engagement. ...
Article
The question of whether schools should promote cultural pride and engage students in ethnic traditions is hotly contested. To contribute to this debate, this longitudinal study examined whether school cultural socialization predicted adolescents' engagement in school over time and whether this relation was mediated by school climate. Data were collected in four waves during a two-year period from 254 African American fifth-graders (53.9% males; Mage = 10.95 at Wave 1) enrolled in three public middle schools. Results revealed that African American youth who reported more school cultural socialization also had greater school engagement over time. This longitudinal relation was fully mediated by youth's perceptions of school climate. Implications for how to promote African American youth's perceptions of schools as culturally sensitive and supportive environments are discussed.
... Members of the stereotyped out-group, in this case girls and women in STEM, are often doubting their belonging to the in-groups. This is because of the characteristics attributed to the out-group (Cohen and Garcia, 2008). Typical stereotypes state that girls (out-group) have less talent for science subjects than males, which is why they might not belong to the science group (in-group). ...
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This paper focuses on stereotype threat and its effects on sense of belonging in the German Physics Olympiad science competition. Participants completed questionnaires about sense of belonging, stereotype endorsement, interest, and self-concept in physics, as well as about value and success expectations of studying physics in college. Female participants who endorsed negative stereotypes about female talent for physics felt less sense of belonging to physics. This effect did not manifest for male participants. Sense of belonging to physics significantly predicted value and success expectations for studying physics in college beyond what is predicted by interest and self-concept in physics. These findings suggest that sense of belonging is influenced by stereotype threat, which was shown to cause gender differences in science. Nevertheless, sense of belonging could be included into the expectancy-value theory based on its predictive impact on value and success expectations of studying physics.
... Although less obvious than blatant harassment and discrimination, subtle cues in an environment, including physical spaces, can unintentionally communicate threatening messages of exclusion (Cheryan et al., 2009). For example, offices or laboratory spaces with stereotypical masculine decor, such as "geeky" references to pop culture (e.g., Star Trek posters, video game memorabilia), or reading materials targeted to a predominantly white or male audience can communicate underrepresented groups do not belong in STEM (Cheryan et al., 2009;Cohen & Garcia, 2008 to question their belonging in that institution (Elsbach, 2003). ...
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Recently there is widespread interest in women's underrepresentation in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM); however, progress toward gender equality in these fields is slow. More alarmingly, these gender disparities worsen when examining women's representation within STEM departments in academia. While the number of women receiving postgraduate degrees has increased in recent years, the number of women in STEM faculty positions remains largely unchanged. One explanation for this lack of progress toward gender parity is negative and pervasive gender stereotypes, which may facilitate hiring discrimination and reduce opportunities for women's career advancement. Women in STEM also have lower social capital (e.g., support networks), limiting women's opportunities to earn tenure and learn about grant funding mechanisms. Women faculty in STEM may also perceive their academic climate as unwelcoming and threatening, and report hostility and uncomfortable tensions in their work environments, such as sexual harassment and discrimination. Merely the presence of gender‐biased cues in physical spaces targeted toward men (e.g., “geeky” décor) can foster a sense of not belonging in STEM. We describe the following three factors that likely contribute to gender inequalities and women's departure from academic STEM fields: (a) numeric underrepresentation and stereotypes, (b) lack of supportive social networks, and (c) chilly academic climates. We discuss potential solutions for these problems, focusing on National Science Foundation‐funded ADVANCE organizational change interventions that target (a) recruiting diverse applicants (e.g., training search committees), (b) mentoring, networking, and professional development (e.g., promoting women faculty networks); and (c) improving academic climate (e.g., educating male faculty on gender bias).
... The role of inclusive mentoring practices (e.g., sponsoring, counseling, networking, and advocating; Fig 2) is unequivocal in providing essential tools to foster justice, equity, diversity, and inclusion for mentees, preventing toxic mentor-mentee relationships, and overcoming barriers and access in STEMM careers [111,112]. Social belonging and valuing of multiple identities in science reinforces achievement [9,96,113,114], and diverse teams have been shown to increase the rate of innovation and collective creativity [115][116][117]. While good mentorship can foster a sense of belonging in science for the mentee, relationships of many mentees from marginalized groups with their mentors-who are often from the majority group-are not always positive, leading to health issues, such as insomnia and anxiety [118], and lower retention of these groups in science (reviewed in [93,104]). ...
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Success and impact metrics in science are based on a system that perpetuates sexist and racist “rewards” by prioritizing citations and impact factors. These metrics are flawed and biased against already marginalized groups and fail to accurately capture the breadth of individuals’ meaningful scientific impacts. We advocate shifting this outdated value system to advance science through principles of justice, equity, diversity, and inclusion. We outline pathways for a paradigm shift in scientific values based on multidimensional mentorship and promoting mentee well-being. These actions will require collective efforts supported by academic leaders and administrators to drive essential systemic change.
... Students in the class consider themselves as part of a community. Cohen and Garcia, 2008;Eddy and Hogan, 2014;Hausmann et al., 2007;Stout et al., 2013;Walton and Cohen, 2011 to major in biology specifically. Given this difference and the different teaching cultures of the two colleges, we split the analyses by college. ...
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Recent efforts to promote diversity in the sciences, technology, engineering and math (STEM) disciplines include widening access to colleges and universities for capable but academically underprepared students. Equally important in these efforts is to provide students with support after acceptance, particularly in large, introductory STEM courses. We found that under-represented minority students and first-generation college attendees underperformed relative to their peers across STEM courses, and incoming preparation was the chief culprit in explaining these academic performance gaps, even after controlling for social psychological factors. We conclude that institutions should reconsider how they provision underprepared students with opportunities to excel in STEM. To address the variation in incoming academic preparation among students, we advocate for institutional resources supporting supplemental instruction, bridge programs, and evidence-based teaching practices.
... Students who view their race/ethnicity as an important part of their self-concept may be more likely to consider race/ethnicity to be salient in their social situations (Hurtado et al., 2015). In turn, increasing the salience of race/ethnicity could heighten belonging uncertainty, the fear of being stereotyped, as well as the possibility of identity threat, a concern that a person's treatment in a situation will be dependent on their social identity (Cohen & Garcia, 2008;Shelton et al., 2006). For example, White Americans are often concerned about being viewed as prejudiced during intergroup interactions whereas racial/ethnic minorities are worried about being stereotyped during these interactions, and both may respond to this potential identity threat by avoiding such interactions altogether (Shelton et al., 2006). ...
