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Five new species of Utricularia (Lentibulariaceae) from Australia

Authors:
  • Australian Institute of Botanical Science

Abstract and Figures

Utricularia fenshamii R.W.Jobson, U. ameliae R.W.Jobson, U. barkeri R.W.Jobson, U. grampiana R.W.Jobson, and U. lowriei R.W.Jobson (Lentibulariaceae) are described as new and are considered members of Utricularia subg. Polypompholyx section Pleiochasia. The distribution and habitat preferences of these species are discussed. The morphological differences between all five species and species to which they are allied are here discussed and identification keys provided.
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Telopea
Journal of Plant Systematics
Volume 15: 127–142
Publication date: 25 October 2013
dx.doi.org/10.7751/telopea2013017
Five new species of Utricularia (Lentibulariaceae)
from Australia
Richard W. Jobson
National Herbarium of New South Wales, Royal Botanic Gardens and Domain Trust,
Mrs Macquaries Road,Sydney, NSW 2000, Australia. email: richard.jobson@rbgsyd.nsw.gov.au
Abstract
Utricularia fenshamii R.W.Jobson, U. ameliae R.W.Jobson, U. barkeri R.W.Jobson, U. grampiana R.W.Jobson, and U. lowriei
R.W.Jobson (Lentibulariaceae) are described as new and are considered members of Utricularia subg. Polypompholyx
section Pleiochasia. The distribution and habitat preferences of these species are discussed. The morphological differences
between all five species and species to which they are allied are here discussed and identification keys provided.
Introduction
The five species of the current study possess a two parted calyx, lack scales on their peduncles, and have
bladder-traps with a single unbranched dorsal appendage. Therefore they are considered members of sect.
Pleiochasia (subgen. Polypompholyx) (Jobson et al. 2003, Reut & Jobson 2010). All species described here (Figs
1–6, 8) are restricted to eastern Australia (Fig. 7).
Recognition as distinct species is supported by morphological data (this paper), and preliminary molecular
phylogenetic results (Jobson et al., in prep.). All species, except for U. lowriei R.W.Jobson, were previously
included in U. dichotoma Labill. (sensu lato), a species distributed across all Australian states except the
Northern Territory (Taylor 1989). The main inflorescence characters differentiating these four new taxa from
U. dichotoma are shape and size of the ridges located near the base of the corolla lower lip, and the consistently
gibbous shape of the base of bracts and bracteoles in U. dichotoma (refer to ‘Key to species of Utricularia
dichotoma complex’)
The fifth new species, U. lowriei (Figs 6, 8), was recently collected by the author north of Cooktown, Queensland
(Fig. 7a). This new species shows close affinities to U. antennifera P.Taylor and U. dunstaniae F.E.Lloyd, both
occurring in the Kimberley region of Western Australia, with the latter also collected near Darwin and on
the Arnhem Land Escarpment, Northern Territory (Taylor 1989). All three species possess a single flowered
inflorescence, apricot-coloured corolla with scrotiform spur, and a corolla lower lip consisting of five lobes
(Reut and Jobson 2010). Of these five lobes, the lateral pair is erect and filiform, with the three central lobes
either minutely deltoid or highly reduced and less than half the length of the spur in U. antennifera and
U. dunstaniae (Taylor 1989); whereas in U. lowriei they are deeply lobed, capillary, and longer than the spur
(Fig 6h). Two other Northern Territory species, U. capilliflora F.Muell. and U. dunlopii P.Taylor, have erect
filiform corolla lobes, but in both cases these lobes arise from the corolla upper lip (Taylor 1989), and have
evolved independently from one another (Reut and Jobson 2010) (refer to ‘Key to Australian Utricularia
species possessing an erect pair of capillary corolla lobes’).
128 Telopea 15: 127–142, 2013 Jobson
Herein five new taxa are named and compared with the morphology of related species, with notes on
distinguishing characters, phenology, distribution and ecology, and conservation status. Taxonomic keys are
provided for identification and terminology follows Taylor (1989).
Methods and Materials
Relevant dried and alcohol-preserved material representing synonymous taxa and related species, held at
the National Herbarium of New South Wales (NSW), Queensland Herbarium (BRI), Australian National
Herbarium (CANB), State Herbarium of South Australia (AD), and the National Herbarium of Victoria (MEL)
were examined. Seed and pollen were examined using a standard compound microscope (magnification
X40). Distribution maps used in Figure 7, and all associated data, were created and downloaded from the
spatial portal of the Atlas of Living Australia web site (http://spatial.ala.org.au/). The specimens examined are
summarised according to the following geographic regions: ‘Pastoral Districts’ of Queensland (Anonymous
1975), ‘Botanical divisions’ of New South Wales (Jacobs and Pickard 1981, modified from Anderson 1961),
‘Natural regions’ of Victoria (Conn 1993), ‘Floristic regions’ of South Australia (Jessop and Toelken 1986), and
‘Natural regions’ of Tasmania (Orchard 1988).
