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Unlabelled: Music and video are utilised by recreational gym users to enhance their exercise experience. Music and video have not been investigated for their combined ergogenic effect during high intensity exercise. To induce fatigue, this study was performed in warm (~26°C), moist conditions (~50%RH). Six, non-acclimated, male participants took part in the study. Each participant completed three 30-minute exercise bouts on a motorised treadmill under three counterbalanced conditions on separate days: control (CON), motivational music plus video intervention (M), non-motivational intervention (NM). They completed a warm-up (5 km·h(-1) [5 minutes], 9km·h(-1) [10 minutes]) followed by a maximal effort run (15 minutes). Participants did not receive any feedback of time elapsed, distance run or speed. Measures: Distance covered (metres), heart rate, blood lactate accumulation (B(lac)) and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE). Participants in the M condition ran significantly further than in the NM (M: 3524 [388]metres; NM: 3110 [561]metres; CON: 3273 [458]metres) and CON conditions, accumulated more B(lac), but did not increase their peak RPE rating (p < 0.05). The M intervention improved tolerance of high intensity exercise in warm conditions. It was proposed that a change in attentional processing from internal (physical sensations) to external perspective (music and video) may have facilitated this improvement. These findings have strong implications for improving health, fitness and engagement in gym-based exercise programs. Key pointsThe study examined the ergogenic effect of a motivational (M) video and music intervention on high-intensity exercise performance in comparison to a non-motivational (NM) condition and a control (CON).PARTICIPANTS IN THE M CONDITION RAN SIGNIFICANTLY FURTHER THAN IN THE NM (M: 3524 [388]metres; NM: 3110 [561]metres; CON: 3273 [458]metres) and CON conditions, accumulated more B(lac), but did not increase their peak RPE rating (p < 0.05).It was proposed that a change in attentional processing from internal (physical sensations) to external perspective (music and video) may have facilitated this improvement.These findings have strong implications for improving health, fitness and engagement in gym-based exercise programs.
©Journal of Sports Science and Medicine (2009) 8, 435-442
Received: 13 February 2009 / Accepted: 19 June 2009 / Published (online): 01 September 2009
A motivational music and video intervention improves high-intensity exercise
Martin J. Barwood , Neil J.V. Weston, Richard Thelwell and Jennifer Page
Department of Sport and Exercise Science, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth, UK
Music and video are utilised by recreational gym users to en-
hance their exercise experience. Music and video have not been
investigated for their combined ergogenic effect during high
intensity exercise. To induce fatigue, this study was performed
in warm (~26°C), moist conditions (~50%RH). Six, non-
acclimated, male participants took part in the study. Each par-
ticipant completed three 30-minute exercise bouts on a motor-
ised treadmill under three counterbalanced conditions on sepa-
rate days: control (CON), motivational music plus video inter-
vention (M), non-motivational intervention (NM). They com-
pleted a warm-up (5 km·h-1 [5 minutes], 9km·h-1 [10 minutes])
followed by a maximal effort run (15 minutes). Participants did
not receive any feedback of time elapsed, distance run or speed.
Measures: Distance covered (metres), heart rate, blood lactate
accumulation (Blac) and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE).
Participants in the M condition ran significantly further than in
the NM (M: 3524 [388]metres; NM: 3110 [561]metres; CON:
3273 [458]metres) and CON conditions, accumulated more Blac,
but did not increase their peak RPE rating (p < 0.05). The M
intervention improved tolerance of high intensity exercise in
warm conditions. It was proposed that a change in attentional
processing from internal (physical sensations) to external per-
spective (music and video) may have facilitated this improve-
ment. These findings have strong implications for improving
health, fitness and engagement in gym-based exercise programs.
Key words: Running, distraction, attention, lactate threshold.
Music and video have separately been used to enhance
sports performance as part of preparatory routines (Szabo
et al., 1999; Templin and Vernacchia, 1995), skill acquisi-
tion (Onestak, 1997) or during the intervals between
games, halves or sequences (Bishop et al., 2007; Hall and
Erffmeyer, 1983). Considering the applied significance of
separate music and video interventions prior to and during
sports performance it is surprising that no studies have
examined the ergogenic effect of motivational music and
video interventions in combination. The applied efficacy
of combining music and video to influence sports per-
formance is appealing because, with the advancement of
communication technologies, both of these interventions
can easily be implemented at sporting venues and are
already utilised by recreational gym users to supplement
their exercise routines (Karageorghis et al., 2006a). In the
latter context it is likely that this type of intervention
could influence adherence and work intensity in an exer-
cise program culminating in health benefits as has already
been suggested with music alone (Karageorghis and
Terry, 1997).
The theoretical underpinning for the use of music
in this setting is more established than that of video (see
Bishop et al., 2007, Karageorghis et al., 2006a, Priest et
al., 2004). A greater number of studies have examined the
ergogenic effect of music, particularly prior to or during
high intensity exercise, during which, the synchronising
of physiological and motor responses during exercise with
music may be one means by which music is influential
(Brownley et al., 1995; Karageorghis, 2000; Simpson and
Karageorghis, 2006). The ergogenic effect of music on
high intensity exercise also extends to elite sports persons.
Elite runner, Heile Gebreselassie, used a high-tempo
popular music song to synchronise his strides in order to
optimise his pacing in winning a 5000m race in 2003
(Simpson and Karageorghis, 2006). Asynchronous music,
defined as not consisting of any conscious effort to syn-
chronize movements with music tempo, is also suggested
to carry this performance enhancing effect (Karageorghis,
The Brunel Music Rating Inventory-2 (BMRI-2;
Karageorghis et al, 2006a) and recently updated version
BMRI-3 (Karageorghis, 2008) have allowed researchers
to specifically identify music tracks that induce a motiva-
tional impact upon an athlete during sports performance.
Motivational tracks are thought to include a high tempo
beat (>120bpm), a strong rhythm, and to enhance energy
and induce bodily action (Karageorghis et al., 2006b).
Further influential characteristics of music have been
suggested to include the rhythm response, musicality,
cultural impact and association with the tracks (Karageor-
ghis et al., 1999). Therefore music tracks that encompass
all of these aspects would optimise moderate intensity
exercise performance. Bishop et al (2007) have recently
extended the study of music and performance providing a
rationale for the manipulation of emotional responses to
music in junior tennis players. Here it was suggested that
the right music can be used as a tool to ‘psych up’ in
preparation for performance (arousal regulation), shift
attentional focus (association/dissociation), boost self-
efficacy and encourage psychological skills usage (e.g.
mental imagery). Presumably during high intensity exer-
cise participants would aim to be psyched up, may wish to
dissociate from unpleasant exertion induced sensations
(untrained participants only; Brownley et al., 1995), feel
confident and employ appropriate psychological coping
strategies. Clearly the use of appropriately selected music
could induce an ergogenic effect.
