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Abstract OBJECTIVE: To compare pregnancy outcome between deliveries complicated by new onset of meconium during labor following prior evidence of clear amniotic fluid and labors in which meconium was present to begin with. A retrospective cohort study of all singleton term (≥37+0 weeks) deliveries complicated by intrapartum meconium stained amniotic fluid in a tertiary referral medical center during the year 2012. Outcome was compared between deliveries with new onset of meconium during labor following prior evidence of clear amniotic fluid (secondary meconium group) and those in which meconium was already evident at the time of membranes rupture (primary meconium group). Of the 9,167 deliveries during the study period, 694 were eligible for the study group. Of these, 537 were complicated by primary meconium and 157 by secondary meconium. Only secondary meconium, but not primary meconium, was independently associated with an increased risk of operative vaginal delivery (OVD) and adverse neonatal outcome. Pregnancies complicated by secondary meconium were independently associated with a higher rate of OVD (28.0% vs. 11.4%, P<0.001), POP position of the fetal head (6.4% vs.2.6%, P=0.02), and adverse neonatal outcome (17.2% vs. 8.9%, P=0.003). Secondary meconium is associated with a higher rate of adverse obstetrical and neonatal outcome compared with primary meconium.

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... MSAF at birth is a relatively common event, and the rate of associated complications is relatively high. Previous factors associated with poor outcome included preterm birth (<37 weeks) [16,17], thick meconial amniotic fluid [18,19], associated placental pathology [20], and meconium ingestion during active birth [21,22]. However, it is unclear which factors impose the highest maternal and neonatal risk, specifically -prolonged meconium exposure associated with placental changes, or new onset meconium at birth, possibly indicative of fetal distress. ...
... The authors demonstrated a significantly higher rate of adverse outcomes in cases of clear amniotic fluid which became meconial. Additional studies have shown similar results [21,22], hence the basis for the assertion that acute meconium is a risk factor for fetal morbidity. Our results are in line with these findings and confirm this assumption on histological basis. ...
Article
Objective We aimed to compare obstetric and neonatal outcomes of deliveries complicated by meconium stained amniotic fluid (MSAF), according to placental histology of continuous vs. acute meconium associated changes. Methods This was a retrospective cohort study of singleton deliveries complicated by MSAF at a single university-affiliated medical center during 2008–2018. Obstetric and neonatal outcomes were compared between cases with placental acute vs. continuous meconium exposure associated changes (columnar epithelial changes and meconium-laden macrophages, respectively). Regression analysis was used to identify independent associations with adverse neonatal outcomes. Results The medical records of 294 deliveries at our institution were reviewed, along with medical records of the neonates and the histopathological reports of their placentas. Ninety-two cases were classified as an acute placental reaction to meconium (acute exposure group) and 200 as continuous placental exposure (continuous exposure group). Patient demographics did not differ between groups. Placentas from the continuous exposure to meconium were associated with a higher rate of placental weight <10th percentile (p = 0.03) while the acute exposure group was associated with a shorter time between rupture of membranes and delivery (p = 0.02). and higher rates of non-reassuring fetal heart rate in labor (p = 0.003), and of adverse neonatal outcome (p = 0.02). In multivariable analysis adverse neonatal outcome was associated with acute histologic exposure to meconium independent of background confounders (aOR = 1.51, 95% CI 1.12–3.67). Conclusions Acute histological changes of MSAF were independently associated with adverse neonatal outcomes as compared to continuous histologic MSAF.
... 38 The limitations of our study were mainly due to its retrospective design. Data regarding possible confounders, such as maternal ethnicity and the timing of in utero meconium appearance, which was shown to affect the risk for adverse outcome, 39 were lacking. Moreover, data regarding MSAF thickness, which was previously shown to be associated with neonatal adverse outcome, 40 were also missing. ...
Article
Objective To assess the association of gestational age at delivery with perinatal outcome in low-risk term deliveries complicated by meconium-stained amniotic fluid (MSAF). Methods We retrospectively analyzed all singleton deliveries that underwent a trial of labor in a single hospital (2007–2013). Exclusion criteria included pregnancy-related complications (e.g., hypertensive disorders, diabetes, oligohydramnios, and fetal anomalies). First, only deliveries with MSAF were analyzed. Perinatal outcome of deliveries at 370/7 to 386/7 weeks (early term) and 410/7 to 416/7 weeks (late term) were compared with those at 390/7 to 406/7 weeks of gestation (full term). Additionally, a gestational age based comparison was made between the risk for neonatal respiratory morbidity in deliveries with clear amniotic fluid and MSAF. Results During the study period, 28,248 deliveries were considered as low risk. Of them, 3,399 (12.0%) were diagnosed with MSAF and were divided to full term (n = 2,413), early term (n = 405), and late term (n = 581). In multivariate analysis, MSAF at early term was associated with neonatal jaundice, need for phototherapy, and neonatal sepsis. In a gestational age based stratification, when comparing between deliveries with clear amniotic fluid and those with MSAF, late term had the highest odds (4.2 vs. 0.5%; p < 0.001) for neonatal respiratory morbidity. Conclusion Gestational age was associated with specific complications in deliveries complicated by MSAF and otherwise low-risk deliveries.
... The management of neonates who had features of birth asphyxia was started just after delivery as per protocol. The response was favourable in neonates in whom the meconium was new onset, 22 labour duration was less than 3 hours, intrapartum CTG was reassuring and birth weight of neonates was less than 3 Kg. 23 MAS is a known and deadliest complication of MSAF. ...
Article
BACKGROUND Meconium stained amniotic fluid (MSAF) occurs in 12 - 15 % of all deliveries and is frequently associated with adverse outcome in pregnancy. The present study was carried out to find out the maternal and fetal outcome in pregnancy complicated by meconium stained liquor in labour. METHODS This retrospective study was carried out at a tertiary care centre at Pune. A total of 340 cases who had meconium stained liquor during labour or was detected on amniotomy was analysed. RESULTS Out of 340 cases, 252 (74.1 %) had thin and 88 (25.9 %) had thick meconium. MSAF was detected more in early labour (244, 71.8 %), as compared to advanced labour (96, 28.2 %). 212 (84.13 %) patients with thin meconium delivered by vaginal route. 30 (34.09 %) patients with thick meconium delivered by vaginal route. 40 (15.87 %) patients with thin meconium delivered by LSCS and 58 (65.91 %) with thick meconium delivered by LSCS. This difference was statistically significant (< 0.001). Being multiparous was a protective factor both for mother and baby against the presence of MSAF. A majority of neonates, 199 (58.53 %) were asymptomatic at birth both in thin and thick MSAF group. Endotracheal suctioning was done in 101 (29.7 %) neonates in both groups. 40 neonates (11.77 %) were admitted to NICU for severe birth asphyxia. Meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS) was observed in 20 cases (5.88 %), out of which 18 (90 %) had thick meconium and 02 (10 %) had thin meconium. A total of 04 (1.18 %) neonatal deaths occurred due to MAS. They were born to primigravida, had induced onset of labour with detection of thick meconium and delivered vaginally. CONCLUSIONS Meconium stained amniotic fluid (MSAF) is associated with increased incidence of caesarean section, lower Apgar score, NICU admissions, development of meconium aspiration syndrome and neonatal death. Obstetrician should be more vigilant while dealing with cases of thick type of MSAF. A timely caesarean section improves the neonatal outcome.
