Article

O04.4 Seroprevalence of Herpes Simplex Virus Types 1 and 2 United States, 1999-2010

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, Division of STD Prevention.
The Journal of Infectious Diseases (Impact Factor: 6). 10/2013; 209(Suppl 1). DOI: 10.1093/infdis/jit458
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Background:
Herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2) are common infections with serious sequelae. HSV-1 is an increasingly important cause of genital herpes in industrialized countries.

Methods:
Using nationally representative data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), we examined HSV-1 and HSV-2 seroprevalence among 14- to 49-year-olds in the United States. We estimated seroprevalence in 1999-2004 and 2005-2010, stratified by sociodemographic characteristics and sexual behaviors. We also reviewed HSV-1 and HSV-2 seroprevalence from 1976-1980 to 2005-2010.

Results:
In 2005-2010, the seroprevalence of HSV-1 was 53.9%, and the seroprevalence of HSV-2 was 15.7%. From 1999-2004 to 2005-2010, HSV-1 seroprevalence declined by nearly 7% (P < .01), but HSV-2 seroprevalence did not change significantly. The largest decline in HSV-1 seroprevalence from 1999-2004 to 2005-2010 was observed among adolescents aged 14-19 years, among whom seroprevalence declined by nearly 23%, from 39.0% to 30.1% (P < .01). In this age group, HSV-1 seroprevalence declined >29% from 1976-1980 to 2005-2010 (P < .01).

Conclusions:
An increasing number of adolescents lack HSV-1 antibodies at sexual debut. In the absence of declines in HSV-2 infections, the prevalence of genital herpes may increase.

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    • "Recent changes in the pattern of HSV-1 infection, i.e., decreasing rates of oral HSV-1 infection in childhood and increasing sexual transmission of HSV-1, mean that there may be cohort effects in prevalence data whereby older individuals have experienced higher historic rates of childhood infection and lower rates of sexual transmission. In the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) in the USA, the only nationally-representative general population surveys of HSV-1 prevalence repeated over a number of years, HSV-1 seroprevalence has been declining since the first surveys (1988–1994) and is continuing to decrease, with the largest decreases observed for adolescents[14,40]. We used only data from 2000 onwards (with the exception of Africa and South-East Asia), which minimized the influence of cohort effects to some extent. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) commonly causes orolabial ulcers, while HSV-2 commonly causes genital ulcers. However, HSV-1 is an increasing cause of genital infection. Previously, the World Health Organization estimated the global burden of HSV-2 for 2003 and for 2012. The global burden of HSV-1 has not been estimated. Methods: We fitted a constant-incidence model to pooled HSV-1 prevalence data from literature searches for 6 World Health Organization regions and used 2012 population data to derive global numbers of 0-49-year-olds with prevalent and incident HSV-1 infection. To estimate genital HSV-1, we applied values for the proportion of incident infections that are genital. Findings: We estimated that 3709 million people (range: 3440-3878 million) aged 0-49 years had prevalent HSV-1 infection in 2012 (67%), with highest prevalence in Africa, South-East Asia and Western Pacific. Assuming 50% of incident infections among 15-49-year-olds are genital, an estimated 140 million (range: 67-212 million) people had prevalent genital HSV-1 infection, most of which occurred in the Americas, Europe and Western Pacific. Conclusions: The global burden of HSV-1 infection is huge. Genital HSV-1 burden can be substantial but varies widely by region. Future control efforts, including development of HSV vaccines, should consider the epidemiology of HSV-1 in addition to HSV-2, and especially the relative contribution of HSV-1 to genital infection.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · PLoS ONE
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    • "In the NHANES study, the seropositivity to HSV-1 has declined by nearly 7% from 1980's to the early 2000's, and among adolescents aged 14–19 years the seroprevalence has declined from 39.0% to 30.1% [12]. In Finland, the age standardized average seroprevalence for HSV-1 was 52% and in age group of 20–29 years old females the seroprevalence was 28% in 2004 [11]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Following the primary oral infection, herpes simplex virus (HSV) establishes latency in the ganglia of sensory neurons. Episodically induced by stress, HSV is able to cause recurrent infection at the primary infection site, accompanied by virus shedding. The oral shedding of HSV contributes to mother-child-transmission of HSV. Human papillomavirus (HPV) is associated with oral malignancies, and its interaction with oral HSV should be studied further. To analyze the prevalence of HSV-1 and HSV-2-infection in oral mucosal scrapings of women during and after pregnancy and to elucidate the prevalence of HPV and HSV-co-carriage in oral mucosa. A longitudinal cohort study of 304 mothers in the Finnish Family HPV study followed-up for 6 years after pregnancy, with 7 serial samplings. Mothers' oral brush samples were analyzed with quantitative PCR for HSV-1 and -2 DNA and the findings were compared with their HPV DNA status. Altogether, 2.2% of all 1873 collected epithelial brush samples were HSV-1 DNA positive, while none tested HSV-2 DNA positive. Of the 304 mothers, 11.8% were HSV-1 DNA positive at least once. Most of the women who tested HSV-1 DNA positive before delivery remained HSV-1 DNA positive also after pregnancy. HSV-1 positive women were almost invariably HPV-negative; only four (0.2%) samples were detected with HSV-HPV co-carriage. This is the first prospective follow-up study on oral HSV shedding and its association with coexistent HPV, analyzed in the same oral mucosal scrapings. HSV and HPV co-carriage is rare in oral mucosa of healthy young mothers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  • No preview · Article · Oct 2013 · The Journal of Infectious Diseases
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