ArticlePDF Available

Acute Effects of Two Massage Techniques on Ankle Joint Flexibility and Power of the Plantar Flexors

Authors:

Abstract and Figures

The purpose of this study was to determine if three minutes of petrissage and tapotement forms of massage would influence plantar flexors' flexibility, and muscle power. Nineteen participants were randomly subjected to three conditions (control and two massages) before performing two power tests. Prior to the intervention, subjects completed ankle joint flexibility assessments. The conditions were; (1) control, where subjects lay prone and had a therapist's hands resting, (2) vigorous petrissage, and (3) tapotement applied at a rate of 4Hz; all on the triceps surae. Following completion of the intervention, subjects immediately completed a post- ankle joint flexibility test, followed by a drop-jump and concentric calf raise. The power measures were; concentric peak force, rate of force development, and drop-jump height / contact time. The data showed a significant increase (p < 0.05) in ankle joint angle on the right leg and a corresponding tendency on the left. No significant change was seen with the power measures. Results suggest that massage can increase plantar flexors' flexibility without a change in power and thus may be an alternative to static stretching during an athletic warm-up. Key pointsThree minutes of petrissage and tapotement forms of massage increased ankle flexibility.Massage did not adversely affect jump power measures.Massage may be an effective alternative to static stretching as a component of a pre-event warm-up.
Content may be subject to copyright.
©Journal of Sports Science and Medicine (2007) 6, 498-504
http://www.jssm.org
Received: 26 July 2007 / Accepted: 18 September 2007 / Published (online): 01 December 2007
Acute effects of two massage techniques on ankle joint flexibility and power of
the plantar flexors
Grant J.B. McKechnie 1, Warren B. Young 1 and David G. Behm 2
1 School of Human Movement and Sports Science, University of Ballarat, University Drive, Mount Helen, Ballarat,
Victoria, Australia, 2 School of Human Kinetics and Recreation, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John’s
Newfoundland, Canada
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to determine if three minutes of
petrissage and tapotement forms of massage would influence
plantar flexors’ flexibility, and muscle power. Nineteen partici-
pants were randomly subjected to three conditions (control and
two massages) before performing two power tests. Prior to the
intervention, subjects completed ankle joint flexibility assess-
ments. The conditions were; (1) control, where subjects lay
prone and had a therapist’s hands resting, (2) vigorous petris-
sage, and (3) tapotement applied at a rate of 4Hz; all on the
triceps surae. Following completion of the intervention, subjects
immediately completed a post-ankle joint flexibility test, fol-
lowed by a drop-jump and concentric calf raise. The power
measures were; concentric peak force, rate of force develop-
ment, and drop-jump height / contact time. The data showed a
significant increase (p < 0.05) in ankle joint angle on the right
leg and a corresponding tendency on the left. No significant
change was seen with the power measures. Results suggest that
massage can increase plantar flexors’ flexibility without a
change in power and thus may be an alternative to static stretch-
ing during an athletic warm-up.
Key words: petrissage, tapotement, warm-up, range of motion,
jumps.
Introduction
The practice of massage has long been considered an
integral part of sport preparation, conditioning and recov-
ery (Cafarelli and Flint, 1993; Caldwell, 2001; Drust, et
al., 2003; Harmer, 1991; Hemmings, 2001; Tiidus and
Shoemaker, 1995). Since the time of ancient Greece,
massage and sport have co-existed. However, it was not
until the 1972 Munich Olympics where Lasse Viren at-
tributed his two gold medals to a daily massage (Cald-
well, 2001), that massage became synonymous with
sporting achievement. In addition, more recently Cal-
laghan (1993) and Clews (1999) reported extensive use of
massage on their national Olympic teams.
Although massage is practised widely throughout
sporting circles, the effects and mechanism associated
with massage are unclear or anecdotal (Boone et al. 1991,
Wiktorsson-Möller, et al., 1983; Cafarelli and Flint, 1993;
Harmer, 1991; Hemmings, 2001; Tiidus and Shoemaker,
1995). Athletes use massage in an attempt to aid recovery
as well as warm-up for training or competition (Boone et
al., 1991; Cafarelli and Flint, 1993; Caldwell, 2001; Cash,
1996; Drust et al., 2003; Harmer, 1991; Hemmings, 2001;
Tiidus and Shoemaker, 1995; Wiktorsson-Möller et al.,
1983). Current recommendations from Sports Medicine
Australia (2005) for warming-up prior to activity involve
2-3 minutes of jogging to raise a light sweat prior to
stretching. This activity is to increase the heat throughout
the body and reduce the risk of musculoskeletal injury by
increasing tissue suppleness. Stretching follows to further
reduce the risk of injury, reduce muscle tension and in-
crease freedom of movement. However, there are numer-
ous articles indicating that pre-event static stretching can
impair force (Behm and Kibele, 2007; Behm et al., 2001;
2006), balance, reaction and movement time (Behm et al.,
2004b) and jump landing contact time (Power et al.,
2004). Although Nelson et al. (2001) found that the dele-
terious effect of prior stretching was limited to slower
isokinetic velocities (60°/s and 120°/s), other studies have
found prior static stretching to inhibit dynamic jump
performance (Behm et al., 2006, Behm and Kibele, 2007;
Young and Behm 2002,). Whereas increased ROM is
coupled with performance impairments when static
stretching is implemented, pre-event massage might im-
prove ROM without the associated impairments. It would
be important to discover if there are any massage-related
impairments and if they could affect dynamic jump per-
formance. While Hunter et al. (2006) reported that post-
massage effects on isokinetic force were only significant
at 60°/s; they also opined that the deleterious effect might
only occur with the first contraction after massage. With
the incertitude in the literature it would be opportune to
further investigate the effect of massage on jump meas-
ures.
Massage involves methodical pressure, friction and
rubbing (Hemmings, 2001). Various strokes such as,
effleurage, petrissage, tapotement and frictions have been
developed from Swiss massage. Petrissage (“to knead”) is
a vigorous stroke, which compresses and releases soft
tissue via picking up and squeezing the muscle and over-
lying tissues. It is aimed at stretching muscle fibres, in-
creasing mobility between the tissue interfaces, aiding
venous and lymph return, relaxing muscles, and in help-
ing with the removal of wastes (Goats, 1994a; Paine,
2000). Tapotement is a percussive massage stroke, such
as hacking, pecking or cupping; aimed at stimulating the
cutaneous tissue and superficial muscle, aiding the prepa-
ration for competition (Goats, 1994b; Paine, 2000). Un-
fortunately, the factions that prescribe pre-event massage,
Research article
McKechnie et al.
499
do not agree on the type, style, application, duration,
intensity, number of strokes, or the time prior to competi-
tion required to benefit from massage (Caldwell, 2001;
King, 1993; Paine, 2000). In addition, limited empirical
data was found to substantiate each stroke’s claimed
benefit or if they had any effect at all. Therefore, both
practitioner and recipient may have a poor understanding
of the true nature of massage.