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This study investigated the impact of diversity ideologies (i.e., colorblindness vs. multiculturalism) on students’ sense of belonging (SOB) to the university and comfort with interracial interactions, and the moderating effects of racial/ethnic identity and group membership. White students (n = 234) and students of color (n = 111) from a predominantly white institution (PWI) were primed with either a colorblind or multicultural approach to improving campus race relations. Attitudes towards interracial interactions, racial/ethnic centrality, and SOB were assessed.Overall, White students reported a greater SOB than students of color. Results did not reveal a significant effect of diversity approaches or racial/ethnic identity on SOB, but both were associated with students’ comfort with interracial interactions. Students primed with multiculturalism reported greater comfort with interracial interactions, and students who considered race to be important to their self-concept reported less comfort with interracial interactions. A significant ideology × racial/ethnic identity interaction further revealed that exposure to messaging around multiculturalism eliminated the negative association between students’ racial/ethnic identity and comfort with interactions. Implications for campus diversity and inclusion initiatives are discussed.
... He argued that student's identification with academic environment is an important part of their self-concept or self-esteem (Steele, 1997). Nevertheless, understanding such social identity processes may in turn allow for the successful development of academic interventions for minority students (Cohen and Garcia, 2008;Steele, 1997). Oyserman et al. (2001) found that stronger identification with the stereotyped group might moderate the impact of stereotype threat effects. ...
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Purpose One of the goals of various European Union (EU) organizations (i.e. Roma and non-Roma nonprofits) is the integration of Roma into the educational system. A challenge for the educational systems of EU countries, therefore, is to determine how to support the academic performance of Roma. Understanding the positive and negative factors related to Roma’s academic performance and achievement is an important first step in increasing academic success among this minority group. Design/methodology/approach A quantitative experimental design was used both online and face-to-face to examine whether stereotype threat had an influence on the academic performance of Roma in Slovakia and second, whether such threat was moderated by social identification and academic self-efficacy. Findings The results showed that stereotype threat does influence Roma in Slovakia and there were direct effects of social identity and academic self-efficacy on academic performance of the face-to-face participants. Originality/value Consistent with stereotype threat theory, to the best of authors’ knowledge, this research is the first to show that a stereotype threat did harm the academic performance of the face-to-face Roma sampled. Further, although many studies have examined stereotype threat effects on academic performance, little is known regarding whether social identification and academic self-efficacy have an influence on such threats. The results of the study show that social identification and academic self-efficacy had a significant direct influence on academic performance.
... Therefore, these cues may trigger identity threat in the form of rejection concerns, interracial anxiety, and anticipated challenges. People who belong to oppressed social groups are particularly vigilant to situational cues during potentially threatening experiences (such as interracial interactions; Cohen & Garcia, 2008;Murphy et al., 2007). In order to reduce social identity threat, there must be cues of identity safety in that social context (Murphy et al., 2007;Murphy & Taylor, 2011;Wout et al., 2014). ...
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Objective: Interracial interactions are often fraught with concerns about experiencing discrimination or being negatively stereotyped (i.e., social identity threat). Past research revealed that Black participants interacting with a White partner view the presence of racial diversity in a White partner's friendship network as a signal of identity safety. We extend this work by clarifying the role of ingroup representation in friendship diversity. Namely, we assess social identity safety of Black participants when anticipating an interaction with a White partner whose friendship networks include diversity with or without ingroup representation. Method: In an experimental study (N = 301), Black adults (52.8% female, 47.2% male; Mage = 29.96) expected to interact with a White partner who had all White friends (No Diversity); Black and White friends (Diversity with Ingroup Representation); or Asian, Latinx, and White friends (Diversity without Ingroup Representation). We assessed participants' perceptions of their White partner as prejudiced, how they expected their partner would think of them (Black metastereotypes), and their anticipated interaction challenges, rejection concerns, and friendship interest immediately prior to the anticipated interaction. Results: Black participants had fewer anticipated challenges, fewer rejection concerns, and more friendship interest when their White partner's friendship networks included (vs. excluded) ingroup representation. These effects were mediated by perceived partner prejudice and Black metastereotypes. Conclusions: These findings suggest that while any diversity of an outgroup member's friendship network is better than no diversity, ingroup representation is especially important in reducing threat and increasing social identity safety in interracial interactions. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).
... An increasingly large body of research in social psychology has demonstrated the power of brief situational interventions in promoting purposeful change (see, Cohen et al., 2017;Walton & Wilson, 2018). For example, randomized experiments have shown that short activities, such as reflecting on core values, can lessen the destructive effects of stress on performance and improve achievement (Cohen & Garcia, 2008;Garcia & Cohen, 2013;Walton & Wilson, 2018). A large body of evidence also shows that a wide range of activities inspired by social psychological theory can instigate enduring improvements in life satisfaction (Ko et al., 2021;Lyubomirsky et al., 2005;Margolis & Lyubomirsky, 2020). ...
Article
An increasingly large body of research in social psychology has underscored the power of brief situational interventions in promoting purposeful change. The present research contributes to the literature on positive psychology interventions (PPIs) by testing a novel volitional intervention that encourages people to engage in activities ‘outside their comfort zone.’ Participants were randomly assigned either to a condition that encouraged them to engage in an activity outside of their comfort zone over the following two weeks or to a control condition that encouraged them to keep a record of their daily activities. The intervention boosted the life satisfaction of people who were relatively less happy at baseline, with exploratory analyses tentatively suggesting benefits strongest among people who went outside their comfort zone by helping others. Discussion centers on the potential of behavioral ‘stretch’ interventions to promote positive change and well�being among people dissatisfied with their life.
... It would also parallel the approach that de Bie and colleagues (2021) take to rereading pedagogical partnership literature within a conceptual framework that suggests partnership has the potential to redress epistemic, affective, and ontological harms perpetuated by higher education. Similarly, a resituating of analyses of belonging as a critical component in student advising and retention (Asher & Weeks, 2014;Cohen & Garcia, 2008;Hunter et al, 2019;Strayhorn, 2012;Thomas, 2012;van Gijn-Grosvenor et al., 2020;van Herpen et al., 2020;Walton & Cohen, 2007) in relation to agentic engagement could yield new insights in these arenas of theory and practice. ...
