Article

Induction of autotetraploidy in dragonhead (Dracocephalum moldavica L.) by colchicine treatment

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Abstract

The genome doubling agent colchicine was used effectively to obtain tetraploid plants in dragonhead. Treatment of apical meristem of seedlings was carried out in two stages. The first stage was when the cotyledon leaves emerged. The second stage was when the two true leaves emerged. Six levels of colchicine concentrations: 0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, and 0.75% were applied in each of these stages. Seedling treatment in the stage of emergence of two true leaves with 0.1% colchicine solution proved to be the most effective in producing autotetraploids. Morphological, cytological and flow cytometry analyses showed the increase of chromosome numbers from 2n=2x=10 to 2n=4x=20. The increase of ploidy levels caused major changes in some morphological and physiological traits and active substances in dragonhead. Key wo rds: dragonhead, colchicine, tetraploidy, flow cytometry, chromosome counting

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... Literature showed, colchicine was used for chromosome doubling of many crops including chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) (Pundir et al., 1983), henbane (Hyoscyamus niger L.) (Lavania and Srivastava, 1991), hop (Humulus lupulus L.) (Roy et al., 2001), ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) (Adaniya and Shirai, 2001), tarragon (Artemisia annua L.) (Gonzalez and Weathers, 2003), feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium L.) (Saharkhiz, 2007), Dragonhead (Dracocephalum moldavica L.) (Omidbaigi et al., 2010b) and balm (Ocimum basilicum L.) (Omidbaigi et al., 2010a;Malekzadeh et al., 2012 ). ...
... In another research, the best results to induce polyploidy in Ocimum basilicum plants obtained in 0.05% colchicine concentration for six hours when the treatment was treated using cotton plug (Malekzadeh et al., 2012). While in Moldavian balm (Dracocephalum moldavica) the best doubling efficiencies of the apex treatment were obtained with the colchicine at 0.1% concentration in two true leaves stage (Omidbaigi et al., 2010b). ...
... Diploid plants had stomata and stomata guard cells with smaller diameter and smaller length than of tetraploid plants. Stomata characteristics (stomata size, stomata frequency, chloroplast number) previously have been used as useful parameters for distinguishing ploidy level in some plant including Humulus lopulus (Roy et al., 2001), jujube (Zizyphus jujuba Mill.) (Gu et al., 2005), feverfew (Saharkhiz, 2007;Majdi et al., 2010), basil (Omidbaigi et al., 2010a;Malekzadeh et al., 2012) Moldavian balm (Omidbaigi et al., 2010b). ...
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The present study was conducted to polyploidy possibility induction of two Iranian endemic mint (Mentha mozaffarianii) ecotypes. For this purpose, three experiments were done. The first experiment was factorial, based on completely randomized design with three factors and three replications that rhizomes were used for treatment. The first factor including different colchicine concentrations (0, 0.025, 0.05, 0.1 and 0.2% that 0 as control). The second factor including two Mentha ecotypes (Ecotype A: Kamarej region and Ecotype B: Pirmohlat region) and the third factors consist of two soaking time (6 h and 12 h). In second experiment, apical meristem was treated. The factorial experiment based on randomized completely design with two factors and five replications. The factors including different colchicine concentrations (0, 0.035, 0.07, 0.15, 0.3 and 0.7%) and two ecotypes. In the third experiment, colchicine as combined with irrigation was applied. For this purpose, a factorial experiment in randomized complete design with two factors (colchicine concentrations: 0, 0.025, 0.012, 0.006% and two mint ecotypes) and three replications was conducted. At the end of all experiments, survival rate and tetraploidy percentage (by morphological change, stomata traits, flow cytometry and chromosome counts) were measured. The results showed that different treatment had significant effects on survival percent on all experiments and increasing of colchicine concentration caused decreasing plants survival. On the other hand,tetraploidy changes only in the first experiments were observed. Only in 0.025% colchicine treatment with 6 h soaking time onecotype A, 12.66% tetraploidy was identified. Totally, it is seems that Mentha mozaffarianii hardly response to colchicine fortetraploidy induction.
... Menurut Zeng et al. (2006), kolkisin dapat menyebabkan efek samping pada tanaman yang diberi perlakuan. Efek tersebut berupa morfologi abnormal selama proses mutagenesis seperti daun yang menebal, warna daun lebih hijau (Ajalin et al., 2002;Chen et al., 2006;Omidbaigi et al., 2010a;Omidbaigi et al., 2010b;Ye et al., 2010), tanaman lebih pendek dari pada tanaman kontrol , bentuk daun berbeda dengan tanaman kontrol Omidbaigi et al., 2010a;Omidbaigi et al., 2010b), ukuran bunga lebih besar dari pada tanaman kontrol , permukaan daun lebih kasar (Ye et al., 2010), dan batang lebih tebal dari pada kontrol (Grouh et al., 2011). ...
... Menurut Zeng et al. (2006), kolkisin dapat menyebabkan efek samping pada tanaman yang diberi perlakuan. Efek tersebut berupa morfologi abnormal selama proses mutagenesis seperti daun yang menebal, warna daun lebih hijau (Ajalin et al., 2002;Chen et al., 2006;Omidbaigi et al., 2010a;Omidbaigi et al., 2010b;Ye et al., 2010), tanaman lebih pendek dari pada tanaman kontrol , bentuk daun berbeda dengan tanaman kontrol Omidbaigi et al., 2010a;Omidbaigi et al., 2010b), ukuran bunga lebih besar dari pada tanaman kontrol , permukaan daun lebih kasar (Ye et al., 2010), dan batang lebih tebal dari pada kontrol (Grouh et al., 2011). ...
... Persentase hidup yang tidak berbeda nyata antara tanaman kontrol dan tanaman yang diberi perlakuan kolkisin diduga karena bibit relatif tahan terhadap pengaruh kolkisin sehingga tidak sampai mematikan sel-sel meristem. Menurut Omidbaigi et al., (2010b), bibit lebih tahan terhadap efek toksik dari kolkisin daripada kecambah. Jumlah daun tidak berbeda nyata, pada semua perlakuan kolkisin, meskipun terdapat kecenderungan penurunan jumlah daun pada perlakuan kolkisin yang lebih tinggi (Tabel 1). ...
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Abstract Polyploid induction on the seedlings of Phalaenopsis amabilis has been done using colchicine under in vivo condition. Polyploid were induced by dripping colchicine to the shoot tip of P. amabilis seedlings. The objective of this study was to obtain effective concentration of colchicine to induce polyploidy in P. amabilis seedlings and to produce polyploid seedlings. Experiment were arranged in randomize completely block design with one factor, the colchicine concentration. Seedlings of P. amabilis were dripped with 0,01 ml of colchicine solutions (0, 1000, 2000, 3000, 4000, and 5000 mg L-1). The results of experiment showed that increasing colchicine concentration from 1000 to 5000 mg L-1 did not give significant effect to the survival and the growth of the seedlings which were observed at 24 weeks after treatment (WAT). Polyploid seedlings of P. amabilis could be produced by dripping colchicine at concentration of 1000, 3000, 4000, and 5000 mg L-1 but the most effective concentration was 5000 mg L-1. Polyploid seedlings of P. amabilis have larger size with lower density of stomata compared with their diploid counterparts. Keywords: chromosome, colchicine, Phalaenopsis amabilis, polyploid, stomata
... The epidermal layer was stained with 1% Lugol's iodine solution and observed by light microscope at 1000 × magnification (Guimarães and Stotz 2004;Omidbaigi et al. 2010a). The stomatal characteristics and chloroplast number were measured in the middle leaves from each of the tested branches both in the control and putative tetraploids (Omidbaigi et al. 2010b). ...
... Applying colchicine at 0.1-2.5% concentrations on the apices of cotyledons for 2-7 days was very successful in inducing polyploidy in Pelargonium × hortorum (Jadrna et al. 2010). Colchicine application has been effective for chromosome doubling of many crops including feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium L.) (Saharkhiz 2006), dragonhead (Dracocephalum moldavica L.) (Omidbaigi et al. 2010b) and basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) (Omidbaigi et al. 2010a;Malekzadeh Shafaroudi et al. 2012). Colchicine had irreversible effects on cell division and growth and was also effective in micronucleus formation (Temel and Gozukirmizi 2015). ...
