Article

Physical Activity and the Prevention of Depression A Systematic Review of Prospective Studies

Faculty of Kinesiology and Physical Education, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Electronic address: .
American journal of preventive medicine (Impact Factor: 4.53). 11/2013; 45(5):649-57. DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2013.08.001
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Given its high prevalence and impact on quality of life, more research is needed in identifying factors that may prevent depression. This review examined whether physical activity (PA) is protective against the onset of depression.
A comprehensive search was conducted up until December 2012 in the following databases: MEDLINE, Embase, PubMed, PsycINFO, SPORTDiscus, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Data were analyzed between July 2012 and February 2013. Articles were chosen for the review if the study used a prospective-based, longitudinal design and examined relationships between PA and depression over at least two time intervals. A formal quality assessment for each study also was conducted independently by the two reviewers.
The initial search yielded a total of 6363 citations. After a thorough selection process, 30 studies were included for analyses. Among these, 25 studies demonstrated that baseline PA was negatively associated with a risk of subsequent depression. The majority of these studies were of high methodologic quality, providing consistent evidence that PA may prevent future depression. There is promising evidence that any level of PA, including low levels (e.g., walking <150 minutes/weeks), can prevent future depression.
From a population health perspective, promoting PA may serve as a valuable mental health promotion strategy in reducing the risk of developing depression.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: George Mammen, Sep 29, 2014
  • Source
    • "Short sleep is also recognized to have an adverse effect on hypertension, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease in addition to adverse effects on mental health, including stress, depression or suicide (Cappuccio et al. 2011; Kohyama 2011; Vgontzas et al. 2012; Gangwisch 2014; Shan et al. 2015). Moreover, a prospective cohort study showed that lack of physical activity was linked to worse mental health, with participation in physical activity reported to improve the symptoms of depression (Mammen and Faulkner 2013; Kuwahara et al. 2015). However, individuals who have prolonged sedentary time or short sleep may find it difficult to be sufficiently physically active. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Prolonged sedentary time and sleep deprivation are associated with mental health problems such as depression and stress symptoms. Moreover, mental illness is linked with suicidal thoughts and suicide attempts. However, it is not clear whether sedentary time and sleep duration are associated with stress symptoms and suicidal thoughts independent of physical activity. Thus, our study aimed to identify if sedentary time and sleep duration were associated with both stress symptoms and suicidal thoughts. The participants in present cross-sectional study were 4,674 general Korean adults (1,938 male; 2,736 female), aged ≥ 20 years. Prolonged sedentary time (≥ 420 min/day) was significantly associated with the increased risk of stress symptoms (OR, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.04-1.62) compared with sedentary time of < 240 min/day. The OR for stress symptoms was significant for individuals who had ≤ 5 h/day of sleep time (OR, 1.88; 95% CI, 1.48-2.38) compared with sleep duration of ≥ 7 h/day. Moreover, prolonged sedentary time (OR, 1.55; 95% CI, 1.01-2.42 in ≥ 420 min/day vs. < 240 min/day) and short sleep duration (OR, 1.75; 95% CI, 1.17- 2.62 in ≤ 5 h/day vs. ≥ 7 h/day) were significantly associated with an increased risk for suicidal thoughts after adjusting for confounding factors including physical activity. Thus, prolonged sedentary time and sleep deprivation are independently associated with both the risk of stress symptoms and suicidal thoughts. From a public health perspective, reducing sedentary time and improvement of sleep deprivation may serve as an effective strategy for preventing mental illness.
    Preview · Article · Nov 2015 · The Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
  • Source
    • "To enhance physical activity participation in people with PTSD, it is important to understand the factors associated with physical activity participation. A growing body of literature demonstrates an inverse relationship between physical activity participation and depression (Mammen and Faulkner, 2013), but the relationship between physical activity and PTSD symptoms is yet to be investigated. Better understanding of the association between PTSD symptom severity, other psychological and functional variables, and participation in walking and other physical activity is urgently needed and is likely to have important implications for physical activity promotion in this population . "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study aimed to determine whether posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom severity and psychological and functional variables were associated with physical activity (PA) upon admission to an inpatient facility. PTSD symptoms, depression, anxiety and stress, sleep quality, and PA participation were assessed among 76 participants (age, 47.6 ± 11.9 years; 83% male). Backward stepwise regression analyses identified variables independently associated with time spent walking and engaging in moderate-vigorous PA (MVPA). No significant correlations were found between any of the variables and MVPA. Total PTSD symptoms (r = -0.39, p < 0.001), combined symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress (r = -0.31, p < 0.01), and sleep behavior (r = -0.24, p < 0.05) were significantly and negatively associated with total walking time. Total PTSD symptoms were the only significant predictor of walking time (B = -0.03, SE = 0.008, β = -0.4; t = -3.4; p < 0.001). Results indicate that increased PTSD symptoms are associated with lower levels of walking. Results highlight the importance of considering symptoms when designing PA programs for people with PTSD.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · The Journal of nervous and mental disease
  • Source
    • "To enhance physical activity participation in people with PTSD, it is important to understand the factors associated with physical activity participation. A growing body of literature demonstrates an inverse relationship between physical activity participation and depression (Mammen and Faulkner, 2013), but the relationship between physical activity and PTSD symptoms is yet to be investigated. Better understanding of the association between PTSD symptom severity, other psychological and functional variables, and participation in walking and other physical activity is urgently needed and is likely to have important implications for physical activity promotion in this population . "

    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · Journal of Nervous & Mental Disease
Show more