Currently, the majority of studies, on sports mas-
sage, focus on post-event conditions specifically aiding
recovery from intense exercise and the relieving of de-
layed onset of muscular soreness symptoms (Weber et al.,
1994). Very little research has been conducted on the pre-
exercise or pre-event condition (Hemmings, 2001). Al-
though various authors have speculated on the positive
effects of massage (Cafarelli and Flint, 1993; Caldwell,
2001; Hemmings et al., 2000; Hemmings 2001; King,
1993; Paine, 2000), there is little scientific or empirical
data to support these claims (Boone et al., 1991; Hem-
mings et al., 2000; Shoemaker et al., 1997). Furthermore,
these studies have methodological problems. Duration of
the treatment and the type and number of strokes con-
ducted during the treatment are inconsistent, with these
decisions often left up to the discretion of the therapist
applying the treatment (Wiktorsson-Möller et al., 1983).
Consequently, scientific knowledge in the area of
the pre-event massage is lacking. There is insufficient
evidence to suggest that pre-event massage is of any
physiological benefit, whether it has a positive or negative
affect on performance and ROM. Hence, the purpose of
the study was to establish whether particular massage
strokes (petrissage or tapotement) had any effect on
power performance of the plantar flexors and ankle joint
flexibility immediately post-treatment.
Methods
Subjects
Nineteen students, who volunteered (8 female and 11
male) from the University of Ballarat, (mean; age = 21 ±
2.25 years, height = 1.78 ± 0.09 m, weight 76.59 ± 9.87
kg) participated in and completed the study. Following
approval from the University Human Research and Ethics
committee, all subjects read and signed an informed con-
sent form prior to beginning the study. Subjects were
required to be injury free in the ankles, lower legs and feet
as well as have a moderate level of proficiency in jumping
sports to decrease likelihood of injury from the test. Typi-
cally, this meant the subjects were participating in team
sports such as Australian Rules football and netball at a
recreational level.
Design
Subjects were required to attend four sessions throughout
the study. All tests for each individual were conducted at
approximately the same time of day to eliminate diurnal
variations. The first session was a familiarisation / infor-
mation session where the procedure and tests were de-
scribed, demonstrated and practised. The remaining ses-
sions were the test sessions, where the experiment was
implemented. The order in which the test sessions were
completed was randomly assigned (dice throw) prior to
commencement of the first test session. Each test session
involved four components:
1. Pre-intervention calf flexibility test where both an-
kles were tested for ROM.
2. Treatment / intervention which was either the con-
trol, massage treatment 1 (petrissage) or massage
treatment 2 (tapotement), applied in a randomly
assigned order.
3. Post intervention calf flexibility, where the subject
completed the same ROM test, commencing on the
same leg as in the pre-test.
4. Completion of two power jump tests conducted in
random order.
The above sequence was completed on three sepa-
rate occasions, to allow the three different testing condi-
tions to be conducted. All massage was completed in a
laboratory free of other people or sounds to prevent exter-
nal stimuli from influencing the result. The massage was
performed on an Athlagen Access-lift electric table that
was set at a height comfortable for the therapist to com-
plete the massage. No adjustments of table height where
permitted once a testing session commenced due to the
noise associated with the motor. Testing bouts were con-
ducted no closer than 48 hours and no further than 96
hours from each other. The control condition was con-
ducted to account for possible influences of the resting
prone position, oil or the contact of the hands on the skin.
The same therapist was used for all subjects.
Familiarisation / information session
This session was conducted approximately one week prior
to the commencement of testing. The purpose of this
session was to inform the participant of the requirements
of the study, familiarise each subject with the testing
procedures, and demonstrate the massage styles to be
performed.
Ankle joint flexibility measures
Ankle joint flexibility was assessed prior to and following
the intervention. Subjects assumed a supine position with
their hands above their heads on a wall to brace their body
position for the measure to be performed. The hands were
in this position to avoid sliding along the floor whilst the
testers wound in the device. The machine was braced by
one of the testers to avoid the machine from moving
whilst the other tester wound the device. The testers also
stabilised the subject’s ankle firmly in the device to avoid
any slippage of the foot in the machine (Figure 1).
The assignment of which leg would be tested first
was determined randomly with an eight-sided die. The
same order for the legs was used for pre- and post-testing.
Once this order was determined, the subject was tested
and received the treatment on this leg first for the duration
of the study. Following this procedure, the plantar surface
of the first foot was placed on the wooden plate of the
ankle joint flexibility device. The plate was then wound
slowly to increase ankle dorsiflexion. The subjects were
to inform the testers when they reached a position that
induced a sensation just prior to the onset of pain. The
subject was instructed to look directly up at the ceiling to
Massage effects on flexibility and power
500
avoid influence of visual stimulus in regards to ankle
position. A reading was taken of the acute angle between
the horizontal and movable plate on the degrees scale on
the side of the device, with the measurement resolution
0.5 degrees. This angle was considered as the measure of
passive flexibility of the plantar flexors. This procedure
was then immediately repeated for the following leg.
Only a single flexibility trial was conducted due to the
time taken to perform the test. This test has been reliably
used in previously published research (Young et al.,
2006). Repeating this procedure could influence the sub-
ject’s perception of the end point just before pain and
consequently affect the overall result.
Figure 1. Ankle joint flexibility test.
Treatment interventions
The order in which each participant completed the inter-
ventions was predetermined randomly. The position for
all three interventions was the same; lying prone on an
Athlagen Access Lift electric table, with the feet hanging
off the end of the table in a relaxed position. ‘Cold-
pressed’ vegetable based oil was applied to each of the
subjects over the plantar flexors. The amount of oil ap-
plied to each subject was sufficient to provide comfort
during the vigorous application of petrissage without
irritation of the skin or hair on the leg. No conversing
between the therapist and subject was allowed, no noise,
talking in the laboratory, music or anything else that could
alter the mood state was permitted during the interven-
tion.
Control condition
The control condition consisted of resting in a prone posi-
tion as described above and the oil was applied. The mas-
sage therapist rested the hands on each leg over the triceps
surae group for a period of three minutes on each leg. No
movement of the therapist’s hands was permitted
throughout the duration of the application. Direct contact
was used in the control to account for any influence of
physical contact. This control was necessary due to the
potential psychological effect of massage as demonstrated
by Tyurin (1985).
Massage treatment 1 – Petrissage
The subject adopted a position as described above. The oil
was applied to both legs as with the control. The therapist
then proceeded to massage the subject’s plantar flexors
with a vigorous kneading ‘duck-billing’ motion – petris-
sage (Figure 2). This was applied to one leg for a period
of three minutes and then the other leg.
Figure 2. Petrissage massage technique.
Massage treatment 2 – Tapotement
The subject adopted the starting position as described
above. Oil was applied as with the other two interven-
tions, although not normally required for tapotement
technique. This was done to be consistent with the preced-
ing two interventions. A percussive hacking style (Figure
3) was applied to the plantar flexors for duration of three
minutes each leg as per the other two interventions. The
strike rate of this technique was vigorous at 4Hz. This
was consistent throughout the total six minute time pe-
riod. Consistency was ensured with the therapist wearing
a “Walkman” with earphones and a compact disc playing
a beeping noise every 0.5 s. The therapist was instructed
to strike his right hand twice for each beat.