... Meconium-stained liquor (MSL) is the passage of meconium in the antenatal or labor cycle by a fetus in utero [11]. In the intrapartum treatment guideline, meconium-stained amniotic fluid is graded as an important MSL and non-important MSL, according to the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (RCOG) [12]. Non-important MSL is classified as a thin yellow or greenish tinged fluid; it contains nonparticular meconium, while significant MSL is defined as a dense and stubborn, dark green or black amniotic fluid consisting of the meconium bumps [13]. ...
Article
Objective This study aimed to determine the association of Apgar score with meconium staining of amniotic fluid in labor. Methodology A retrospective observational study was carried out through the non-probability convenient sampling technique at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology for a duration of six months. Only those women were selected who had more than 24 weeks of gestation period. The women were excluded on the basis of risk factors for fetal distress and breech in late labor. Results A total of 216 pregnant women were selected from the labor room in this study. The mean age of the women was 26.57±4.28 years. The gestational age of the women was 36.09±4.11 weeks. Moreover, the mean parity of pregnant women was 1.68±2.53. It has been observed that the women who had meconium staining, the neonates of 144(77.4%) women showed the Apgar score of less than six at one minute. However, for the women without meconium staining, the neonates of only 15(50%) women showed the Apgar score of less than six at the one-minute interval with a significant association (p=0.02). With respect to age groups, a significant association of meconium staining with Apgar score was noted in the 21-30 years age group, whereas, no significant association was seen in other age groups. Similarly, a significant association of meconium staining and Apgar score was noted in primiparous women, whereas, no significant association was noted in multiparous women. No significant association of Apgar score and meconium staining was seen with respect to the mode of delivery. Conclusion The study has found a relation between the Apgar score and meconium staining of amniotic fluid and reported that the Apgar score of less than six at one minute was significantly associated with meconium staining of amniotic fluid.
... They also described that "early light MSAF (constituting over half of all meconium cases) was not associated with any increased intrapartum or neonatal morbidity or death. Hiersch et al. [18] found that the latter is associated with higher rate of both adverse [19] found that secondary MSAF was associated with poorer neonatal outcomes including NICU admission, increased risk for low 5 min Apgar score and umbilical artery pH < 7.1 compared with controls with clear AF; Meis et al. [20] found, in another paper, that the combination of late passage of meconium in labor with NRFHRM may indicate a fetus at risk for asphyxia. However, all of these were of relatively small sample. ...
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Objective: The objective of this study is to compare pregnancy outcomes in deliveries complicated by primary meconium-stained amniotic fluid (MSAF, present at membrane rupture) and secondary MSAF (transitioned from clear to MSAF during labor). Methods: The medical records and neonatal charts of all deliveries ≥ 370/7 weeks between October 2008 and July 2018 were reviewed. The primary outcome was composite adverse neonatal outcome that included early neonatal complications. Results: Of 30,215 deliveries during the study period, 4302 (14.2 %) were included: 3845 (89.4%) in the primary MSAF group and 457 (10.6%) in the secondary MSAF group. The rate of the primary outcome was higher in the secondary MSAF group (p = 0.006). This association remained significant after controlling for background confounders. The secondary MSAF group had higher rate of cesarean deliveries (CDs) and assisted vaginal deliveries. There was a higher rate of composite adverse neonatal outcome when secondary MSAF was diagnosed < 3 vs. >3 h before delivery (p = 0.004). Conclusion: Secondary MSAF was associated with higher rates of adverse neonatal outcome, CDs, and assisted vaginal deliveries, compared with primary MSAF.
... The limitations of our study were mainly due to its retrospective nature. Data regarding the timing of in utero meconium appearance, which was shown to affect the risk for adverse outcome 35,36 were lacking. Moreover, other potential confounders for adverse pregnancy outcome, such as the rate of maternal obesity and smoking were missing. ...
Article
Objective This study aims to determine the impact of meconium-stained amniotic fluid (MSAF) in low-risk pregnancies at term on pregnancy outcome. Study Design A retrospective cohort study of women with MSAF during labor who delivered in a tertiary hospital at 37 to 41⁺⁶ weeks of gestation (2007–2013). Exclusion criteria included: multiple gestations, noncephalic presentation, fetal structural/chromosomal anomalies, hypertensive disorders, diabetes, oligohydramnios, or small for gestational age. Pregnancy outcome of women with MSAF (N = 4,893) was compared with a control group of women without MSAF (N = 39,651). Neonatal respiratory morbidity was defined as the presence of any of the following: respiratory distress syndrome, transient tachypnea of the newborn, meconium aspiration syndrome, or need for ventilatory support. Results Overall, 10.9% of low-risk pregnancies at term were diagnosed with MSAF. Compared with the controls, women with MSAF had higher rates of nulliparity, gestational age at delivery ≥ 41 weeks, induction of labor, nonreassuring fetal heart rate, and operative deliveries. In multivariate analysis MSAF was associated with operative delivery (odds ratio [OR], 1.82; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.63–2.09; p < 0.001), cesarean section (OR, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.31–1.69; p < 0.001), respiratory morbidity (OR, 4.74; 95% CI, 3.87–5.82; p < 0.001), and increased risk for short-term neonatal morbidity. Conclusions MSAF is associated with a higher rate of adverse perinatal outcome even in low-risk pregnancies at term.
... 15 21 22 The lack of an association with increased risk of MAS could be explained by the fact that MSAF in post-term deliveries may merely be a sign of fetal maturity rather than a result of intrauterine insult. [22][23][24] The higher rate of NICU admissions in our post-term neonates may have been due to their increased risk of culturepositive sepsis and need for antibiotic treatment. The higher rate of respiratory morbidity and hypoglycaemia in this group could also have played a role. ...
Objective To determine the independent association of post-term pregnancy with neonatal outcome in low-risk newborns. Design Retrospective cohort. Setting Tertiary university-affiliated medical centre. Patients All newborns of low-risk singleton pregnancies born at 39+0 to 44+0 weeks’ gestation over a 5-year period. Exclusion criteria: multiple gestation, maternal hypertensive disorder, diabetes or cholestasis, placental abruption or intrapartum fever (>38°C), small for gestational age (<10th centile) and major congenital or chromosomal anomalies. Interventions None. Outcome measures Admission to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), hospital length of stay, 5-min Apgar score, birth trauma, respiratory, neurological, metabolic and infectious morbidities and neonatal mortality. The adverse outcome rate was compared among three groups based on gestational age at birth: post-term (≥42+0 weeks), late term (41+0 to 41+6 weeks) and full term (39+0 to 40+6 weeks). Results Of the 23 524 eligible neonates, 747 (3.2%) were born post-term, 4632 (19.7%) late term and 18 145 (77.1%) full term. Women in the post-term group versus the late-term group had a significantly higher rate of caesarean section (8.9% vs 5.6%, p<0.001) and operative vaginal delivery (9.6% vs 7.4%, p=0.024). Post-term pregnancy versus full-term pregnancy was associated with an increased risk of NICU admission (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.4 to 2.8), respiratory morbidity (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.3 to 3.8) and infectious morbidity (OR 1.88, 95% CI 1.32 to 2.69). Post-term pregnancy versus late-term pregnancy was similarly associated with an increased risk of NICU admission (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.4 to 2.9), respiratory morbidity (OR 2.7, 95% CI 1.5 to 5.0) and infectious morbidity (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.2 to 2.7) and with hypoglycaemia (OR 2.6, 95% CI 1.2 to 5.4). Post-term delivery was not associated with neonatal mortality. Conclusions Post-term pregnancy is an independent risk factor for neonatal morbidity even in low-risk singleton pregnancies.
