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Qualitative Data Analysis Techniques



The explanation of how one carries out the data analysis process is an area that is sadly neglected by many researchers. This paper presents a variety of data analysis techniques described by various qualitative researchers, such as LeCompte and Schensul, Wolcott, and Miles and Huberman. It further shares several activities used to teach qualitative data analysis techniques to students of qualitative research methods.
... Data analysis is the process of reducing the collected data in order to interpret and make sense of it (Kawulich, 2004). The process of data analysis includes organising the data, conducting a preliminary read-through of the data, coding and categorising, interpreting the data and presenting the data (Creswell, 2013;Kawulich, 2004). ...
... Data analysis is the process of reducing the collected data in order to interpret and make sense of it (Kawulich, 2004). The process of data analysis includes organising the data, conducting a preliminary read-through of the data, coding and categorising, interpreting the data and presenting the data (Creswell, 2013;Kawulich, 2004). Most of the data organising for this study was done during the transcribing phase, where a standard template was used to transcribe the interviews. ...
... The process of coding of this study was primarily data-driven (Gibbs, 2012) since no predetermined codes were applied. A data-driven approach to coding involves inductive code development using the data collected for the study worked on which is different from theory and research driven coding which involve prior research and/or existing coding themes being used to code and categorise the data (Kawulich, 2004). Creswell (2013) relates that an inductive approach requires clearly defined research questions which, for this study, is discussed in Chapter 1. Gibson and O'Connor (2003) highlight the importance of keeping the research questions top of mind when analysing the data to ensure that the analysis remains focussed on achieving the research objectives. ...
... The informants can be mapped along the value chain of the stakeholders belonging to the AIS framework, as shown in Figure 1. Data were analyzed through narrative analysis (Kawulich 2004) to identify common narrative patterns. ...
... Following the narrative analysis of qualitative data (Kawulich 2004), it is possible to identify a common path focused on the dissemination of information. Even if in different forms, it is possible to gauge the levels of commitment by the various stakeholders to increasing farmers' knowledge and skills on BXW control. ...
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Banana Xanthomonas Wilt (BXW) poses a serious threat to livelihoods and food security for millions of households in Africa. Despite considerable investments in Uganda by the Government and other national and international stakeholders, the disease persists in the country after periods of significant resurgence. Building on the Agricultural Innovation Systems framework, this paper reviews the role of the major stakeholders involved in controlling the disease in Uganda. Next, using household survey data, it analyzes economic costs and benefits of adopting an integrated BXW control package for the Ugandan smallholder farmers. After 2015, there has been a significant reduction in both public and private investments in BXW management, which may contribute to future disease resurgence. Our analysis reveals a high level of partial adoption of BXW recommended practices, and just a third of farmers adopting a full control package. This means significant economic losses for non-adopters, as indicated by our findings that households adopting the full package registered a net balance of US$65 per acre higher than non-adopters. We find that disproportionally large costs need to be borne at the beginning of the process, while the benefits are distributed over time, which may present a barrier to adoption by resource-poor smallholders.
... The design of this study was descriptive qualitative that 'aims to seek thorough information about a particular issue' (Kawulich, 2015). It brings a goal to describe the characteristics or phenomenon. ...
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The effort to enhance students’ engagement in the EFL classroom is still becoming an issue. Fortunately, some studies have shown a positive correlation between technology utilization to elevate the students’ engagement. Based on that potential finding, this study aims at digging out the impact of Mentimeter, as one of the popular tools in this recent time, on EFL students’ engagement. It is a descriptive qualitative study. There are 70 respondents of the non-English students that were selected by using purposive sampling. The results of the study reveal that there are three most prominent students' positive perception towards the implementation of Mentimeter in the EFL classroom, namely practicality, anonymity, and freedom. Those three aspects foster the students to be engaged in the process of English learning. Then, most students perceive that no reason makes them dislike Mentimeter usage in the EFL classroom. The next finding depicts a significant impact of Mentimeter on the students’ engagement in English learning by giving opinions and discussion activities. It was proven with the percentage of students’ participation, reaching 82% and 91%, above the average of Mentimeter participants’ contribution.
... Qualitative research encompasses different data collection and analytical approaches to providea cultural and contextual description and interpretation of social phenomenon (Vaismoradi & Snelgrove, 2019). Though there exist various techniques of analysis, it is not helpful to be overwhelmed with the variety because there is no concrete prescribed way to address the analysis process (Kawulich, 2004). However, as noted by Creswell (2007), data analysis in qualitative research consists of preparing and organizing the data for analysis (transcribing), reducing the data into themes through a process of coding and condensing the codes. ...
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This research sought to explore the Indigenous Conflict Resolution Mechanism (ICRM) of Shekacho people in Sheka Zone, South West Ethiopia. The ICRM of Shekacho has organized procedure, structure, and actors who actively participate in the system. The procedures in ICRM of Shekacho people pass through two sequential phases of conflict resolution—intervention and resolution. However, despite this reality, it has no strong or formal relationship with the modern conflict adjudication system. Thus, this research ague for the provision of support from the government and establishing an enabling system for building a working relationship between the indigenous system and the modern adjudication system. Furthermore, higher academic institutions need to play their role by giving awareness-raising training for concerned stakeholders regarding the role of indigenous knowledge in modern governance. Keywords: conflict, indigenous conflict resolution, clan leaders, elders, mikirecho.