Taxonomy
1. Utricularia fenshamii R.W.Jobson sp. nov.
Diagnosis: This species differs from U. dichotoma with presence of bracts and bracteoles that are basally non-
gibbous; corolla lower lip central ridge twice the length of neighbouring ridges.
Type: Australia: Queensland: Warrego: Yowah Creek Springs, Bundoona, NW of Eulo, (27.941oS,144.777oE),
30 Sep 2012, R.W. Jobson 1523 (holo: NSW901605 iso: BRI, CANB).
Small to medium-sized perennial, terrestrial herb. Rhizoids capillary, simple, up to 20 mm long 0.1–0.3 mm
thick, numerous from base of peduncle, with one or a few from nodes of stolon. Stolons few, filiform 0.2–0.3
mm thick, unbranched, up to 50 mm long, internode length c. 1 mm long, nodes slightly thickened. Leaves
numerous, several from base of the peduncle and often in threes from stolon internodes, petiolate; lamina
fleshy c. 0.15 mm thick, 0.2–0.5 mm wide, 3–8 mm long, linear to narrowly obovate, single nerve, apex
rounded. Traps stalked, numerous at base of peduncle and up to three at nodes of stolon, ± uniform, ovoid,
1.5–2.5 mm long, mouth lateral, with an inward folding dorsal appendage simple 0.3–0.5 mm long, two lateral
appendages somewhat flattened, laciniate on terminal margin, ventral wings laciniate. Inflorescence erect,
solitary 80–250 mm long; peduncle terete, glabrous, hollow near base, 0.5–1 mm thick. Scales absent. Bracts
and bracteoles c. 2 mm long, similar, basifixed, ovate-deltoid with apex acute. Flowers 2–4, often 3, rarely 1, in
opposite pairs, occasionally on an elongated axis, pedicels erect, dorsiventrally flattened, 5–10 mm long. Calyx
lobes unequal; upper lobe c. 3 mm long, 2.6 mm wide, ovate with apex rounded; lower lobe c. 2.5 mm long,
2.2 mm wide with apex emarginate. Corolla blue-violet; lower lip 6–10 mm long with three yellow raised
ridges at base with central ridge twice the length of those immediately adjacent, bordered marginally by a
whitish band, two white outer ridges c. equal in length to the adjacent yellow ridges. Lower lip with limb
transversely elliptic, apex rounded, slightly 3-lobed, palate pubescent, with a marginal rim; spur whitish or
violet, subulate, straight or weakly curved forwards near the apex, at 90o from, and slightly shorter than the
lower-lip; upper lip c. 5 mm long, constricted at middle, at which point it is straight or reflexed to c. 30 degrees,
superior part truncate with apex entire or slightly emarginate, inferior part ovate, ciliate on margin. Staminal
filaments curved, c. 1.5 mm long, anther thecae subdistinct. Ovary ovoid, c. 1 mm long; style c. 0.8 mm long;
stigma with lower lip semicircular, upper lip deltoid. Capsule globose, 2–4 mm diam.; walls thin, dehiscing
by a single, ventral, longitudinal, weakly thickened slit. Seeds obovoid, c. 0.75 mm long, 0.3 mm wide. Pollen:
3-colporate, c. 30 × 30 μm (Jobson 1523, NSW901605) (Figs 1, 5a–b).
Specimens examined: Queensland: War r e g o: Moorabinda, Fensham 3510, 28 Jan 1999 (BRI-AQ0665426); ‘Bingara, W of
Eulo, Fensham 4070, 28 Aug 2000 (BRI-AQ0491742); Tunga Spring, W of Eulo, Jobson 1527, 30 Sep 2012 (NSW901609);
‘Werewilka’, Jobson 1668 & Cherry, 14 Apr 2013 (NSW972811); Mitchell: Thomson River, Birch s.n., anno c. 1875,
(MEL90020A); South Kennedy: Carmichael River, NW of Clermont, Fensham 3337, 4 Feb 1998 (BRI-AQ0670427); Moses
Spring Doongmabulla, Fensham 3488, 19 Aug 1998 (BRI-AQ0670264); 3 km S of Doongmabulla, Thompson GAL9 &
Simon, 1 Apr 1992; Cook: Gamboola, N of Chillagoe, Fensham 4435, 26 May 2001 (BRI-AQ0498726); Soda spring on
‘Gamboola’, Jobson 1946 & Quinn, 7 Jul 2013 (NSW977122). New South Wales: North Far Western Plains: Peery Lake,
Holmes s.n., 16 Sep 1985 (NSW251159); Peery Lake, Jacobs 4943, 4 Nov 1986 (NSW251155); North Western Plains: We e
Waa, SW of Cuttabri on Cuttabri Road., Jobson 1539, 1 Oct 2012 (NSW901631). South Australia: Lake Eyre: Mt. Lyndhurst,
Utricularia (Lentibulariaceae) Telopea 15: 127–142, 2013 129
Fig. 1. Utricularia fenshamii a, habit; b, leaves and rhizoids at base of peduncle; c, bladder-trap in lateral view; d, leaf
adaxial surface; e, bracts & bracteoles with pedicel base in situ; f, flower in lateral view; g, flower in frontal view; h, flower
in dorsal view; i, stamen; j, upper lip with stamens; k, fruiting capsule showing suture ventral view; l, fruiting capsule
and calyx lateral view; m, seed. Scale bar: a = 4.8 cm; b = 2 cm; c = 0.3 cm; d = 0.4 cm; f,g&h = 1 cm; i = 0.25 cm; j = 0.3
cm; k&l = 0.5 cm; m = 0.1 cm. Material used: a = R.W. Jobson 1523 (NSW901605); b-f,h-m = R.W. Jobson 1523 (spirit –
NSW820786); g = photograph of type collection.