Research article
Music, video and running performance
Theoretically, the supplementation of appropri-
ately chosen music with video footage has the potential to
enhance the beneficial effect of such interventions prior to
and during sports performance. Video footage of sports-
persons demonstrating mastery could manipulate the self-
efficacy of an individual as part of a combined music and
video intervention. This suggestion has already been
supported with the use of personal motivational videos
(PMVs) in competitive tennis players following a rela-
tively short intervention period (2 weeks; Bishop and
Forzoni, 2006). Self-efficacy is an individual’s belief
about their capabilities to produce designated levels of
performance that exercise influence over events that af-
fect their lives (Bandura, 1977). In relation to Bandura’s
(1977; 1997) self-efficacy theory, video footage of com-
petent sports performance may improve the performance
accomplishment (via self-reflection on previous success-
ful performances) and vicarious experience components
that are thought to comprise this construct thereby facili-
tating emotional control. It has already been suggested
that the combination of music with video can stimulate
positive images and help recreate feelings of confidence
and memories of previous performances (Forzoni, 2006).
The additive effect of music with images is further sup-
ported by evidence of stimulation of areas of the brain
with music and images that are thought to complete emo-
tional processing (Baumgartner et al., 2006). This evi-
dence appears to suggest that music and video combined
has the potential to stimulate self-efficacy and emotional
engagement and may therefore enhance motivation during
Watching a video also has the potential to shift at-
tentional focus from internal stimuli to external cues.
Music researchers hypothesise this effect with asynchro-
nous music whereby attention is shifted from salient
physiological cues to the external components of music
particularly the rhythm and musicality components of a
given track (Karageorghis and Terry, 1997). Rejeski’s
(1985) parallel processing model explains this facilitative
change in attentional processing. The attentional field of
an individual is thought to narrow increasingly with ele-
vations in work intensity. During low and moderate exer-
cise external musical cues can prevail thereby reducing
RPE (Borg, 1982). However, this is only hypothesised to
the case at low/moderate intensities below the anaerobic
threshold above which salient physiological cues are
thought to dominate (Boutcher and Trenske, 1990). It is
possible that increasing the strength of external cues
through combining music and video may be sufficient to
influence RPE above the anaerobic threshold. If sup-
ported, this suggestion could have implications for trained
runners who are suggested to favour internal associative
perspectives whilst performing exercise (Morgan, 1977).
Evidence has been presented for the potential er-
gogenic effect of music and video on sports performance
which, if supported could have a more powerful influence
on attentional focus than video or no intervention alone.
This could have implications for those who exercise
whilst watching videos and listening to music. Recent
evidence has been presented demonstrating the efficacy of
other interventions, namely psychological skills training
(PST), in dealing with significant exertion induced physi-
cal sensations in hot conditions (Barwood, Thelwell and
Tipton, 2008). The aerobically trained participants in this
study showed an 8% (1.15km) improvement in distance
covered during a 90 minute time-trial run in hot (30°C),
moist conditions (50% relative humidity; RH) by sup-
pressing their temptation to reduce their work intensity
using a range of psychological skills. The authors sug-
gested that aspects of the PST (mental imagery, positive
self-talk) may have facilitated performance by distracting
the participant from unpleasant sensations elicited by
hyperthermia). Theoretically both music and video inter-
ventions may function in part in a similar way, that is by
distracting the individual from unpleasant sensations
elicited during high intensity exercise. This has yet to be
assessed under environmentally demanding temperature
conditions in which tolerance to unpleasant sensations
from exercise and heat will force performance to deterio-
rate at a faster rate (Tucker et al., 2004). This will provide
an improved backdrop for distinguishing the effects of
music and video interventions on performance.
Given the recent research and theoretical devel-
opments the aim of this study was to examine the benefi-
cial effect that a motivational music and video interven-
tion could have on high intensity exercise performance
under moderate environmental stress. The experiment
hypothesis was that a motivational music and video inter-
vention would significantly increase distance covered
during a time-trial running task and help participants
tolerate warm (~26°C), moist ambient conditions
(~50%RH). If the content of the video portion of the in-
tervention proved important, participants in a non-
motivational video condition would complete the shortest
The study protocol was approved in advance by the insti-
tutional ethics committee and the participants gave their
written informed consent to participate. Following medi-
cal checks, six healthy male, non-acclimated volunteers
acted as participants for the experiment (mean [s.d]; Age
20 [1] yrs; height 1.81 [0.04] m; mass 77 [10] kg). Par-
ticipants were non-smokers recruited from university
rugby and football teams, completed a minimum of four
hours of physical activity a week and were familiar with
treadmill running. Each participant refrained from strenu-
ous exercise, alcohol and caffeine consumption 24 hours
prior to participating in the study. The experimental pro-
cedures were conducted in accordance with the Declara-
tion of Helsinki, as adopted at the 52nd World Medical
Association general assembly, 2000.
Experimental design
Each participant performed three 30-minute (15 minute
warm-up, 15 minute self paced) maximal effort runs on a
treadmill in a climatic chamber held at a constant tem-
perature of ~26°C and ~50% relative humidity (RH).
During each run the participant underwent one of three
experiment manipulations comprising either a control
(CON) condition, motivational (M) or non-motivational
(NM) music and video intervention. To minimise any
Barwood et al.
order effects, the order of interventions were delivered in
a balanced crossover design. Prior to each run the partici-
pants were instructed to exert a maximal effort. Trials
were conducted at the same time of day on separate days
for each participant to minimise any circadian effects,
with a minimum of three days between each laboratory
visit. Following the completion of the study each partici-
pant completed a Social Validation Questionnaire (SVQ)
to measure his responses to each treatment intervention
The participants were required to visit the laboratory on 3
occasions. On arrival each participant changed into run-
ning clothes including shorts, socks, a running vest and
trainers; the same clothing was worn in each trial. Each
participant then attached a heart rate monitor (Team Po-
lar, UK) recording data every 6 seconds, to measure work
intensity during each run. Resting blood lactate (Blac)
concentration was measured (Biosen, C-line Sport, Ger-
many) via a finger prick blood sample taken by a quali-
fied phlebotomist. The difference between pre and post
exercise Blac (Blac) was used as an index of aerobic or
anaerobic metabolism during the maximal effort run. To
avoid the potential distraction by measurement equipment
(Karageorghis and Terry, 1997), no further measurement
devices were attached.
After instrumentation each participant entered a
climatic chamber The environmental conditions were
recorded each minute during the 30 minute trials by a
WBGT weather station (Grant Instruments, Cambridge,
U.K). Environmental conditions in the CON trial were
26.50 [1.20]°C and 45 [9]%, in the NM trial 26.60
[0.30]°C and 49 [4]% and the M trial 25.90 [0.70]°C and
45 [7]% RH and were not different from each other
(P>0.05). Such conditions are mild at rest but are suffi-
cient to provide a moderate thermal stimulus during high
intensity exercise producing a moderate risk of heat ill-
ness (Armstrong et al., 1996). The participant mounted a
treadmill (Powerjog GX200, Powerjog, U.K) and com-
pleted a standardised warm-up over a 15 minute period.
