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Distribution of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in Poland

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... W walce z grzybami Escovopsis pomocne okazują się być pewne bakterie (np. Pseudonocardia spp.) żyjące w symbiozie z mrówkami (Currie i in ., 1999;Currie, 2001). Potrafią one wytwarzać związki o charakterze antybiotyków (podobne do nystatyny) i skierowane przeciwko grzybom Escovopsis, a ich wysoką skuteczność tłumaczy się specyfiką procesu ko-ewolucji symbiontów (Andersen i in., 2013). ...
... Do pomieszczeń w cieplejszych okresach roku mogą przylatywać komary i meszki. W Polsce opisano 47 gatunków komarów, głównie z rodzajów: komar-Culex, dośkwierz-Aedes i widliszek-Anopheles ( Kubica-Biernat, 1999). Komary wśród zwierząt są w skali światowej największymi wrogami człowieka ze względu na przenoszenie patogenów, głównie zarodźca malarii. ...
... Do pomieszczeń w cie- plejszych okresach roku mogą przylatywać komary i meszki. W Polsce opisano 47 gatunków komarów, głównie z rodzajów: komar -Culex, dośkwierz -Aedes i widliszek -Anopheles ( Kubica-Biernat, 1999). Komary wśród zwierząt są w skali światowej największymi wro- gami człowieka ze względu na przenoszenie patogenów, głównie zarodźca malarii. ...
... modestus are not abundant. Only Cx. pipiens is abundant in the whole country, often in plague numbers [23]. It is the predominant vector for WNV in Europe. ...
... torrentium in Polish cities (Gdańsk, Warsaw, Wrocław, Świnoujście and Szczecin) support the hypothesis of the high probability of the occurrence of WNV in Poland [60,61]. Cx. pipiens is abundant in Poland [23], including in the cities, and its share in the total population of mosquitoes may rise in various parts of the country after events such as floods. In the city of Gdańsk, its share before the 2001 flood was approximately 24%, while directly after the flooding it was 97% and after one year it still persisted at 76% [62]. ...
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Introduction: Arthropod-borne viruses are important causes of human morbidity worldwide. However, the available literatur and the epidemiological data concerning the importation to Poland of globally emerging arboviral infections, such as DENV, CHIKV, WNV, or ZIKV, are scarce. Only few seroepidemiologic studies concerning WNV in animals or humans in Poland have been published. Objective: The aim of this review paper is to summarize and present the current state of knowledge and the perspectives for research concerning the importation and the risk posed by the introduction to Poland of the four above-mentioned arboviral diseases. Current state of knowledge: Climate change may facilitate the northward expansion of both the vectors for diseases previously unseen in Europe, as well as of the viruses themselves, resulting in autochthonous cases of diseases previously exclusively imported. Little is known about the importation of arboviral diseases to Poland because of the frequently asymptomatic or self-limiting course of the disease, lack of epidemiologic studies or effective disease reporting, as well as inadequate access to diagnostic methods. Conclusions: Further epidemiologic studies in Polish travellers are necessary in order to prevent importation or introduction of the above-mentioned viruses, and to act against potential problems related to blood transfusion or organ transplantation from infected donors.
... but it should be emphasized that adult mosquitoes belonging to the Culex pipiens complex and Anopheles maculipennis complex cannot be reliably distinguished based on morphological characteristics only , Becker et al. 2012. Although, there are only 3 of the 48 species included in the Polish mosquito fauna, they are important from an epidemiological and veterinary point of view (Kubica-Biernat 1999;Rydzanicz et al. 2017). In the Holarctic Culex pipiens complex is known to comprise of Cx pipiens pipiens Linneaus, Cx pipiens biotype molestus Forskal, Cx quinquefasciatus Say, Cx pallens Coquillett, Cx restuans Theobald and Cx torrentium Martini (considered as a separate species because of the genetical distance to Cx pipiens) (Becker et al. 2012). ...
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In many European countries, cemeteries are found to be suitable habitats for the proliferation of native and invasive mosquito species. The study aimed to assess for the first time in Poland the suitability of urban cemeteries for mosquito larvae development in water supply wells. From May to September 2019 in three urban cemeteries in Wroclaw (SW Poland), a total of 757 inspection of water supply wells were carried out. The mosquito larvae development, expressed as the general container index (GCI), differed between the examined areas and months of the study. The highest GCI value was calculated for Grabiszyński and Bujwida cemeteries (72.0 % and 59.3 % respectively). Larvae of three native mosquito species were identified in all inspected breeding places during the survey: Culex pipiens s.l. Linnaeus (95 %), Cx. torrentium Martini (4 %), Anopheles maculipennis s.l. Meigen (less than 1 %). No larvae of invasive Aedes mosquito species were found. In the inspected water supply wells larval productivity peaked in June, when the average temperature reached 22.7 °C. Due to the likelihood of the establishment and adaptation of invasive aedine mosquito species in Poland, constant analysis of the larvae composition in cemeteries should be continued.
... Lechthaler, pers. comm.), and Poland (Wegner, 1991;Kubica-Biernat, 1999). ...