... After the fetal membrane rupture, amniotic fluid is feces, which is primary. After the fetal membrane rupture, the amniotic fluid is clear; along with the progress of the production process, the amniotic fluid gradually changes from brightening to feces dye, for secondary pollution [19]. Secondary meconium contamination cord was associated with meconium neonatal fetal distress and other poor neonatal prognoses, and primary amniotic fluid meconium contamination was associated with adverse outcomes [20]. ...
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Background: This paper aims to investigate the correlation between high mobility group protein-1 (HMG-b1), antioxidant enzyme-1 (paraoxon-1, PON-1), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, MCP-1), P. gingivalis, and MSAF. Materials and methods: The total sample size comprised of 73 cases in both groups. These patients were further subdivided into 2 groups: the MSAF group and the control group. 38 women were in the MSAF group and 35 women with term amniotic fluid serum were in the control group. The MSAF group was selected as a full-term singleton amniotic fluid fecal infection group. Clinical data were collected, and specimens were collected. Fecal staining of amniotic fluid and full-term amniotic fluid removes the placenta and umbilical cord blood. The expression of HMGB1 in the placenta was observed by immune-histochemical staining of MSAF and control groups. The content of PON-1 in cord blood was determined by ELISA. Results: Correlation between maternal and neonatal clinical data and MSAF was done; MSAF group mean gestational age was 41.38 ± 1.40 weeks; control group mean gestational age was 39.20 ± 1.24 weeks. This study found no correlation between the birth weight, maternal age, sex, first/transmaternal, hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, and anemia between the MSAF and control group with nonsignificant P value (P > 0.05). However, the fatal age, gestational diabetes, gestational hypertension, umbilical cord abnormalities, placental abnormalities, and neonatal asphyxia factors were statistically different with a significant P value of <0.05 between both groups. HMGB1 and Periodontal P. gingivalis are mostly expressed in placental trophoblast, vascular endothelial cells, and amniotic epithelial and interstitial cells. After HE staining of 72 placentas by HE in MSAF and control, 6 had acute chorioamnionitis (5.1 control), 32 had chronic (23.9), 35 had abnormal placentas, and three in MSAF had chorionic columnar metaplasia. In immune-histochemistry experiments, the HMGB1 expression intensity of placental tissue was higher in the MSAF group (P < 0.05); however, the level of PON-1 was lower in the MSAF group as compared to the controls (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Gestational age and placental abnormalities are clinical high-risk factors for MSAF. HMGB1, PON-1, MCP-1, and Periodontal P. gingivalis may be involved in the development of MSAF, suggesting an oxidative/antioxidant imbalance with inflammation, and may be one of the mechanisms for MSAF development.
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Background Transition of clear amniotic fluid to meconium‐stained fluid is a relatively common occurrence during labor. However, data regarding the clinical significance and the prognostic value of the presence of meconium‐stained amnionic fluid (MSAF) are scarce. This study aimed to investigate delivery and neonatal outcomes according to the presence of MSAF and the timing of the meconium passage. Methods We used an historical cohort study at a single tertiary medical center in Israel between the years 2011 and 2018. Women were divided into two groups according to timing of meconium passage: primary MSAF (MSAF present at membrane rupture) and secondary MSAF (clear amnionic fluid that transitioned to MSAF during labor). Neonatal complication rates were compared between groups. Composite adverse neonatal outcome was defined as arterial cord blood pH <7.1, 5 min Apgar score ≤7, and/or neonatal intensive care unit admission. Results The study cohort included 56 863 singleton term births. Of these, 9043 (15.9%) were to women who had primary MSAF, and 1484 (2.6%) to those with secondary MSAF. Secondary MSAF compared with primary MSAF increased the risks of cesarean birth and operative vaginal delivery, increased the risks of low one‐ and five‐minute Apgar scores and low arterial cord blood pH, and increased hospital stay duration. Multivariate analysis revealed that secondary MSAF was independently associated with an increased risk of composite adverse neonatal outcome (OR1.68, 95% CI 1.25–2.24, p < 0.001) compared with primary MSAF. Conclusions In this sample, secondary MSAF was associated with more adverse neonatal outcomes than primary MSAF. Closer monitoring of fetal well‐being may be prudent in these cases.
Article
Despite the many efforts to study the (patho)physiology of meconium release before delivery, it still remains an indistinct subject. Some studies have reported a relationship between hypoxia and MSAF, whilst others have not. The most common association found however, is between MSAF and the term of gestation. MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane library were electronically searched. Papers about the (patho)physiology of meconium-stained amniotic fluid in English were included. Papers about management strategies were excluded (see elsewhere this issue). Different theories have been proposed including acute or chronic hypoxia, physiologic foetal ripening and peripartum infection. We suggest that meconium-stained amniotic fluid should be regarded as a symptom rather than a syndrome becoming more prevalent with increasing term and which might be associated with higher levels of infection or asphyxia.
Article
Objective: To investigate the effect of using fetal scalp blood sampling on the risk of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (NRDS) with meconium-stained amniotic fluid (MSAF). Methods: Prospective data collection with regard to MSAF during labor for low-risk term cephalic singleton live birth from 2012 to 2014. Maternal, obstetric and neonatal data were compared according to the occurrence of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS group) or not (no RDS group). Results: Of 515 newborns born through MSAF, 46 experienced RDS and from them 10 experienced meconium aspiration syndrome. No difference was observed according to maternal characteristic, abnormal fetal heart rate tracing pattern irrespective of its category and cesarean rate. Apgar at one minute was lower in the group RDS (7.6 versus 8.5, p < 0.05). The mean umbilical artery pH values did not differ between the two groups. Significant difference between newborns with and without RDS in terms of fetal scalp lactate sampling during the labor (71.1% versus 55.1%, p < 0.05), and neonatal care unit (NCU) admissions (22.8% versus 10.8%, p < 0.05). Secondary rather than primary meconium was associated with RDS when performing fetal scalp blood assessment (p < 0.05). A significant correlation between RDS, fetal scalp blood assessment and MSAF diagnosed during the first stage of labor (after spontaneous rupture of membranes or at amniotomy) was found. Conclusion: In case of MSAF, fetal scalp blood sampling did not reduce the risk of RDS.
Article
In developing countries, meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality among neonates. The concepts of pathophysiology and management of meconium stained amniotic fluid (MSAF) and meconium aspiration syndrome have undergone tremendous change in recent years. Routine intranatal and postnatal endotracheal suctioning of meconium in vigorous infants is no longer recommended. Recent studies have challenged its role even in non-vigorous infants. Supportive therapy like oxygen supplementation, mechanical ventilation and intravenous fluids are the cornerstone in the management of meconium aspiration syndrome. Availability of surfactant, inhaled nitric oxide, high frequency ventilators and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation has made it possible to salvage more infants with meconium aspiration syndrome. In this review the authors have discussed the current concepts in the pathophysiology and management of MAS. Drugs in trials and future therapeutic targets are also discussed briefly.