The warm-up comprised 5 minutes of exercise at 5 km·h-1
and a further 10 minutes at 9km·h-1 following which the
participant began his 15-minute maximal effort run. Dur-
ing this time the participant controlled his speed and did
not receive any feedback of time elapsed, distance cov-
ered or current running speed. Throughout the warm-up
and maximal effort run the treadmill incline was set to 1%
to reflect the metabolic energy demands of outdoor run-
ning (Jones and Doust, 1996). RPE (Borg, 1982) was
recorded at a minimum of 2-minute intervals; the fre-
quency of RPE measurement was limited to minimise any
temporal cues to the participant. Every effort was made
by the experimental team to eliminate temporal cues from
the immediate environment around the participant to
avoid anticipatory changes in work intensity toward the
end of the run. No verbal encouragement was given at any
stage. Following the cessation of the run the participant
slowed the treadmill to walking speed for 3 minutes and
exited the climatic chamber. A post exercise sample of
blood was drawn from the fingertip after 4 minutes for
blood lactate analysis. Participants were allowed to con-
sume normal tap water (19°C) ad libitum during each
trial. The distance covered in each trial was noted and
used as a performance indicator. In two of the three trials
the participants received the M video and music interven-
tion or NM video intervention projected (Sony SVGA,
VPL-DS100, Japan) onto the wall of the climatic chamber
~2 metres in front of the participant and through two
audio speakers (Goodmans 40W speakers, U.K) mounted
adjacent and above (1.80m), and below (0.40m) and be-
hind the treadmill respectively. The M and NM interven-
tions were controlled by a laptop computer (Toshiba Te-
cra M5, Japan) and were reproduced in each trial at the
same intensity (Goodmans MS 355, U.K) as measured by
a handheld sound level meter (Lutron SL-4001, Lutron
Electronic Enterpise Co, Taiwan); volume was 75db adja-
cent to the ear of the participant; >75db is classified as
loud music according to Karageorghis and Terry, 1997).
Development of Materials
Motivational Intervention
The music was selected by the experimenters on the basis
of tempo (e.g. Pendulum, ‘Slam’ 139 bpm), potential
affective content (e.g. Survivor, ‘Eye of the Tiger’
109bpm) or the inclusion of inspirational lyrics (e.g.
Lock, Stock and Barrel ‘Rise above it’). To avoid previ-
ous research criticisms for the arbitrary selection of music
in experiments using music interventions (Karageorghis
and Terry, 1997), participants rated the music portion of
the M intervention using the Brunel Music Rating Inven-
tory-3 (Karageorghis, 2008); this was undertaken follow-
ing completion of the study. Within the BMRI-3, the
motivational properties of each piece of music are rated
on a 7-point scale whereby the sum of the ratings indicate
the extent of the motivational properties (highly motiva-
tional rating 36-42; moderately motivating 24-35; <24
low/oudeterous). The warm-up section of the M interven-
tion was rated as 27 [4] (0-15 minutes) and the self-paced
exercise section of the M intervention was rated 36 [3]
(15-30 minutes). It has previously been noted that the
term ‘motivational music’ may oversimplify the effects
that music can have on exercise performance because of
the lack of distinction between the affective components
that music may include (Karageorghis et al., 2006a). Con-
sidering the exercise type (high intensity) high tempo
music (> 120 to 140bpm) was selected for the study with
tracks consistent with Gaston (1951) and Karageorghis et
al.’s (1999) suggestions of motivational music.
Controls were also implemented to account for po-
tential differences in the influence of the music portion of
the intervention between different age groups (participant
ages: 20 [1]), gender (male participants) and socio-
cultural background (Caucasians raised in the UK)
(Karageorghis et al, 2006a; Priest et al., 2004). Lastly,
although the music was of high tempo in nature it was not
designed to be synchronised with strides whilst partici-
pants were running. Asynchronous music has previously
been identified as background music similar to that pre-
sent in most gymnasia (Karageorghis et al., 2006b).
In order to stimulate the vicarious experience
component of self-efficacy (Bandura, 1997) the video and
picture portions of the M intervention included pictures
Music, video and running performance
and videos of influential World and British sporting feats
that the participants were likely to have seen in the media
previously. (e.g. Kelly Holmes’ 2004 Olympic 1500m
and 800m gold-medal winning races; Sir Steve
Redgrave’s coxless fours 2000 Olympic gold medal win).
The videos included moving pictures of further inspira-
tional sporting moments including England’s 2003 Rugby
Union World cup winning drop goal (Jonny Wilkinson)
and Michael Owen’s 2001 FIFA World Cup qualifying
hat-trick versus Germany.
Non-Motivational Intervention
The NM intervention consisted of 30 minutes of public
speaking from a recent political trial in the USA. The
footage included verbal communication of evidence from
the prosecution, defence interspersed with passages of
speech from a judge. At no point did this footage include
motivational slogans or any music or synchronous activ-
ity. This intervention did not include any of the compo-
nents that have previously been noted to have an er-
gogenic effect during exercise, therefore the term non-
motivational was used. The NM footage was selected on
this basis.
Control condition
Participants in the control condition completed their
warm-up and maximal effort run undergoing the same
physiological and psychological measurements but did
not watch or listen to any video or music whilst running.
Social validation questionnaire (SVQ)
To improve external validity, following completion of the
study each participant was informed of the distance they
covered in each trial and completed an SVQ asking for a
rating on a 7 point Likert scale (1 – not at all impor-
tant/significant/satisfied/useful to 7 extremely impor-
tant/significant/satisfied/useful) whether they rated an
improvement in performance as important to them,
whether they rated this improvement as significant, how
satisfied they were with the intervention programme and
whether the intervention proved useful. Consistent with
the recommendations of Tenenbaum et al. (2004), the
participants were invited to provide any subjective com-
ments on the perceived influences of the interventions
Data analysis
The following variables were analysed: Distance covered
in each trial (m) and Blac, from each maximal effort run.
Data sets were analysed for differences between trial
using a Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA)
with repeated measures; significant effects were detected
using a post-hoc pairwise comparisons test with Bon-
ferroni adjustment for multiple comparisons. Statistical
findings are reported with their observed power (β) where
the chance of type II error is equal to 1- β. Where appro-
priate data sets were adjusted using a Greenhouse-Geisser
adjustment. For all statistical tests α level was set at 0.05.
Performance indicators
Data are presented as mean [SD] where appropriate. Dis-
tances covered for each participant are presented in Figure
1. MANOVA indicated a significant difference between
the CON, NM and M conditions (F = 3.68, p =0.023, β =
0.77). The univariate statistic (F(2,10) = 11.29, p = 0.003, β
= 0.96) indicated that participants ran significantly fur-
ther in one trial with the post-hoc analysis showing that
participants covered a greater distance in the M condition
than both the NM (p = 0.049) and the CON (p = 0.019)
condition. There were no differences between the CON
and NM condition in distance covered (p > 0.05). On
average the participants ran 415 m (13%) and 251 m (8%)
further in the M than NM and CON respectively.
Figure 1. Individual and mean distance covered (m) during each 15 minute maximal effort run in participants 1-6.
Barwood et al.
Table 1. Blac accumulation, heart rate and RPEpeak in the CON, NM and M conditions.
Blac (mmol·L-1) Mean HR (bt·min-1) RPEpeak
Participant CON NM M‡ CON NM M CON NM M
1 11.34 7.67 8.66 181 182 170 19 18 19
2 1.50 4.36 8.62 197 192 190 19 19 19
3 3.85 1.55 6.91 168 160 177 16 12 19
4 7.96 5.43 6.81 188 182 192 20 19 19
5 3.01 1.81 5.28 180 170 185 17 19 18
6 3.70 -.09 8.42 171 161 183 17 19 16
Mean 5.23 3.46 7.45 181 174 183 18 18 18
† denotes M> CON and NM condition, ‡ denotes M>NM only.