... Narrative methods use interviews and sometimes documents or observations to "follow participants down their trails" (Riessman, 2008, p.24) and seek to put together the "big picture" about experiences or events as the participants understand them (Schutt, 2011, p.329). The focus of narrative analysis is to discover repeated similarities in people's stories (Kawulich, 2004). Here, the researcher analyzed the key ideas and take-away lessons from the answers to the questions in the interview and juxtaposed them with existing understanding of marketing theories and concepts. ...
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The phenomenon of social enterprise as a model that sustainably solves society’s serious challenges is gaining currency among a new crop of African entrepreneurs, and this novel business model might just be the key to unlocking Africa’s potential. In spite of the tremendous possibilities it holds, African social entrepreneurs are yet to crack the code on how to effectively market their social initiatives. Social enterprise draws a sharp contrast with the traditional corporate enterprise, which is mainly profit and shareholder-value driven, and the non-profit organization, which is overly dependent on donor support. Owing to the difference in mission, objectives, target market, stakeholders and financing model, the marketing function is remarkably different in each of these three organizational models. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of the traditional marketing strategies used in social enterprises in Africa. We asked the question: what marketing strategies do social enterprises in Ghana employ, and how effective are they? We also investigated to determine whether alternative marketing strategies would yield better results for Ghanaian social enterprises, and attempted to develop such a marketing model that is tailored to their needs. The methodology for this research was a three-step approach. First, informal one-on-one discussions were held with more than 30 social enterprise practitioners operating from several countries to determine the primary research questions and thematic areas of interest. Secondly, an in-depth semi-structured interview was conducted with top management executives of two peak performing social enterprises in Ghana – mPedigree and Soronko Academy – to ascertain the validity and contextual applicability of those themes that emerged from the previous informal discussions. Finally, desk research and archival reviews were undertaken on a third social enterprise, mPharma. The findings of the research show that, the marketing strategies employed by Ghanaian social enterprises are a function of which side of the corporate-NGO continuum they are on. The approach of those enterprises which operate like corporate organizations (sometimes called “corporate social enterprises”) is usually traditional; the marketing methods of those organizations which operate like NGOs tend to be more subdued, quiet but equally effective, and finally, the style of those in the “awkward middle” of the divide, which combine both the corporate and NGO methods is more dynamic, flexible and innovative. The results of this study revealed nine cardinal marketing approaches, namely, focus on beneficiaries; stakeholder engagement and ecosystem participation; partnerships and network; value co-creation and cost determination; sound of story; impact communication; thought-leadership and personal branding; guerrilla marketing; and lean and agile marketing. These nine themes, which this study calls alternative marketing, are the ingredients for cooking a sellable social initiative. Using these findings, a model which represents the building blocks for effectively marketing social enterprises in Africa and beyond has been proposed. The originality of this study lies in the development of a unified model of marketing that has the beneficiary at the core of it, and attempts to incorporate both strategic and functional elements of marketing. The limitation of the study is that, like all models which are based on “practices,” the finding of this work is subjective. Since this research focused on cases of success, future research can investigate the marketing in failed cases of social enterprises, to determine whether they also incorporated some of these same elements in their marketing strategies. An investigation into how the business-to-business (B2B) versus business-to-customer (B2C) dynamics within a social enterprise impacts their marketing strategy and marketing effectiveness is also recommended for future researchers.
... A data-driven coding approach for analysis will be used. According to Kawulich's (2004) inductive coding (analysis of raw textual data) process the open coding, axial coding, and selective coding steps will be applied. The codes will be classified and themes will be created based on the experience of the participants with subthemes and categories to form a conceptual framework. ...
Research Proposal
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This study aims to identify the positive and negative effects of Wattpad fanfiction on female teens of Pakistan. The study wants to explore the female students who read or write Wattpad fanfiction, whether it has a positive effect on their academic skills of literature fulfilling the knowledge gap or is rather playing a negative role in their academic development. What are the reasons for teenagers to use this medium and write fanfiction? What status do the teens who are famous for writing fanfictions give themselves and what roles do that play for their self-esteem and confidence academically.
Nigerian criminologists always turn to Western criminological theories in studying crime and criminal behavior. Even in cases where Western criminological theories cannot fully account for the phenomenon or phenomena under investigation, they often employ those established theories because there are no local options. In the light of a study of convicted armed robbers in Kirikiri Maximum Security Prison in Lagos, Nigeria, this chapter argues that Western theoretical perspectives are insufficient to explain crime and criminal behavior in the Nigerian social structure. The chapter proposes the development of Nigerian criminology to explain crime and criminal behavior in a uniquely Nigerian manner.
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This empirical paper sought to determine the lack of public participation and good governance, and to understand who is turning the blind eye on the issue. Local government municipalities have the obligation to exercise good governance, this is to ensure that there is quality service delivery and engagements between the municipalities becomes greater. Therefore, the municipalities are therefore responsible to establish the criterion for participation, transparency, adherence to the rule of law, effectiveness, equity, responsibility, accountability, and consistency. However, in the local government all these important aspects of good governance are neglected and avoided. The question of who is fooling who? Is basically an intention to point out that the idea of good governance does not have a single side but the public, the organisations and the state are included? For the good governance and the democracy of participation there must be an increase in the quality of feedback and the processes of policy formulation, and most importantly with the prevalence of participation. In the south African local government, municipalities have diluted the importance of public participation and that has caused the growing corruption scandals, protests, low service delivery and failing governments.
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