Figure 3. Tapotement massage technique.
To ensure consistency for all conditions, the same
qualified massage therapist was used. The therapist had
been practising massage professionally for over three
years and was qualified with a Diploma of Health Science
(Remedial Massage).
McKechnie et al.
501
Jump procedures
All subjects on completing all other tests performed two
tests of muscle power. The order, in which these tests
were conducted, was randomly assigned. Once deter-
mined, the subject completed these tests in this order for
the remainder of their test sessions. These two tests were
selected as they are seen to be two differing neurophysi-
ological methods of force generation (Young et al., 2006).
The drop-jump involves a stretch-shortening cycle (SCC),
whereas the concentric calf raise is a pure concentric
contraction.
Drop jump
The drop jump was performed from a 30cm high box onto
a contact mat system (Swift Performance Equipment)
(Power et al., 2004; Young and Behm, 2002, Young and
Elliott, 2001; Young et al., 2006). Subjects were in-
structed to keep their hands on their hips throughout the
test, and to step off the box with a straight leg to ensure
the fall began as close to 30cm as possible. The objective
was to jump for maximum height and minimum contact
time. As previous studies have indicated, these instruc-
tions produced short contact times (<200msec) and
change the jumping task compared with jumping only for
height (Power et al., 2004; Young and Behm, 2002;
Young et al., 2006). The testers, to ensure correct tech-
nique and give feedback as required, repeated the cues of
maximum height and minimum contact time. Each subject
performed a maximum of two jumps with approximately
30 seconds rest between trials. The best score was re-
tained for the final result.
The test yields two results, height achieved and
contact time. The power measure is the height divided by
contact time. As the flight time determines the height
achieved, it is only valid if the subject lands in the exact
position of the take-off. Consequently, the subjects’ in-
structions were to land from their jumps with the hips and
knees extended and the feet fully plantar flexed before
flexing these joints to distribute the impact of landing.
“Although this test does not totally isolate the plantar
flexors, such a jumping technique has been shown to
reduce the activation of the quadriceps and increase the
activation of the gastrocnemius compared to a drop jump
for height only,” (Young et al., 2006).
Concentric calf raise
This test was performed in a modified Smith Machine
(Olympic bar is attached and guided along vertical rails)
with a 10kg bar on the shoulders to enhance stability
whilst performing the movement (Young et al., 2006).
The subject was placed in the Smith Machine and in-
structed to remain still, on flat feet. Their weight was then
measured and recorded. When instructed to ‘go’ the sub-
ject performed a maximal explosive concentric calf raise
as ‘hard and fast as possible’. Their knees had to remain
locked throughout the test and their toes were to remain in
contact with the ground. This test isolated the plantar
flexors as hip and knee extension was eliminated. To
decrease the subject utilising other muscles, their tech-
nique was assessed during the movement.
The power measures were captured with a Kistler
force platform (Z4852/C) operating at 1000Hz. The soft-
ware ascertained the absolute maximum force and re-
ported this as peak force. The maximum rate of force
development (RFD) was calculated as the greatest force
increase over 5 msec on the ascending aspect of the curve.
The subjects performed two trials, with the best score
taken as the result. These parameters have been used
previously (Young and Elliot, 2001).
Statistical analysis
To compare the measures of muscle power from the con-
centric calf raise and drop jump across these conditions, a
one-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) with repeated
measures was employed. For the flexibility measures, a
two-way ANOVA, (3 conditions x 2 times {pre- and post-
intervention}) with repeated measures, was also used;
however, the focus was on the condition × time interac-
tion since the flexibility results had a pre- and post- treat-
ment score. The ANOVAs were conducted separately for
right and left limbs. Significance was set at p < 0.05 for
all tests. Effect sizes (ES = mean change / standard
Figure 4. Mean ankle angle for the right leg. The symbol “*” represents that both post-massage measures
experienced significantly (p < 0.05) greater change compared to the post-test control measure. A decreased
angle signifies an increase in the range of motion (ROM). (Error bars represent the standard deviation [SD])
Massage effects on flexibility and power
502
56
58
60
62
64
66
68
Control Petrissage Tapotement
Ankle angle (deg)
Pre
Post
Figure 5. Mean ankle angle for the left leg. (Error bars represent the standard deviation [SD]).
deviation of the sample scores) were also calculated and
reported (Cohen, 1988). Cohen applied qualitative de-
scriptors for the effect sizes (ES) with ratios of less than
0.41, 0.41-0.70 and greater than 0.7 indicating small,
moderate and large changes respectively.
Results
Ankle joint flexibility
There was a significant (p < 0.01) main effect for time
(pre- vs. post-intervention) for both legs. For the right leg
there was a significant group × time interaction (p < 0.05)
(Figure 4). To determine which condition was different,
simple contrasts were performed revealing the gains in
flexibility from pre- to post-massage were greater for the
petrissage (3.7% ES = 0.64) and tapotement (3.2% ES =
0.62) compared to the control (1.3% ES = 0.18). There
was no significant difference between either massage
treatments for either leg.
For the left leg there was no statistical significance
in ankle joint flexibility (Figure 5). Although not signifi-
cant (p = 0.34), numerically, the two massage treatments
had larger gains in flexibility compared with the control
group (petrissage = 2.7% ES = 0.48: moderate, tapote-
ment = 2.4% ES = 0.34: small, control = 1.1% ES = 0.1).
Power performance
There was no significant difference observed between the
three conditions in any of the variables related to power
(Table 1). The concentric calf raise also failed to yield
any significant results.
Discussion
The purpose of this study was to determine if petrissage
and tapotement forms of massage would influence the
flexibility of the plantar flexors and muscle power.
Ankle joint flexibility
Unlike previous studies (Mikesky et al., 2002), this study
was able to demonstrate a significant effect of massage on
ROM. Interestingly, the ROM results showed significance
only on the right and a corresponding numerical indica-
tion on the left reached a significance value of p=0.34.
Effect size magnitudes (Cohen, 1988) indicated that both
types of massage for the right ankle and petrissage for the
left ankle caused moderate changes in ROM while tapo-
tement had a small effect for the left ankle. However,
when comparing the two massage techniques, the results
were very similar. This was surprising, as it has been
claimed that petrissage and tapotement have different
effects on soft tissues and subsequently a greater differ-
ence between the two strokes may have been expected
(Goats, 1994b). As discussed earlier, the proposed pur-
pose of petrissage is to increase lymphatic and venous
drainage, squeeze out metabolic waste products, promote
deeper relaxation of tissues and stretch muscle fibres,
making the tissue interface more mobile (Paine, 2000;
Prentice, 2003). These claims would account for the in-
crease in flexibility associated with petrissage via reduc-
ing stiffness at a fibre level and increasing muscle com-
pliance. However, tapotement is claimed to increase mus-
cle tone, vibrate tissues and stimulate cutaneous reflexes
(Goats, 1994a). Its percussive nature works superficially
stimulating muscles and cutaneous neural structures. Both
techniques involved direct contact on the skin for a dura-
tion of three minutes. Throughout that time, a vigorous
application of massage to the skin from either technique
would stimulate the cutaneous receptors (Goats, 1994a).