Indicators of exercise intensity
Indicators of exercise intensity are presented in Table 1.
Univariate analysis indicated differences in Blac accumu-
lation between trials (F(2,10) = 5.33, p = 0.026, β = 0.70).
Post-hoc analysis indicated Blac accumulated to a signifi-
cantly greater extent (p = 0.05) in the M compared to the
NM condition. There were no further differences between
the other conditions (p > 0.05). On average, participants
produced an additional 4 mmol·L-1 of Blac in the M condi-
tion. Mean heart rate during maximal effort running is
displayed in Figure 2. Four of the six participants dis-
played elevated heart rates in the M compared to the NM
condition. Heart rate during treadmill running had a ten-
dency to be higher throughout the maximal effort run in
the M condition (Figure 2). RPE peak was similar during
each of the experimental manipulations and averaged 18
in each condition.
Social validation data, rated on a 7-point Likert
scale, indicated that the participants rated the improve-
ments in performance during the M intervention as impor-
tant (6 [0]), rated their improvement in performance as
significant (6 [1]), were satisfied with the intervention (6
[1]) and found the intervention useful (6 [2]).
This study examined the effect a motivational music and
video intervention on high intensity exercise performance
in warm conditions. It was hypothesised that, since the
combination of music and video included more external
stimuli to induce a dissociative attentional strategy and
increase tolerance, that these interventions combined
would increase distance covered during a 15 minute
treadmill maximal effort run trial. The first hypothesis
was supported. The video content clearly played a role in
determining participants’ effort as they covered the least
distance in the NM conditions in which stimulating cues
were minimised. We also suggested that the magnitude
and number of external distractions caused by the combi-
nation of music with video would lead to a lowered RPE
rating despite running further. This is partially supported
by the unchanged RPE, having run 13% further, in the
motivational music and video intervention. In the NM
condition RPE was also not different raising the possibil-
ity of a change in perception.
Previous studies using only music as an interven-
tion have indicated that music is most efficacious during
low and moderate work intensities or in untrained partici-
pants (Boutcher and Trenske, 1990; Brownley et al.,
1995). The current study demonstrated that music with
video extended the beneficial effects of audiovisual inter-
ventions to include high intensity exercise. Participants
receiving the M intervention worked at a higher heart rate
and accumulated more Blac post-exercise. Boutcher and
Figure 2. Mean heart rate during each 15 minute maximal effort run in participants (n = 6).
Music, video and running performance
Trenske (1990) suggested that the physiological cues at
high exercise intensities (~170bpm), similar to those ob-
served in our study (~180 to 190bpm), were too strong for
their participants to ignore thereby restoring RPE to the
levels observed in a control condition. The current study
provides some tentative support for a change in percep-
tion and consequent benefit to exercise performance when
many stimulating distractions were present in the exercise
Rejeski’s (1985) parallel information processing
theory has consistently been used to interpret the er-
gogenic influence of music on performance at a range of
intensities (e.g. Simpson and Karageorghis, 2006; Carr et
al., 2006; Tenenbaum et al., 2004). This model could also
provide insight into the findings of the current study.
Rejeski (1985) suggests that both physiological and psy-
chological afferent inputs are processed preconsciously
and in parallel. During high intensity exercise, the band-
width for attentional processing narrows and only the
most salient cues are processed which are often, because
of their overwhelming strength, physiological in nature
(e.g. high heart rate, respiratory rate and raised Blac). The
inclusion of video may have provided some competition
for preconscious processing. In untrained runners this
could have a beneficial impact on exercise intensity and
adherence to exercise programmes potentially constituting
a health benefit. However, this could ultimately be dam-
aging for trained participants who favour an internal at-
tentional perspective, particularly during high intensity
exercise, because such cues carry important details of
pacing strategy for training or competition (Morgan,
1977). Music and video may force trained participants to
miss important pacing cues . The cohort of participants in
the current study were physically active but were not
trained runners per se. Further studies using trained run-
ners would elucidate the relationship between training
status and music and video interventions.
Conversely, the NM intervention may have in-
duced fewer stimulating distractions culminating in the
poorest maximal effort performance but interestingly it
did not differ in RPE rating. The subjective comments
made following the NM trial suggest that the exercise
intensity was perceived as harder because of the boredom
experienced. This emphasises the specificity of the con-
tent of the motivational music and video intervention in
the current study. Where possible the appropriate research
tools were used to create the music in the M intervention
(BMRI-2; Karageorghis et al, 2006a; BMRI-3; Karageor-
ghis, 2008) and an equivalent tool to develop the video
interventions may have proved useful. Some tentative
suggestions have been made in developing this personal
motivational videos (Forzoni, 2006), although these sug-
gestions have not been assessed empirically.
Indeed, the combination of music with video may
have functioned in other ways to facilitate high intensity
exercise performance. Rendi et al. (2008) suggested that
high-tempo music may only facilitate arousal during high
intensity exercise performance with no change in atten-
tional processing. Rendi et al. also reported unchanged
RPE ratings during rowing exercise but linked the facilita-
tive effect of music to a greater stroke frequency aug-
mented by elevations in arousal. As already noted, music
in combination with images stimulates many brain struc-
tures involved in emotional processing (Baumgartner et
al., 2006) and it appears feasible that the M intervention
facilitated arousal in the this manner. Some support for
this suggestion can be found in the post-trial comments
made in the current study where some participants felt
that they “wanted to run faster in the warm-up because of
the music and video” in the M condition whereas they
“wanted to slow the speed down because the trial felt
harder” in the NM condition. Interestingly, heart rate
appeared higher at the start of exercise (Figure 2) in the M
condition despite completing the same warm-up as in
other conditions suggesting some impact upon arousal.
Risk-taking images (e.g. climbing, surfing, parachuting)
have also been noted to carry an affective component (at
rest) and may also have contributed to the elevated heart
rate in the M condition (Gomez et al., 2005). Conversely
heart rate was lowest prior to the start of the maximal
effort run in the NM condition (Figure 2).
We can only assume that the video portion of the
M intervention boosted self-efficacy and future studies
should measure this possibility. It was proposed that vi-
carious experience and performance accomplishment may
be augmented by watching video footage including mas-
tery of skill in elite and sub-elite sports persons. This
could be further enhanced by the creation of personal
motivational videos which can be tailored to carry infor-
mation specific to the performer providing behavioural
reinforcement, augmenting psychological skills usage and
optimising the emotive response prior to or during exer-
cise (Forzoni, 2006). This represents an important future
direction for research in this area as a study using PMVs
in this setting will help develop a rationale for the use of
effective tools for sport psychology practitioners.
This study presents a number of interesting further
questions to be answered with subsequent studies. It is
difficult to separate out specifically how the video inter-
vention improved performance and some measure of the
participant reactions to the treatment interventions, over
and above the SVQ used here, would clarify this issue.