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An established body of research details the faculty role in promoting student engagement. Newer scholarship on agentic engagement foregrounds student-initiated engagement in classroom learning. Our SoTL project explored how participating in student-faculty pedagogical partnerships supported two undergraduate students in expanding agentic engagement to encompass student empowerment and equity both within and beyond the classroom. We draw on the students’ autoethnographic accounts of three interrelated experiences: (1) joining a pedagogical partnership program as pedagogical consultants and developing confidence in, capacity for, and commitment to supporting student and faculty learning; (2) carrying that confidence, capacity, and commitment into the courses in which those students were enrolled to enact agentic engagement in their own and in support of others’ learning; and (3) expanding the agentic engagement they developed in the first two instances beyond classroom learning. This study has implications for classroom instruction, faculty professional development, and student advising and retention.
... We contend that responsiveness to student voice is a particularly important focus for policy and reform in settings with a majority of students of color, such as Chicago, because youth of color often experience social and political marginalization (Cohen 2010;García Bedolla 2005;Junn 1999) as well as fewer opportunities for meaningful voice in school (McFarland and Starmanns 2009). Indeed, such marginalization often undermines students' motivation, their sense of belonging, and their academic achievement (Cohen and Garcia 2008;Gray et al. 2018). ...
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https://www.journals.uchicago.edu/doi/10.1086/719121 This should enable a full test download.
... Attention to threat cues involves psychological processes of vigilance and appraisal; People become vigilant and look to the situation for clues about how they will be treated and if that treatment will depend on their social group membership. If people appraise their environment as indicative of differential treatment based on group membership (i.e., if they detect threat cues), their cognition and behaviors may be consequently altered (e.g., Cohen & Garcia, 2008;Cohen et al., 2012;Inzlicht et al., 2011;Schmader et al., 2008;Spencer et al., 2016;Walton & Spencer, 2009). For example, for fat people, experiences such as being told that one should lose weight or seeing media coverage about the societal costs of obesity may activate SIT, which can result in greater psychological distress and avoidance of stigmatizing environments (e.g., gyms, doctor's offices; Hunger et al., 2015). ...
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Pervasive stigma against fat people and evidence for its harmful health consequences highlight the need for a better understanding of people's first‐hand experiences of navigating the world with a stigmatized body size. Drawing on social identity threat theory, we conducted a mixed‐method study with a qualitative examination of threat and safety cues as experienced by people who self‐identify as overweight. In an online survey, 48 people who self‐identified as overweight responded to open‐ended prompts to describe how situational features of a setting signal weight‐based threat and safety to them. Using thematic analysis, we identified several themes that characterized threat and safety cues. Particularly notable were inverse themes, such as structural exclusion versus structural accommodation and homogeneity of others versus general diversity, that highlighted how physical features of, and the people in, an environment positively or negatively impact fat people's psychological experience. Moreover, we conducted exploratory deductive coding using a recent taxonomy of safety cues developed by Kruk and Matsick (in press). Results highlighted how weight‐based stigma both parallels and diverges from other cues of identity safety (e.g., by gender or race/ethnicity). We suggest knowledge about situational cues can inform interventions to mitigate threat and promote safety among both fat people and other stigmatized groups.
... Focusing on them places a threatening message in a larger context and renders it less psychologically distressing (Burson et al., 2012;Sherman & Cohen, 2006;Steele, 1988). The efficacy of self-SOURCES OF SELF-AFFIRMATION 13 affirmation interventions has been well documented through value affirmation exercises in the educational context, in specifically targeting the achievement gap among Latino Americans and African Americans (Cohen & Garcia, 2008), purported to be a function of stereotypes pertaining to their intellectual ability and success (Cook et al., 2012;Guyll et al., 2010;Protzko & Aronson, 2016;Sherman et al., 2013). Similar gains of self-affirmation interventions also appear in counteracting the effects of gender stereotypes in relation to the performance of women in tasks related to science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) in both educational and professional settings (Bancroft et al., 2017;Derks et al., 2009;Miyake et al., 2010;Taillandier-Schmitt et al., 2012), but in light of evidence of publication bias, more research is needed to draw such a conclusion (Flore & Wicherts, 2015). ...
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Dealing with threat is a ubiquitous experience for people everywhere. The extent to which we experience threat, however, differs, as do the means employed to address it. For instance, focusing on unthreatened aspects of the self (i.e., self-affirmation) helps us cope with prejudice, discrimination, and stigma. Individuals differ substantially in their threat experience, as some groups are more discriminated against, which also differs per national context. We discuss previous findings on social identity threat and how salient it is for some groups. We then inspect how affirmation interventions addressing threat and investigated in Western contexts fare in non-Western contexts. We describe the need to move beyond relatively well-represented non-Western settings (e.g., Asia) and include contexts that are religiously more diverse. We therefore present data on the use of self-affirmation from the sectarian context of Lebanon and elaborate on how the larger cultural context may impact reactions to affirmation interventions.
... For example, perceptions of role-specific support might buffer against known negative effects of social identity threat (e.g., Hall et al., 2019). However, our data were not sufficient to speak to experiences of minoritized students, who are more likely to experience social identity threats (Cohen & Garcia, 2008) and more attuned to cues signaling these threats (Purdie-Vaughns et al., 2008). Future research might investigate whether rolespecific support also affects other psychological processes to boost interest and identification, such as reducing social identity threat among minoritized individuals. ...
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Four studies examine the faculty–student relationship as a mechanism through which students ascertain their place in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields. Studies 1 and 2 use experimental methods to demonstrate STEM faculty who behave communally, relative to independently, increase undergraduates’ belonging and interest in STEM roles through anticipation of greater role-specific support (i.e., support that emphasizes guiding students through structures and activities of field-specific roles). Study 3 then examined the consequences of role-specific support for undergraduates’ belonging and interest in STEM. Students anticipated more belonging and interest in STEM roles when faculty provided high levels of role-specific support. Finally, STEM doctoral students’ perception of role-specific support from faculty related to their belonging and future identification in STEM fields (Study 4). Taken together, these studies demonstrate the importance of students’ construals of role-specific support from faculty, and how faculty behavior signals role-specific support, with benefits for student involvement in STEM.