This application of rubbing or striking the skin for the
prolonged period would overload the cutaneous receptors
and possibly make recognising the end point of the stretch
more difficult. This hypothesis is in agreement with Mag-
nusson et al. (1996) who attributed increases in ROM
more to increases in stretch tolerance than to changes in
tissue compliance or stiffness.
Table 1. Mean data (standard deviations) for power tests.
Control Petrissage Tapotement
Drop Jump: Contact time / height (cm·s-1) 132.8 (33.5) 138.2 (31.4) 137.5 (31.2)
Concentric Calf Peak Force (body weight) .96 (.18) .96 (.19) .97 (.18)
Rate of force development (N·s-1) 11124 (376) 11098 (402) 11063 (362)
McKechnie et al.
503
As there was no significant difference between the
two massage styles, the style of massage may not be
significant in regards to improving the flexibility. Perhaps
the act of vigorous skin contact, regardless of the action
performed, would have the same effect.
Power performance
When comparing the effects of massage on the power of
the plantar flexors no significant change was noted for
either the drop-jump or the concentric calf raise. Simi-
larly, Mikesky et al. (2002) used a jump test when assess-
ing massage and vertical jump power. Again, their study
failed to yield any significant results with the counter
movement jump. The lack of impairment in jump per-
formance following the massage techniques is in contrast
to studies examining the effect of static stretching. A
number of studies have illustrated that prior to activity;
static stretching can impair force (Behm and Kibele,
2007, Behm et al., 2001; 2006), jump performance
(Cornwell et al., 2002; Young and Elliot, 2001; Young
and Behm, 2002), balance, reaction and movement time
(Behm et al., 2004b) and jump landing contact time
(Power et al., 2004). Young et al. (2006) showed that
increasing the stretch duration increased the decrement in
the drop jump performance. Consequently, if massage can
increase muscle length without affecting performance in
power events it could be hypothesised that vigorous, short
duration massage may be a better method of preparing the
body just prior to a power event compared with static
stretching. However, to further emphasize the point, mas-
sage in this study did not positively affect power perform-
ance, it just did not impair performance.
Ankle joint flexibility and power
Stretch-induced decrements in force and power have been
attributed to an increase in compliance (Fowles et al.,
2000; Taylor et al., 1990) and an inhibition of muscle
activation (Avela et al., 1999; Behm et al., 2001; Fowles
et al., 2000). The increased ankle joint flexibility of this
study might also be attributed to an increased muscle
compliance, which in turn would potentially adversely
affect the plantar flexors’ force length relationship. How-
ever, there were no significant changes in power with the
massage conditions.
An increase in ankle joint flexibility may occur due
to an increase in muscle temperature altering tissue vis-
cosity and tissue compliance. Drust et al. (2003) demon-
strated significant increases in muscle temperature, up to
a depth of 2.5cm with massage application. However this
is not as encompassing as an active warm-up that involves
muscular contractions. Numerous static stretching studies
use an active warm-up followed by a stretch to the ‘point
of discomfort’ (Behm and Kibele, 2007, Behm et al.,
2001; 2004a; 2006; Power et al., 2004, Young and Behm,
2002). As a consequence, a decrease in muscle viscosity
and increase in compliance should result. However ac-
cording to the previously cited studies, an increase in
muscle compliance should result in a decrease in power.
Perhaps the hypothetical positive effects of massage on
the neural system counterbalance or eliminate the nega-
tive effect of increased compliance.
Furthermore, massage is performed within a sub-
ject’s tolerance levels. The verbal cue of ‘point of dis-
comfort’, as described in static stretching studies, may not
be achieved keeping the muscle below the elastic limit.
Alter (1996) defined the elastic limit as the smallest value
of stress required to produce a permanent strain on the
body. He states that increasing the stress beyond this point
would result in a stressed connective tissue and muscle
and as a result these tissues would not return to their
original length. Consequently, static stretching to the
‘point of discomfort’ may exceed the elastic limit altering
the ability to generate power, whereas massage might not
reach this level and not affect the tissue in this manner.
Conclusion
The results of this investigation indicate a moderate mag-
nitude of effect in ankle joint flexibility following the
application of either three minutes of petrissage or tapo-
tement (only to the right ankle) massage to the plantar
flexors. In addition, there was no significant change in the
power measures following either of the massage treat-
ments. Consequently, with no decrement in power and a
moderate increase in ankle joint flexibility, massage pre-
sents an alternative method to static stretching to increase
ROM in a warm up. Despite the varying claimed effects
of the two different massage techniques there was no
significant difference.
References
Alter, M.J. (1996) Science of flexibility. Human Kinetics Publ. Windsor
Ontario, Canada. Chapter 5. 59-83.
Avela, J., Kyrolainen, H. and Komi, P. (1999) Altered reflex sensitivity
after repeated and prolonged passive muscle stretching. Journal
of Applied Physiology 86, 1283-1291.
Behm, D. Carrol, M. and Button, D. (2004a) The effect of an acute bout
of submaximal intensity stretching on hamstring force, activa-
tion and rate of force development. Canadian Journal Applied
Physiology 29(Suppl), S39.
Behm, D., Button, D. and Butt, J. (2001) Factors affecting force loss
with prolonged stretching. Canadian Journal of Applied Physi-
ology 26, 261-272.
Behm, D.G. and Kibele, A. (2007) Effects of differing intensities of
static stretching on jump performance. European Journal of
Applied Physiology, in press.
Behm, D., Bambury, A., Cahill, F. and Power, K. (2004b) The Effect of
Acute static stretching on force, balance, reaction time and
movement time. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
36(8), 1397-1402.
Behm, D.G., Bradbury, E.E., Haynes, A.T., Hodder, J.N., Leonard, A.M.
and Paddock, N.R. (2006) Flexibility is not related to stretch-
induced deficits in force or power. Journal of Sports Science
and Medicine 5, 33-42.
Boone, T., Cooper, R. and Thompsom, W.A. (1991) Physiologic
Evaluation of the Sports massage. Journal of the National Ath-
letic Therapy Association 26, 51-54.
Cafarelli, E. and Flint, F. (1993) The role of massage in preparation for
and recovery from exercise. Physiotherapy in Sport 16,17-20.
Caldwell, E. (2001) Remedial massage therapy. Corpus Publishing Ltd.
Fishbourne, Chichester. 35-41.
Callaghan, M. (1993) The role of massage in the management of the
athlete: a review. British Journal Sports Medicine 27, 28-33.
Cash, M. (1996) Sports & remedial massage therapy. Butler and Tanner
Ltd. Frome, Somerset. Chapter 8. 58-65.