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In order to produce an autotetraploid population of anise hyssop (Agastache foeniculum L.), different concentrations of antimitotic agents including colchicine (0, 5000, 12,500 and 17,500 μM), oryzalin (0, 10, 50 and 100 μM) and trifluralin (0, 10, 50 and 100 μM) were used in three experiments. In the first, the apical meristem of the seedlings at the emergence of two true type leaves stage was treated with the antimitotic agents. In the second and third experiments, the antimitotic agents were used to treat seeds and seedlings (immersing seedlings into antimitotic solutions) for 6, 12 and 24 h. The survival rates were recorded six weeks post treatment. The polyploidy induction was confirmed using morphological and physiological indices, stomatal characteristics, flow cytometric analysis, and chromosome count in the diploid and tetraploid plants. Different antimitotic agents showed significant effects on the survival rate. By increasing the concentration of the agents, the survival rate significantly (p ≤ 0.05) decreased. Maximum percentage of tetraploid plants (20%) was obtained from seeds treated with 100 μM oryzalin for 24 h, whereas the maximum amount (16%) of tetraploid induction of apical meristems and seedlings was obtained by 17,500 μM colchicine and 50 μM trifluralin, respectively. In the polyploid plants, stomatal size and density, chloroplast number, morphological features (leaf length and width, distance between the nodes, leaf area, plant height, fresh and dry weight, and spikes length) and physio-biochemical characteristics (net photosynthesis, protein content, catalase and peroxidase activity) increased significantly (p ≤ 0.05).
... Colchicine (C 22 H 25 NO 6 ), originally extracted from Colchicum autumnale (autumn crocus, meadow saffron) is a poisonous alkaloid that is extensively used for induction of polyploidy (Ade and Kumar Rai 2010). Colchicineinduced autotetraploid plants has been reported in several medicinal plants including Tanacetum parthenium L. (Saharkhiz 2007), Artemisia annua L. (Banyai et al. 2010), Dioscorea zingiberensis (Zhang et al. 2010), Dracocephalum moldavica L. (Omidbaigi et al. 2010b) and Hyoscyamus muticus . ...
... Fertility and seed set was lower in induced autotetraploids than their parental diploid plants (Table 2). Similar anatomical and structural changes were also reported in another plants such as Zinger officinalis Roscoe (Adaniya and Shirai 2001) and Dracocephalum moldavica L. (Omidbaigi et al. 2010b). ...
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Background Ploidy manipulation is considered an efficient method to increase production potential of medicinally important compounds. Dracocephalum kotschyi Boiss. is an endangered medicinal plant of Iran. Various concentrations of colchicine (0.05, 0.10, 0.20, and 0.50% w/v) were applied to shoot apical meristems of D. kotschyi seedlings in two and four-leaf stages to induce tetraploidy. Results According to the results, 0.5% (w/v) of colchicine can be effective for polyploidy induction in D. kotschyi . Putative tetraploids were selected by morphological and microscopic characteristics and their ploidy level was confirmed by flow cytometry analysis and chromosome counting. The chromosome number of original diploid plant was confirmed to be 2 n = 2 × = 20 whereas that of the tetraploid plant was 2 n = 4 × = 40. Tetraploid and mixoploid plants showed different morphological, physiological and microscopic characteristics from those of diploid counterparts. The total content of flavonoids was increased from 1583.28 in diploids to 1890.07 (μg/g DW) in stable tetraploids. Conclusion High-Performance Liquid Chromatography with Diode-Array Detection (HPLC–DAD) confirmed over accumulation of methoxylated hydroxyflavones in solid tetraploid plants of D. kotschyi .
... The epidermal layer was stained with 1% Lugol's iodine solution and observed by light microscope at 1000 × magnification (Guimarães and Stotz 2004;Omidbaigi et al. 2010a). The stomatal characteristics and chloroplast number were measured in the middle leaves from each of the tested branches both in the control and putative tetraploids (Omidbaigi et al. 2010b). ...
... Applying colchicine at 0.1-2.5% concentrations on the apices of cotyledons for 2-7 days was very successful in inducing polyploidy in Pelargonium × hortorum (Jadrna et al. 2010). Colchicine application has been effective for chromosome doubling of many crops including feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium L.) (Saharkhiz 2006), dragonhead (Dracocephalum moldavica L.) (Omidbaigi et al. 2010b) and basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) (Omidbaigi et al. 2010a;Malekzadeh Shafaroudi et al. 2012). Colchicine had irreversible effects on cell division and growth and was also effective in micronucleus formation (Temel and Gozukirmizi 2015). ...
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Anise hyssop (Agastache foeniculum) is one of the important medicinal-ornamental plant species. In medicinal plants, polyploidy induction is usually associated with an increase in total nuclear genome content and a change in the quality and quantity of important medicinal compounds. In the present investigation, flow cytometry was used to compare the nuclear genome content of diploid and tetraploid plants of anise hyssop. The essential oils (EOs) of different ploidy levels, obtained by hydro-distillation method, were analyzed by GC and GC-MS instruments. The results showed the total nuclear genome of tetraploid and diploid plants was 2.15±0.001 pg and 1.06±0.02 pg, respectively. The change in ploidy level also significantly (P≤ 0.05) affected the EO content and most of its components. The percent of EO in diploid and tetraploid plants was 1.32 ±0.1 and 2.78± 0.1, respectively. The proportion of Methyl cavicol, which is the major EO component of anise hyssop, significantly (P≤ 0.05) increased in tetraploid plants (81.02%) compared to the diploids (78.75 %). The changes in the other chemical constituents of diploid and tetraploid plants are also discussed in the paper.
... Colchicine (C 22 H 25 NO 6 ), originally extracted from Colchicum autumnale (autumn crocus, meadow saffron) is a poisonous alkaloid that is extensively used for induction of polyploidy (Ade and Kumar Rai 2010). Colchicineinduced autotetraploid plants has been reported in several medicinal plants including Tanacetum parthenium L. (Saharkhiz 2007), Artemisia annua L. (Banyai et al. 2010), Dioscorea zingiberensis (Zhang et al. 2010), Dracocephalum moldavica L. (Omidbaigi et al. 2010b) and Hyoscyamus muticus . ...
... Fertility and seed set was lower in induced autotetraploids than their parental diploid plants (Table 2). Similar anatomical and structural changes were also reported in another plants such as Zinger officinalis Roscoe (Adaniya and Shirai 2001) and Dracocephalum moldavica L. (Omidbaigi et al. 2010b). ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Ploidy manipulation is considered an efficient method to increase production potential of medicinally important compounds. Dracocephalum kotschyi Boiss. is an endangered medicinal plant of Iran. Various concentrations of colchicine (0.05, 0.10, 0.20, and 0.50% w/v) were applied to shoot apical meristems of D. kotschyi seedlings in two and four-leaf stages to induce tetraploidy. Results: According to the results, 0.5% (w/v) of colchicine can be effective for polyploidy induction in D. kotschyi. Putative tetraploids were selected by morphological and microscopic characteristics and their ploidy level was confirmed by flow cytometry analysis and chromosome counting. The chromosome number of original diploid plant was confirmed to be 2n = 2× = 20 whereas that of the tetraploid plant was 2n = 4× = 40. Tetraploid and mixoploid plants showed different morphological, physiological and microscopic characteristics from those of diploid counterparts. The total content of flavonoids was increased from 1583.28 in diploids to 1890.07 (μg/g DW) in stable tetraploids. Conclusion: High-Performance Liquid Chromatography with Diode-Array Detection (HPLC-DAD) confirmed over accumulation of methoxylated hydroxyflavones in solid tetraploid plants of D. kotschyi.
... Other reports on an increase in the number of chloroplasts include those in tetraploid Solanum bulbocastanum Dunal. (Hermsen & Deboer, 1971), Ocimum basilicum (Omidbaigi et al., 2012) and Dracocephalum moldavica L. (Omidbaigi et al., 2010). ...
... In Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) the application of trifluralin in 22.5 µM concentration at 24 h had the most ploidy induction and the karyotypes of chromosomes changed (Afshari et al., 2009). a finding also reported in Tanacetum parthenium (Saharkhiz, 2007), Mentha mozaffarianii (Ghani et al., 2014), Catharanthus roseus (Hoseini et al., 2012), Dracocephalum moldavica (Omidbaigi et al., 2010), Ocimum basilicum (Omidbaigi et al., 2012) and Carum carvi L. (Dijkstra & Speckmann, 1980). ...
... En este trabajo de investigación se registraron buenos resultados cuando las yemas fueron colocadas directamente en las soluciones de colchicina en sus diversas concentraciones y luego transferidas a medios semisólidos de multiplicación. Similares protocolos fueron empleados por Stanys et al. (2004) en plantas del género Ribes y por Omidbaigi et al. (2010a;2010b), en Ocimum basilicum L. y en Dracocephalum moldavica L. ...