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This meta-analysis assessed the impact of values affirmation on the academic achievement of students under social identity threats in actual classrooms. After a systematic search yielded 58 relevant studies, multilevel analyses identified an overall affirmation effect for identity-threatened students (Hedges' g = 0.15), not for identity-nonthreatened students (Hedges' g = 0.01). Heterogeneity in the affirmation effect was moderate to high for identity-threatened students, with effect sizes associated with (1) a larger covariate-controlled achievement gap between nonthreatened and threatened students in the control condition, suggestive of psychological underperformance, (2) the availability of financial resources in school, (3) more distal performance outcomes, and (4) the presentation of values affirmation as a normal classroom activity rather than a research study or a non-normal classroom activity. Affirmation appears to work best when it is delivered as a normal classroom activity and where identity threat co-occurs with resources for improvement and time to await cumulative benefits. https://osf.io/guxrc/ https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/share/author/KJDZHDFMABPS6DVYJST5?target=10.1111/josi.12415
Chapter
This chapter contains a collection of organizational transformation stories in the digital era. These typically happen in rapidly growing, changeable, and highly competitive environments, which complicate their business landscapes and clearly are potential crisis triggers. Same as in the previous chapters, these critical and dramatic transformations are presented as case studies, each of which includes a walkthrough and a set of questions providing food for thought and further discussion. The IT-intensive business domains examined include publishing businesses, and fast-food production and delivery, to name a few. Among other particular concerns for these cutting-edge businesses, franchising, and outsourcing approaches are discussed. The business stories presented are based on real-world cases. These include both well-established companies such as Microsoft, Huawei, and more recent startups.
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In America, Black men are often stereotyped as criminal. Previously-incarcerated Black men must contend with this negative group stereotype and with the knowledge that their incarceration status confirms this image to others. The present study is one of few to examine the psychological consequences of incarceration status among Black men. Drawing on our social-contextual theory of prejudice, we investigate the role of previous incarceration on Black men’s expectations about being stereotyped by educators, beliefs about the utility of education to better their circumstances, and motivation to seek education. Previously- (vs. never-) incarcerated Black men reported greater stereotype expectations, which mediated their utility beliefs and motivation. We discuss incarceration as a “prejudiced place” with lasting and disparate psychological and educational consequences.
Article
Purpose The HRSA-funded maternal and child health pipeline training programs (MCHPTPs) are a response to the critical need to diversify the MCH workforce, as a strategy to reduce health disparities in MCH populations. These MCHPTPs support students from undergraduate to graduate education and ultimately into the MCH workforce. Description The models and components of training across the six MCHPTPs funded in 2016–2021 are summarized, to examine the design and delivery of undergraduate pipeline training and the insights gained across programs. Assessment Strategies that emerged across training programs were organized into three themes: recruitment, support for student persistence (in education), and pipeline-to-workforce intentionality. Support for student persistence included financial support, mentoring, creating opportunity for students to develop a sense of belonging, and the use of research as a tool to promote learning and competitiveness for graduate education. Finally, the link to Maternal and Child Health Bureau (MCHB) long-term training and other MCHB opportunities for professional development contributed significant nuance to the pipeline-to-workforce objectives of these programs. Conclusions The MCHPTPs not only increase the diversity of the MCH workforce, they also actively prepare the next generation of MCH leaders. The intentional connection of undergraduates to the infrastructure and continuum of MCH training, underscores the comprehensive impact of this funding.
Article
The German Physics Olympiad is an extracurricular science contest for students. Here, they have the opportunity to compete against other talented students, can do physics outside of school, and take a first step to more engagement in the domain. Yet, female students participate in the competition in fewer numbers and are disproportionally more likely to drop out of the contest earlier than the male students. The present study hence explored the question to which extent the German Physics Olympiad provides a threatening environment for female contestants’ intentions of persisting in physics. A total of 298 participants (28% female) were surveyed with respect to stereotype and social identity threat, as well as gender identification and sense of belonging as predictors of success expectations for and value of choosing to study physics. Success expectations and value of choosing to study physics were used as a measure for career intentions within the expectancy-value model. The results support the conclusion that the contest presents an equally supporting environment for female and male participants. We found no gender differences in success expectations for and value of studying physics. Sense of belonging and gender identification significantly predicted success expectations but not value of choosing to study physics. Female participants in the German Physics Olympiad were also neither affected by stereotype threat nor by social identity threat in their sense of belonging or gender identification.
Article
Two studies tested the impact of subtle cues that associate masculinity with science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) success on women’s STEM experiences. Study 1 was a field study conducted in a university campus engineering building where photos of graduating classes were displayed. In Study 2, STEM majors viewed a mock website that depicted either exclusively male or mixed-gender STEM students. Across both studies, women reported greater fundamental need threat—a composite of threats to belonging, self-esteem, control, and meaningful existence—after viewing photos of exclusively male STEM students than did men. This gender effect disappeared when photos included female STEM students. Direct effects of gender and photo condition on career intentions were not observed, but indirect effects were obtained through need threat. Thus, because fleeting exposure to subtle background images associating STEM success with masculinity can negatively impact women’s fundamental needs, cues in academic environments should be carefully considered.
Chapter
Die Förderung der Motivation von Schülerinnen und Schülern zählt zu den zentralen Zielsetzungen von Unterricht. Lehrermotivation und Unterrichtsmerkmale gelten dabei als wichtige Einflussgrößen auf die Motivation der Lernenden. Allerdings besteht ein Mangel an theoretischen Modellen und empirischen Befunden zur Beschreibung jener Prozesse, die den Zusammenhängen von Lehrermotivation, Unterrichtsgestaltung und der motivationalen Entwicklung Lernender zugrunde liegen. Der Beitrag greift dieses Desiderat auf und stellt ein integratives Theoriemodell der unterrichtsbezogenen Sozialisation motivationaler Entwicklung vor. Dabei werden Modelle aus Erziehungswissenschaft (Angebots-Nutzungs Modell) und Pädagogischer Psychologie (erweiterte Erwartungs-Wert-Theorie von Eccles), die eine Beschreibung motivationsförderlicher Unterrichtsprozesse beinhalten, zusammengeführt. Anhand des vorgeschlagenen Modells werden zukünftige Forschungsthemen und handlungspraktische Implikationen im Bereich der Lehrer- und Schülermotivation diskutiert.