Clews, W. (1999) Massage Why? Women in sport (Melbourne, Aust.)
5(3), 10-11.
Cohen J. (1988) Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences.
2nd Edition. Hillsdale NJ, L. Erbaum Associates Publishing.
Massage effects on flexibility and power
504
Cornwell, A., Nelson, A. and Sidaway, B. (2002) Acute effects of
stretching on the neuromechanical properties of the triceps
surae muscle complex. European Journal of Applied
Physiology 86, 428-434.
Drews, T., Kreider, R., Drinkard, B., Cortes, C., Lester, C., Somma, C.,
Shall, L. and Woodhouse, M. (1990) Effects of post-event mas-
sage on repeated ultraendurance cycling. International Journal
Sports Medicine 11, 407.
Drust, B., Atkinson, G., Gregson, W., French, D. and Binningsley, D.
(2003) The effects of massage on the intramuscular temperature
in the vastus lateralis in humans. International Journal Sports
Medicine 24, 395-399.
Fowles, J. and Sale, D. (1997) Time course of strength deficit after
maximal passive stretch in humans. Medicine and Science in
Sports and Exercise 29, S26.
Fowles, J., Sale, D., MacDougall, J. (2000) Reduced strength after
passive stretch of the human plantar flexors. Journal Applied
Physiology 89:1179-1188.
Goats, G. (1994a) Massage – the scientific basis of an ancient art: part 1.
British Journal of Sports Medicine 28(3), 149-152.
Goats, G. (1994b) Massage – the scientific basis of an ancient art: part 2.
British Journal of Sports Medicine 28(3), 153-156.
Harmer, P. (1991) The effect of pre-performance massage on stride
frequency in sprinters. Journal of the National Athletic Therapy
Association 26, 55-59.
Hemmings, B. (2001) Physiological, psychological and performance
effects of massage therapy in sport: a review of literature.
Physical Therapy in Sport 2,165-170.
Hemmings, B. (2000) Psychological and immunological effects of
massage after sport. British Journal of Therapy and Rehabilita-
tion 7(12), 516-519.
Hemmings, B. (2000) Sports massage and psychological regeneration.
British Journal of Therapy and Rehabilitation 7(4), 184-189.
Hemmings, B., Smith, M., Graydon, J. and Dyson, R. (2000) Effects of
massage on physiological restoration, perceived recovery, and
repeated sports performance. British Journal Sports Medicine
34, 109-115.
Hunter, A. M., Watt, J.M., Watt, V. And Galloway, S.D. (2006) Effect
of lower limb massage on electromyography and force produc-
tion of the knee extensors. British Journal of Sports Medicine
40(2), 114-118.
King, R. (1993) Performance massage. Human Kinetics Publishers,
Champaign, Illinois. 8-72.
Magnusson, S.P., Simonsen, E.B., Aagaard, P., Sorensen, H. and Kjaer,
M. (1996) A mechanism for altered flexibility in human skeletal
muscle. Journal of Physiology 497(1), 291-298.
Mikesky, A., Bahamonde, R., Stanton, K., Alvey, T. and Fitton, T.
(2002) Acute effects of the stick on strength, power and flexi-
bility. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research 16(3),
446-450.
Nelson, A.G., Guillory, I.K., Cornwell, A. and Kokkonen, J. (2001)
Inhibition of maximal voluntary isokinetic torque production
following stretching is velocity-specific. Journal of Strength
and Conditioing Research 15(2), 241-246.
Paine, T. (2000) The complete guide to sports massage. A & C Black
Publishing Ltd. London. Chapter 9. 79-114.
Power, K., Behm, D., Cahill, F., Carroll, M. and Young W. (2004) An
acute bout of static stretching: Effects on force and jumping
performance. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
36(8), 1389-1396.
Prentice. W. (2003) Therapeutic Modalities, 5th Edition. Mosby, St
Louis. 431-522.
Shoemaker, J., Tiidus, P. and Mader, R. (1997) Failure of manual mas-
sage to alter limb blood flow: measure by Doppler ultrasound.
Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 29, 610-614.
Sports Medicine Australia (SMA). (2005) Recommendations for Warm-
Up – Stretching. Avaliable from URL: http://www.sma.org.au
Taylor, D., Dalton, J., Seaber, A. and Garrett, W. (1990) Viscoelastic
properties of muscle-tendon units. The biomechanical effects of
stretching. American Journal Sports Medicine 18, 300-309.
Tiidus, P. and Shoemaker, J. (1995) Effleurage massage, muscle blood
flow and long-term post-exercise strength recovery. Interna-
tional Journal of Sports Medicine 16, 478-483.
Tiidus, P. (1997) Manual massage and recovery of muscle function
following exercise: a literature review. Journal Orthopaedic
and Sport Physical Therapy 25(2), 107-112.
Tyurin, A. (1985) The influence of different forms of massage on the
psycho-emotional state of athletes. Teoriya I Praktika
Fizicheskoi Kultury 7, 19-20.
Weber, M., Servedio, F. and Woodall, W. (1994) The effects of three
modalities on delayed onset of muscular soreness. Journal Or-
thopaedic and Sport Physical Therapy 20(5), 236-242.
Wiktorsson-Möller, M., Öberg, B., Ekstrand, J. and Gillquist, J. (1983)
Effects of warming up, massage, and stretching on range of mo-
tion and muscle strength in the lower extremity. American
Journal Sports Medicine 11(4), 249-252.
Young, W. and Behm, D. (2002) Effect of running, static stretching and
practice jumps on expolsive force production and jumping per-
formance. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness 42,
1-99.
Young, W. and Elliott, S. (2001) Acute effects of static stretching,
proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching, and
maximal voluntary contractions on explosive force production
and jumping performance. Research Quarterly for Exercise and
Sport 72, 273-279.
Young, W., Elias, G. and Power, J. (2006) Effects of static stretching
volume and intensity on plantar flexor explosive force produc-
tion and range of motion. Journal of Sports Medicine and
Physical Fitness 46(3), 403-411.
Key points
Three minutes of petrissage and tapotement forms
of massage increased ankle flexibility.
Massage did not adversely affect jump power
measures.
Massage may be an effective alternative to static
stretching as a component of a pre-event warm-up.
AUTHORS BIOGRAPHY
Grant McKECHNIE
Employment
Working in a private practice in exercise rehabilitation.
Degree
MSc
Warren B. YOUNG
Employment
Senior lecturer at the University of
Ballarat.
Degree
PhD
Research interests
Sport-specific warm-ups, training and
agility.
E-mail: w.young@ballarat.edu.au
David G. BEHM
Employment
Professor in the School of Human Ki-
netics and Recreation at the Memorial
Univ. of Newfoundland.
Degree
PhD
Research interests
Neuromuscular responses to acute and
chronic activity.