Article
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La inducción artificial de la poliploidía es una técnica de fitomejoramiento empleado en plantas de interés medicinal. Sin embargo, pocas especies del género Aloe han sido sometidas a este tratamiento. El objetivo de esta investigación fue estandarizar la técnica de inducción de poliploidía en vitroplantas de Aloe vera (L.). Se realizó un diseño experimental con dos grupos (control y experimental) a los cuales se les aplicó un estudio citogenético pre y postratamiento por tres generaciones consecutivas. Se evaluaron tres concentraciones de colchicina (0,05; 0,10 y 0,15%) y dos tiempos de exposición (48 y 72 horas). Las vitroplantas controles mantenidas en agua destilada (sin colchicina) por 48 y 72 (T1 y T2 respectivamente) y las tratadas con solución de colchicina al 0,05% por 48 y 72 horas (T3 y T4 respectivamente), presentaron pocos cambios citogenéticos, siendo la mayoría de sus células diploides. Las plantas tratadas con solución de colchicina a 0,10% por 48 y 72 horas (T5 y T6 respectivamente), lograron la duplicación cromosómica en más del 50% del tejido. Las tratadas con una concentración de 0,15% por 48 horas (T7) mostraron tejido quimérico con un alto predominio de células poliploides y al aumentar el tiempo de exposición a 72 horas (T8), todas las células fueron poliploides, pero el desarrollo de estas plantas in vitro, fue anormal y con tejido necrótico. Las plantas con T5, se desarrollaron mejor que con el T6. Se recomienda el uso de la colchicina a una concentración de 0,10% por 48 horas para obtener vitroplantas poliploides en A. vera
... Alpha-bromonaphthalene-treated plants had the lowest average seed fresh and dry weights (77.32 g; 45.10 g). Omidbaigi et al., (2010) observed that seed weight and essential oil contents of Dracocephalum moldavica L. were increased by treatment with colchicine. Our results indicate that seed weight of J. curcas was gradually improved to 101.74 ± 1.46 g. when concentrations of colchicine were increased (0.5-2%). ...
Article
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Background: Jatropha curcasL. is a highly promising species for biodiesel use, but has low genetic diversity and seed yield. To shift its status from an underutilized tree to a highly productive seed variety, genetic improvement is urgently needed to produce superior genotypes of J. curcas (2n=2x=22). In past decade mutation induction by radiation or in vitrotreatment with colchicine were attempted. However,elite varieties could not be released.Objective: this research aimed to observe effects of two mitotic inhibitors, colchicine and alpha-bromonapthalene oninducing polyploidy in J. curcas. Results:Treating J. curcasseedlings with high colchicine concentration (5%, w/v) has resulted to 50% survival which produced only mixoploids while treatment of alphabromonapthalene showed lower survival rate (20%) but had induced tetraploids characterized by decreased stomatal density, larger pollen grain size, decreased seed fresh and dry weight, but with higher oil content. Meiotic chromosome represented 2n=4x=44. Characteristics of mature putative tetraploid line were significantly shorter and higher oleic acid than that of the diploid.Conclusion: Treatment of J. curcas L seedling with the two mitotic inhibitors administered by cotton plug method proved that both colchicine and alpha-bromonapthalene caused variation in J. curcas genome, however, alpha-bromonapthalene was more effective for inducing tetraploid in this species.
... Similar results were observed by the Escandon et al. [15], they reported the change of leaf and flower size of the Brahmi after treatment with Colchicine. Babil et al. [28], Leva et al. [6], Mujib [29] and Omidbaigi et al. [30] also reported the effects of the colchicines on the leaf size of various plants. Many other researchers have reported that the increase of ploidy often causes anatomical and structural changes in the plants [10]. ...
Article
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Present investigation on in vitro effects of two levels of colchicine (0.1% and 0.2%) for 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 hours treatment on leaf explants of Brahmi (Bacopa monnieri) collected from Paithan (Aurangabad) was conducted with a view to induce somaclonal variations and enhancement in the bacoside content in regenerated plants. Bramhi plants regenerated through previously treated leaf explants with colchicine showed morphological variations in leaf shape, number of leaves per node, leaf arrangement, etc. and enhance the bacoside content. 0.2% colchicine treatment for 5 hours showed maximum variations in number of leaves per node under in vitro conditions; however, these variations were not continued after subculture. While the 0.1% colchicine treatment for 2 hours significantly increase the bacoside content up to 0.72% i.e., more than four folds to the in vitro regenerated Brahmi plants without colchicine treatments.
... As shown in Table 2, comparison of plant height between diploid and tetraploid plants, showed a significant decrease in plant height of tetraploids compared to that of the diploids. This result was in accordance with the observation of Omidbaigi et al. [12] who reported that height of Dracocephalum moldavica plants decreased as the result of polyploidy. ...
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Nuruozak (Salvia leriifolia Benth), is a perennial herbaceous plant that is endemic to Iran and has recently been introduced as a medicinal plant. Artificial polyploidy is an efficient method to increase the production of secondary metabolites and can result in a whole spectrum of genetic, molecular and physiological modifications. In order to produce an autotetraploid population of nuruozak, various concentrations of colchicine (0.00, 0.05, 0.10, 0.20 or 0.50% w/v) were applied to the seeds and shoot apical meristems of young seedlings at the fourth leaf-stage. Microscopic studies, flow cytometry analysis and chromosome counting were conducted to select tetraploid nuruozak plants. Furthermore, the effects of ploidy level on the essential oil content and composition and biomass production of nuruozak plants, as well as selected structural and physiological characteristics were studied. Based on the number of the obtained tetraploids, treatment of shoot apical meristems was more efficient than seed treatment. Structural and phytochemical characteristics, chlorophyll content and photosynthetic rate were affected by the increase in ploidy level. In addition to the higher potential in biomass production, tetraploid plants produced eight new compounds which were absent in diploids.
... The maximum fresh weight and dry weight values were obtained from 2% colchicine. Alpha-bromonaphthalene-treated plants had the lowest average seed fresh and dry weights (77.32 g; 45.10 g). Omidbaigi et al., (2010) observed that seed weight and essential oil contents of Dracocephalum moldavica L. were increased by treatment with colchicine. Our results indicate that seed weight of J. curcas was gradually improved to 101.74 ± 1.46 g. when concentrations of colchicine were increased (0.5-2%). ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Jatropha curcas L. is a highly promising species for biodiesel use, but has low genetic diversity and seed yield. To shift its status from an underutilized tree to a highly productive seed variety, genetic improvement is urgently needed to produce superior genotypes of J. curcas (2n=2x=22). In past decade mutation induction by radiation or in vitro treatment with colchicine were attempted. However, elite varieties could not be released. Objective: this research aimed to observe effects of two mitotic inhibitors, colchicine and alpha-bromonapthalene on inducing polyploidy in J. curcas. Results: Treating J. curcas seedlings with high colchicine concentration (5%, w/v) has resulted to 50% survival which produced only mixoploids while treatment of alpha-bromonapthalene showed lower survival rate (20%) but had induced tetraploids characterized by decreased stomatal density, larger pollen grain size, decreased seed fresh and dry weight, but with higher oil content. Meiotic chromosome represented 2n=4x=44. Characteristics of mature putative tetraploid line were significantly shorter and higher oleic acid than that of the diploid. Conclusion: Treatment of J. curcas L seedling with the two mitotic inhibitors administered by cotton plug method proved that both colchicine and alpha-bromonapthalene caused variation in J. curcas genome, however, alpha-bromonapthalene was more effective for inducing tetraploid in this species. (PDF) Induction of Mutation in Jatropha curcas L by Treatment with Mitotic Inhibitors. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/299728584_Induction_of_Mutation_in_Jatropha_curcas_L_by_Treatment_with_Mitotic_Inhibitors [accessed Apr 17 2019].
... Semakin tinggi konsentrasi kolkisin yang diberikan maka pertambahan tinggi, jumlah daun, jumlah buku, jumlah akar, dan panjang akar tunas juga semakin sedikit sehingga ukuran tanaman menjadi lebih kecil dibandingkan dengan tanaman kontrol (Gambar 2). Hasil yang diperoleh dari penelitian ini memiliki kesamaan dengan penelitian-penelitian sebelumnya yaitu pada beberapa tanaman rentan terhadap perlakuan kolkisin yang menyebabkan penurunan pertumbuhan pada tanaman Gossypium arboretum L (Rauf et al., 2006), Plantanus acerifolia (Liu et al., 2007), dragonhead (Omidbaigi et al., 2010b), dan Pelargonium x hortorum (Jadrna et al., 2010). ...