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Leadership is a critical component of creating and sustaining a school culture that promotes the inclusion and success of students. The purpose of this study was to examine how school leaders helped to enact and sustain a reformed Advanced Placement (AP) culture designed to increase participation and success of students of color. Building on existing work of transformative leadership, this study describes the experience and challenges of educational leaders in understanding how leadership practices change the AP culture. The case study method examined one mid-sized urban district in Southern California that utilized transformative leadership. The methods included 15 open-ended interviews with educational leaders in a variety of capacities (i.e., district leadership, school administrators, counselors, and teacher leaders). The findings demonstrated critical components leading to deep and meaningful cultural change in AP. The analysis showed leaders in this district, who sought equity, were driven to create meaningful change, and were grounded in the community. Being grounded in the community had a great impact in promoting a transformed culture at the classroom, site, and district level.
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Der Band führt empirische Forschung aus Erziehungswissenschaft, Pädagogischer Psychologie und Fachdidaktiken systematisch zusammen, die sich mit schulischen und unterrichtlichen Bedingungen der Motivation Lernender befasst.
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Die Physik ist eine Domäne, in der Engagement sowohl in der Schule als auch im Studium stark vom Geschlecht abhängt. Selbst physikinteressierte Schülerinnen entscheiden sich nur selten für ein Physikstudium und verlassen dieses überproportional häufig. Zur Förderung besonders interessierter Schülerinnen in Physik wurden außerschulische Enrichmentprogramme wie Schülerwettbewerbe vorgeschlagen. Schülerwettbewerbe ermöglichen in besonderer Weise diesen Schülerinnen angemessene inhaltliche Herausforderungen zu bieten und deren Zugehörigkeitsgefühl zur Physik zu stärken, was deren Engagement in der Physik positiv beeinflussen kann. Zur Förderung des kurz- und längerfristigen Engagements besonders interessierter Schülerinnen wurde im Zusammenhang der vorliegenden Studie ein Förderangebot im Kontext der PhysikOlympiade entwickelt, welches über die inhaltliche, soziale sowie instruktionale Gestaltung der Lernumgebung das Engagement der teilnehmenden Schülerinnen fördern sollte. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass die Gestaltung des Förderangebotes als positiv wahrgenommen wurde. Effekte auf die Entwicklung des Zugehörigkeitsgefühls der Schülerinnen zur Physik konnten nicht festgestellt werden. Allerdings waren Effekte auf das Zugehörigkeitsgefühl in Abhängigkeit vom situationalen Interesse am Förderangebot zu verzeichnen. Für das längerfristige Engagement der Schülerinnen in der Physik zeigte sich nur deskriptiv eine höhere Teilnahmequote an der folgenden PhysikOlympiade. Für die zukünftige Gestaltung solcher Angebote in Physik zur Förderung physikinteressierter Schülerinnen bedeutet dies, dass eine an den Interessen und Bedürfnissen der Schülerinnen gestaltete Lernumgebung in mancher Hinsicht dazu beitragen kann, den Schülerinnen Engagement in Physik zu ermöglichen. Die Effekte waren allerdings unklarer, als dies erwartet werden konnte.
Article
Background Noncognitive and affective (NCA) factors (e.g., belonging, engineering identity, motivation, mindset, personality, etc.) are important to undergraduate student success. However, few studies have considered how these factors coexist and act in concert. Purpose/Hypothesis We hypothesize that students cluster into several distinct collections of NCA factors and that identifying and considering the factors together may inform student support programs and engineering education. Design/Method We measured 28 NCA factors using a survey instrument with strong validity evidence. We gathered responses from 2,339 engineering undergraduates at 17 U.S. institutions and used Gaussian mixture modeling (GMM) to group respondents into clusters. Results We found four distinct profiles of students in our data and a set of unclustered students with the NCA factor patterns varying substantially by cluster. Correlations of cluster membership to self‐reported incoming academic performance measures were not strong, suggesting that students' NCA factors rather than traditionally used cognitive measures may better distinguish among students in engineering programs. Conclusions GMM is a powerful technique for person‐centered clustering of high‐dimensional datasets. The four distinct clusters of students discovered in this research illustrate the diversity of engineering students' NCA profiles. The NCA factor patterns within the clusters provide new insights on how these factors may function together and provide opportunities to intervene on multiple factors simultaneously, potentially resulting in more comprehensive and effective interventions. This research leads to future work on both student success modeling and student affairs–academic partnerships to understand and promote holistic student success.
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Online` racial discrimination and race‐related traumatic events online have been linked to psychological distress in Black youth. The current study builds on extant literature by examining associations among online racial discrimination, traumatic events online, and trauma symptoms of discrimination, after controlling for gender identity and ethnic–racial setting of college in a sample of 245 Black youth. Additionally, this study examines the potential moderating effects of gender identity. This study is the first to examine the associations among online racial discrimination, traumatic events online, and trauma symptoms specific to racial discrimination. Path modeling revealed positive associations among online racial discrimination, traumatic events online, and trauma symptoms of discrimination. No significant differences in models were found by gender identity.
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This study aimed to determine the views on democratic school culture in schools and provide a conceptual framework for democratic school culture. The sample of the study, which used a descriptive survey design, consisted of 516 primary school and 378 secondary school students, 592 school administrators/teachers, and 609 parents of students from pilot and volunteering schools in 10 provinces in Turkey within the scope of “Democratic Citizenship and Human Rights Education Project” (Edirne, Elazığ, Istanbul, Konya, Manisa, Mardin,Sakarya, Mersin, Samsun, Yozgat).Data were collected using “Democratic School Culture Scales” developed in the project. The data collected were evaluated under five dimensions: (i) Communication, Interaction, and Cooperation, (ii) School and Learning Environment, (iii) Identity and Belonging, (iv) Responsibility, and (v) Decision-making Process. According to the opinions of students, administrators-teachers and parents, it was identified that there was medium and high level democratic school culture in the schools. It was concluded that the project made a contribution in this sense.Teachers, administrators and parents had high mean scores in communication, interaction and collaboration dimensions and students had high mean scores in identity, sense of belonging, and responsibility dimensions Significant differences were found in the democratic school culture dimensions in terms of education level and type of duty. We recommend that new activities and training programs be designed for areas in need of development, to create and sustain a democratic school culture.