Article
Objective To determine the intrapartum and perinatal results associated with different degrees of staining of meconium stained amniotic fluid (MSAF). Study Design In a retrospective cohort study of all singleton deliveries over a period of one year (2015) in a tertiary hospital, we compared different degrees of MSAF (yellow, green and thick) to clear amniotic fluids, and analysed in each group maternal, intrapartum and neonatal variables as well as umbilical cord blood gas analysis. Results Of the 3590 deliveries included, 503 (14%) had MSAF. The incidence of MSAF rises with gestational age at delivery, reaching 20.7% in gestations above 41 weeks compared to 4.3% below 37 weeks. As the amniotic fluid staining progresses we found a higher proportion of intrapartum fevers (p < 0.001), pathological fetal heart rate patterns (p < 0.05), operative vaginal deliveries and cesarean sections (p < 0.001), as well as the need for advanced neonatal resuscitation (p < 0.001). There was also a correlation between MSAF and low Apgar scores at five minutes (p < 0.001) and fetal-neonatal mortality (p < 0.001) but there was not a higher proportion of neonatal intensive care admissions (p > 0.05). We have observed a similar distribution of umbilical artery pH ranges in all groups (p > 0.05). Conclusions MSAF was associated with an increase in the rate of pathological fetal heart rate patterns, intrapartum fevers, operative vaginal and cesarean section deliveries, need for neonatal resuscitation, low Apgar scores and higher fetal-neonatal mortality. Moreover, we found that the risks increase as the staining and consistency of the amniotic fluid evolves so it should alert the obstetrician and paediatrician to the potential adverse outcomes.
Article
Purpose of study To assess the maternal and perinatal complications associated with meconium-stained amniotic fluid (MSAF) in low-risk women in labor. Methods This prospective cohort study was conducted at CMC Hospital, Vellore, India. Two hundred low-risk women who had artificial or spontaneous rupture of membranes after admission with MSAF were included in the study. Two hundred similar women with clear liquor were taken as controls. The primary outcomes considered were the incidence of chorioamnionitis and endomyometritis in the mothers. The secondary outcomes included postpartum hemorrhage and retained placenta in the mothers and respiratory distress, meconium aspiration, sepsis, and NICU admission in the newborn. Statistical analysis was done using Fischer exact test. Odds ratio, 95% confidence interval, and P value were estimated. Results Compared to controls, those with MSAF had significantly higher rates of chorioamnionitis (2 vs. 8%, P = 0.006) and endomyometritis (3 vs. 9.5% P = 0.007). Among the secondary end points, only neonatal respiratory distress (8.5 vs. 1.5%; P = 0.001) and meconium aspiration (4 vs. 0%; P = 0.007) were found to be significantly increased in the meconium group. Conclusion Statistically significant increased incidence of chorioamnionitis and endomyometritis in women with MSAF in labor established in our study strongly supports the use of prophylactic antibiotics in these women to prevent immediate and long-term consequences.
Article
Objective To determine the intrapartum and perinatal results associated with different degrees of staining of meconium stained amniotic fluid (MSAF). Study design In a retrospective cohort study of all singleton deliveries over a period of one year (2015) in a tertiary hospital, we compared different degrees of MSAF (yellow, green and thick) to clear amniotic fluids, and analysed in each group maternal, intrapartum and neonatal variables as well as umbilical cord blood gas analysis. Results Of the 3590 deliveries included, 503 (14%) had MSAF. The incidence of MSAF rises with gestational age at delivery, reaching 20.7% in gestations above 41 weeks compared to 4.3% below 37 weeks. As the amniotic fluid staining progresses we found a higher proportion of intrapartum fevers (p < 0.001), pathological fetal heart rate patterns (p < 0.05), operative vaginal deliveries and cesarean sections (p < 0.001), as well as the need for advanced neonatal resuscitation (p < 0.001). There was also a correlation between MSAF and low Apgar scores at five minutes (p < 0.001) and fetal-neonatal mortality (p < 0.001) but there was not a higher proportion of neonatal intensive care admissions (p > 0.05). We have observed a similar distribution of umbilical artery pH ranges in all groups (p > 0.05). Conclusions MSAF was associated with an increase in the rate of pathological fetal heart rate patterns, intrapartum fevers, operative vaginal and cesarean section deliveries, need for neonatal resuscitation, low Apgar scores and higher fetal-neonatal mortality. Moreover, we found that the risks increase as the staining and consistency of the amniotic fluid evolves so it should alert the obstetrician and paediatrician to the potential adverse outcomes.
Article
Objective Meconium stained amniotic fluid (MSAF) is a well‐established risk factor for immediate adverse neonatal outcomes, and was recently suggested to be associated with microbial invasion of the amniotic cavity. We aimed to determine whether MSAF exposure during labor carries a longer lasting impact on pediatric infectious morbidity. Study design A population‐based cohort analysis was performed including all singleton deliveries occurring between 1991‐2014 at a single tertiary medical center. Exposure was defined as the presence of MSAF during labor. Hospitalizations of the offspring up to the age of 18 years involving infectious diseases were evaluated. A Kaplan Meier survival curve was used to compare cumulative morbidity and a Cox regression model to control for confounders. Results During the study period 243,725 deliveries met the inclusion criteria. Of them, 35,897 (14.7%) involved MSAF. Rate of infectious related hospitalizations of the offspring was significantly lower in children exposed to MSAF as compared with the unexposed group (10.8% vs. 11.1%, p<0.05). Specifically, hospitalizations involving respiratory infections were significantly less common among the MSAF group (5.1% vs. 5.6%, p<0.001). The survival curve demonstrated significantly lower cumulative total infectious morbidity rates in the MSAF exposed group (log rank p<0.001). In the Cox model, controlled for maternal age, diabetes, hypertension, mode of delivery and gestational age, exposed children exhibited lower rates of long‐term childhood infectious morbidity (adjusted HR 0.96, 95%CI 0.92‐0.99, p<0.001). Conclusion Fetal exposure to MSAF during labor and delivery appears to be associated with lower rates of long‐term infectious related hospitalizations in the offspring. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Article
Objective This study aimed to investigate the possible impact of meconium-stained amniotic fluid (MSAF) on the occurrence of neurological-related hospitalizations throughout childhood and adolescence. Study Design In this population-based cohort analysis, all singleton deliveries occurring between 1991 and 2014 at the Soroka University Medical center were included and the long-term neurological-related hospitalizations were compared between children with and without MSAF during their delivery. A Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was constructed for the evaluation of cumulative hospitalization rate due to neurological morbidity over the 18 years of follow-up, and a Cox proportional hazards model was used to study the independent association between MSAF and childhood neurological morbidity while controlling for potential confounders. Results During the study period, 243,725 deliveries met the inclusion criteria; 35,897 of the cohort (15%) constituted the exposed group (MSAF), while the rest of the cohort (n = 207,828) constituted the unexposed group (no MSAF). A total of 7,543 hospitalizations due to neurological-related morbidity were documented with a rate of 3.2% (1,152) in children exposed to MSAF as compared with 3.1% (6,391) in the unexposed group (OR 1.1, 95% confidence interval 0.9–1.1, p = 0.149). The survival curve showed a comparable cumulative hospitalization rate in the MSAF-exposed group compared with the unexposed group (log rank p = 0.349). The Cox analysis, controlled for gestational diabetes and hypertension, gestational and maternal ages, demonstrated MSAF exposure not to be an independent risk factor for neurological-related hospitalizations during childhood (adjusted hazard ratio = 1.03, 0.96–1.09). Conclusion Fetal exposure to MSAF, at any gestational age, does not appear to be an independent risk factor for later neurological-related hospitalizations throughout childhood and adolescence. Key Points
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Background: Intrauterine meconium passage in near term or term fetuses has been associated with feto-maternal stress factors and/or infection and is contributing to the increased rate of cesarean section. This study aimed to evaluate effect of mode of delivery on fetal outcome in pregnancy with meconium-stained liquor. Methods: A cross sectional study was done in 2019 at a tertiary care center. Data was collected from women in labor, in whom meconium was seen after rupture of membrane. Out of these, 115 cases, who underwent cesarean delivery for meconium-stained liquor were enrolled in one group; while in another group 115 cases who delivered vaginally were enrolled and the fetal outcome was compared in between these two groups. Results: Out of 230 cases, most participants were from 21 to 25 years age group. Most of patients were primigravida accounting for 63%, and with mean gestational age of 39.4 weeks. Low Apgar score at one and 5 minutes, percentage of respiratory distress, perinatal asphyxia, need of bag and mask ventilation as mode of resuscitation were associated more with vaginal deliveries. Incidence of Neonatal Intensive Care Unit admission, meconium aspiration syndrome, and neonatal death were seen more in vaginal delivery in comparison to cesarean delivery. Conclusions: There was no much difference in Apgar score at 5 minutes in either mode of delivery. Incidence of respiratory distress, perinatal asphyxia, Neonatal Intensive Care Unit admission, meconium aspiration syndrome and neonatal death were higher in vaginal delivery. Fetal morbidity and mortality were seen more in moderate to thick meconium-stained liquor.