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Seedless fruit is one of the criteria (necessary) to improve the quality of Simadu tangerine. The most effective method to obtain seedless triploid cultivars is hybridisation between tetraploid and diploid parents. Simadu tangerine is a diploid plant. Tetraploid Simadu tangerine can be obtained with doubling chromosome using colchicines.The aim of this research was to obtain tetraploid Simadu tangerine shoot which would serve as parent to produced seedless Simadu tangerine. Shoot-tips of Simadu tangerine without leaves were treated with colchicines at four different concentrations (0, 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3%) for 3 hours. The results showed that the high concentration of 0.3% reduced survival rate. The colchicine treatments reduced growth of shoot-tip of Simadu Tangerine.The leaves of colchicines treated shoots were thicker than control. Leaves from control (0% colchicine) and 0.1% colchicine treated shoots had 8.67 and 18.25 chloroplast per pair of guard cells. Compared to those of control, leaves with 0.1% colchicine had lower stomatal density, and larger stomatal size. It appeared that 0.1% colchicine treatment resulted in tetraploid Simadu Tangerine Shoot. Keywords:chloroplasts, doubling chromosomes, stomatal size, stomatal density
... Idrees et al. 66 reported that application of SA under saline stress conditions enhanced the citral content and citral yield of lemongrass. The presence of citral or its isomers in the essential oil of D. moldavica reported as follow: citral (31.14 %) by Maham et al. 38 , (Z)citral (14.2 %) and (E)-citral (9.5 %) by Omidbeigi et al. 58 , citral B (17.9-18.4 %) and geranial (19.4-20.4 ...
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Salicylic acid and ascorbic acid are two naturally occurring plant hormones influencing various physiological and biochemical functions in plants. The present study was aimed to evaluate the effect of salicylic acid (SA) and ascorbic acid (ASC) on essential oil content and compositions of dragonhead (Dracocephalum moldavica L.) under application and non-application of manure. The results showed that application of SA+ ASC significantly increased the essential oil content and essential oil yield compared to control plants. The application of 20 ton/ha farmyard manure increased essential oil content and essential oil yield by 19.2 and 56.8 %, respectively. According to the results, essential oil compositions were affected by foliar application of SA and ASC under manure application. The main compositions of dragonhead were geranyl acetate (28.32-47.45 %) and geraniol (13.02-25.09 %) followed by (Z)-citral (6.6-15.63 %), (E)-citral (5.56-15.24 %) and neryl acetate (5.1-8.82 %). Geranyl acetate was significantly increased with SA and ASC spray under farmyard manure application, so that the highest geranyl acetate percentage was obtained in the plants treated with SA + ASC under 20 ton/ha farmyard manure (47.45 %), followed by ASC under 0 ton/ha farmyard manure (41.39 %). Geranial as the second main compound in the essential oil was decreased with two latter treatments (46.1 and 38.1 %, respectively), compared to control. The results of this study clearly showed that SA and ASC can affect the dragonhead essential oils and its compositions, and they can be used for enhancing or improving the essential oil content and some compositions of dragonhead in an organic agricultural system.
... Stomatal characteristics were measured by the method of Omidbaigi et al. (2010). Well expanded, enlarged leaves at mature stage (flowering) were taken from both control and treated plants. ...
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Gladiolus is one of the most important lucrative cut flower crops that is commercially cultivated worldwide due to its various spike forms, size, and shape and color combinations. In order to further increase the commercial and horticultural value by improving the ornamental traits of gladiolus 'White Prosperity', polyploidy was induced by soaking gladiolus corms in different colchicine concentrations (0.1%, 0.2% and 0.3%) for 24 h. Different colchicine concentrations had a little effect on sprouting and survival percentage but it significantly delayed the emergence of sprouts. About one third decreases in plant height along with reduction in number of leaves per plant, leaf area, length and width, chlorophyll content, diameter and number of cormlets per corm was observed in treated plants. Colchicine at 0.1% concentration improved the ornamental value of gladiolus by increasing vase life whereas colchicine at 0.3% was effective in increasing floret diameter. However, the colchicine treated plants exhibited delayed and reduced percentage of flowering corms. Pollen and stomatal study was done for the identification of polyploidy and it showed that both pollen and stomata size were increased while stomatal density and pollen fertility was significantly reduced in polyploid plants. Induction of polyploidy (mixoploids + octoploids) was achieved in all concentrations, however 0.2% and 0.3% concentrations of colchicine were effective for producing large number of polyploid plants. But at 0.1% concentration of colchicine, majority of plants did not show any change in their original ploidy level (tetraploid). These putative polyploids may be helpful for further improvement in ornamental and horticultural value of gladiolus. Ke y wor d s: chromosome, diploid, pollen, stomata, tetraploid
... The same response is on tangerine (Julian et al., 2014), Gossypium arboretum L (Rauf et al., 2006), Platanus acerifolia (Liu et al., 2007), dragonhead (Omidbaigi et al., 2010), and Pelargonium x hortorum (Jadrna et al., 2010). The application of colchicine was able to increase stem diameter and fruit weight. ...
Article
The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of colchicine on changes in ploidy watermelon. The research was conducted in Agroecotechnology laboratory Universitas Malikussaleh, Microtechnique laboratory Agronomy and Horticulture Departement, Bogor Agricultural University, and Beuringen, Murah Mulia subdistrict, North Aceh. This research used Completely Randomized Design (CRD) two factors. The first factor was watermelon seed soaking time in colchicines 0,02% ie.0, 24,36, and 48 hours. The second factor was the concentration of the colchicine solution on the sprout growth point i.e. 0, 0,1, and 0,2 %. The results showed that plants were given colchicine became to shorter and fewer number of leaves than plants without any treatment. Colchicine could increase the size of the stomata, but it did not change the shape of stomata. Plants that were given colchicine had the potential to ploidy multiplication.
... Investigations in Iran with 7 landraces of D. moldavica show that oil content varied between 0.03 and 0.12% ( Borghei et al., 2015). The increase of ploidy levels caused major changes in some ISSN: 2620-1755Aćimović et al., 2019 morphological and physiological traits and active substances in D. moldavica (Omidbaigi et al., 2010). Apart from this, essential oil content significantly varied during phenological stages, i.e. harvesting time ( Khalili and Amirnia, 2014). ...
Article
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Moldavian balm or Moldavian dragonhead (Dracocephalum moldavica L.) is native to temperate climate of Asia, but it was naturalized in Eastern and central Europe, North Africa, China and northeastern United States. This plant with its citrus like flavor is extensively used as a spice and for composition of teas, because of neral and geranial as major constituents of essential oil. D. moldavica is used in food aromatization, perfumery, alcoholic drinks industry, soaps and detergents. Apart from being used as medicinal and spice plant, it is grown as a honey-bearing plant and cultivated in gardens and parks as an ornamental plant. Seed is a good source of fatty oil with spicy taste and aromatic odor, rich in unsaturated fatty acids, principally the linolenic and linoleic acids. This categorizes D. moldavica seed into the group of raw materials suitable for nutraceuticals, food supplements, and functional food applications. Furthermore, numerous investigations show that this plant possesses good antioxidative, antimicrobial and insecticidal activity. It is also used as antinociceptive, sedative, neuroprotective, as well as cardiotonic agents, and for treating chronic mountain sickness.
... Dracocephalum moldavica(Omidbaigi et al., 2010) and Centella asiatica(Kaensaksiri et al., 2011), 269 where a positive trend in biomass was obtained with the tetraploid plants. This vigorous nature of 270 tetraploid clones was not a surprising observation since larger plant organs are often produced as the 271 result of polyploidy and already observed in other tetraploid plants (Lavania, 2005). ...