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This study investigated student and classroom level variables related to student science achievement by using the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2015 dataset. Multilevel modeling was applied in this secondary analysis to examine how science self-concept, school relatedness, and science teaching quality predicted student science achievement at both the student and classroom levels. Data from a total of 14,291 grade 8 students in the USA were included in the study. Results showed that after accounting for gender and SES (control variables), self-concept was a statistically significant, positive predictor of science achievement at the student level. At the classroom level, classroom-mean self-concept and sense of relatedness were both statistically significant, positive predictors of science achievement. Students’ perceived teaching quality was not a statistically significant predictor at either the student or classroom level. Implications of these results for science teaching and learning are discussed.
Article
Research suggests that a sense of belonging is fundamental to students’ engagement, persistence and success in postsecondary education, and that racism systematically works against Black students experiencing these. Participating in student–staff pedagogical partnership can foster a sense of belonging, contribute to culturally sustaining pedagogy, and redress harms experienced by minoritised postsecondary students. Using a conceptual framework informed by research on belonging, critical race theory and intersectionality and a methodology informed by a Black-Feminist and Womanist Research Paradigm, Black Girl Cartography and counterstorying, the authors analyse responses to an ethics-board-approved survey completed by 12 Black, female students at three US colleges. They situate that analysis by presenting their conceptual framework, defining pedagogical partnership, and describing the pedagogical partnership programmes. They focus on how the students who responded to their survey describe perceiving, feeling and engaging differently as a result of participating in pedagogical partnership. They conclude with recommendations for practice.
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In male-dominated STEM fields, workplace culture is often cited as a factor for women’s attrition. In the present research, we used longitudinal field data to examine how changes in the perceived normative support for gender-inclusive policies and practices over 6 months relate to changes in women’s and men’s experiences of fit and commitment to their organization. Longitudinal analyses of survey data from a sample of 181 engineers revealed that increased perceptions of support for gender-inclusive policies and practices predicted increased organizational commitment only among women, an effect that was mediated by an increase in organizational value fit. Additional analyses suggest that perceptions of change in normative attitudes toward inclusive policies were more predictive of women’s organizational commitment than the awareness that the policies were in place or that one has personally benefitted from them. The implications of an inclusive workplace culture for supporting women’s retention in STEM are discussed.
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Problem Theoretical and practical frameworks delineating the individual and relational needs inherent to creating perceptions of belongingness in the workplace are absent in Human Resources Development (HRD) literature. For inclusive leadership practitioners, the literature itself lacks direct mentioning of belonging, causing the awareness around the concept to be problematic. Without a clear understanding of factors that influence perceptions of belonging, leaders lack direction in building inclusive workplaces and reaping the beneficial business outcomes these have the potential to bring, including increased employee engagement, performance, and innovation. Solution The Individual and Relational Belongingness (IRB) model is introduced to explore and define the unique needs that are vital for individual to perceive a sense of belongingness in the workplace across individual, relational, personal, and organizational dimensions. Stakeholders Organizational and Human Resources Development scholar practitioners benefit from understanding the nuanced and complex needs that drive perceptions of belongingness, since these bring additional context to the scholarship and practice of inclusive leadership.
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The authors proposed a process model whereby experiences of rejection based on membership in a devalued group can lead people to anxiously expect, readily perceive, and intensely react to status-based rejection. To test the model, the authors focused on race-based rejection sensitivity (RS-race) among African Americans. Following the development and validation of the RS-Race Questionnaire (Studies 1 and 2), the authors tested the utility of the model for understanding African American students' experiences at a predominantly White university (Study 3). Students high in RS-race experienced greater discomfort during the college transition, less trust in the university, and relative declines in grades over a 2- to 3-year period. Positive race-related experiences, however, increased feelings of belonging at the institution among students high in RS-race.
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Although research has shown that priming negative stereotypes leads to lower performance among stigmatized individuals, little is understood about the cognitive mechanism that accounts for these effects. Three experiments tested the hypothesis that stereotype threat interferes with test performance because it reduces individuals' working memory capacity. Results show that priming self-relevant negative stereotypes reduces women's (Experiment 1) and Latinos' (Experiment 2) working memory capacity. The final study revealed that a reduction in working memory capacity mediates the effect of stereotype threat on women's math performance (Experiment 3). Implications for future research on stereotype threat and working memory are discussed.
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The authors aimed to establish whether interventions designed to reduce intergroup bias could be applied to the stereotype threat domain. In three experiments, the hypothesis was tested that blurring intergroup boundaries would reduce stereotype threat. In the first study, it was found that female participants who thought about characteristics shared between the genders tended to show less preference for stereotypical female careers than did participants in the baseline condition. In Experiment 2, participants who thought about overlapping characteristics answered more math questions correctly compared to a baseline group and participants who thought about differences between the genders. In Experiment 3, a specific threat manipulation was included. Participants who completed the overlapping characteristics task before receiving the threat completed significantly more math questions correctly than did participants in the baseline and threat conditions. The findings support the idea that interventions designed to reduce intergroup bias can be applied successfully in the reduction of stereotype threat.
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Two randomized field experiments tested a social-psychological intervention designed to improve minority student performance and increase our understanding of how psychological threat mediates performance in chronically evaluative real-world environments. We expected that the risk of confirming a negative stereotype aimed at one's group could undermine academic performance in minority students by elevating their level of psychological threat. We tested whether such psychological threat could be lessened by having students reaffirm their sense of personal adequacy or "self-integrity." The intervention, a brief in-class writing assignment, significantly improved the grades of African American students and reduced the racial achievement gap by 40%. These results suggest that the racial achievement gap, a major social concern in the United States, could be ameliorated by the use of timely and targeted social-psychological interventions.
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Two studies explored the role of implicit theories of intelligence in adolescents' mathematics achievement. In Study 1 with 373 7th graders, the belief that intelligence is malleable (incremental theory) predicted an upward trajectory in grades over the two years of junior high school, while a belief that intelligence is fixed (entity theory) predicted a flat trajectory. A mediational model including learning goals, positive beliefs about effort, and causal attributions and strategies was tested. In Study 2, an intervention teaching an incremental theory to 7th graders (N=48) promoted positive change in classroom motivation, compared with a control group (N=43). Simultaneously, students in the control group displayed a continuing downward trajectory in grades, while this decline was reversed for students in the experimental group.