Similarly, further treatment conditions including only
music and only video would help to separate the additive
effect that these interventions combined may have but
these have been studied in part elsewhere (e.g. Bishop and
Forzoni, 2006; Brownley et al., 1995). The findings of the
current study provide a strong rationale to test this hy-
pothesis. This study does provide some ecological valid-
ity for the appeal of video and music in combination as an
ergogenic aid to exercise of short duration. Testing these
beneficial effects over longer duration may also prove
interesting as there may be a greater number physiological
inputs that comprise fatigue and compete for attentional
processing over longer exercise of greater duration, par-
ticularly in warm conditions (Tucker et al., 2004; Davis
and Bailey, 1997; Nybo and Nielsen, 2001). In relation to
ecological validity, the conditions of the study may be
similar to those experienced in non-air-conditioned car-
diovascular exercise suites of recreational gyms. Likewise
the intervention itself was highly rated according to the
SVQ in participants similar to those who may comprise a
Barwood et al.
population of gym users. The SVQ showed that the par-
ticipants in the current study were highly motivated, rated
their improvements as significant, were satisfied with the
intervention thereby indicating they would use this kind
of intervention in future.
In conclusion, this study showed that a combined music
and video intervention has a beneficial effect on exercise
of high intensity in conditions that may induce premature
fatigue. Video and music may primarily be of use to non-
competitive, recreational gym users who are more likely
to select dissociative attentional strategies to elongate or
tolerate a high intensity exercise workload. Future studies
should assess the efficacy of this intervention in trained
runners. In order to establish suitably motivating video
components to such interventions, research tools, similar
to the BMRI-3 (Karageorghis, 2008) should be developed
to aid practitioners and researchers in subsequent studies.
The authors would like to acknowledge the contributions of Mr Matthew
Panton, Mr Daniel Isaac, Mr Daniel Burns and Mr Phil Cable for their
assistance in the data collection process. The authors would also like to
acknowledge the participants for their reliability and forbearance and
our technicians for their help in setting up the laboratory.
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Music, video and running performance
Key points
The study examined the ergogenic effect of a moti-
vational (M) video and music intervention on high-
intensity exercise performance in comparison to a
non-motivational (NM) condition and a control
Participants in the M condition ran significantly further
than in the NM (M: 3524 [388]metres; NM: 3110
[561]metres; CON: 3273 [458]metres) and CON condi-
tions, accumulated more Blac, but did not increase their
peak RPE rating (p < 0.05).
It was proposed that a change in attentional processing
from internal (physical sensations) to external perspective
(music and video) may have facilitated this improvement.
These findings have strong implications for improving
health, fitness and engagement in gym-based exercise
Senior Lecturer, Department of Sport and
Exercise Science, University of Ports-
BSc, PhD
Research interest
Human and applied physiology.
Principal lecturer Department of Sport and
Exercise Science, University of Ports-
BSc, PhD
Research interest
Sport and exercise psychology.
Principal lecturer Department of Sport and
Exercise Science, University of Ports-
BSc, PhD
Research interest
Sport and exercise psychology.
Jennifer PAGE
Senior lecturer Department of Sport and
Exercise Science, University of Ports-
BSc, MSc
Research interest
Sport and exercise psychology.
Martin J. Barwood
Department of Sport and Exercise Science, University of Ports-
mouth, Portsmouth, UK
... Interestingly, there have been reports that increases in motivation while listening to preferred music may be more pronounced in females than males, suggesting that females may benefit from changes in psychological factors with preferred music more than male counterparts [8]. Motivation may lead to increased drive and effort, supporting the notion that underlying ergogenic benefits may be dependent on increases in feelings of motivation [9]. Dissociation has also been shown to increase with preferred music which is reflected in decreases in ratings of perceived exertion [4]. ...
Full-text available
Previous studies have shown that listening to preferred music during resistance and endurance exercises improves performance. However, it is unknown if these phenomena translate to short-duration explosive exercises. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influences of preferred and non-preferred music on countermovement jump (CMJ) performance, isometric mid-thigh pull (IMTP), and psychological responses to music during explosive movements. Physically active females (age 18–25) volunteered to take part in the study. In a counterbalanced, crossover design, participants completed three trials: (1) no music (NM), (2) non-preferred (NP), and (3) preferred (PV) music. Participants completed three maximal IMTP tests on a force-plate-equipped IMTP apparatus with an immovable bar. Attempts lasted 5 s and were separated by 3 min of rest. Furthermore, participants completed three single maximal CMJ attempts separated by 3 min of rest on force plates. All attempts were averaged for analysis. At the commencement of IMTP and CMJ testing, participants were asked to rate how motivated and psyched up they felt during the exercise portion using a visual analog scale. For isometric performance, listening to PM resulted in increased peak force (p = 0.039; d = 0.41) and rate of force development at 200 ms (p = 0.023; d = 0.91) compared with NP. For CMJ, there were no differences between conditions for jump height (p = 0.912; η2 = 0.007) or peak power during the propulsive phase (p = 0.460; η2 = 0.003). Levels of motivation were significantly higher with PM compared with NM (p < 0.001; d = 2.3) and NP (p = 0.001; d = 2.0). Feelings of being psyched up were significantly higher with PM compared with NM (p < 0.001; d = 4.2) and NP (p = 0.001; d = 2.8). Findings suggest that preferred music enhances isometric strength and increases motivation and feelings of being psyched up. Thus, PM may be used as an ergogenic aid during short-duration maximal-effort activities.
... De nombreuses études ont identifié les déterminants biomécaniques et physiologiques de la performance en cyclisme (Hansen et al., 2002;Olds et al., 1993). De plus en plus d'études s'intéressent aux effets de stratégies cognitives tel que la focalisation attentionnelle (Comani et al., 2014) ou l'état motivationnel (Barwood et al., 2009(Barwood et al., , 2015 sur la performance en cyclisme. ...