a
bc
d
e
f
g
h
i
j
k
l
m
130 Telopea 15: 127–142, 2013 Jobson
Koch s.n., Oct 1899 (AD97948389); Moolawatana Station, Twelve Springs, Bell 1266, 16 Sep1987 (BRI-AQ0467192); 10 km
NW of Moolawatana, Murfet 5807 & Duval, 1 Oct 2007 (AD224111).
Etymology. The specific epithet refers to Associate Prof. Roderick Fensham of the School of Biological Sciences,
The University of Queensland, and the Queensland Herbarium, who has contributed greatly to our knowledge
of the biology and ecology of the mound springs distributed across the Great Artesian Basin.
Phenology. Flowers and fruits recorded from August until May. Seed-set has been observed in the following
specimens: Jobson 1523 (type), Koch s.n, Bell 1266, Murfet 5807 & Duval, Jobson 1668 & Cherry, Fensham 4435.
Flowers do not seem to emit a detectable fragrance.
Distribution and Ecology. Australia: apart from a single non-mound spring collection (Jobson 1539) west of
Wee Waa in New South Wales, this species is restricted to wetlands associated with discharge mound springs
across the Great Artesian Basin. The most southerly locations are in South Australia near Mt Lyndhurst,
halfway between Lakes Frome and Eyre at 30.1°S (Alt. 150 m), and in New South Wales at Lake Peery at 30.7°S
(Alt. 90 m). The remaining distribution is scattered across the central Queensland districts of Warrego,
Mitchell, South Kennedy, and a single site in Cook north of the Mitchell River at Gamboola 16.6°S (Fig. 7a).
The first collecting locality was the Thompson River c. 100 km SW of Longreach within the Mitchell Grass
Downs bioregion. A specimen from this locality was collected by C.W. Burgh de Birch (circa 1871) and was
sent to Ferdinand von Mueller as “Utricularia” sp. until determined as U. dichotoma by Peter Taylor in 1985.
The site description is vague – “Thomson River”, and probably refers to an extinct or active mound spring site
NE of Longreach on the upper reaches of the Thomson River.
This species is locally common, inhabiting permanent to semi-permanent wetlands fed by artesian discharge
springs. Populations are often found in association with the sedges Cyperus laevigatus L. and Fimbristylis
sp., and other spring endemics Myriophyllum artesium Halford & Fensham and Eriocaulon carsonii F.Muell.
(Westbrooke et al. 2003; Fensham and Price 2004).
Conservation Status. Utricularia fenshamii has a large distribution across the seasonally arid regions of the
Great Artesian Basin (Fig. 7a). This distribution is extremely scattered with the shortest distance between a set
of sites c. 280 km (Jacobs 4943 and Jobson 1527), while the furthest distance between two closest sites is c. 660 km
(Fensham 3337 to Fensham 4435). At the local level U. fenshamii is restricted to small clusters of artesian spring
habitats (Fig. 7a). Most of the collections were made on leasehold land, but the spring wetlands are protected
under EPBC legislation and Peery Lake is in the Paroo-Darling National Park. The population in the North
Western Plains near Wee Waa NSW (Jobson 1539) exists in an ephemeral shallow swampy depression, in open
Casuarina cristata Miq. dominated woodland. This non protected site is situated on private property approx.
4 km north of the Piliga East State Forest boundary.
There is a strong prima-facie case that this species satisfies IUCN Red List criteria (IUCN 2001) for listing as
a Vulnerable species, under both Commonwealth legislation and that of the States of occurrence. To more
definitively determine conservation status, future work should include a population assessment that examines
levels of genetic isolation, also looking at relationships within and between the sites, and levels of divergence
from closely related taxa.