E-mail: dbehm@mun.ca
David Behm
School of Human Kinetics and Recreation, Memorial University
of Newfoundland, St. John’s Newfoundland, Canada, A1M 3L8
... There are nonetheless several reports of behavioral assessments of the effects of MMs. Joint amplitude is assessed by means of goniometers and functional tests (Leivadi et al., 1999;Hilbert et al., 2003;Zainuddin et al., 2005;McKechnie et al., 2007;Arabaci, 2008;Arazi et al., 2012;Iwamoto et al., 2016; Table 1). Behavioral measures also enabled researchers to assess the impact of MM on strength production of athletes (Rinder and Sutherland, 1995;Tiidus and Shoemaker, 1995;Farr et al., 2002;Hilbert et al., 2003;Dawson et al., 2004;Zainuddin et al., 2005;Jakeman et al., 2010). ...
... Behavioral measures also enabled researchers to assess the impact of MM on strength production of athletes (Rinder and Sutherland, 1995;Tiidus and Shoemaker, 1995;Farr et al., 2002;Hilbert et al., 2003;Dawson et al., 2004;Zainuddin et al., 2005;Jakeman et al., 2010). The influence of MM was also examined in vertical and horizontal power production (Farr et al., 2002;McKechnie et al., 2007;Willems et al., 2009;Jakeman et al., 2010;Delextrat et al., 2013;Abrantes et al., 2019). Speed and agility qualities were checked, taking into account acceleration, deceleration (Mancinelli et al., 2006;Arabaci, 2008;Arazi et al., 2012;Delextrat et al., 2013; Table 1). ...
... Also, on a sit-and-reach box test, participants' score increased from 11.8 to 12.7 cm, after only 15 min of MM (Arabaci, 2008;Iwamoto et al., 2016). More generally, MM were shown to induce short-term flexibility gains, similar to those induced by static stretching, without co-occurrence of negative effects on physical performance (McKechnie et al., 2007;Arazi et al., 2012). These notions of ROM and flexibility were combined to increase the suppleness of an athlete. ...
Article
Full-text available
Manual massage and foam rolling are commonly used by athletes for warm-up and recovery, as well as by healthy individuals for well-being. Manual massage is an ancient practice requiring the intervention of an experienced physiotherapist, while foam rolling is a more recent self-administered technique. These two topics have been largely studied in isolation from each other. In the present review, we first provide a deep quantitative literature analysis to gather the beneficial effects of each technique through an integrative account, as well as their psychometric and neurophysiological evaluations. We then conceptually consider the motor control strategies induced by each type of massage. During manual massage, the person remains passive, lying on the massage table, and receives unanticipated manual pressure by the physiotherapist, hence resulting in a retroactive mode of action control with an ongoing central integration of proprioceptive feedback. In contrast, while performing foam rolling, the person directly exerts pressures through voluntary actions to manipulate the massaging tool, therefore through a predominant proactive mode of action control, where operations of forward and inverse modeling do not require sensory feedback. While these opposite modes of action do not seem to offer any compromise, we then discuss whether technological advances and collaborative robots might reconcile proactive and retroactive modes of action control during a massage, and offer new massage perspectives through a stochastic sensorimotor user experience. This transition faculty, from one mode of control to the other, might definitely represent an innovative conceptual approach in terms of human-machine interactions.
... These modifications can reduce the adhesion between the different layers of the fascial tissues and increase connective tissues' extensibility and compliance (Kalichman and Ben David, 2017;Schleip, 2003). For instance, it has been demonstrated that SMR performed with a foam roller enables the improvement of joint range of motion (Halperin et al., 2014;McKechnie et al., 2007;Schleip, 2003;Sullivan et al., 2013). In the same way, Drust et al. (2003) reported that SMR could also increase the temperature of the muscle and then reduce the viscosity of muscle tissue. ...
... Meanwhile the increase in the range of motion may be explained by mechanical pressure which can overload the mechanical receptor in myofascia with some potentially pain-relieving effects (Bialosky et al., 2009;Voogt et al., 2015). It may also decrease the stretching sensation (McKechnie et al., 2007) and thus increase stretching tolerance (Sayenko et al., 2009;Weppler and Magnusson, 2010). Surprisingly, the present study demonstrated stronger positive effects of SMR on flexibility (11 ± 7% for SLR, 50 ± 40% for TTT and 22 ± 17% for the WBLT) compared to those reported in previous studies ranging from 4.3 to 18.7% (Halperin et al., 2014;Jay et al., 2014;MacDonald et al., 2013;Sullivan et al., 2013). ...
... Conversely, Sagiroglu et al. (2017) observed a detrimental effect on the CMJ following a single session of SMR with a grid foam roller on hamstring, quadriceps, hip and gastrocnemius muscles after aerobic running (Sağiroğlu et al., 2017). Decreased CMJ performance was assumed to be related to the increased flexibility after SMR which might temporarily decrease the muscle ability to generate power output due to the increased stretch tolerance (Behm and Kibele, 2007;Marchetti et al., 2014;McKechnie et al., 2007;Sayenko et al., 2009). However, the present study showed increased ankle dorsiflexion after SMR without any change in jump performances, although increased ankle dorsiflexion may also improve jump performance (Papaiakovou, 2013). ...
Article
Full-text available
Self-myofascial release (SMR) is a popular method to potentially increase the compliance and extensibility of the fascia and reduce muscle stiffness. The purpose of this study was to examine the acute effects of posterior muscle chain SMR on flexibility, vertical jump performance and balance ability. Eighteen young participants volunteered to take part in this crossover design study. They performed two self-massage sessions in randomized order separated by at least one week. One session consisted of posterior muscle chain SMR whereas the other one was performed on the upper limbs as a control intervention (CON). Flexibility was measured with the Toe Touch Test (TTT), Weight-Bearing Lunge Test (WBLT), and Straight Leg Raise Test (SLR). Jump performance was evaluated during a squat jump, a counter movement jump and a stiffness jump. Dynamic balance ability was assessed through the Star Excursion Balance Test. All these variables were measured before and after each intervention. A significant increase in flexibility (+3.5 ± 1.8 cm, +1.6 ± 1.0°, and +7.7 ± 4.0° for the TTT, WLBT, and SLR, respectively, p < 0.003) and balance performance (4.8 ± 3.9 cm, p < 0.003) was observed following SMR intervention compared to CON. Conversely, jumping performance was unchanged in both groups. SMR improves joint flexibility and dynamic balance ability.
... Hunter at al. [32] found a decline in mean force from pre to post-intervention for the massage condition. McKechnie et al. [33] found no significant change in the power measures following massage. Yildiz et al. [20] found that static stretching (SS) and combined static stretching and massage (SSM) protocols demonstrated 12% and 16% respectively greater flexibility than the control protocol. ...