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Three studies link resistance to probative information and intransigence in negotiation to concerns of identity maintenance. Each shows that affirmations of personal integrity (vs. nonaffirmation or threat) can reduce resistance and intransigence but that this effect occurs only when individuals' partisan identity and/or identity-related convictions are made salient. Affirmation made participants' assessment of a report critical of U.S. foreign policy less dependent on their political views, but only when the identity relevance of the issue rather than the goal of rationality was salient (Study 1). Affirmation increased concession making in a negotiation over abortion policy, but again this effect was moderated by identity salience (Studies 2 and 3). Indeed, although affirmed negotiators proved relatively more open to compromise when either the salience of their true convictions or the importance of remaining faithful to those convictions was heightened, the reverse was true when the salient goal was compromise. The theoretical and applied significance of these findings are discussed.
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This research demonstrates that people at risk of devaluation based on group membership are attuned to cues that signal social identity contingencies--judgments, stereotypes, opportunities, restrictions, and treatments that are tied to one's social identity in a given setting. In 3 experiments, African American professionals were attuned to minority representation and diversity philosophy cues when they were presented as a part of workplace settings. Low minority representation cues coupled with colorblindness (as opposed to valuing diversity) led African American professionals to perceive threatening identity contingencies and to distrust the setting (Experiment 1). The authors then verified that the mechanism mediating the effect of setting cues on trust was identity contingent evaluations (Experiments 2 & 3). The power of social identity contingencies as they relate to underrepresented groups in mainstream institutions is discussed.
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This chapter discusses, improving the academic performance of college students with brief attributional interventions. Attribution theory originated in the late 1950s and these theorists advocated a phenomenological approach to the study of human behavior. Consistent with a phenomenological approach, the focus is on the way the students perceive the causes of their poor performance because these attributions are believed to have important consequences that are independent of the actual causes. Attribution theory assumes that within this range of abilities, the explanation people make for their performance is crucial. The chapter reviews attempts to use attribution therapy to help college students improve their academic performance, beginning with a brief review of the history of attribution therapy. Re-attribution approach arose from a confluence of different research traditions. The chapter concludes that, re-attribution is a technique that attempts to change people's explanations about the dysfunctional behavior itself, regardless of whether that behavior is accompanied by physiological arousal.
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African American college students tend to obtain lower grades than their White counterparts, even when they enter college with equivalent test scores. Past research suggests that negative stereotypes impugning Black students' intellectual abilities play a role in this underperformance. Awareness of these stereotypes can psychologically threaten African Americans, a phenomenon known as “stereotype threat” (Steele & Aronson, 1995), which can in turn provoke responses that impair both academic performance and psychological engagement with academics. An experiment was performed to test a method of helping students resist these responses to stereotype threat. Specifically, students in the experimental condition of the experiment were encouraged to see intelligence—the object of the stereotype—as a malleable rather than fixed capacity. This mind-set was predicted to make students' performances less vulnerable to stereotype threat and help them maintain their psychological engagement with academics, both of which could help boost their college grades. Results were consistent with predictions. The African American students (and, to some degree, the White students) encouraged to view intelligence as malleable reported greater enjoyment of the academic process, greater academic engagement, and obtained higher grade point averages than their counterparts in two control groups.
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Self-affirmation processes are being activated by information that threatens the perceived adequacy or integrity of the self and as running their course until this perception is restored through explanation, rationalization, and/or action. The purpose of these constant explanations (and rationalizations) is to maintain a phenomenal experience of the self-self-conceptions and images as adaptively and morally adequate—that is, as competent, good, coherent, unitary, stable, capable of free choice, capable of controlling important outcomes, and so on. The research reported in this chapter focuses on the way people cope with the implications of threat to their self-regard rather than on the way they cope with the threat itself. This chapter analyzes the way coping processes restore self-regard rather than the way they address the provoking threat itself.
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Abstract—Recent studies have documented that performance in a domain is hindered when individuals feel that a sociocultural group to which they belong is negatively stereotyped in that domain. We report that implicit activation of a social identity can facilitate as well as impede performance on a quantitative task. When a particular social identity was made salient at an implicit level, performance was altered in the direction predicted by the stereotype associated with the identity. Common cultural stereotypes hold that Asians have superior quantitative skills compared with other ethnic groups and that women have inferior quantitative skills compared with men. We found that Asian-American women performed better on a mathematics test when their ethnic identity was activated, but worse when their gender identity was activated, compared with a control group who had neither identity activated. Cross-cultural investigation indicated that it was the stereotype, and not the identity per se, that influenced performance.
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This chapter provides an overview of self-affirmation theory. Self-affirmation theory asserts that the overall goal of the self-system is to protect an image of its self-integrity, of its moral and adaptive adequacy. When this image of self-integrity is threatened, people respond in such a way as to restore self-worth. The chapter illustrates how self-affirmation affects not only people's cognitive responses to threatening information and events, but also their physiological adaptations and actual behavior. It examines the ways in which self-affirmations reduce threats to the self at the collective level, such as when people confront threatening information about their groups. It reviews factors that qualify or limit the effectiveness of self-affirmations, including situations where affirmations backfire, and lead to greater defensiveness and discrimination. The chapter discusses the connection of self-affirmations theory to other motivational theories of self-defense and reviews relevant theoretical and empirical advances. It concludes with a discussion of the implications of self-affirmations theory for interpersonal relationships and coping.
Article
Standardized tests continue to generate gender and race gaps in achievement despite decades of national attention. Research on “stereotype threat” (Steele & Aronson, 1995) suggests that these gaps may be partly due to stereotypes that impugn the math abilities of females and the intellectual abilities of Black, Hispanic, and low-income students. A field experiment was performed to test methods of helping female, minority, and low-income adolescents overcome the anxiety-inducing effects of stereotype threat and, consequently, improve their standardized test scores. Specifically, seventh-grade students in the experimental conditions were mentored by college students who encouraged them either to view intelligence as malleable or to attribute academic difficulties in the seventh grade to the novelty of the educational setting. Results showed that females in both experimental conditions earned significantly higher math standardized test scores than females in the control condition. Similarly, the students—who were largely minority and low-income adolescents—in the experimental conditions earned significantly higher reading standardized test scores than students in the control condition.