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Description of the subject. The hyoscyamine, a tropane alkaloid, widely used in medicine, can be produced from Datura sp. (Solanaceae). However, its content in the spontaneous roots remains low; therefore, hairy roots (HRs) were envisaged as a potential alternative to improve its biosynthesis. The hairy roots are characterized by a good genetic stability and a rapid growth. Indeed, Datura stramonium HRs have widely been studied in the perspective of improving the yield of hyoscyamine. This study is part of this same perspective. Objectives. This paper aims to study the effects of polyploidization of HRs induced by colchicine in synergy with elicitation (with acetylsalicylic [ASA] or salicylic acids [SA]) on the hyoscyamine content in D. stramonium. Method. Colchicine was applied at different concentrations and periods, on a selected hairy root line (LDS) of D. stramonium obtained by infection with Agrobactrium rhizogenes strain A4. The selection of tetraploid HR lines was performed by the cytogenetic analysis using light microscopy. The effect of polyploidization and elicitation was studied on the biomass (dry weight) and hyoscyamine content of HRs. Results. The untreated HR line (control) shows a diploid level with 2n = 24 chromosomes. However, the HR lines treated with colchicine show, in most cases, an endoreduplication of their genetic material. The survival rate of endoreduplicated lines varies between 30% and 93%, depending on concentration and exposure time to colchicine. Moreover, the tetraploid HR line shows an increase in its biomass and hyoscyamine content in comparison to the diploid HR line (LDS). Further, elicitation of HRs by ASA or AS at the 10-4 M concentration causes a low decrease or increase in dry weight, respectively. However, the same treatments show a significant increase in the yield of hyoscyamine in elicited HR lines. Consequently, our work indicates that the combination of polyploidy and elicitation can lead to significant improvements in hyoscyamine biosynthesis and content due to their synergistic effects. Conclusions. Elicitation of tetraploid hairy root lines improves significantly their content of hyoscyamine. Effets synergiques de la polyploïdisation et de l’élicitation sur la biomasse et le contenu en hyoscyamine des chevelus racinaires de Datura stramonium Description du sujet. L’hyoscyamine, un alcaloïde tropanique largement utilisé en médecine, peut être produit à partir de Datura sp. (Solanaceae). Cependant, son contenu dans les racines spontanées reste faible. Par conséquent, les chevelus racinaires (CRs) ont été envisagés comme une alternative potentielle pour améliorer sa biosynthèse. Les chevelus racinaires se caractérisent par une bonne stabilité génétique et une croissance rapide. En effet, les CRs de Datura stramonium ont été largement étudiés dans la perspective de l’amélioration du rendement en hyoscyamine. Objectifs. Ce document vise à étudier les effets de la polyploïdisation des CRs induits par la colchicine en synergie avec l’élicitation (avec des acides acétylsalicylique ou salicylique) sur la teneur en hyoscyamine de D. stramonium. Méthode. La colchicine a été appliquée à différentes concentrations et périodes, sur une lignée sélectionnée de chevelu racinaire (LDS) de D. stramonium obtenu par une infection par la souche A4 d’Agrobacterium rhizogenes. La sélection des lignées de CRs tétraploïdes a été réalisée par l’analyse cytogénétique en utilisant la microscopie optique. Les effets de la polyploïdisation et de l’élicitation ont été étudiés sur la biomasse (poids sec) et la teneur en hyoscyamine des CRs. Résultats. La lignée de CR non traitée (témoin) montre un niveau de diploïde avec 2n = 24 chromosomes. Cependant, les lignées de CRs traitées avec la colchicine montrent, dans la plupart des cas, une endoréplication de leur matériel génétique. Le taux de survie des lignées endorépliquées varie entre 30 % et 93 %, en fonction de la concentration et du temps d’exposition à la colchicine. En outre, la lignée de CR tétraploïde montre une augmentation de sa biomasse et de son contenu en hyoscyamine par rapport à la lignée diploïde de CR (LDS). En outre, l’élicitation des CRs par AAS ou AS à la concentration de 10-4 M provoque une faible diminution ou une augmentation du poids sec, respectivement. Cependant, les mêmes traitements montrent une augmentation significative du rendement en hyoscyamine dans les lignées de CRs élicitées. Par conséquent, notre travail indique que la combinaison de la polyploïdie et de l’élicitation peut conduire à des améliorations significatives dans la biosynthèse et le contenu en hyoscyamine en raison de leurs effets synergiques. Conclusions. L’élicitation de lignées tétraploïdes de chevelus racinaires améliore considérablement leur teneur en hyoscyamine.
... The hexaploid Miscanthus 9 giganteus can be induced from triploid M 9 giganteus. Induced polyploidy can influence the concentration of secondary metabolites (Kato and Birchler 2006;Omidbaigi et al. 2010). The pyrogallol, catechin, veratric acid, ocoumaric acid and myricetin were present at higher concentrations in leaf extracts of hexaploid compared to triploid plants (Ghimire et al. 2016). ...
Article
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The use of natural compounds derived from agricultural crops and other plants as health promoting chemicals gains tremendous growing interest in various industrial sectors as well as among people worldwide. These chemicals have been more and more employed by the food industry as food additives, functional food ingredients, nutraceuticals, by feedstuffs industry, but also by the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. The general idea for this interest is to use natural products as potential alternatives to synthetic chemicals. On the other hand, some plants characterized by high yield and being used as energy crops also contained significant amount of bioactive compounds. This review focuses on the wide spectrum of the phytochemicals present in available biomass plants. It is supposed that extraction of bioactive chemicals from energy crops before their energetic use may increase economical effectiveness, providing simultaneously a double benefit in the form of phytochemicals and bioenergy as value added products. This remains in line with bioeconomy, which is defined by European Commission as “the production of renewable biological resources and the conversion of these resources and waste streams into value added products, such as food, feed, bio-based products and bioenergy”. However, the issue is still a challenging effort due to the high costs, technology readiness and regulatory hurdles.
... Alpha-bromonaphthalene-treated plants had the lowest average seed fresh and dry weights (77.32 g; 45.10 g). Omidbaigi et al., (2010) observed that seed weight and essential oil contents of Dracocephalum moldavica L. were increased by treatment with colchicine. Our results indicate that seed weight of J. curcas was gradually improved to 101.74 ± 1.46 g. when concentrations of colchicine were increased (0.5-2%). ...
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Background: Jatropha curcas L. is a highly promising species for biodiesel use, but has low genetic diversity and seed yield. To shift its status from an underutilized tree to a highly productive seed variety, genetic improvement is urgently needed to produce superior genotypes of J. curcas (2n=2x=22). In past decade mutation induction by radiation or in vitro treatment with colchicine were attempted. However, elite varieties could not be released. Objective: this research aimed to observe effects of two mitotic inhibitors, colchicine and alpha-bromonapthalene on inducing polyploidy in J. curcas. Results: Treating J. curcas seedlings with high colchicine concentration (5%, w/v) has resulted to 50% survival which produced only mixoploids while treatment of alpha-bromonapthalene showed lower survival rate (20%) but had induced tetraploids characterized by decreased stomatal density, larger pollen grain size, decreased seed fresh and dry weight, but with higher oil content. Meiotic chromosome represented 2n=4x=44. Characteristics of mature putative tetraploid line were significantly shorter and higher oleic acid than that of the diploid. Conclusion: Treatment of J. curcas L seedling with the two mitotic inhibitors administered by cotton plug method proved that both colchicine and alpha-bromonapthalene caused variation in J. curcas genome, however, alpha-bromonapthalene was more effective for inducing tetraploid in this species.
... The viability in auto as well as allopolyploids influenced not only by the presence or absence of multivalent but also by other genetic factors (Sohoo et al., 1970) [30] . The similar observations were earlier reported by Biswas and Bhattacharyya (1976) [21] in French bean, Glowacka et al. (2010) [31] in Miscanthus species, Kadota and Niimi (2002) [32] in Japanese pear, Omidbaigia et al. (2010) [33] in dragonhead, Shao et al. (2003) [34] in pomegranate and Zhang et al. (2016) [25] in Trollius chinensis. ...
Experiment Findings
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Polyploidy induction is an important tool for development of desired fruits and vegetables. Thus, induction of polyploidy particularly at autotetraploid and triploid levels offers probably the best scope for seedless as well as quality fruits. So, this method is one of the best options for the chromosome manipulation. In the present study an attempt was made to induce polyploids in Cape gooseberry using colchicine with the objective of creating more genetic variability. The trial was conducted under the Department of Horticulture, B.A.U., Kanke, Ranchi during two successive seasons (2017-18 and 2018-19) using colchicine concentrations as 0.10(C1), 0.20(C2) and 0.40(C3) per cent for the duration of 12 (H1), 24 (H2) and 36 (H3) hours with seedlings apex dip method (M1), cotton plug method (M2) and lanolin paste method (M3).The results of both years showed that the colchicine treated flower buds @ 0.10 per cent for 12 hours with cotton plug method produced the minimum plant height of 70.90 cm and 73.60 cm, larger leaf length of 12.13cm and 11.70cm and breadth of 10.50cm and 10.55 cm, more taken time in flower bud emergence of 53.00 days and 54.67 days and anthesis of 19.33 days and 20.33 days, bigger flower size of 2.93cm 2 and 3.00 cm 2 and minimum percentage of pollen viability of 40.33 per cent and 40.67 per cent respectively in comparison to control. This finding demonstrated the existence of genetic variation for the plant growth and flowering characters response to ploidy change in Cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.).
