Motor Outcomes in Children Exposed to Early Psychosocial Deprivation

Department of Neurology, Boston Children's Hospital/Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA
The Journal of pediatrics (Impact Factor: 3.79). 10/2013; 164(1). DOI: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2013.09.026
Source: PubMed


To determine the effect of psychosocial deprivation early in life on motor development, assess the impact of a foster care intervention on improving motor development, and assess the association between motor and cognitive outcomes in children with a history of institutional care.
In a randomized controlled trial, children living in Romanian institutions were randomly assigned to care as usual in the institution or placed in family-centered foster care as part of the Bucharest Early Intervention Project. The average age at placement into foster care was 23 months. At age 8 years, the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency, Second Edition, Short Form (BOT2-SF) was applied to assess the motor proficiency of children in both groups, as well as a never-institutionalized group from the Romanian community.
Children in the never-institutionalized group did significantly better on the BOT2-SF than children who had ever been institutionalized (P < .001). There was no significant difference in performance between children in the care as usual group and the foster care group. This finding also held true for all individual items on the BOT2-SF except sit-ups. Regression analyses revealed that the between-group and within-group differences in BOT2-SF scores were largely mediated by IQ.
Early deprivation had a negative effect on motor development that was not resolved by placement in foster care. This effect was predominantly mediated by IQ. This study highlights the importance of monitoring for and addressing motor delays in children with a history of institutionalization, particularly those children with low IQ.

Download full-text


Available from: Charles H Zeanah, Feb 08, 2014
  • Source
    • "• Emotional difficulties sustained through childhood (Colvert et al., 2008). • Negative effects on motor development in children who were psychosocially deprived in these orphanages (Levin et al., 2014) • Disruptions in the development of the neural circuitry involved in the recognition of facial expressions, due to psychosocial deprivation (Parker and Nelson, 2005) Rutter et al. (1999) drew the tentative conclusion that prolonged experience of such terrible social and non-social privation was responsible for these quasi-autistic symptoms. Hobson is less tentative: the circumstances of these institutions led to a form of induced autism. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: What happens when subjects are deprived of intersubjective contact? This paper looks closely at the phenomenology and psychology of one example of that deprivation: solitary confinement. It also puts the phenomenology and psychology of solitary confinement to use in the legal context. Not only is there no consensus on whether solitary confinement is a "cruel and unusual punishment," there is no consensus on the definition of the term "cruel" in the use of that legal phrase. I argue that we can find a moral consensus on the meaning of "cruelty" by looking specifically at the phenomenology and psychology of solitary confinement.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · Frontiers in Psychology
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To determine the risk of difficulties with social communication and restricted/repetitive behaviors as well as the rate of autism in children institutionalized in early infancy and to assess the impact of a foster care intervention on ameliorating this risk. Children abandoned at birth and raised in institutions in Bucharest, Romania were randomly assigned to a care-as-usual group (institutional care, CAUG), or placed in family-centered foster care (FCG) as part of the Bucharest Early Intervention Project (BEIP). At approximately 10 years of age, the Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ) was administered to caregivers of children in both groups as well as to parents of a typically developing community sample (Never-Institutionalized group [NIG]) residing in Bucharest, Romania. Children scoring ≥12 on the SCQ underwent clinical evaluation for autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Caregivers of children with a history of institutionalization reported that these children had significantly more deviant behavior than never-institutionalized children on all subdomains of the SCQ (all p < 0.001). Children in the FCG had significantly lower scores on the SCQ than children in the CAUG (p < .001), particularly in the reciprocal social interaction domain, indicating that the intervention reduced problems in social communication. Three of 60 CAUG children, 2 of 57 FCG children, and none of the NIG children received a formal ASD diagnosis. Early institutional rearing was associated with an increased risk of social communication difficulties and ASD. A family-centered foster care intervention improved social communication skills. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A number of studies suggest a positive association between faster infant motor development and intellectual function in childhood and adolescence. However, studies investigating the relationship between infant motor development and intelligence in adulthood are lacking. To investigate whether age at achievement of 12 motor developmental milestones was associated with adult intelligence and to evaluate the influence of sex, parental social status, parity, mother's cigarette consumption in the last trimester, gestational age, birthweight, and birth length on this association. Mothers of 9125 children of the Copenhagen Perinatal Cohort recorded 12 developmental milestones during the child's first year of life. A subsample of the cohort comprising 1155 individuals participated in a follow-up when they were aged 20-34 years and were administered the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS). Associations between motor developmental milestones and IQ were analysed by multiple linear regression adjusting for potential confounding factors. Later acquisition of infant developmental milestones was associated with lower subsequent IQ, and the majority of significant associations were found for Performance IQ. Correlations were generally small (r<0.10), but significant interactions were found between parental social status and age of attaining developmental milestones, with associations being significantly stronger in the offspring of lower social status parents. The effects remained significant after adjusting for possible confounding factors. This is the first study to find significant interactions with parental social status, thereby suggesting that associations between early motor development and intelligence are stronger in infants of low social status parents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · May 2015 · Early human development