2. Utricularia ameliae R.W.Jobson sp. nov.
Diagnosis: This species differs from U. dichotoma with presence of bracts and bracteoles that are basally non-
gibbous; spur tapers to an acutely bifid apex; white corolla upper lip.
Type: Australia: Queensland: Gregory North: Elizabeth Springs, S of Boulia, (23.33°S, 140.58°E), 15 April 2013,
R.W. Jobson 1694 & W.A. Cherry (holo: NSW972812; iso: CANB).
Small perennial, terrestrial herb. Rhizoids capillary, simple, often flattened, up to 20 mm long 0.1–0.3 mm
thick, numerous from base of peduncle, with three or six from nodes of stolon. Stolons numerous, filiform,
0.3–0.5 mm thick, unbranched, up to 20 mm long, internode length c. 5 mm long. Leaves numerous,
several from base of the peduncle and 4–6 from stolon internodes, petiolate; lamina fleshy c. 0.15 mm thick,
0.4–2.5 mm wide, 4–10 mm long, narrowly ovate to obovate, 1 or 3–6-nerved, apex rounded. Traps several
at base of peduncle and up to three at nodes of stolon, stalked 1.5–2.5 mm long, ovoid, surface glandular,
1.6–4.5 mm long, mouth lateral, with dorsal appendage simple 0.7–1.5 mm long, two lateral appendages shorter,
simple or flattened and laciniate, ventral wings usually absent, or if present, then laciniate. Inflorescence erect,
solitary 50–110 mm long; peduncle terete, glabrous, hollow, 0.3–0.6 mm thick. Scales absent. Bracts c. 0.9 mm
long, bracteoles c. 0.6 mm long, similar, basifixed, originating from a circumscissile bulge, deltoid with apex
acute. Flowers 1, pedicels erect, often with a single twist, dorsiventrally flattened, 4–8 mm long. Calyx lobes
unequal; upper lobe c. 3 mm long, 2.2 mm wide, obovate with apex rounded; lower lobe c. 2.5 mm long,
Utricularia (Lentibulariaceae) Telopea 15: 127–142, 2013 131
2.2 mm, ovate with apex emarginate. Corolla dark-violet; lower lip 5–9 mm long, reniform or transversely
oblong, apex rounded with three yellow strongly raised ridges at base, bordered by two white/yellow outer
ridges, sometimes equal length to the three central ridges, with the central ridge slightly shorter than those
immediately adjacent, palate glandular, with a marginal rim; spur whitish, narrowly subulate from a short
conical base, tapering to an acutely bifid apex, curved forwards near the middle, sharply so near the apex,
shorter than the lower-lip; upper lip c. 9 mm long, constricted at middle, at which point it is reflexed outward
to c. 45 degrees, superior part emarginate or bilobed, inferior part obovate, glandular on margin. Staminal
filaments curved, c. 2 mm long, anther thecae confluent, surface glandular. Ovary ovoid, c. 1 mm long; style
c. 1 mm long; stigma with lower lip semicircular, upper lip deltoid. Capsule globose, c. 4 mm diam.; walls thin,
dehiscing by a single, ventral, longitudinal, marginally thickened slit. Seeds obovoid, c. 0.7 mm long, 0.3 mm
wide. Pollen: 4-colporate, c. 27 × 27 μm (Jobson 1694 & Cherry, NSW972812) (Figs 2, 5c–d).
Specimens examined: Queensland: Gregory North: Elizabeth Springs, Springvale Homestead. Wilson 103, 20 May 1994
(BRI-AQ0628041); Fensham 3671, 24 Feb 1999 (BRI-AQ0679274).
Etymology. The specific epithet refers to Miss Amelia Pieternella Jobson, plant enthusiast and daughter of the
author.
Phenology. Flowers and fruits recorded from February until May. Seed-set has been observed in the following
specimens: Jobson 1694 (type). Flowers emit a faint sweet fragrance.
Distribution and Ecology. Australia: situated in the Diamantina River Catchment on the flood-plain of Spring
Creek. Elizabeth Springs forms part of the Springvale group of artesian discharge springs about 100 km SE of
Boulia (Fig. 7a). The associated spring wetland is approximately 1600 m2 in area (pers. observation), consisting
of about 40 active springs (ANCA, undated; Fensham et al. 2010).
Although U. ameliae is locally common, it has only been collected from Elizabeth springs. A population of
Utricularia dichotoma’ was previously recorded from a spring on Warra Station, c. 40 km N of the Elizabeth
springs (R. Fensham pers. communication), although no collection was made. To determine whether this is an
extension of range for U. ameliae, future fieldwork should attempt to collect a specimen from Warra Station,
and locate additional populations in other nearby regions known to contain Artesian springs.
Colonies of U. ameliae are scattered throughout the permanently wet sedgeland bog habitat (Fensham
et al. 2004, 2010). Colonies are found in association with Cyperus laevigatus, Eragrostis fenshamii B.K.Simon,
Fimbristylis sp., Myriophyllum artesium, Eriocaulon carsonii subsp. carsonii and Utricularia caerulea.