... Accordingly, this can be one of the reasons for increasing the whole plant weight of tetraploids. Whole plant weight enhancement, associated with ploidy level has been observed in other plants (Omid Baigi et al. 2010). It has been also demonstrated that polyploidy usually changes leaf characteristics such as an increase in leaf thickness and length and width (Rao et al. 2019). ...
Article
Bride rose poppy (Papaver fugax Poir.) is a source of several pharmaceutical benzylisoquinoline alkaloids such as morphine and codeine. In order to determine the best method for the production of the autotetraploid population in this species, seeds and seedlings were treated with different colchicine concentrations (0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, and 0.5%) for 12, 24, and 48 h. Flow cytometry and chromosome observation from leaves confirmed the chromosome doubling in some of the treated plants. Chromosome doubled plants were studied in terms of morphological and physiological traits. The highest induction frequency of the tetraploid plants (18.35%) obtained by treatment of seeds or seedlings with 0.1% colchicine for 48 h. In induced tetraploid plants, the density of stomata, average internode length, and plant height decreased, while, stomata size, leaf thickness, length and width, number of leaves, fresh and dry weight of plants, capsule size, chlorophyll, protein, and carbohydrate contents and activity of catalase and peroxidase antioxidant enzymes increased.
... Despite polyploidization increasing in parallel with colchicine concentration, large reductions in germination and seedling survival at high dosages made treatments with intermediate doses more suitable for inducing neopolyploidy. This was consistent with results of previous studies (Thiebaut and Kasha, 1978;Chen et al., 2006;Lehrer et al., 2008;Omidbaigi et al., 2010;Xing et al., 2011;Pavlíková et al., 2017;Sadat Noori et al., 2017), although the different methodologies (different antimitotic agents and/or different target tissues such as shoot apical meristem or callus) and the species-specific responses to colchicine do not make it possible to establish a general protocol for neopolyploidy induction. ...
Article
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Whole genome doubling and post-polyploidization genome downsizing play key roles in the evolution of land plants, nevertheless the impact of genomic diploidization on functional traits still remains poorly explored. Using Dianthus broteri as a model, we compared the ecophysiological behaviour of colchicine-induced neotetraploids (4xNeo) to diploids (2x) and naturally occurring tetraploids (4xNat). In order to asses to what extent post-polyploidization evolutionary processes have affected to 4xNat, exhaustive leaf-gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence analyses were performed. Genomic diploidization and phenotypic novelty was evident. In addition, the distinct patterns of variation revealed that post-polyploidization processes alter the phenotypic shifts directly-mediated by genome doubling. Photosynthetic phenotype was affected in several ways but a prevalent phenotypic diploidization occurred (i.e., being 2x and 4xNat closer to each other than to 4xNeo). Altogether, our results highlight the potential of considering experimentally synthetized vs. naturally established polyploids when exploring the role of polyploidization on promoting functional divergence.
... The longest incubation time, 12 days, at 0.2% colchicine was lethal to K. rotunda shoots (0% survival rate) (Fig. 1). Higher concentration and longer duration increased the mortality of plant materials (Urwin and Horsnell, 2007; Zhang et al., 2008) which were consistent with several previous reports on ornamental plants, for instance Dracocephalum moldavica (Omidbaigil et al., 2010), Anthurium andraeanum 'Arizona' (Chen et al., 2011) and Gerbera jamesonii 'Sciella' (Gantait et al., 2011). ...
Conference Paper
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Kaempferia rotunda is introduced as an ornamental ginger with attractive foliage. Colchicine is well known as an anti-mitotic chemical that is widely used for chromosome doubling to improve several ornamental cultivars. The effect of colchicine incubation time on tetraploid induction of K. rotunda was studied. In vitro young shoots of K. rotunda were used as planting materials for treating with 0.2% colchicine on semi-solid MS medium for 0, 2, 4, 8 and 12 days. After the treatments, shoots were transferred to a semi-solid MS medium supplemented with 17.8 µM 6-benzyladenine. All data were collected in the M 1 V 4 generation. It was found that the survival rate of the treated plants decreased as colchicine incubation time increased. All young shoots treated with colchicine for 12 days died within one month. Using flow cytometry, the maximum of tetraploid induction percentage (40%) was obtained from the young shoots treated with colchicine for four days. INTRODUCTION Kaempferia rotunda L. is a native zingiberaceous plant of Thailand. K. rotunda was introduced as ornamental plant because of the attractive characters of silver pattern on leaves, a prominent flower with white and purple color (Chapman, 1995). Chromosome doubling was introduced for a plant breeding program for improved new tetraploid cultivars (Urwin and Horsnell, 2007). Therefore the interspecific hybridization of Kaempferia was not found, tetraploid induction would improve some characters such as larger flower, leaves or stem (Piestsch and Anderson, 2006). Colchicine is a well-known anti-mitotic spindle chemical agent used for doubling chromosome number by the inhibition of microtubule polymerization during cell division (Nuki, 2008). Many ornamental cultivars have been improved by chromosome doubling, such as in Cyclamen persicum (Takamura and Miyajima, 1996), Phlox subulata 'Emerald pink' (Zhang et al., 2008), Ranunculus asiaticus 'Alfa' (Dhooghe et al., 2009) and Phalaenopsis (Cheng et al., 2009). For Zingiberaceae, there was a report on succeed in chromosome doubling of edible ginger by used 0.2% colchicine (Zingiber offcinale Rosc.) (Adaniya and Shirai, 2001) but there was none on K. rotunda. In the present study, we report the optimal incubation time for in vitro tetraploid induction in K. rotunda.
... Induced polyploidy can increase the concentration of secondary metabolites (Omidbaigi et al., 2010 ) and alter the content of bioactive compounds (Kato and Birchler, 2006). Here, we examined the effect of chromosome doubling on phenolic compounds using HPLC. ...
Article
Giant Miscanthus (Miscanthus × giganteus) is a perennial, warm-season C4 grass. It is a sterile triploid that grows rapidly, accumulates significant biomass, and has the potential to be a new bioenergy crop. Hexaploid Miscanthus × giganteus can be induced from triploid M × giganteus using colchicine. Here, we compared a range of parameters between triploid and hexaploid plants using phytochemical and histolog-ical analyses. Inductively coupled plasma-atomic energy spectrometry (ICP-AES) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) showed significant differences in the amounts of 21 microelements and macroelements elements (Al, and Sr) between triploid and hexaploid plants. Additionally, phenolic compounds such as pyrogallol, catechin, veratric acid, o-coumaric acid, and myricetin were present at higher concentrations in leaf extracts of hexaploid plants compared to triploid plants. Pyrogallol, gentisic acid, chlorogenic acid, and catechin were also higher in the stem extracts of hexaploid plants. The cellulose content of leaf extracts of hexaploid plants was significantly higher than that of triploid plants, while total lignin content was higher in triploid plants. Significant differences were found between triploid and hexaploid plants for plant height, number of leaves, leaf length, leaf width, number of nodes, stem diameter, tiller number, fresh weight during both pre-flowering and post-flowering stages, and photosynthetic rate. Our analyses indicate that hexaploid M × giganteus exhibited superior agronomical traits and improved biomass yield compared to triploid plants and thus could be suitable for future large-scale biomass production.
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To evaluate effect of biofertilizers on the yield and nutrients of Dracocephalum moldavica seeds, a field experiment was conducted based on randomized complete block design with four replications at the Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center of West Azerbaijan Urmia-Iran in 2010. Treatments were biofertilizers (seed inoculation with nitrogen fixing bacteria (N¬b), phosphate solubilizing bacteria (Pb), sulfur oxidizing bacteria (Sb), N¬b+Pb, Nb+Sb, Pb+Sb, N¬b+Pb+Sb), chemical fertilizer (chemical origin of nitrogen+phosphorus+potassium (NPK)) and control (no fertilizer). Results indicated that the highest yield of seed (3366 kg ha-1) belonged to chemical origin of NPK. Maximum seed nitrogen (3.74%) and manganese (0.0062 mg kg-1) contents were obtained from Nb treatment. The highest percentage of sulfur (0.56%) and zinc (0.184 mg kg-1) were obtained from Sb treatment. While the maximum iron content (0.62 mg kg-1) was observed at N¬b+Pb+Sb. In conclusion seed inoculation with Thiobacillus (Sb) improves seed nutrients availability in calcareous soils.