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Les études conduites au cours de ce travail de thèse ont permis de décrire les mécanismes perceptifs mis en place par le cycliste pendant ! 'exercice responsables des sensations qu'il ressent. Nos recherches ont été séparées en deux axes: 1) l'influence de l'efficience neuronale sur la perception de l'effort (PE) et 2) les mécanismes perceptifs influençant les sensations liées à l'utilisation du matériel La première partie de la thèse a mis en avant le rôle de l'efficience neuronale sur la PE du cycliste. Ce mécanisme décrit la capacité à adopter une activité cognitive efficace pour traiter les signaux sensitifs générés pendant l'exercice. En effet, pendant un scénario de course, l'efficience neuronale augmentait lorsque la zone d'intensité (Zl) basé sur la PE (échelle ESIE) s'élevait (+76 % à ZI 6 comparé à ZI 2). De plus, l'augmentation de l'efficience neuronale avec l'intensité de l'effort expliquerait en partie l'amélioration de la précision de l'effort produit sur la base de la PE lorsque la ZI augmente (-70 % de %PO à ZI 6 comparé à ZI 3). Ainsi, avec 1' augmentation de ! 'intensité de ! 'effort, les cyclistes optimiseraient les traitements cognitif, sensorimoteur et moteur afin de pouvoir gérer les signaux sensitifs. En revanche, l'efficience neuronale semble être une capacité intrinsèque déterminante sur la capacité du cycliste à produire précisément un effort à ZI 4 et ZI 5. Enfin, l'efficience neuronale diminuerait à la suite d'un CLM, cet exercice requérant une activité cognitive importante. Les études montrent qu'il semble pertinent de mesurer l'efficience neuronale des cyclistes pendant la pratique et de l'améliorer pour optimiser la gestion de l'effort et la performance réalisée. La seconde partie de la thèse identifie certains mécanismes perceptifs responsables des sensations perçues par le cycliste concernant le matériel utilisé. La capacité extéroceptive mesurée sur le muscle gl uteus maximus expliquerait 53 % de la précision du cycliste à évaluer le confort d'assise. Par ailleurs, nos travaux montrent que le confort d'assise serait amélioré lorsque la stabilité du bassin est meilleure. Pour cela, les forces de cisaillement dans la direction latéro-médiale et antéro-postérieure doivent être minimisées, et les pics de pression des ischions sur la selle doivent être augmentés. Par ailleurs, la capacité proprioceptive du genou à un angle de pédale de 135 ° expliquerait 67 % de la précision du cycliste à percevoir une modification de la hauteur de selie. Enfin, le cycliste doit évacuer la chaleur par sudation et convection afin d'éviter une élévation de la température renseignée par les thermorécepteurs ce qui provoquerait une mauvaise sensation thermique (ST). Certaines caractéristiques de la tenue comme la composition, l'épaisseur et la masse relative détermineraient les propriétés à évacuer la chaleur. En effet, la capacité de la tenue à évacuer la chaleur expliquerait 64 % des sensations thermiques ressenties par le cycliste pendant un effort modéré (EPE CRl O de 4) en conditions chaude (33 °C) et humide (70 ¾RH). Les échanges locaux de chaleur, notamment au niveau de l'abdomen et du bas du dos influenceraient également les sensations thermiques (TS).
... The use of video and music during exercise therapy has been shown to distract from the physical discomfort of exertion [13][14][15], acting as a dissociative attentional stimuli, which may lower the perceived exertion and improve exercise performance [16][17][18]. Robergs et al. (1998) demonstrated that pedalling while watching a prerecorded video in healthy individuals contributed to higher peak pedalling speeds for a given blood lactate level compared to pedalling without video interaction [19], while MacRae et al. (2003), in a cohort of healthy women, showed that video and music stimulus while pedalling improved peak speed and the overall distance pedalled [20]. ...
Full-text available
Video and music as a dissociative attention stimulus during exercise is known to distract from the discomfort of physical exertion and improve exercise adherence; however, the influence of video-based feedback and engagement during pedalling on the performance and motivation of pedalling in stroke patients is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to employ a novel video-based engagement paradigm for pedalling in stroke patients and evaluate its capacity to influence the cadence control, physiological output, and perceived motivation and enjoyment. Thirteen stroke patients were recruited with low-to-moderate lower-limb disability (mean age: 64.0 yrs.). A reference group of 18 healthy young adult subjects (mean age: 27.7 yrs.) was also recruited to assess the broad applicability of the techniques to a contrasting non-pathological cohort. The participants pedalled at a slow (60 RPM) and fast (100 RPM) target speed with constant resistance in 15 min pedalling bouts that included (i) baseline pedalling with real-time visual feedback of cadence deviation from the target provided only in the first 20 s (ii) real-time visual feedback of cadence data over the entire pedalling session, and (iii) real-time engagement to maintain the playback rate of a prerecorded video by pedalling at the target speed. During low speed pedalling, stroke patients demonstrated significantly smaller absolute cadence deviation during pedalling with feedback (mean difference: 1.8 RPM, p = 0.014) and video-based engagement (mean difference: 2.4 RPM, p = 0.006) compared to the baseline pedalling. For the healthy adults, feedback and video-based engagement reduced cadence deviation significantly at all speeds (p < 0.05). All but one stroke patient either enjoyed or really enjoyed the video engagement during pedalling and felt motivated to undertake this form of exercise in therapy in the future. This proof-of-concept study showed that feedback and video-based engagement may improve the targeted pedalling performance in stroke patients, and by helping dissociate subjects from physical cues associated with fatigue, may ultimately improve exercise motivation and compliance.
... Besides, many previous studies classified music in different tempos, e.g., fast music (higher than 140 bpm) and slow music (lower than 90 bpm) (3,37,38). The result showed that the fast music group improved achievements compared to the quiet music or no music group. ...
... Fundamental to most musical preference and exercise 2 of 9 investigations are marked increases in motivation to exercise [2,9,[11][12][13]. Since increases in motivation may lead to greater effort and drive [14], underlying ergogenic benefits may be dependent on motivational improvement. Whether or not other components of musical composition influence motivation similarly is unknown necessitating further study. ...
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of preferred versus non-preferred music volume on relative power output, trial time to completion (TTC), heart rate (HR), rate of perceived exertion (RPE), and motivation during endurance rowing exercise. Physically active females (age 18–25) volunteered to participate. In a crossover counterbalanced design, participants completed two trials: non-preferred (NPV) and preferred (PV) music volume. Participants began with a rowing warm-up at 50% of HRmax for 5 min. Following this, participants completed a 2000 m rowing time trial as quickly as possible. Relative power output, HR, and RPE were documented each minute during the exercise bout. TTC and motivation levels were documented at the cessation of exercise. Results showed that there were no significant differences between NPV and PV for relative power output (p = 0.287; d = 0.17), TTC (p = 0.816; d = 0.01), and HR (p = 0.956; d = 0.08). However, RPE was significantly lower (p = 0.002; d = 0.86) and motivation was significantly higher (p < 0.001; d = 2.14) during the PV condition versus NPV. Findings suggest that while PV does not impart performance-enhancing effects during endurance exercise compared to NPV, it may improve psychological responses related to intensity and effort which could have important implications for enduring intense exercise and training.
... Μια άλλη συνθήκη στην οποία εξετάζονται οι επιδράσεις της μουσικής είναι αυτή κατά την οποία ο ασκούμενος ακούει μουσική παράλληλα με την εκτέλεση της άσκησης (Barwood et al., 2009). Υπάρχουν πολλές μελέτες στη βιβλιογραφία οι οποίες έχουν εξετάσει τον ευρύτερο ρόλο της μουσικής, με τις επιδράσεις στην αθλητική απόδοση να φαίνεται πως είναι ποικιλότροπα ευεργετικές και σημαντικές (Yamashita et al., 2006). ...