... Countermovement jump (CMJ) and squat jump (SJ) performances were significantly decreased 10.4% and 5.5% respectively after the SS protocol. McKechine et al. [33] suggested that pre-event massage can increase the plantar flexors' flexibility. However, Barlow et al. [34] suggested that a single massage of the hamstring muscle group was not associated with any significant increase in sit and reach performance immediately after treatment in physically active young men. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background and Study Aim. Strength, power and flexibility are among the features that provide advantage against the opponent in kick boxers. There are many factors that can affect the development of these parameters in a positive and negative way before the competition. These factors may differ according to the type and intensity of warm-up and stretching exercises, depending on psychological and physiological conditions. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) stretching, massage, PNF+massage on flexibility, vertical jump and hand grip strength performance in kickboxers. Materials and Methods. The sample group of the study consisted of 12 men (age: 18.50 ± 0.97 years, height: 161.60 ± 4.47 cm, body weight: 62.20 ± 9.07 kg, BMI: 23.77 ± 2.63), who did kick-box regularly for at least 3 years. This group performed 4 different stretching and warm up protocols on non-consecutive days. Warm up and stretching protocols were determined as follows: light jogging for only 5 minutes (NSM), PNF stretching (PNF), massage (M), PNF stretching+massage (PNF+M). After warm up and stretching protocols, participants completed vertical jump, flexibility and hand grip strength Results. There was a significant improvement on flexibility performance in order from low to high respectively NSM, PNF, PNF+M, M. Moreover, there was a significant difference between NSM and PNF, NSM and M, NSM and PNF+M in flexibility (p
... 21 , in a study with 30-metre sprint performance, found no effect on its performance with a 15-minute massage condition. Harmer et al. 22 identified no difference on running rate in sprinters after 30 minutes of massage, while McKechine et al. 20 also demonstrated that three minutes of massage had no effect on drop jump performance. Although each sport or discipline has its own neurophysiological demands, the findings on the present study is in alignment with the fact that massage seems to have no acute effect on performance. ...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study was to verify the effect of massage or pseudo massage on vertical jump performance. Fifteen participants were randomly subjected to three experimental conditions: massage, pseudo massage and rest. The massage condition required three unipodal vertical jumps followed by two minutes of manual massage on plantar flexor muscles and, before performing another three jumps, the Total Quality Recover Scale (TQR) was applied. The two following conditions were structured with the same procedures, although participants were submitted either at pseudo massage (single-blinded) or two minutes of rest. Results showed no statistical differences on jump height between pre and post analysis nor between experimental conditions (massage 18.7 ± 4.1 vs 18.2 ± 4.1; pseudo massage 19.1 ± 4.0 vs 8.3 ± 3.8; rest 19.0 ± 4.0 vs 18.7 ± 3.9 cm). There were also no statistical differences in the TQR results between experimental conditions (massage 16.2 ± 4.3; pseudo massage 16.4 ± 3.9; rest 15.9 ± 2.6 ua). Both massage and pseudo massage did not affect performance on vertical jump and TQR.
... Among the main physiological mechanisms of pre-competition massage is local hyperemia, which leads to an increase in the supply of oxygen to the tissues on which it is applied [4][5][6], in order to simulate an active warm-up [5]. Some studies have shown that massage techniques can produce an improvement in grip strength [7], range of motion (ROM) [8,9] and delayed onset muscular soreness [10]. However, there is controversy as to whether pre-competitive massage produces improvements in specific athletic performance parameters [11]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Pre-competition massage is usually used to improve athletic performance and reduce risk of injury. Despite its usual use, the effects of pre-competition massage on neuromuscular function have barely been studied. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of the precompetition massage over the gastrocnemius neuromuscular function. Method: The study is a quasi-experimental clinical trial thirty healthy athletes were enrolled in the study. Subjects received an intervention in one leg (experimental), consisting of a massage, and no intervention in the opposite leg (control). From all values of neuromuscular function, the following were analyzed: contraction time (Tc) and maximal displacement (Dm) by tensiomyography, and stiffness and tone by myotonometry. Results: Main effects of pre-competition massage on neuromuscular function include a significant (p < 0.05) increase in Tc and Dm variables, as well as a reduction in stiffness and tone. Conclusion: Data shows an increase in Tc and maximal radial displacement (Dm) variables, as well as a reduction in stiffness and tone. More quality studies are needed to draw clear conclusions about the effects of pre-competition massage.
... The relationship between massage and improved elasticity has been confirmed by several studies [23][24][25][26][27][28][29] that have shown positive muscle-elasticity adjustments after the application of massage. Studies have found that pre-game massage is associated with a relatively short-term (up to 24 hours) improvement in the elasticity of hamstrings [23-25, 29, 30] and plantar flexors of the ankle joint [31] in athletes and non-athletes. Improved muscle elasticity is causally related to the massage techniques applied. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Participation in sports, in addition to its positive effects, leads to injuries caused by contact with the opponent or the high loads that develop on the musculoskeletal structures during the sports activities. Sports injuries mainly include (a) acute injuries such as muscle strains and ligament sprains, tendon injuries, dislocations and subluxations, fractures, and skin injuries but also (b) overuse injuries such as tendinopathies and painful myofascial syndromes. Many therapeutic techniques are used to treat these injuries, such as therapeutic exercise, various electrotherapy procedures and soft tissue techniques. Soft tissue techniques aim to promote health and well-being through their mechanical effects on the body’s soft tissues such as friction, compression, tissues sliding and myofascial release. Sports soft-tissue procedures are applied either directly with the hands of therapists such as classical massage or with the use of special equipment such as tools made of stainless steel (ERGON instrument-assisted soft tissue mobilization), elastic ischemic bandages (Kinetic flossing technique) and cups (cupping therapy). The following chapter analyzes the therapeutic effects of the above therapeutic interventions by presenting recent scientific evidence that supports their effects on the soft tissue’s dysfunctions of the human body and various pathological conditions.
... However, some studies focusing on the acute effects of myofascial release and foam rolling showed no significant change on force production. McKechnie, Young and Behm (2007) found that three minutes of massage had no effect on the power of plantar flexors. MacDonald and his colleagues (2013) found that two sets of one minute trials of foam rolling with 30 seconds between sets didn't affect any neuromuscular dependent variables. ...
Thesis
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to investigate the acute effects of foam rolling on quadriceps isokinetic and isometric force production as well as knee joint range of motion. Twelve healthy, light to moderately physically active college students volunteered for this study. They had different treatments on three separate days. Participants’ non-dominant knee joint range of motion (ROM), quadriceps isokinetic and isometric peak torque were measured under both the foam rolled (FR) and non-foam rolled (no-FR) conditions. The intervention was two minutes of foam rolling on their non-dominant thighs. Results showed that foam rolling significantly increased knee joint ROM (p = .0051, F (1, 11) = 12.173) by approximately eight degrees. No significant difference was found for isokinetic (p = .4655, F (1, 11) = 0.572) or isometric peak torques (p = .9447, F (1, 11) = 0.005) between the FR and no-FR conditions. In conclusion, a brief duration of foam rolling can effectively increase joint flexibility and maintain the level of muscle peak force production.