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In order to study the effect of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticle spraying on the expression of three genes RAS, PAL and TAT involved in the biosynthesis of rosmarinic acid in Dragonhead, this nanoparticle was sprayed on the plants at the initial flowering stage at different concentrations (0, 10, 20, 30 and 50 ppm) in a completely randomized design with three replications. Plant seeds were cultivated in a greenhouse under controlled conditions. The experiment was carried out at University College of Agriculture, Tehran University. Twentyfour hours after treatment, leaf samples were taken from the different treated and control plants in three biological replicates at complete flowering stage, and kept at -80° C for further analysis. The samples were dried in the shade for a week for extraction. High-performance liquid chromatography was used for determination of rosmarinic acid. The results showed a significant increase in the amount of rosmarinic acid when compared to the controls by which the content increased to 16.78 mg/g extraction in concentration of 30ppm nanoparticle. The results of the expression pattern of the genes by qRT-PCR revealed that both RAS and PAL showed a similar behavior in all treatments although RAS was expressed more. TAT did not show a known pattern. It is noticeable that 30ppm nanoparticle was effective for gene expression and also to elevate the rate of rosmarinic acid biosynthesis.
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Polyploidy is one of the widespread phenomena in plant kingdom, which has a vital role in evolution and speciation of plants and is usually accompanied by significant changes in morphology, cell and organ size, expression patterns of genes, respiration and phtotosynthesis, regeneration ability, fertility, biochemistry and metabolom of plants. Therefore polyploidy, especially tetraploidy, has been widely applied in modification of various characteristics of plants. The diversity of traits resulted by the induction of polyploidy, depends on the genotype and species and therefore is not always useful. Though tetraploidy usually results in fewer seeds and decrease of fertility but in cases where the increase in biomass or concentration of medicinal compounds is of importance, it can be efficiently applied for breeding of medicinal plants. Autotetraploidy doubles the gene dosage and allotetraploidy collects the useful allels of a biosynthetis pathway in a resulted hybrid and therefore may improve the production of secondary metabolites. According to the importance of herbal medicine and increasing demand for medicinally important secondary metabolites in our country, we describe the effects of polyploidy on various characteristics of medicinal plants and the methods of induction and selection of polyploid plants in this paper.
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A simple and efficient procedure was established for in vitro propagation of lattice henbane (Hyoscyamus reticulatus L.) using shoot tip explants cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with N6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) and indolyl-3-acetic acid (IAA). In vitro-induced autotetraploid plants of H. reticulatus L. exhibiting high yield of scopolamine were successfully induced by different concentrations of colchicine solutions (0.00, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.5 %) which were applied for 24, 48 and 72 h. Treated shoot tips were regenerated on MS medium supplemented with 8.8 mM BAP and 2.2 mM IAA and rooted on ½MS medium containing 2.2 mM indolyl-3-butyric acid, then were acclimatized and transferred to soil. According to the results, 0.1 % (w/v) of colchicine for 48 h can be effective for induction of polyploidy in H. reticulatus L. The induced tetraploid plants represented a different structural, physiological and biochemical characteristics. Autotetraploid plants of H. reticulatus also showed a higher conversion of hyoscyamine to scopolamine as scopolamine content was increased from 0.23 in diploids to 8.66 % in the induced tetraploid plants. Regarding the higher commercial value of scopolamine than the other tropane alkaloids, tetraploidy can efficiently be used to improve scopolamine production of H. reticulatus.
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Information regarding the evaluation of priming treatments on germination traits of Dracocephalum moldavica L. varieties is not available. Therefore, this assay was conducted during 2013 in Islamic Azad University of Sanandaj located in Kurdistan province of Iran. Twelve treatments resulted from a factorial combination of six priming method (factor A) and two varieties of moldavian dragonhead (factor B), arranged in a completely randomized design replicated three times. Factor A included 50 mg L-1 Salicylic acid (SA), 100 mg L-1 SA, 50 mg L-1 Ascorbic acid (AsA), 100 mg L-1 AsA, hydro-priming and control. Factor B included Kurdish landrace and SZK1 cultivar. Results showed that the highest and lowest emergence percentages were 90.1 % in Kurdish SA50 and 52.8 % in SZK1 AsA100 treatments, respectively. Hydro priming treatment increased the emergence rate index more than 100 mg L-1 SA, 100 mg L-1 AsA and control treatments. The highest shoot weight was 9.41 mg for Kurdish SA50 treatment and the lowest length, 1.24 mg was attributed to SZK1 control treatment. The highest (6.56 mg) and lowest (1.74 mg) radicle weight were observed in Kurdish-hydro-priming and SZK1-AsA100 treatments. The Kurdish landrace showed a favorable germination condition compared to SZK1 cultivar.