Conservation Status. The Elizabeth Springs wetland is a Conservation Reserve and the community is
protected under the Commonwealth Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999
(Australian Government [2010]; Fensham et al. 2010). Utricularia ameliae forms small flowering colonies that
are scattered across the northern half of the springs. On the 15th April 2013 a survey estimated that at least
5% of the wetland vegetation was affected by fresh pig damage (pers. obs.). The species should be listed as
endangered in Queensland. This species appears to satisfy the IUCN (2001) Red List criteria for listing as an
Endangered species – criteria B1 (EOOa), B2 (AOOa) and C (population size EN, and C1). Further study is
required to more definitively determine threats and conservation status.
3. Utricularia barkeri R.W.Jobson sp. nov.
Diagnosis: This species differs from U. dichotoma with presence of basiolute bracts with upper and lower lobes
of ±equal length; corolla upper lip light mauve with purple flecks.
Type: Australia: Victoria: Wannon: Casterton, S on Casterton-Dartmoor Road, (37.713oS, 141.309oE), 26 Nov
2012, R.W. Jobson 1621 & R.P. Gibson (holo: NSW905026; iso: AD, MEL).
Small to medium-sized perennial, terrestrial herb. Rhizoids capillary, simple, up to 20 mm long 0.2–0.4 mm
thick, numerous from base of peduncle, with usually two from stolon nodes. Stolons few, filiform
0.3–0.5 mm thick, unbranched, up to 100 mm long, internode length c. 4 mm long. Leaves few, rarely from
base of the peduncle and often in one or two from stolon internodes, petiolate; lamina 0.2–0.6 mm wide,
3–12 mm long, linear to narrowly obovate, single nerve, apex rounded or sometimes subulate. Traps stalked,
few at base of peduncle and one or two at nodes of stolon, uniform, ovoid, 1.5–2.0 mm long, mouth lateral,
with a small dorsal appendage simple 0.2–0.4 mm long, two lateral appendages folded inward, flattened,
laciniate, ventral wings large, margin entire or laciniate. Inflorescence erect, solitary 80–280 mm long;
peduncle terete, glabrous, ± solid, 0.5–1.5 mm thick. Scales absent. Bracts and bracteoles c. 1.1 mm long,
similar, basiolute, upper and lower bract parts c. equal length; upper part ovate-deltoid with apex rounded,
lower truncate. Flowers usually 2 in opposite pair, sometimes 1 or 3, pedicels erect, dorsi-ventrally flattened,
3–7 mm long. Calyx lobes ± equal; upper lobe c. 2.5 mm long, 2.5 mm wide, ovate with apex rounded; lower lobe
132 Telopea 15: 127–142, 2013 Jobson
Fig. 2. Utricularia ameliae a, habit; b, stolon nodes - leaves, traps, rhizoids; c, bladder-trap in lateral view; d, leaf; e,f,
bracts & bracteoles with pedicel base in situ; g, spur apex adaxial surface; h, flower in dorsal view; i, flower in frontal view;
j, flower in lateral view; k, upper lip with stamens; l, stamen; m, fruiting capsule showing suture ventral view; n, fruiting
capsule and calyx lateral view; o, seed. Scale bar: a = 4.8 cm; b = 2 cm; c&g = 0.3 cm; d = 0.6 cm; e,f&k = 0.4 cm;
h, i & j = 1 cm; l,m&n = 0.25 cm; o = 0.1 cm. Material used: a-o = R.W. Jobson 1694 (spirit – NSW824653).
a
b
c
d
e
f
g
h
i
j
k
l
m
n
o
Utricularia (Lentibulariaceae) Telopea 15: 127–142, 2013 133
c. 2.5 mm long, 2.5 mm wide with apex emarginate. Corolla light mauve; lower lip limb transversely elliptic,
apex rounded, 5–12 mm long with 2 raised yellow central ridges at base, not projecting apically beyond the
purple ridge on either side, bordered marginally by a thick purple band; palate pubescent, with a marginal
rim; spur cylindrical, straight, emarginate with broadly rounded lobes at the base, mauve, reddish nearer
the base, about 90° from lower lip, 1/3 shorter than the lower-lip; upper lip very light mauve with purple
flecks c. 3.5 mm long, constricted at middle, straight or slightly curved upward, superior part ovate with
apex entire, inferior part ovate, ciliate on margin. Staminal filaments curved, c. 1.6 mm long, anther thecae
confluent. Ovary ovoid, c. 1 mm long; style c. 0.6 mm long; stigma with lower lip semicircular, upper lip deltoid.
Capsule globose, 3–3.5 mm diam.; walls thin, dehiscing by a single, ventral, longitudinal, none-thickened slit.
