Eliminating mother to child transmission of HIV-1 and keeping mothers alive: Recent progress
Maternal Adolescent and Child Health Unit, University of the Witwatersand, 155 Juniper Road, Overport, Durban 4091, South Africa. Electronic address: . The Journal of infection
(Impact Factor: 4.44).
10/2013; 68(Suppl 1). DOI: 10.1016/j.jinf.2013.09.015
The elimination of new HIV infections in infants and children is part of a broader global commitment by the United Nations. Prevention of Mother to Child transmission (PMTCT) programmes have prevented 350 000 new HIV infections with the use of antiretroviral therapy (ARVs) for pregnant women who are HIV infected, and the majority of these gains were in sub-Saharan Africa. Coverage of PMTCT programmes throughout Africa is variable resulting in many women not having access to the appropriate interventions in the antenatal care setting to prevent vertical transmission. The global elimination target requires a 90% reduction of new child infections and to decrease MTCT to <5% which potentially can be achieved utilising the four pronged approach proposed by the World Health Organization. Family planning messages and provision of contraception methods to avoid unplanned pregnancies are shown to be more effective than HIV Counselling and Testing [HCT] and single dose Nevirapine in averting transmission of perinatal HIV infection. Child survival goes beyond HIV-free survival and safe breastfeeding prevents 13% of deaths under 5 years of age rendering it essential to reduce under-5 mortality. Health systems strengthening to deliver more complex regimens either for prevention purposes or the mothers own health is an important part of a broader continuum of interventions which will depend on the effective delivery of current treatment modalities, development of new prevention interventions including a vaccine, and include prevention of unplanned pregnancies and primary prevention of HIV infections in the mother.
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ABSTRACT: To evaluate the performance and to identify predictive factors of performance in prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission programs (PMTCT) in sub-Saharan African countries.
From 2000 to 2011, PMTCT programs included in the Viramune Donation Programme (VDP) were prospectively followed. Each institution included in the VDP provided data on program implementation, type of management institution, number of PMTCT sites, key programs outputs (HIV counseling and testing, NVP regimens received by mothers and newborns). Nevirapine Coverage Ratio (NCR), defined as the number of women who should have received nevirapine (observed HIV prevalence x number of women in antenatal care), was used to measure performance. Included programs were followed every six months through progress reports.
A total of 64 programs in 25 sub-Saharan African countries were included. The mean program follow-up was 48.0 months (SD = 24.5); 20,084,490 women attended in antenatal clinics were included. The overall mean NCR was 0.52 (SD = 0.25), with an increase from 0.37 to 0.57 between the first and last progress reports (p<.0001); NCR increased by 3.26% per year-program. Between the first and the last report, the number of women counseled and tested increased from 64.3% to 86.0% (p<.0001), the number of women post-counseled from 87.5% to 91.3% (p = 0.08). After mixed linear regression analysis, type of responsible institution, number of women attended in ANC, and program initiation in 2005-2006 were significant predictive factors associated with the NCR. The effect of the time period increased from earlier to later periods.
A longitudinal assessment of large PMTCT programs shows that scaling-up of programs was increased in sub-Saharan African countries. The PMTCT coverage increased throughout the study period, especially after 2006. Performance may be better for programs with a small or medium number of women attended in ANC. Identification of factors that predict PMTCT program performance may help in the development and expansion of additional large PMTCT services in sub-Saharan Africa.
Available from: hmpg.co.za
Available from: Ute Feucht
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The prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) program in South Africa is now successful in ensuring HIV-free survival for most HIV-exposed children, but gaps in PMTCT coverage remain. The study objective was to identify missed opportunities for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV using the four PMTCT stages outlined in National Guidelines.
This descriptive study enrolled HIV-exposed children who were below the age of 7 years and therefore born during the South African PMTCT era. The study site was in Gauteng, South Africa and enrolment was from June 2009 to May 2010. The clinical history was obtained through a structured caregiver interview and review of medical records and included socio-demographic data, medical history, HIV interventions, infant feeding information and HIV results. The study group was divided into the "single dose nevirapine" ("sdNVP") and "dual-therapy" (nevirapine & zidovudine) groups due to PMTCT program change in February 2008, with subsequent comparison between the groups regarding PMTCT steps during the preconception stage, antenatal care, labor and delivery and postpartum care.
Two-hundred-and-one HIV-exposed children were enrolled: 137 (68%) children were HIV infected and 64 (32%) were HIV uninfected. All children were born between 2002 and 2009, with 78 (39%) in the "sdNVP" and 123 (61%) in the "dual-therapy" groups. The results demonstrate significant improvements in antenatal HIV testing and PMTCT enrolment, known maternal HIV diagnosis at delivery, mother-infant antiretroviral interventions and infant HIV-diagnosis and cotrimoxazole prophylaxis. Missed opportunities without improvement include pre-conceptual HIV-services and family planning, tuberculosis screening, HIV disclosure, psychosocial support and postnatal care. Not receiving consistent infant feeding messaging was the only PMTCT component that worsened over time.
Multiple missed opportunities for optimal PMTCT were identified, which collectively increase children's risk of HIV acquisition. Although HIV-testing and antiretroviral interventions improved, all PMTCT components need to be optimized to reach the goal of total pediatric HIV elimination.
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