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2 -‫ﺣﺒﻴﺒﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﺎزﻳﺎر‬ 3 -‫اﻣﻴﺮي‬ ‫اﻛﺮم‬ 4 ‫درﻳﺎﻓﺖ‬ ‫ﺗﺎرﻳﺦ‬ : 4 / 5 / 90 ‫ﭘﺬﻳﺮش‬ ‫ﺗﺎرﻳﺦ‬ : 6 / 10 / 90 ‫ﭼﻜﻴﺪه‬ ‫ﺑﺮرﺳﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻈﻮر‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫رﻳﺤﺎن‬ ‫ﮔﻴﺎه‬ ‫در‬ ‫ﭘﻠﻮﺋﻴﺪي‬ ‫ﭘﻠﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻘﺎء‬) L. Ocimum basilicum (‫ﻛـﺎﻣﻼ‬ ‫ﻃـﺮح‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻟﺐ‬ ‫در‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻛﺘﻮرﻳﻞ‬ ‫ﺻﻮرت‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻞ‬ ‫آزﻣﺎﻳﺶ‬ ‫دو‬ ، " ‫ﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﻴﻤﺎر‬ ‫زﻣﺎن‬ ‫ﻣﺪت‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﺳﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﻛﻠﺸﻲ‬ ‫ﻏﻠﻈﺖ‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻛﺘﻮر‬ ‫دو‬ ‫ﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﺼﺎدﻓﻲ‬ 4 ‫ﺷﺪ‬ ‫اﻧﺠﺎم‬ ‫ﺗﻜﺮار‬ . ‫ﺳـﻄﺢ‬ ‫ﭼﻬـﺎر‬ ‫ﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﺳﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﻛﻠﺸﻲ‬ ‫ﻏﻠﻈﺖ‬) ،‫ﺻـﻔﺮ‬ 05 / 0 ، 1 / 0 ‫و‬ 2 / 0 ‫درﺻـﺪ‬ (‫و‬ ‫ﺳﻄﺢ‬ ‫ﺳﻪ‬ ‫در‬ ‫ﺗﻴﻤﺎر‬ ‫زﻣﺎن‬ ‫ﻣﺪت‬) 6 ، 12 ‫و‬ 24 ‫ﺳﺎﻋﺖ‬ (‫ﺑﻮد‬ . ‫آزﻣﺎﻳﺶ‬ ‫در‬ ‫ﺷـﺪ‬ ‫اﻋﻤـﺎل‬ ‫اﻧﺘﻬﺎﻳﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﻳﺴﺘﻢ‬ ‫روي‬ ‫دوم‬ ‫آزﻣﺎﻳﺶ‬ ‫در‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﺑﺬر‬ ‫روي‬ ‫ﻓﻮق‬ ‫ﺗﻴﻤﺎرﻫﺎي‬ ‫اول‬ . ‫در‬ ‫رﻓﺘﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﻦ‬ ‫از‬ ‫ﺷﺎﻫﺪ‬ ‫از‬ ‫ﻏﻴﺮ‬ ‫ﮔﻴﺎﻫﺎن‬ ‫ﻛﻠﻴﻪ‬ ‫اول‬ ‫آزﻣﺎﻳﺶ‬ . ‫ﻣﺮﺣﻠﻪ‬ ‫در‬ ‫ﺗﻴﻤﺎرﻫﺎ‬ ‫اﻋﻤﺎل‬ ‫دوم‬ ‫آزﻣﺎﻳﺶ‬ ‫در‬ 8 -6 ‫ﻣﺮﻳـﺴﺘﻢ‬ ‫ﻧـﻮك‬ ‫ﻧﻤﻮدن‬ ‫آﻏﺸﺘﻪ‬ ‫روش‬ ‫از‬ ‫اﺳﺘﻔﺎده‬ ‫ﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﮔﻲ‬ ‫ﺷﺪ‬ ‫اﻧﺠﺎم‬ ‫اي‬ ‫ﭘﻨﺒﻪ‬ ‫ﮔﻠﻮﻟﻪ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺳﻂ‬ ‫اﻧﺘﻬﺎﻳﻲ‬ . ‫ﻣﺸﺎ‬ ‫از‬ ‫ﭘﺲ‬ ‫ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻨـﺪ‬ ‫ﻗـﺮار‬ ‫ارزﻳـﺎﺑﻲ‬ ‫ﻣـﻮرد‬ ‫ﻓﻠﻮﺳـﺎﻳﺘﻮﻣﺘﺮي‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺳـﻂ‬ ‫ﻧﻤﻮﻧـﻪ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺪادي‬ ‫ﺗﻴﻤﺎر‬ ‫ﻫﺮ‬ ‫از‬ ،‫ﻇﺎﻫﺮي‬ ‫ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮات‬ ‫ﻫﺪه‬ . ‫ﺷﺪ‬ ‫اﻧﺠﺎم‬ ‫اي‬ ‫روزﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮات‬ ‫ﺑﺮرﺳﻲ‬ ‫ﺟﻬﺖ‬ ‫اي‬ ‫روزﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﻄﺎﻟﻌﺎت‬ ‫ﻫﻤﭽﻨﻴﻦ‬ . ‫ﺑﺮرﺳﻲ‬ ‫از‬ ‫ﺣﺎﺻﻞ‬ ‫ﻧﺘﺎﻳﺞ‬ ‫ﻫﺎي‬ ‫ﻣ‬ ،‫ﻓﻠﻮﺳﺎﻳﺘﻮﻣﺘﺮي‬ ‫ﻮ‬ ‫ﺑـﺎ‬ ‫راﺑﻄـﻪ‬ ‫در‬ ‫اي‬ ‫روزﻧـﻪ‬ ‫و‬ ‫رﻓﻮﻟﻮژﻳﻚ‬ ‫ﺗﻴﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻏﻠﻈﺖ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫داد‬ ‫ﻧﺸﺎن‬ ‫ﭘﻠﻮﺋﻴﺪي‬ ‫اﻟﻘﺎي‬ ‫ﭘﻠﻮﺋﻴﺪي‬ ‫اﺣﺘﻤﺎل‬ ‫ﻣﻴﺰان‬ ‫ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﻃﻮري‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫اﺳﺖ‬ ‫داﺷﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻛﺘﻮر‬ ‫اﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﺮ‬ ‫داري‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﺎﺛﻴﺮ‬ ‫ر‬) 63 / 3 ‫درﺻـﺪ‬ (‫ﻣﺮﺑـﻮط‬ ‫ﻏﻠﻈﺖ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ 05 / 0 ‫ﻧﺪاﺷﺘﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻛﺘﻮر‬ ‫اﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﺮ‬ ‫داري‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﺎﺛﻴﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻘﺎﺑﻞ‬ ‫اﺛﺮات‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﺗﻴﻤﺎر‬ ‫زﻣﺎن‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻲ‬ ‫ﺳﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﻛﻠﺸﻲ‬ ‫درﺻﺪ‬ . ‫ﻛﻠﺸﻲ‬ ‫ﻏﻠﻈﺖ‬ ‫ﺳﺎده‬ ‫اﺛﺮات‬ ‫دﻳﮕﺮ‬ ‫ﻃﺮف‬ ‫از‬ ‫ﺗﻴﻤﺎر‬ ‫زﻣﺎن‬ ‫ﻣﺪت‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﺳﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﺷﺎﻫﺪ‬ ‫ﺗﻴﻤﺎر‬ ‫از‬ ‫ﭘﺲ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﻃﻮري‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﻮد‬ ‫دار‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﮔﻴﺎﻫﺎن‬ ‫ﻣﺎﻧﻲ‬ ‫زﻧﺪه‬ ‫درﺻﺪ‬ ‫ﺑﺮ‬ ‫آﻧﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻘﺎﺑﻞ‬ ‫اﺛﺮ‬ ‫و‬) ‫ﺻـﻔﺮ‬ ‫ﻏﻠﻈﺖ‬ (‫ﻣـﺎﻧﻲ‬ ‫زﻧـﺪه‬ ‫ﺑﻴـﺸﺘﺮﻳﻦ‬) 4 / 47 (‫ﻏﻠﻈﺖ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺑﻮط‬ 05 / 0 ‫ﺑﻮد‬ . ‫ﺷﺪﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﮔﻴﺎﻫﺎن‬ ‫از‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻻﺗﺮي‬ ‫درﺻﺪ‬ ‫رﻓﺘﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﻦ‬ ‫از‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻋﺚ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻻﺗﺮ‬ ‫ﻏﻠﻈﺘﻬﺎي‬ . ‫زﻧـﺪه‬ ‫ﺑﻴـﺸﺘﺮﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻧﻴﺰ‬ ‫ﺗﻴﻤﺎر‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ‬ ‫زﻣﺎﻧﻬﺎي‬ ‫ﻣﻴﺎن‬ ‫در‬ ‫ﻣﺎﻧﻲ‬) 5 / 60 ‫درﺻﺪ‬ (‫ﺗﻴﻤﺎر‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺑﻮط‬ 12 ‫ﺑﻮد‬ ‫ﺳﺎﻋﺖ‬ . ‫ﻏﻠﻈﺖ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫داد‬ ‫ﻧﺸﺎن‬ ‫ﻛﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﻧﺘﺎﻳﺞ‬ 05 / 0 ‫زﻣﺎن‬ ‫ﻣﺪت‬ ‫و‬ ‫درﺻﺪ‬ 6 ‫ﭘﻠﻮﺋﻴـﺪي‬ ‫اﻟﻘـﺎء‬ ‫ﺟﻬﺖ‬ ‫ﺗﻴﻤﺎر‬ ‫ﺑﻬﺘﺮﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﻋﺖ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻲ‬ ‫رﻳﺤﺎن‬ ‫ﮔﻴﺎه‬ ‫در‬ . ‫واژه‬ ‫ﻫﺎي‬ ‫ﻛﻠﻴﺪي‬ : ‫ﺳﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﻛﻠﺸﻲ‬ ،‫ﻓﻠﻮﺳﺎﻳﺘﻮﻣﺘﺮي‬ ،‫ﭘﻠﻮﺋﻴﺪي‬ ‫ﺳﻄﺢ‬ ،‫رﻳﺤﺎن‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺪﻣﻪ‬ 1 2 3 4 ‫رﻳﺤﺎن‬) L. Ocimum basilicum (‫ﻣﺘﻌﻠـﻖ‬ ‫ﻣﻬـﻢ‬ ‫ﮔﻴﺎﻫﺎن‬ ‫از‬ ‫ﻳﻜﻲ‬ ‫ﻧﻌﻨﺎع‬ ‫ﺧﺎﻧﻮاده‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬) Lamiaceae (،‫داروﻳـﻲ‬ ‫ﮔﻴـﺎه‬ ‫ﻋﻨـﻮان‬ ‫ﺑـﻪ‬ ‫ﻛـﻪ‬ ‫اﺳـﺖ‬ ‫ادوﻳﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﻴﮕﻴﺮد‬ ‫ﻗﺮار‬ ‫اﺳﺘﻔﺎده‬ ‫ﻣﻮرد‬ ‫ﺗﺎزه‬ ‫ﺳﺒﺰي‬ ‫ﺻﻮرت‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻫﻤﭽﻨﻴﻦ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اي‬) 1 ‫و‬ 21 (. ‫و‬ ‫ﺑﻮده‬ ‫اﺳﺎﻧﺲ‬ ‫ﺣﺎوي‬ ‫رﻳﺤﺎن‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﺳـﺖ‬ ‫آور‬ ‫اﺷﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫آن‬ ‫روﻳﺸﻲ‬ ‫ﭘﻴﻜﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺎﻟ‬ ‫ﺑـﺮاي‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻏﺬا‬ ‫ﻫﻀﻢ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﻚ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﺷﻜﻢ‬ ‫ﻧﻔﺦ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺎﻟﺠﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﺮاي‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺧـﻲ‬ ‫ﺠـﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﻴﮕﺮدد‬ ‫اﺳﺘﻔﺎده‬ ‫ﻗﻠﺒﻲ‬ ‫ﻧﺎراﺣﺘﻴﻬﺎي‬ . ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻗﺎرﭼﻲ‬ ‫ﺿﺪ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﺻﻴﺖ‬ ‫رﻳﺤﺎن‬ ‫ﺳﺎﻧﺲ‬
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