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The objective of this study was to explore details of the clinical relationship between meconium-stained amniotic fluid (MSAF) in labour, abnormal fetal heart pattern and meconium aspiration (MA). This was a prospective study carried out in Princess Badeea Teaching hospital during a 6-month period from March to September 1997. During the study period 344 (8.5%) of the deliveries had MSAF (344 women). Continuous fetal heart monitoring was routinely used and 36 women with MSAF (10.5%) needed to be delivered by caesarean section because of fetal distress (diagnosed by abnormal fetal heart pattern) in early labour, compared with 0.95% in those with clear amniotic fluid (CAF), (P <0.00001). Many infants in the MSAF group had a low Apgar score and required ventilation at birth. Nineteen infants (5.5%) developed MA, three of whom (15.8%) died. We conclude that there is an association between MSAF, abnormal fetal heart pattern in labour and a low Apgar score and that it should be considered a high risk situation. MA a problem that occurs with particulate meconium was significantly related to abnormal fetal heart pattern and longer length of labour.
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Lacking curves of "intrauterine" growth, most birthing centers in Israel use United States or Canadian based curves as standards. To establish population-based standards of birth weight of live-born infants in Israel. Data on birth weight and gestational age were obtained from the registries of the Israel Ministry of Health and Ministry of the Interior, During the 9 year study period there were 1,074,122 infants delivered in Israel; 787,710 (73%) were included in this analysis. In this study we provide data of birth weight by gestational age of live infants born in Israel between 1993 and 2001. Ranges of birth weight by gestational age are also depicted for singleton and multiple pregnancies. Fetuses in multiple pregnancies grow in a similar manner to singletons until 30 weeks of gestation, after which their growth slows down. Use of these data as a standard for "intrauterine" growth better represents the Israeli neonatal population than the North American standards. In addition, curves of multiple pregnancies are significantly different from those of singleton pregnancies and might be more appropriate in these pregnancies.
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Labour dystocia (LD) is associated with adverse maternal and child outcomes. This study investigated obstetric risk factors, frequency of interventions and delivery outcomes for LD. A retrospective, observational, study of 1,480 deliveries was undertaken in a Swedish district hospital during 2000 and 2001. LD was identified in 21% of deliveries, 16.7% of which ended in caesarean section (CS) compared to 1.7% of deliveries without LD. Multiparity with no previous vaginal delivery (OR=6.0), epidural analgesia (EDA) at cervical dilation < or =5 cm (OR=4.6), primiparity (OR=4.5), gestational age > or =42 weeks (OR=3.1), birth weight >4,000 g (OR=2.7) and EDA at cervical dilation >5 cm (OR=2.0) were major independent risk factors for LD. In delivery management, special attention should be directed to primiparous women and multiparous women with no previous vaginal delivery. Women given EDA, especially at cervical dilation < or =5 cm are also of particular interest. Furthermore, rigorous routines for LD diagnosis and oxytocin augmentation are important.
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The goal of this study was to determine if meconium staining of the amniotic fluid (MSAF) is a marker for chorioamnionitis. In a retrospective, case-control investigation, we studied 100 patients with MSAF. Each patient was matched with a control who delivered during the same period but did not have MSAF. Subjects and controls were matched for age, parity, gestational age, mode of delivery, duration of rupture of membranes (ROM), length of internal monitoring, and number of examinations before and after ROM. The incidence of chorioamnionitis in controls and study patients was compared. The diagnosis of chorioamnionitis was based on clinical examination. Thirteen of the 200 patients [6.5%, 95% confidence interval (CI), 2.5-10.5%] developed chorioamnionitis. Of the 100 women with MSAF, 10 (10%, 95% CI, 4-16) were infected compared with only 3 controls (3%, 95% CI, 0-6, P = 0.04). The odds ratio (OR) for this comparison was 3.3, and the 95% CI was 1.02-10.63. MSAF is associated with an increased frequency of chorioamnionitis. Several factors could explain this association. Infection may cause fetal stress, leading to the release of meconium. MSAF may enhance the growth of bacteria by providing a rich medium of essential nutrients or growth stimulants. MSAF also may impair the host immune system so that chemotaxis or phagocytosis is diminished, thus allowing accelerated growth of microorganisms.
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Fetal heart rate (FHR) tracings of 284 fetuses with meconium-stained amniotic fluid (MSAF) and 1,672 fetuses without meconium staining were compared to investigate the significance of meconium associated with normal and abnormal FHR patterns. MSAF was found to be associated with significantly more low 1- and 5-minute Apgar scores and higher neonatal mortality rates than the control group without meconium. An increase in abnormal FHR patterns in the MSAF group over the control group as well as the postpartum sequelae of meconium itself was likely responsible for the unfavorable outcome. It is concluded that the presence of meconium should be viewed as a warning sign of fetal distress which warrants close intrapartum observation of the patient.