Seeds obovoid, c. 0.5 mm long, 0.3 mm wide. Pollen: 4-colporate, c. 28 × 28 μm (Jobson 1621, NSW905026)
(Figs 3, 5e–f).
Specimens examined: Victoria: Wannon: Casterton, Cunningham 298, 10 Dec 1990 (AD99108060); Cobboboonee State
Forest, on Heath Rd, S of Fitzroy River, Jobson 1623 & Gibson, 26 Nov 2012 (NSW905044); Lower Glenelg National
Park, Kentbruck heath, Entwisle 2077, 31 Oct 1991 (MEL2018742): Lowan Mallee: Little Desert, 26 km S of Nhill PO,
Beauglehole 66380, 9 Nov 1979 (MEL1564768): Grampians: The Grampians, 34 km S of Hall Gap, Nordenstam 1165 &
Anderberg, 9 Oct 1989 (AD99149025); Grampians (Gariwerd) National Park, Murfet 4540, 26 Nov 2003 (AD156542):
Gippsland Plain: Melbourne suburb of Wantirna, Sheppard’s Bush near Dandenong Creek, Paget 184, 19 Oct 1985
(MEL683614); Langwarrin Flora Reserve, Beauglehole 71246 & Elmore, 8 Nov 1982 (MEL1564696). Tasmania: Furneaux
Group: Flinders Island, east of Ragged Peaks, in conservation area, Whinray 12288, 25 Nov 2004 (MEL2316276A); North
West: Mouth of the Harcus River, Buchanan 8909, 26 Dec 1986 (HO405716); 18 km SE of Balfour, Murfet 5895, 30 Dec
2007 (AD216550); West Coast: SW of Reece Dam, Gray 1621, 11 Dec 2005 (HO 537157). South Australia: Kangaroo
Island: Larrikin Lagoon, Flinders Chase, Jackson 3197, 29 Nov 1994 (AD99617231); South-eastern: Marsh’s Swamp,
c. 45 km NE of Mt Gambier, Wilson 924, 26 Oct 1968 (AD96936371); Berkins Forest Reserve, NE of Penola, Murfet 4576,
2 Dec 2003 (AD156382); Mount Lyon Perch Swamp, Murfet 5123, 28 Dec 2005 (AD190630); Island swamp heath, Native
Forest Reserve via Nangwarry, Bates 66786, 2 Nov 2005 (AD192773).
Etymology. The specific epithet refers to Dr William (Bill) R. Barker, former Chief Botanist of the State
Herbarium of South Australia (AD), who has made significant contributions to Australian botany with
studies of Australasian Scrophulariaceae and various other families. In the mid 1980’s Dr. Barker provided the
framework for the description of the current species by way of annotating the substantial AD collection of U.
dichotoma, differentiating U. barkeri from the latter based mainly on the presence of “medifixed” bracts.
Phenology. Flowers and fruits recorded from October until January. Seed-set has been observed in the
following specimens: Jobson 1621 & Gibson, Jobson 1623 & Gibson, Beauglehole 71246 & Elmore, Murfet 4576,
Nordenstam 1165 & Anderberg. Flowers do not seem to emit a detectable fragrance.
Distribution and Ecology. Australia: distributed on flat coastal areas of South Australia, Victoria, and west
coast Tasmania usually at or near sea level. On Kangaroo Island (South Australia), Flinders Islands (Tasmania),
and within the Grampians (Gariwerd) National Park (Victoria), it is found at higher elevations (alt. 150−250 m)
(Fig 7b). Utricularia barkeri occupies coastal ephemeral sedge swampland and heath soakage on deep sand.
Often found growing with Utricularia dichotoma sensu lato (pers. observation)
Conservation Status. Utricularia barkeri has a broad distribution across South Australia, Victoria and Flinders
Island and the west coast of Tasmania. In South Australia populations are protected within the Flinders Chase
National Park on Kangaroo Island (Jackson 3197), and north of Mt Gambier collections represent populations
protected within the Penola Forest and Mt Burr Forest Reserves (Murfet 4576, Bates 66786). In Victoria
a collection was made within the Grampians (Gariwerd) National Park near Glenisla Crossing (Murfet 4540),
in addition to several collections representing protected populations within the Lower Glenelg National Park
and adjacent Coboboonee State Forest (Entwisle 2077, Jobson 1623). In Tasmania a population is known to be
protected within the Arthur Pieman Conservation Area, SE of Balfour (Murfet 5895).
4. Utricularia grampiana R.W.Jobson sp. nov.
Diagnosis: This species differs from U. dichotoma with presence of basiolute bracts with upper lobes about
twice the length of lower; corolla upper lip cream with purple flecks.