Article
Full-text available
# Background Mechanical percussion devices have become popular among sports medicine professionals. These devices provide a similar effect as manual percussion or tapotement used in therapeutic massage. To date, there are few published studies or evidence-based guidelines for these devices. There is a need to understand what professionals believe about this technology and how they use these devices in clinical practice. # Purpose To survey and document the knowledge, clinical application methods, and use of mechanical percussion devices among healthcare professionals in the United States. # Design Cross-sectional survey study. # Methods A 25 question online survey was emailed to members of the National Athletic Trainers Association, Academy of Orthopedic Physical Therapy, and American Academy of Sports Physical Therapy. # Results Four hundred twenty-five professionals completed the survey. Most professionals (92%, n=391) used devices from two manufacturers: Hyperice® and Theragun®. Seventy-seven percent directed clients to manufacturer and generic websites (n=329) to purchase devices. Most respondents used a medium and low device speed setting for pre- and post-exercise (62%, n=185), pain modulation (59%, n=253), and myofascial mobility (52%, n=222). A large proportion of respondents preferred a total treatment time between 30 seconds and three minutes (36-48%, n=153-204) or three to five minutes (18-22%, n=76-93). Most respondents (54-69%, n=229-293) believed that mechanical percussion increases local blood flow, modulates pain, enhances myofascial mobility, and reduces myofascial restrictions. Most respondents (72%, n=305) were influenced by other colleagues to use these devices. Sixty-six percent used patient reported outcomes (n=280) to document treatment efficacy. Live instruction was the most common mode of education (79%, n=334). # Conclusion These results are a starting point for future research and provide insight into how professionals use mechanical percussion devices. This survey also highlights the existing gap between research and practice. Future research should examine the efficacy of this technology and determine consensus-based guidelines. # Level of Evidence 3
Article
Introducción. La auto-liberación miofascial es una intervención popularmente utilizada por los profesionales de la rehabilitación, el acondicionamiento físico y el deporte para favorecer la recuperación post-lesión y el rendimiento físico-técnico deportivo. Diferentes estudios han demostrado la eficacia del efecto agudo del foam-rolling (FR) con duraciones muy amplias (80-180 s) sobre el incremento de la extensibilidad muscular en el calentamiento. Sin embargo, no se ha encontrado ningún trabajo que analice el efecto agudo con una duración más real del contexto físico-deportivo sobre el sóleo. El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar el efecto agudo de un protocolo corto de FR sobre la extensibilidad del sóleo en estudiantes físicamente activos. Material y métodos: Treinta y uno adultos físicamente activos (edad: 22,7±1,8 años; peso: 73,6±11,6 kg; altura: 1,76±0,09 cm). En la pierna dominante de los participantes fue aplicado el protocolo FR (1 x 30 s), mientras que la pierna no dominante fue designada como grupo control. El rango de movimiento (ROM) de dorsi-flexión del tobillo para el sóleo de ambas extremidades fue valorado antes e inmediatamente después de la intervención de FR siguiendo la metodología de protocolo ROM-SPORT. Se aplicó una prueba t-test student para observar posibles de diferencias entre la pre- y post-intervención de FR. Se calculó la magnitud del tamaño del efecto de Cohen de todos los resultados, y la magnitud del efecto fue interpretado de acuerdo con los criterios de Hopkins, Marshall, Batterham & Hanin (2009). Resultados. El aumento promedio del grupo FR fue de 3º con un tamaño del efecto moderado (p=0,000; d=0,66). El grupo control mostró un aumento significativo de 0,8º (p=0,036), pero el tamaño del efecto fue trivial (d=0). Conclusiones. Los resultados sugieren que 30 s de FR es una estrategia real y efectiva para aumentar la extensibilidad del sóleo y el rango de movimiento de dorsi-flexión del tobillo durante el calentamiento.
Article
Full-text available
Previous studies have demonstrated that an acute bout of static stretching may cause significant performance impairments. However, there are no studies investigating the effect of prolonged stretch training on stretch-induced decrements. It was hypothesized that individuals exhibiting a greater range of motion (ROM) in the correlation study or those who attained a greater ROM with flexibility training would experience less stretch-induced deficits. A correlation study had 18 participants (25 ± 8.3 years, 1.68 ± 0.93 m, 73.5 ± 14.4 kg) stretch their quadriceps, hamstrings and plantar flexors three times each for 30 s with 30 s recovery. Subjects were tested pre- and post-stretch for ROM, knee extension maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) force and drop jump measures. A separate training study with 12 subjects (21.9 ± 2.1 years, 1.77 ± 0.11 m 79.8 ± 12.4 kg) involved a four-week, five-days per week, flexibility training programme that involved stretching of the quadriceps, hamstrings and plantar flexors. Pre- and post-training testing included ROM as well as knee extension and flexion MVIC, drop and countermovement jump measures conducted before and after an acute bout of stretching. An acute bout of stretching incurred significant impairments for knee extension (-6.1% to -8.2%; p < 0.05) and flexion (-6.6% to -10.7%; p < 0.05) MVIC, drop jump contact time (5.4% to 7.4%; p < 0.01) and countermovement jump height (-5.5% to -5.7%; p < 0.01). The correlation study showed no significant relationship between ROM and stretch-induced deficits. There was also no significant effect of flexibility training on the stretch-induced decrements. It is probable that because the stretches were held to the point of discomfort with all testing, the relative stress on the muscle was similar resulting in similar impairments irrespective of the ROM or tolerance to stretching of the muscle.
Article
Massage has often been highlighted as a modality for potentially enhancing psychological regeneration during intense training. Despite numerous anecdotal testimonies to its efficacy, little scientific research exists on the effects of massage on psychological states. This study aimed to investigate massage and the mood response following sports training.
Article
Massage has a long tradition of use in sport and has been used to facilitate recovery in athletes following training sessions, yet its benefits are not fully understood. Recovery from exercise is assumed to involve a host of factors. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effects of massage on selected psychological and immunological responses in athletes after sports training.
Article
Objectives: Massage is widely used by the athletic population for a variety of purposes such as injury prevention, recovery from fatigue, relaxation, and to increase performance. This paper reviews the scientific literature on the use and effects of massage therapy in sport. Specifically, the review addresses physiological, psychological and performance effects. Method: A literature search was conducted using Medline, Psychlit and Sport Discus databases. In addition, the author's own files were considered. Results: Past studies on blood flow, blood lactate removal and delayed onset of muscle soreness are seen to have produced equivocal results, with blood lactate removal following exercise more efficiently removed through active recovery strategies rather than through massage. Studies on the psychological effects are few in number, however recent research seems to demonstrate massage having positive effects on perceptions of recovery. Few studies exist which assess massage effects on performance, and current findings appear to show little support for the use of massage for performance enhancement. Conclusions: Massage research has been affected by a lack of comparable instrumentation and different research designs that make interpretation and extrapolation of results difficult. It appears the use of massage may largely be based upon anecdotal accounts that convey positive testaments about this form of therapy. The evidence from this review suggests that more scientific research on the effects of massage needs to be undertaken to clarify the precise effects of massage for athletes, however applying scientific principles to the study of massage does pose methodological challenges for the researcher.
Article
Typescript. Thesis (M.S.)--University of Oregon, 1984. Includes vita and abstract. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 61-67).