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The purpose of this study was to determine whether there is a relationship between the frequency of meconium-stained amniotic fluid (MSAF) and the duration of labor in term singleton gestation. The clinical characteristics of women who delivered term singleton live newborns between 2001 and 2006 were examined. The cases involving neonates with major congenital anomalies were excluded. (1) The frequency of MSAF in term pregnancies was 18.4% (806/4376); (2) MSAF was found in only 2.8% (28/1008) of women who delivered by elective cesarean, but in 23.1% (778/3368) of women who delivered after the onset of labor (p < 0.001); (3) The longer the duration of labor (first stage, second stage, or total), the higher the frequency of MSAF (p < 0.001 for each); this remained significant after adjusting for other confounding variables such as parity, duration of rupture of membranes, gestational age at delivery, and mode of delivery (p < 0.001 for each). MSAF was found in only 2.8% (28/1008) of women who delivered before the onset of labor, but in 23.1% (778/3368) of women who delivered after the onset of labor. The longer the duration of labor, the higher the risk of MSAF in term singleton gestation.
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The objective of the study was to evaluate, in labors complicated by thick meconium-stained amniotic fluid, the association between specific fetal heart rate (FHR) patterns and adverse perinatal outcomes. A retrospective cohort study of patients with FHR tracing data (n = 1638) from a previously reported randomized controlled trial of amnioinfusion for the prevention of meconium aspiration syndrome. The presence of FHR tracing abnormalities was associated with an increased risk of perinatal mortality and/or neonatal morbidity (moderately abnormal: adjusted odds ratio [OR], 1.67; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.18-2.37; markedly abnormal: adjusted OR, 2.97; 95% CI, 1.88-4.67). Specific abnormalities that were associated with the risk of perinatal mortality and/or neonatal morbidity included prolonged decelerations (OR, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.02-1.48), severe variable decelerations (OR, 1.08; 95% CI, 1.00-1.16), bradycardia (OR, 2.49; 95% CI, 1.02-6.11), and tachycardia (OR, 2.43; 95% CI, 1.49-3.94). The presence of abnormal FHR tracing patterns in meconium-stained amniotic fluid patients is associated with an increased risk of adverse perinatal outcomes.
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Labour, labour outcome and fetal outcome were compared in 200 patients with meconium-stained amniotic fluid and in 200 matched controls with clear liquor amnii. All patients were subjected to a standardized form of management. The caesarean section rate was higher in the meconium group because of a higher incidence of cephalopelvic disproportion and fetal distress. In distinguishing between thick and thin meconium, no differences in labour or fetal outcome were found. The finding of meconium in the latent phase of labour seemed to be more ominous than during the active phase of labour.
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Meconium-stained amniotic fluid occurs in approximately 12% of live births. In approximately one third of these infants meconium is present below the vocal cords. However, meconium aspiration syndrome develops in only 2 of every 1000 live-born infants. Ninety-five percent of infants with inhaled meconium clear the lungs spontaneously. Recent investigations have suggested that a reexamination of our assumptions about the etiology of meconium aspiration syndrome is in order. Several authors have provided evidence that support the hypothesis that it is not the inhaled meconium which produces the primary pathologic condition of meconium aspiration syndrome but rather it is fetal asphyxia that is the etiologic agent. Asphyxia in utero produces pulmonary vasospasm and hyperreactivity of the pulmonary vessels. With severe asphyxia the fetal lungs undergo pulmonary vascular damage with pulmonary hypertension. The damaged lungs are then unable to clear the meconium. In the most severe cases there is right-to-left shunting and persistent fetal circulation with subsequent fetal death. The incidence of meconium aspiration may thus be essentially unaffected by current obstetric and pediatric interventions at birth. For the asphyxiated or distressed infant we recommend suctioning at birth and tracheal intubation. In the healthy fetus observation may be sufficient.
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Although the passage early in labor of thick amniotic fluid heavily stained with meconium is recognized as an indication of potential fetal asphyxia, the significance of late passage of meconium-stained fluid in labor is less certain. One hundren twenty-eight patients with late passage of meconium in labor and 134 control patients were examined, using chi 2 and discriminant analysis, to determine if any relationships existed between fetal heart rate (FHR) patterns, late passage of meconium in labor, and neonatal morbidity. In the group with late meconium passage, adequate baseline FHR variability and nonperiodic accelerations were predictive of high Apgar scores, and repeated (over 20) variable decelerations were predictive of low Apgar scores. In the control group, none of the FHR patterns examined were predictive of Apgar score. Thus, the combination of late passage of meconium in labor with other intrapartum signs may indicate a fetus at risk for asphyxia when neither sign alone is predictive. The presence of late meconium passage demands close observation of the patient in labor, including assessment by electronic FHR monitoring.
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Fetal heart rate (FHR) tracings of 284 fetuses with meconium-stained amniotic fluid (MSAF) and 1,672 fetuses without meconium staining were compared to investigate the significance of meconium associated with normal and abnormal FHR patterns. MSAF was found to be associated with significantly more low 1- and 5-minute Apgar scores and higher neonatal mortality rates than the control group without meconium. An increase in abnormal FHR patterns in the MSAF group over the control group as well as the postpartum sequelae of meconium itself was likely responsible for the unfavorable outcome. It is concluded that the presence of meconium should be viewed as a warning sign of fetal distress which warrants close intrapartum observation of the patient.
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To determine the risk of adverse neonatal outcome associated with meconium-stained amniotic fluid independent of that related to antepartum or intrapartum abnormalities. A cohort of 2200 consecutive deliveries was examined and the fetal heart rate (FHR) tracings analyzed independently. Singleton term pregnancies without fatal malformations were stratified by the consistency of meconium and compared. Moderate or thick meconium increased the risk for adverse outcome more than threefold (relative risk 3.2, 95% confidence interval 2.0-5.2). This risk was independent of fetal heart tracing abnormalities or maternal hypertensive, kidney, or heart disease. Thick meconium alone should alert the physician to a high-risk fetal condition. This phenomenon requires continuous FHR monitoring and reassurance of fetal well-being by acid-base assessment or the equivalent, regardless of maternal disease status or the presence of abnormal FHR tracings.
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Four samples each of clear and lightly (thin), moderately, and heavily (thick) meconium-stained amniotic fluid were divided in two portions and submitted twice for assessment to 20 midwives (a total of 320 case assessments). None of the midwives completely agreed with the standard assessment for more than 85 percent of the cases. When disregarding clear samples, for which there was good agreement, each of the midwives classified on average only 35.8 percent of the meconium-stained samples in the same category on each of the four occasions that they were presented to them. Calculation of kappa statistics, which express proportional agreement corrected for chance, indicated that none of the midwives showed very good agreement (kappa > 0.81) with the standard and that fewer than 10 percent showed very good agreement with themselves. The data indicate that grading the severity of meconium staining by visual assessment has such poor accuracy and precision that it cannot provide a valid basis for assigning different care policies to different degrees of meconium staining.
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An experimental study was performed to investigate the excretion function of the liver, gastrointestinal motility, and in utero defecation by radionuclide techniques in 24 New Zealand white rabbit fetuses at 25 days' gestation (fullterm, 31 to 32 days). 0.1 mL of technetium 99m (99mTc)-HIDA (a derivative of iminodiacetic acid) containing 1 mCi of radioactivity was injected into the gluteus muscle of each fetus which had been exposed through the uterus. After replacing the fetus and uterus into the abdomen, and beginning 1 hour after injection, a live fetus was killed each hour for 24 hours Tissue samples from the lung heart, stomach, kidney, bladder, liver, meconium in the proximal, mid and distal bowel, and amniotic fluid were taken. The radioactivity of each sample was determined by a gamma counter and the percentage uptake per gram of tissue was calculated. The very low radioactivity levels detected in the stomach, kidneys, and bladder indicated the in vivo stability of 99mTc-HIDA 99mTc-HIDA is predominantly trapped by the liver via systemic circulation and is excreted into the gastrointestinal tract through which it passes into the amniotic fluid. Demonstrated passage of excreted 99mTc-HIDA through the fetal liver and into the gastrointestinal tract and amniotic fluid strongly suggests that fetal defecation is a physiological event.