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When a negative stereotype impugns the ability or worth of an outgroup, people may experience stereotype lift—a performance boost that occurs when downward comparisons are made with a denigrated outgroup. In a meta-analytic review, members of non-stereotyped groups were found to perform better when a negative stereotype about an outgroup was linked to an intellectual test than when it was not (d=.24,p<.0001). Notably, people appear to link negative stereotypes to evaluative tests more or less automatically. Simply presenting a test as diagnostic of ability was thus sufficient to induce stereotype lift. Only when negative stereotypes were explicitly invalidated or rendered irrelevant to the test did the lift effect disappear.
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The present research compared the relative effectiveness of an attribution strategy with a persuasion strategy in changing behavior. Study 1 attempted to teach fifth graders not to litter and to clean up after others. An attribution group was repeatedly told that they were neat and tidy people, a persuasion group was repeatedly told that they should be neat and tidy, and a control group received no treatment. Attribution proved considerably more effective in modifying behavior. Study 2 tried to discover whether similar effects would hold for a more central aspect of school performance, math achievement and self-esteem, and whether an attribution of ability would be as effective as an attribution of motivation. Repeatedly attributing to second graders either the ability or the motivation to do well in math proved more effective than comparable persuasion or no-treatment control groups, although a group receiving straight reinforcement for math problem-solving behavior also did well. It is suggested that persuasion often suffers because it involves a negative attribution (a person should be what he is not), while attribution generally gains because it disguises persuasive intent.
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Intelligence testing procedures allowing the separation of motivational from cognitive-achievement determinants of changes in Stanford-Binet IQ's were employed with culturally deprived children who did or did not attend nursery school. The children who attended nursery school increased significantly more in their IQ scores (standard administration) from the beginning to the end of the nursery school year than did the children who did not attend nursery school. The findings indicated that the increase in IQ which resulted from the nursery school experience was due to a reduction in the effects of debilitating motivational factors rather than to changes in rate of intellectual development.
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Collective threat is the fear that an in-group member's behavior might reinforce a negative stereotype of one's group. In a field study, self-reported collective threat was higher in stereotyped minorities than in Whites and was linked to lower self-esteem in both groups. In 3 experimental studies, a potentially poor performance by an in-group member on a stereotype-relevant task proved threatening, as evidenced by lower self-esteem among minority students in 2 experiments and women in a 3rd experiment. The latter study demonstrated the generality of collective threat. Collective threat also undermined academic performance and affected self-stereotyping, stereotype activation, and physical distancing from the in-group member. Results further suggest that group identification plays a role in whether people use an avoidance or challenge strategy in coping with collective threat. Implications for theories of social identity and stigmatization are discussed.
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Two studies examined whether chronic and situational expectations about being stigmatized predict attention toward cues that are threatening to social identity. In Study 1, women's chronic expectations about experiencing sexism were positively associated with their attention toward subliminal cues threatening to their social identity. In Study 2, women were vigilant toward subliminal cues threatening to their social identity when the experimental situation conveyed that their gender was devalued, but not when the experimental situation promoted value and respect for their gender. Women were vigilant toward consciously presented cues threatening to their social identity regardless of the attitudes the experimental context conveyed toward their group. These studies have important theoretical and practical implications for understanding the psychological experience of possessing a devalued social identity.
Article
Stigmatization can give rise to belonging uncertainty. In this state, people are sensitive to information diagnostic of the quality of their social connections. Two experiments tested how belonging uncertainty undermines the motivation and achievement of people whose group is negatively characterized in academic settings. In Experiment 1, students were led to believe that they might have few friends in an intellectual domain. Whereas White students were unaffected, Black students (stigmatized in academics) displayed a drop in their sense of belonging and potential. In Experiment 2, an intervention that mitigated doubts about social belonging in college raised the academic achievement (e.g., college grades) of Black students but not of White students. Implications for theories of achievement motivation and intervention are discussed.
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More than 100 articles have examined the construct of stereotype threat and its implications. However, stereotype threat seems to mean different things to different researchers and has been employed to describe and explain processes and phenomena that appear to be fundamentally distinct. Complementing existing models, the authors posit a Multi-Threat Framework in which six qualitatively distinct stereotype threats arise from the intersection of two dimensions--the target of the threat (the self/one's group) and the source of the threat (the self/outgroup others/ingroup others). The authors propose that these threats constitute the core of the broader stereotype threat construct and provide the foundation for understanding additional, as of yet uncharacterized, stereotype threats. The proposed threats likely differentially peril those with different stigmatizable characteristics, have different eliciting conditions and moderators, are mediated by somewhat different processes, are coped with and compensated for in different ways, and require different interventions to overcome.
A barrier of mistrust: How negative stereotypes affect cross-race mentoring Improving academic achievement: Impact of psychological factors on education
  • G L Cohen
  • C M Steele
Cohen, G.L., & Steele, C.M. (2002). A barrier of mistrust: How negative stereotypes affect cross-race mentoring. In J. Aronson (Ed.), Improving academic achievement: Impact of psychological factors on education (pp. 303–328). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
Social stigma The handbook of social psychology
  • J Crocker
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Crocker, J., Major, B., & Steele, C. (1998). Social stigma. In D.T. Gilbert, S.T. Fiske, & G. Lindzey (Eds.), The handbook of social psychology (Vol. 2, pp. 504–553). New York: McGraw-Hill. A comprehensive and thoughtful review of research on the psychological implica-tions of stigmatization.
The gender-gap artifact: Women's underperformance in quantitative domains through the lens of stereotype threat Gender differences in mathematics: An integrative psychological approach (pp. 172–188) An important analysis of the implications of stereotype threat for the gender gap in math and science
  • P G Davies
  • S J Spencer
Davies, P.G., & Spencer, S.J. (2005). The gender-gap artifact: Women's underperformance in quantitative domains through the lens of stereotype threat. In A.M. Gallagher & J.C. Kaufman (Eds.), Gender differences in mathematics: An integrative psychological approach (pp. 172–188). New York: Cambridge University Press. An important analysis of the implications of stereotype threat for the gender gap in math and science.