Full-text available
Research findings have supported the notion that music positively affects hitting accuracy of young tennis players. The purpose of this study was twofold: first, to examine during a training session the effect of athletes’ music preference on tennis shot accuracy; second, to investigate the relationship between tennis performance on specific tennis shots (Forehand Drive-“FD”, Backhand Drive-“BD”, Forehand Volley-“FV”, Backhand Volley- “BV”, Overhead Smash-“OS”, Serve on Deuce court-“SD”, Serve on Advantage court-“SA”) and self-confidence, anxiety, flow and goal orientation. 11 right-handed tennis players (three boys, eight girls), aged 14-17 years old (M = 13.91, SD = 1.81) voluntarily participated in this study. Initially, the athletes completed the following questionnaires: Brunel Music Rating Inventory–2 (Karageorghis et al., 1999), State-Trait Sport Self-Confidence Inventory for Children (Psychountaki & Zervas, 1998), Sport Anxiety Scale-2 (Smith et al., 2006), Flow State Scale-Short Form (Jackson et al., 2008; Stavrou, 2016) and Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire; TEOSQ (Duda & Nicholls, 1992). Afterwards, their performance on the main tennis shots was evaluated under three field conditions. 1st condition: Without music they were fed by the coach ten balls per each shot type, whose performance was measured with an out-of-ten scoring system, according to which the athletes should guide the ball to bounce beyond the service line (no music condition). 2nd condition: Τhe athletes executed in the same order the main shots after having listened to one of their selected favorite songs wherever in the court they wanted to (music before condition). 3rd condition: Participants practiced the same tennis shots in the same order while their favorite songs were playing on court in the order of their preference on speakers (music on court condition). The results indicated statistically significant correlations between sport-confidence, goal orientation, anxiety and flow with some of the main tennis shots (“FD”, “BV”, “OS”, “SA”, “BD”). Statistically significant difference was found between the “no music” and the “music before” condition in “FD”. Moreover, statistically significant was the difference in performance at “FV” between the “no music” and “music on court” condition. The results indicate the importance of athletes’ emotional state and the way it affects their performance on the tennis shots as well as music’s positive effect on the way young tennis athletes perform on court. Those findings may seem valuable in a theoretical and a practical manner for both coaches and athletes. Keywords: music, performance, teenagers, tennis, anxiety, sport confidence, flow, goal orientation
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استفاده از انواع موسیقی در حیطه­ی ورزش و توان­بخشی مورد توجه قرار گرفته­است، اما نتایج مطالعات در مورد اثربخشی آن­ها متفاوت است. هدف این پژوهش بررسی تأثیر گوش­دادن به چهار نوع موسیقی آرامش­بخش، تحریک­کننده­ی امواج مغزی،مهیج و ترکیبی حین اجرای فعالیت­بدنی وامانده­ساز بر بهبود اجرای ورزشی در زنان بزرگسال بود. به این منظور تعداد 10 نفراز دانشجویان تربیت­ بدنی دانشگاه خوارزمی به عنوان نمونه انتخاب شدند. آزمودنی­ ها طی روزهای غیرمتوالی به صورت متقاطع در قالب پنج گروه فعالیت ­بدنی بدون موسیقی، فعالیت­ بدنی همراه با موسیقی آرامش بخش، فعالیت ­بدنی همراه با موسیقی مهیج، فعالیت ­بدنی همراه با موسیقی تحریک­ کننده ­ی امواج مغزی و فعالیت ­بدنی همراه با موسیقی ترکیبی پروتکل ورزشی نوارگردان بروس را تا واماندگی انجام دادند. بلافاصله پس از اتمام پروتکل ورزشی میزان لاکتات خون، ضربان قلب، زمان فعالیت تا رسیدن به واماندگی، میزان درک فشارکار، میزان احساس توانمندی آزمودنی­ها اندازه­ گیری ­شد. نتایج پژوهش نشان ­داد با این که در هر سه گروه موسیقی ترکیبی، موسیقی مهیج و موسیقی تحریک­ کننده ­ی امواج مغزی میزان لاکتات خون بلافاصله پس از فعالیت­ بدنی بیشتر از گروه فعالیت­ بدنی بدون موسیقی بود، اما این اختلاف معنادار نبود. همچنین نتایج پژوهش نشان­ داد که گوش­ دادن به سه نوع موسیقی استفاده شده حین اجرای تمرین وامانده ­ساز تأثیر معنی­داری بر میزان ضربان قلب نداشت. اما گوش­ دادن به این موسیقی­ ها بر افزایش زمان فعالیت تا رسیدن به حالت واماندگی، کاهش میزان درک فشارکار، افزایش میزان احساس توانمندی تأثیر قابل­ ملاحظه­ ای دارد (p≤0.05). در کل می ­توان گفت گوش­دادن به موسیقی­ های ترکیبی، مهیج و تحریک ­کننده­ ی امواج مغزی حین اجرای تمرین وامانده ­ساز می­تواند از طریق محور HPAو SAMموجب تعادل انرژی و کاهش درک زمان و فشارکار شود که افزایش کارائی ورزشی را به دنبال خواهد داشت. عنوان مقاله [English] Effect of Stimulative, sedative, mix and brain-waves stimulator music on improving performance in physical education female college students چکیده [English] Today, it has paid attention to using different kinds of music in sport and rehabilitation domain. But the results of studies about the effectiveness of kinds of music are different. This research aimed at investigating the effect of listening to four kinds of music (stimulative, sedative, mix, and brain wave stimulator) during performing exhausting physical activity on improving athletic performance in adult females. To do this, 10 physical education students studying at Kharazmi University were selected. The subjects performed the Bruce multistage exercise protocol in five groups including physical activity without music and with sedative, motivational, brain-waves stimulator, and mixed music during non-continuous days in crossed design. Blood lactate concentration, heart rate, physical activity time to exhaustion, perception of exertion and time, state of feeling vigor, were measured immediately after exercise protocol. The results of this research showed that blood lactate concentration in three groups (physical activity synchronize with brain wave stimulator, motivational, and mixed music was higher in comparison to the group of physical activity without music but the difference was not significant. Also, the result showed that listening to sedative, brain wave stimulator, motivational, and mixed music had no significant effect on heart rate. But listening to the brain wave stimulator, motivational, and mixed music had a meaningful effect on increasing physical activity time to exhaustion, state of feeling vigor, and one’s perception of exertion and time (p کلیدواژه‌ها [English] Kinds of music- exhausting physical activity- athletic performance-adult women
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Positive psychological techniques have been researched and implemented within professional sports as well as collegiate programs throughout the country. The effectiveness of audio/visual stimuli on high school aged athletes and their athletic performance, however, has not been previously evaluated. An experiment was performed on varsity high school tennis players where their serving accuracy was measured before and after being introduced to an audio/visual stimuli. 8 female and 9 male participants participated in the trails, where they would serve 10 times on each side of the court (20 total serves). Players additionally completed a survey regarding their mindset and positivity before participation. Results were measured both days of experiments and compared. Findings concluded that the male participants decreased their accuracy 16% after watching the video and females increased accuracy by 20%. Due to the higher number of males that were self reported to have a “negative” mindset, that was deduced to likely cause the decrease in performance along with the female-centered stimuli. These findings show a need for an appealing stimuli to males in the high school age group and demonstrate that emotional, female-focused stimuli helps to improve the performance of female high school athletes.