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To determine the prevalence and clinical significance of meconium stained amniotic fluid (MSAF) in women with preterm delivery. The study population consisted of consecutive patients who arrived with intact membranes and delivered preterm, singleton neonates at the Soroka Medical Center between 1 January 1985 and 31 December 1995. Only vertex presentation was included. Antepartum death was excluded from the study. Patients were classified according to the color of amniotic fluid into two groups: MSAF and clear amniotic fluid. Maternal puerperal complications were defined in our study as the presence of at least one of the next variables: clinical chorioamnionitis; major puerperal infection including endometritis, cesarean section or postpartum hemorrhage. Perinatal complications were defined in our study as: (1) intrapartum death (IPD) or postpartum death (PPD); (2) one or more of the following: 1-min Apgar score <3, 5-min Apgar score <7 or small for gestational age. Rates of perinatal complications were assessed at: (1) 24-27 weeks; (2) 28-31 weeks; (3) 32-36 weeks. Logistic regression was used to investigate the relationship of MSAF to perinatal complications and maternal morbidity in a multivariate model. During the study period, a total of 96 566 deliveries occurred in our institution and 4872 (5.0%) deliveries were preterm. Among the women delivering preterm meeting eligibility criteria, 276 (5.7%) women had intrapartum MSAF. A higher rate of IPD and PPD was observed only between 32 and 36 weeks' gestation in patients with MSAF in comparison with patients with clear amniotic fluid [6.1% (14/230) vs. 2.1% (85/4045), respectively, P=0.0001]. A statistically significant higher rate of perinatal complications was found between 28 and 31 weeks' gestation, and even a higher rate was noted between 32 and 36 weeks' gestation in the MSAF group in comparison with patients with clear amniotic fluid [51% (18/35) vs. 27.2% (93/341), respectively, P=0.003; 20% (46/230) vs. 9.8% (396/4045), respectively, P=0.0004]. (1) MSAF is an independent risk factor for perinatal complications in preterm deliveries (OR=1.73, CI: 1.057-2.43, P=0.001; OR=2.35, CI:1.34-4.12, P=0.002, respectively). (2) MSAF was not found to be an independent risk factor for maternal morbidity.
Article
To determine the prevalence and clinical significance of meconium stained amniotic fluid (MSAF) in a low risk population at term gestation and to investigate whether MSAF is a predictor for intrapartum and neonatal morbidity. A very low risk population including 37 085 consecutive deliveries at term composed the study population. A cross-sectional study was conducted and two groups of patients were identified according to the presence (n=6164) or absence (n=30921) of meconium in the amniotic fluid at delivery and the outcomes of the two groups compared. The prevalence of MSAF was 16.6%. The incidence of cesarean section (5.6% vs 2.3% P<0.01), instrumental deliveries (3.2% vs 1.8% P<0.01), fetal distress (6.5% vs. 2.1% P<0.01), clinical chorioamnionitis (0.2% vs. 0.1% P<0.01), post-partum infection (0.5% vs. 0.2% P<0.01), 1-minute Apgar score <3 (1.9% vs. 1.1% P<0.01), small for gestational age (7.4% vs. 6.4% P<0.01). was significantly higher in the MSAF compared with the clear amniotic fluid group. Intrapartum and neonatal mortality in this low risk population was significantly higher in the MSAF group (1.7/1000) compared with women with clear AF (0.3/1000). MSAF in a low risk population at term gestation is a predictor for adverse perinatal outcome and peripartum complications.
Article
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the meconium staining of amniotic fluid (AF) in term of fetal distress, meconium aspiration syndrome, and perinatal morbidity and mortality. In a prospective study at Princess Badeea Teaching Hospital from April to November 1999, women with a singleton cephalic pregnancy of completed 37-42 weeks and with no pre-defined risk factor were recruited into the study. Study patients comprised 390 (10%) patients with meconium and 400 patients as controls but with clear amniotic fluid. Virtually meconium staining of the amniotic fluid was significantly associated with poor neonatal outcome in all outcomes measures assessed. Perinatal mortality increased from 2 per 1000 births with clear AF to 10 per 1000 with meconium (P<0.001). Other adverse outcomes also increased; e. g., severe fetal acidemia, Apgar score < or = 3 at 1 min and 5 min, and meconium aspiration syndrome. Delivery by cesarean section also increased with meconium from 7-14% (P<0.001). We concluded that meconium in the amniotic fluids associated with an obstetric hazard and significantly increase risks of adverse neonatal outcomes. Women with thin meconium in the presence of normal fetal heart rate can be safely managed at the clinical level. Mod-thick meconium alone should alert the obstetrician to a high risk fetal condition. Continuous fetal heart rate monitoring during labour and reassurance of fetal well-being by acid-base assessment were most significant factors in the reduction of meconium aspiration syndrome.
Article
To evaluate the influence of intrapartum persistent occiput posterior position of the fetal head on delivery outcome and anal sphincter injury, with reference to the association with epidural analgesia. We conducted a prospective observational study of 246 women with persistent occiput posterior position in labor during a 2-year period, compared with 13,543 contemporaneous vaginal deliveries with occiput anterior position. The incidence of persistent occiput posterior position was significantly greater among primiparas (2.4%) than multiparas (1.3%; P <.001; 95% confidence interval 1.4, 2.4) and was associated with significantly higher incidences of prolonged pregnancy, induction of labor, oxytocin augmentation of labor, epidural use, and prolonged labor. Only 29% of primiparas and 55% of multiparas with persistent occiput posterior position achieved spontaneous vaginal delivery, and the malposition was associated with 12% of all cesarean deliveries performed because of dystocia. Persistent occiput posterior position was also associated with a sevenfold higher incidence of anal sphincter disruption. Despite a high overall incidence of use of epidural analgesia (47% versus 3%), the institutional incidence of persistent occiput posterior position was lower than that reported 25 years ago. Persistent occiput posterior position contributed disproportionately to cesarean and instrumental delivery, with fewer than half of the occiput posterior labors ending in spontaneous delivery and the position accounting for 12% of all cesarean deliveries for dystocia. Persistent occiput posterior position leads to a sevenfold increase in the incidence of anal sphincter injury. Use of epidural analgesia was not related to the malposition.