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In this paper, we present the findings of 14 females Culiseta glaphyroptera (Schiner, 1864) in six Slo-vak caves. The issue of species abundance / rarity in Slovakia is discussed in relation to new knowledge on distribution of Cs. glaphyroptera in neighbouring countries.
... Given the high abundance of different mosquito species from the Culicidae family in Poland [54], relatively high population of horses [55], the presence of different bird species, including those migrating between WNV or USUV endemic regions [56] and the results of this study, it is necessary to implement control programs to monitor and prevent WNV and USUV spread and to improve public health awareness of these viruses transmission, and the potentially severe infection these viruses might cause in humans. ...
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West Nile virus (WNV) and Usutu virus (USUV) are members of the family Flaviviridae which, natural life cycles involve mosquito-bird-mosquito transmission. Both represent emerging viruses in Europe with potential to cause neuroinvasive disease in humans. This study investigates the seroprevalence of serum neutralizing antibodies to WNV and to USUV in birds and in horses in Poland. Antibodies against WNV and USUV were detected in 5 (35.7%) and in 1 (7.14%) of 14 birds and in 62 (15.08%) and in 115 (27.98%) of 411 horses, respectively. Twenty-one WNV serologically positive horses (33.87%) and 67 USUV serologically positive horses (58.26%) did not travel outside Polish borders. Given the high abundance of potentially competent mosquito species in Poland, high populations of horses and different bird species, our findings highlight implementation of active control programs, including monitoring of geographic spread and dynamics of WNV and USUV transmission in both primary and accidental hosts. It is also important to improve public health awareness about the disease these viruses may cause.
... Do pomieszczeń w cieplejszych okresach roku mogą przylatywać komary i meszki. W Polsce opisano 47 gatunków komarów, głównie z rodzajów: komar -Culex, dośkwierz -Aedes i widliszek -Anopheles (Kubica-Biernat, 1999). Komary wśród zwierząt są w skali światowej największymi wrogami człowieka ze względu na przenoszenie patogenów, głównie zarodźca malarii. ...
Dirofilariasis is an emerging zoonosis caused by nematodes of the genus Dirofilaria, most often D. repens and D. immitis . The main final hosts and reservoirs of pathogens are dogs. The intermediate hosts and vectors of infection are female mosquitoes (Culicidae). Human is an accidental host in which the parasite does not usually mature. Over the past 20 years, the range of Dirofilaria spp. in Europe has expanded. We present an unusual case of multifocal dirofilariasis of mixed subcutaneous-ocular course caused by D. repens in a 52-year-old Polish patient who was probably infected in Spain or Croatia, where she stayed one year before the onset of symptoms. Surgical removal of the nematodes followed by treatment with Ivermectin in a single dose of 1200 μg and Doxycycline 200 mg daily for 7 days resulted in complete recovery. We believe that all cases of human dirofilariasis, especially in countries where the disease is not frequent at present, should be registered for epidemiological purposes. Moreover, due to the widening of the range of D. repens and D. immitis occurrence and the possibility of atypical courses of infection with both nematodes, diagnostics should include the species identification of the parasite.
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Twenty two species of Culicidae (47% of Polish fauna) were recorded in the vicinity of Wyskok in Polish Masurian Lakelands. Eight species of mosquitoes were recorded for the first time in the Masuria. Another 8 species are rarely recorded in Poland. Females of Coquillettidia richiardii (FICALBI), Aedes cinereus MEIGEN and Ochlerotatus cantans (MEIGEN) were the most aggressive in relation to a man.
After the eradication of endemic malaria in the mid-twentieth century, research on native mosquito species was neglected in Europe for decades. With no evidence for the transmission of life-threatening pathogens, mosquitoes were not considered important vectors anymore. Public, political and scientific interest in them as vectors of disease agents has only increased again with the advent of invasive species and putatively exotic pathogens such as dengue and chikungunya viruses, as a consequence of continuing globalisation. While there is quite useful data on the vector competences of invasive mosquito species, which—due to their involvement in the transmission of disease agents in other parts of the world—had been in the focus of research already before their introduction into Europe, little knowledge exists on the vector potentials of indigenous mosquito species other than Anopheles species able to transmit malaria parasites. Only recently, the screening of field-collected mosquitoes for pathogens has been intensified in Europe, but findings usually remained unclear regarding whether the pathogens had just been ingested during blood-feeding or had really been able to infect their insect host and continue their developmental cycle in order to be transmitted during the next blood meal. Likewise, studies are largely lacking investigating the transmission of pathogens, either endemic or exotic, by European mosquito species in the laboratory, which is the ultimate proof of their vector competence. The present contribution compiles literature data on demonstrations of pathogens in field-collected specimens of mosquito species occurring in Central Europe, although not necessarily collected in Central Europe, as well as of laboratory infection studies with mosquito species occurring in Central Europe. The literature overview shows that mosquito vector research on indigenous species has to be further intensified in order to prepare well-founded risk assessments of outbreaks of mosquito-borne diseases of humans and animals in Central Europe.
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