Physical inactivity and an increasingly sedentary lifestyle constitute a significant public health concern. Exergames try to tackle this problem by combining exercising with motivational gameplay. Another approach in sports science is the use of auditory-motor synchronization, the entrainment of movements to the rhythm of music. There are already commercially successful games making use of the combination of both, such as the popular VR rhythm game BeatSaber. However, unlike traditional exercise settings often relying on periodic movements that can be easily entrained to a rhythmic pulse, exergames typically offer an additional cognitive challenge through their gameplay and might be based more on reaction or memorization. That poses the question as to what extent the effects of auditory-motor synchronization can be transferred to exergames, and if the synchronization of music and gameplay facilitates the playing experience. We conducted a user study (N = 54) to investigate the effects of different degrees of synchronization between music and gameplay using the VR rhythm game BeatSaber. Results show significant effects on performance, perceived workload, and player experience between the synchronized and non-synchronized conditions, but the results seem to be strongly mediated by the ability of the participants to consciously perceive the synchronization differences.
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La recomendación general de actividad física es de intensidad moderada durante un mínimo de 30 min, 5 días por semana o de intensidad vigorosa mínimo 20 min, 3 días por semana (Cordero, Masiá, & Galve, 2014). Las actividades dirigidas hacen que las personas realicen ejercicio de forma más motivada según Nielsen (2014) en el estudio realizado en Pérez, García, Gómez, & Fernández (2018). Buscamos innovar dentro del mundo del fitness a través de un sistema de pasos de danza en un tapiz rodante y teniendo como objetivo proponer una progresión metodológica de enseñanza para una nueva actividad dirigida llamada Cinta Dance, realizada en un tapiz rodante con soporte musical. Teniendo en cuenta toda la referencia bibliográfica desarrollamos una propuesta, en la cual participan dos sujetos adultos y se les hace el cuestionario de la escala de valoración de ánimo (EVEA) y se le pregunta el valor del esfuerzo percibido (RPE) a través de la escala de Borg. Summary: The general recommendation for exercise is either of moderate intensity for a minimum of 30 minutes, 5 days a week, or of vigorous intensity for a minimum of 20 minutes, 3 days a week (Cordero, Masiá, & Galve, 2014). Guided activities tend to increase people’s motivation for exercise according to Nielsen (2014) in the study by Pérez, García, Gómez, & Fernández (2018). We are looking to innovate in the fitness world through a new system of dance steps on a treadmill with the goal of proposing a methodological progression of teaching for a new guided exercise called Cinta Dance, carried out on a treadmill with accompanying music. Keeping in mind the existing literature, we developed a proposal in which two adult subjects answered a Scale for Mood Assessment (EVEA) questionnaire and were asked about the rating of perceived exertion (RPE) through Borg’s scale.
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Examined the effects of induced mood on personal standards for performance and judgments of one's performance capabilities, or self-efficacy judgments. Three experiments involving 208 undergraduates were conducted. In Exp 1, standards and self-efficacy judgments were assessed on common social and academic tasks. In Exp 2, these variables were assessed on 2 novel tasks. In both experiments, negative mood induced higher standards for performance. Induced mood had no effect on perceived self-efficacy. Negative mood Ss thus held minimal standards for performance that significantly exceeded the levels of performance they judged they actually could attain. Exp 3 provided support for the hypothesis that negative mood raises standards by lowering evaluations of prospective outcomes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Subjective estimates of physical work intensity are considered of major importance to those concerned with prescription of exercise. This article reviews major theoretical models which might guide research on the antecedents for ratings of perceived exertion (RPE). It is argued that an active rather than passive view of perception is warranted in future research, and a parallel-processing model is emphasized as providing the needed structure for such reconceptualization. Moreover, existing exercise research is reviewed as support for this latter approach and several suggestions are offered with regard to needed empirical study.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of fast- and slow-tempo music on 500-m rowing sprint performances. Twenty-two rowers performed 500-m sprints 3 times: rowing without music, rowing to slow music, and rowing to fast tempo music. Strokes per minute (SPM), time to completion, (TTC), and rated perceived exertion (RPE) were recorded. Although RPE did not differ between the rowing conditions, TTC was shortest in the fast music condition. Further, shorter TTC was observed in the slow music condition in contrast to the control condition, indicating that slow music also enhanced performance. The strongest treatment effects emerged, however, in the examination of the SPM that were significantly higher during rowing to fast music in comparison with rowing to slow music or no music. These results suggest that fast music acts as an external psyching-up stimulus in brief and strenuous muscle work.
24 female undergraduates performed 3 18-min sessions on a cycle ergometer at light, moderate, and heavy workloads during which perceived exertion, affect, and heart rate were monitored. Each S participated in a control, deprivation, and music condition. No significant differences were found in heart rate between conditions. Significantly lower perceived exertion existed during the music compared with the deprived condition at the low workload. There was lower perceived exertion during the music compared with the control condition at the moderate workload. Significantly greater levels of affect were observed during the music compared with the deprived condition at the moderate and heavy workloads. The influence of music and deprivation on perceived exertion and affect appears to be load dependent. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
10 female college basketball players received 5 daily 30-min training sessions in progressive relaxation and visual imagery related to foul shooting. Over the next 5 days of training, Ss continued relaxation and visualization exercises or also observed a videotaped model. Following a 5-day fading period to reduce Ss' dependence on the videotape, Ss' foul shooting performance was compared to preintervention baseline. Ss in the modeling condition showed a significant improvement in performance relative to Ss in the relaxation/visualization-only condition. All Ss in the modeling condition also reported feeling kinesthetic sensations in association with visual imagery. Findings indicate that the use of visual cues through modeling may provide a means of enhancing visuo-motor behavior rehearsal and support the suggestion that most forms of mental rehearsal are more effective for performers with relatively high levels of skill. (10 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Examined the effectiveness of highlight peak performance music videotapes on competitive offensive field goal percentage using 5 male intercollegiate basketball players. Videotapes incorporating each S's best and most effective plays were supplemented by inspirational music and were viewed by the Ss throughout the competitive season. Treatment effects were determined by a single-S multiple-baseline-across-Ss design. Although a causal relationship between highlight videotapes and offensive field goal percentage was not established, the results did demonstrate a mean increase of 4.7% in overall field goal percentage for 3 of the 5 Ss. Social validity was explored through the use of imagery evaluation sheets, individual player logs of introspective thought, and personal interviews. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Objectives. To examine: (a) the effect of music type on running time and on sensations and thoughts experienced by the runners under high physical exertion, and (b) the role that music plays in the use of two distinct self-regulation techniques during high exertion, namely dissociative and motivational.Design and procedure. Three studies were conducted. In Study 1 and Study 2, performed in the laboratory, participants ran at 90% of their maximal oxygen uptake on a motorized treadmill four times, once each with rock, dance, and inspirational music, and once without attending to music. Ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) and heart rate (HR) were monitored during the run, and discomfort symptoms and music-specific questions were examined. In Study 3, performed in the field, participants ran a hilly course eight times, four under a competitive-pair condition, and four under a single-mode condition. Running time was the dependent variable.Results. Music failed to influence HR, RPE, and sensations of exertion in the three studies. However, about 30% of the participants indicated that the music helped them at the beginning of the run. The participants stated that music both directed their attention to the music and motivated them to continue. Despite the heavy workload reported by the runners, running with music was perceived as beneficial by many.Conclusions: People engaged in high intensity running may benefit from listening to music, but may not increase their ability to sustain that effort longer than they could without music. Further research that incorporates personal music type and rhythm preferences should be carried out in order to advance this line of inquiry.