Article
To evaluate the effect of meconium-stained amniotic fluid (AF) on perinatal outcome. A prospective observational study was performed, comparing perinatal outcome of parturients with thick and thin meconium-stained AF to those with clear AF. The rate of meconium-stained AF was 18.1% (106/586). Of those, 78 (13.3%) patients had thin and 28 (4.8%) had thick meconium-stained AF. The rate of oligohydramnios was significantly higher among pregnancies complicated with thick meconium-stained AF (OR 7.2, 95% Cl 2.1-24.1; p = 0.002). A significant linear association, using the Mantel-Haenszel test for linearity, was found between the thickness of the meconium and abnormal fetal heart rate patterns during the first and second stages of labor, low Apgar scores at 1 min and the risk for Cesarean section. A statistically significantly higher risk for neonatal intensive care unit admission was observed among patients with thick meconium as compared to those with clear AF (OR 11.4, 95% CI 2.0-59.3; p = 0.006), even after adjustment for oligohydramnios and abnormal fetal heart rate patterns. Thick, and not thin, meconium-stained AF, was associated with an increased risk for perinatal complications during labor and delivery. Therefore, thick meconium-stained AF should be considered a marker for possible fetal compromise, and lead to careful evaluation of fetal well-being.
Article
Evidence of meconium-stained amniotic fluid (AF) during labor suggests implementation of close monitoring of fetal well-being. We have investigated whether the presence of meconium in the AF on admission for labor is as important a predictor of neonatal outcome as a change in AF color during labor. AF characteristics on admission for labor at term (37-42 weeks) and their changes during labor were recorded in all singleton pregnancies during an 8-year period (1992-1999). Excluded were stillbirths on admission, congenital anomalies, and elective cesarean sections. The presence of meconium and its consistency (light or thick) were documented on admission by inspection with transcervical amnioscopy in women with intact membranes or in the vaginal pool in those with ruptured membranes. Changes in AF color or consistency during labor were recorded and correlated with the obstetric and neonatal outcome. Statistical analysis utilized chi(2) for trend, with p < 0.05 considered significant. 19,090 women were admitted in labor at term during the study period and fulfilled the study inclusion criteria and had amniotic fluid evaluation available. The appearance of meconium or worsening in thickness of meconium during labor was associated with higher rates of Apgar scores <7 at 5 min (clear AF on admission and at delivery 0.6%; light or thick meconium on admission and no change at delivery 0.8%; clear AF on admission and light or thick meconium at delivery 3.2%, and light meconium on admission and thick meconium at delivery 2.5%; p < 0.001) and umbilical artery pH <7.10 (the respective rates in the four groups were 1.7, 1.8, 3.6, and 3.8%; p < 0.001). The appearance or thickening of meconium during labor has a greater predictive ability for depressed neonates than the presence of meconium on admission.
Article
To examine the effect of persistent occiput posterior position on neonatal outcome. This is a retrospective cohort study of 31,392 term, cephalic, singleton births. Women with neonates born in persistent occiput posterior position at delivery were compared to those with occiput anterior position. Women with occiput transverse position were excluded. The association between occiput posterior position and neonatal outcomes, including 5-minute Apgar scores, umbilical cord gases, meconium-stained amniotic fluid, meconium aspiration syndrome, birth trauma, admission to the intensive care nursery, and length of stay were examined using chi(2) and Student t tests. Potential confounders (maternal age, ethnicity, parity, gestational age, epidural anesthesia, labor induction, length of labor, meconium, chorioamnionitis, birth weight, and year of delivery) were controlled for by using multivariable logistic regression and linear regression analyses. There were 2,591 (8.2%) neonates delivered in occiput posterior position of the total cohort of 31,392 deliveries. Compared with occiput anterior, neonates delivered in occiput posterior position had higher risks for adverse outcomes, including 5-minute Apgar score less than 7 (odds ratio [OR] 1.50, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.17-1.91), acidemic umbilical cord gases (OR 2.05, 95% CI 1.52-2.77), meconium-stained amniotic fluid (OR 1.29, 95% CI 1.17-1.42), birth trauma (OR 1.77, 95% CI 1.22-2.57), admission to the intensive care nursery (OR 1.57, 95% CI 1.28-1.92), and longer neonatal stay in the hospital (OR 2.69, 95% CI 2.22-3.25). Persistent occiput posterior position at delivery is associated with higher risks of adverse neonatal outcomes compared with neonates delivered in the occiput anterior position. This information may be important in counseling women who experience persistent occiput posterior position in labor. Level of Evidence: II-2.
Article
To determine whether amniotic fluid (MSAF) affects obstetrical interventions and immediate perinatal outcome in a low-risk suburban population. A retrospective cohort study examined 11,226 deliveries at Tübingen University Hospital (1998-2003). Thousand one hundred and twenty-three women (10%) had MSAF during labor. A control group of matched pairs was created, assigning to each patient the next woman that gave birth without MSAF. Exclusion criteria were: gestational age less than 37+0 weeks, primary Cesarean (C-)section, multiple gestation, severe maternal disease, preeclampsia and fetal malformations. Only small differences were noted between the meconium and non-meconium groups with regard to arterial pH and Apgar scores: mean arterial-pH was 7.26 (+/-0.7) for both. Five minutes Apgar scores <6 occurred in 0.9% versus 0.4%. Obstetrical interventions were more common in the meconium group: C-section rates were 17.4% versus 9.6%, vaginal operative delivery rates 13.9% versus 6.2% and scalp pH rates 9.5% versus 3.7%, respectively. In a low-risk suburban population the effect of MSAF on the newborn during the immediate postpartum period was small. However, obstetrical management was significantly effected by the presence of MSAF, possibly reflecting a combination of more difficult labor and a lower threshold for obstetric intervention.
Article
To estimate whether the acid-base status of neonates born to women with meconium-stained amniotic fluid varies across gestation. We carried out a retrospective cohort study of all pregnancies that were complicated by meconium-stained amniotic fluid in 2004. Cases were identified from a perinatal pathology database that contained data on all pregnancies complicated by meconium-stained amniotic fluid. Data abstracted from the charts included gestational age at delivery, umbilical arterial pH, birth weight, and the presence or absence of labor. Cases were stratified according to gestational age at delivery. The distribution of meconium-stained amniotic fluid across gestation was computed. The mean umbilical arterial pH values (with 95% confidence intervals) across gestation were assessed by analysis of variance. The mean umbilical arterial pH in women with meconium-stained amniotic fluid did not differ across gestation. The overall incidence of meconium-stained amniotic fluid was 12.0% (766 of 6,403 deliveries). The rates of meconium-stained amniotic fluid increased from 1.2% at 32 weeks to 100% at 42 weeks. The rising incidence of meconium-stained amniotic fluid with gestational age is consistent with the hypothesis that fetal maturation is a major etiologic factor in meconium passage. Also, the lack of variation of mean umbilical arterial pH across gestation suggests that fetal acidemia is not increased when meconium passage occurs earlier in pregnancy rather than at later gestational ages.
Article
This study was conducted to determine the incidence of meconium staining of the amniotic fluid (MSAF) and its associated factors in a Nigerian teaching hospital. Perinatal data on 80 consecutive live, singleton infants of booked mothers born through meconium-stained liquor from March - June 2003 were analysed and compared with babies born through clear liquor. The incidence of MSAF was 20.4% for 393 deliveries. The rate increased with gestational age: no case was found below 37 weeks (p = 0.001). Primiparity, prolonged rupture of fetal membranes and obstructed labour were more often associated with MSAF (p = 0.005, p = 0.0013 and p = 0.0000002, respectively) as were tachycardia or bradycardia and low Apgar scores (p = 0.0000001 and p = 0.046, respectively). It is concluded that meconium-staining is common. It is related to gestational maturity and stressful peripartum conditions and associated with adverse symptomatology in the fetus and newborn.