Type: Australia: Victoria: Grampians: Mt William, Mt William Road, entrance to carpark, (37.287°S,142.593°E),
27 Nov 2012, R.W. Jobson 1630 & R.P. Gibson (holo: NSW; iso: AD, MEL).
Small to medium-sized probably annual, terrestrial herb. Rhizoids capillary/flattened, simple, up to 15 mm
long 0.3–0.4 mm wide, numerous from base of peduncle, with one or two from nodes of stolon. Stolons
few, flattened or cylindrical 0.1–0.2 mm wide, branched, up to 20 mm long, internode length c. 4 mm long.
Leaves numerous, a rosette of leaves forming the base to the peduncle, and often one or occasionally two from
stolon internodes, petiolate; lamina fleshy c. 0.8 mm thick, 1–1.4 mm wide, 1.5–6 mm long, obovate, ovate
134 Telopea 15: 127–142, 2013 Jobson
Fig. 3. Utricularia barkeri a, habit; b, peduncle base & stolon nodes - leaves, traps, rhizoids; c, leaf; d, bracts & bracteoles
with pedicel base in situ; e, flower in dorsal view; f, flower in frontal view; g, flower in ¾ frontal view; h, flower in lateral
view; i, upper lip with stamens; j, stamen; k, seed; l, fruiting capsule and calyx lateral view; m, fruiting capsule showing
suture ventral view; bladder-trap in lateral view. Scale bar: a = 4 cm; b = 2 cm; c,l&m = 0.6 cm; c = 0.3 cm; d&i = 0.4 cm;
e-h = 0.1 cm; j = 0.25 cm; k = 0.1 cm; n = 0.2 cm. Material used: a = R.W. Jobson 1621 (NSW905026); b-n = R.W. Jobson
1621 (spirit – NSW824604).
a
b
c
d
e
fg
h
i
j
k
l
m
n
Utricularia (Lentibulariaceae) Telopea 15: 127–142, 2013 135
or spatulate, single nerve, apex rounded. Traps stalked, few at base of peduncle and two at nodes of stolon,
± uniform, ovoid, 1.1–1.7 mm long, mouth lateral, with a dorsal appendage simple 0.8–1.3 mm long, two
lateral appendages truncate, flattened, laciniate on terminal margin, ventral wings splayed outwards, fimbriate
margins. Inflorescence erect, solitary 60–190 mm long; peduncle terete, glabrous, 0.5–1 mm thick, often curved
near apex. Scales absent. Bracts and bracteoles c. 6 mm long, similar, basiolute, upper bract part approximately
twice the length of lower; upper part lanceolate-deltoid with apex subulate, lower part truncate. Flowers 1 or
2 (or 3), when 2 then in opposite pair, pedicels usually curved, sometimes erect, cylindrical, 5–15 mm long.
Calyx lobes subequal; upper lobe c. 2.5 mm long, 1.5 mm wide, truncate; lower lobe ovate c. 2.5 mm long,
2.5 mm wide with apex emarginate. Corolla light mauve; lower lip limb transversely elliptic, apex rounded,
4–10 mm long with 2 strongly raised yellow central ridges at base, projecting apically beyond the purple ridge
on either side, each hooked near the apex, bordered marginally by a thick purple band; palate pubescent, with
a marginal rim; spur cylindrical, curved forward at middle, broadly rounded, reddish green, about 90° from
lower lip, shorter than the lower-lip; upper lip cream-coloured with purple flecks, c. 3 mm long, constricted at
middle, at which point it is reflexed to c. 30 degrees, superior part ovate with apex entire, inferior part ovate,
ciliate on margin. Staminal filaments curved, c. 1 mm long, anther thecae confluent. Ovary ovoid, c. 1 mm
long; style c. 0.5 mm long; stigma with lower lip semicircular, upper lip obtuse. Capsule globose, 4 mm diam.;
walls thin, dehiscing by a single, ventral, longitudinal, marginally thickened slit. Seeds broadly obovoid, c. 0.25 mm
long, 0.2 mm wide. Pollen: 4, 5-colporate, c. 30 × 30 μm (Jobson 1630, NSW905060) (Figs 4, 5g–h).
Specimens examined: Victoria: Grampians: Mt William, SSE of Halls Gap, Streimann 3088, 15 Dec 1975 (CBG63857);
Grampians National Park, Devils Gap from Sundial carpark, Murfet 4536 & Lowrie, 26 Nov 2003 (AD156538); Western
district, Black Range, Bates 40042, 25 Nov 1994 (AD9961317); Stoney Creek, between Wonderland carpark and Cascades,
Jobson 1633 & Gibson, 27 Nov 2012 (NSW905088): Midlands: Mt Langi Ghiran; on flats at foot of steep north facing
slopes, Corrick 7505, 31 Oct 1981 (MEL603620).
Etymology. The specific epithet refers to the Grampians National Park (Gariwerd) located in Victoria’s western
highland region.
Phenology. Flowers and fruits recorded from October to January. Material from the type location was cultivated
in Sydney and flowered May–September 2013. Seed-set has been observed in the following specimens: Bates
40042, Jobson 1630 and 1633: Flowers emit a detectable sweet fragrance.
Distribution and Ecology. Australia: thus far restricted to high elevation (alt. 400 – 1170 m) on sandstone
seepages in the Mt Difficult and Mt William Ranges within the Grampians National Park (Gariwerd), and in
similar habitat at Mt Langi Ghiran c. 10 km E of Ararat (Fig. 7b). Usually forms small colonies among mosses
and sedges in seepage areas on rock platforms.
Conservation Status. Within Victoria Utricularia grampiana has a restricted distribution, all recorded
collections represent populations protected within the Grampians National Park, and Langi Ghiran State Park.
Key to species of Utricularia dichotoma complex.
1a. Bracts and bracteoles basiolute; corolla upper lip cream/light mauve with purple flecks .......................... 2
1b. Bracts and bracteoles basifixed; corolla upper lip uniformly white or mauve/purple ............................... 3
2a. Bract upper and lower lobes ±equal length; corolla lower lip 2 yellow central ridges not projecting apically
beyond ridges on either side ................................................................................... U. barkeri (SA, Vic, Tas)
2b. Bract upper lobes about 2× length of lower; corolla lower lip 2 yellow central ridges projecting apically
beyond ridges on either side ............................................................................................U. grampiana (Vic)
3a. Spur subulate, conical at base, tapering to an acutely bifid apex, corolla upper lip white ............................
.............................................................................................................................................. U. ameliae (Qld)
3b. Spur straight, cylindrical from the base, apex truncate to subulate, corolla upper lip purple/mauve ...... 4
4a. Corolla lower lip central palate ridge 2× longer than neighbouring ridges ...................................................
................................................................................................................................ U. fenshamii (SA, NSW, Qld)
4b. Corolla lower lip central palate ridge equal or shorter than neighbouring ridges .................................... 5
5a. Corolla lower lip with 4–11 conspicuous yellow central ridges, bracts and bracteoles
non-gibbous at base .......................................................................................... U. beaugleholei (SA, Vic, NSW)
5b. Lower corolla lip with 2–3 conspicuous yellow central ridges; bracts and bracteoles gibbous at base ........
..................................................................................................... U. dichotoma s. lat. (All states except NT)
136 Telopea 15: 127–142, 2013 Jobson
Fig. 4. Utricularia grampiana a, habit; b, stolon nodes - leaves, traps, rhizoids; c, leaf lateral view; d, leaf adaxial surface;
e, bracts & bracteoles with pedicel base in situ; f, flower in lateral view; g, flower in frontal view; h, flower in dorsal view;
i, upper lip with stamens; j, stamen; k, seed; l, fruiting capsule and calyx lateral view; m, fruiting capsule showing suture
ventral view; n, bladder-trap in lateral view. Scale bar: a = 4 cm; b = 2 cm; c,d,f-h,l&m = 0.6 cm; e,i = 0.4 cm; j = 0.25 cm;
k = 0.1 cm; n = 0.2 cm. Material used: a = R.W. Jobson 1630 (NSW905026); b-n = R.W. Jobson 1630 (spirit – NSW824604).
a
b
c
d
e
f
g
h
i
j
k
l
m
n
Utricularia (Lentibulariaceae) Telopea 15: 127–142, 2013 137
Fig. 5. Flowers in lateral and frontal view: a–b, U. fenshamii showing the long central yellow ridge at base of lower lip;
c–d, U. ameliae showing bifid spur apex and white upper lip; e–f, U. barkeri showing two yellow ridges at the base of lower
lip not exceeding those adjacent; g–h, U. grampiana showing two strongly raised yellow ridges at base of lower lip that
exceed those adjacent. Scale bars represent both sides of the plate.
a b
c d
ef
gh
5 mm
5 mm
5 mm
5 mm
138 Telopea 15: 127–142, 2013 Jobson
5. Utricularia lowriei R.W.Jobson sp. nov.
Diagnosis: This species differs from U. dunstaniae F.E.Lloyd with presence of three filiform central lower lip
lobes that are longer than the spur.
Type: Australia: Queensland: Cook: North of Cooktown, (15.01°S, 145.13°E), 6 July 2013, R.W. Jobson 1921
(holo: NSW976183; iso: BRI).
Small probably annual, terrestrial or affixed subaquatic herb. Rhizoids numerous, capillary, simple, up to
6 mm long, 0.1 mm thick, from base of peduncle, with one from nodes of stolon. Stolons few, filiform,
0.1–0.2 mm thick, unbranched, up to 30 mm long, internode length c. 5 mm long. Leaves few, two or three
from base of peduncle and 1 from stolon internodes, petiolate; lamina narrowly obovate c. 0.3 mm wide,
2–3 mm long, single nerve, apex rounded. Traps several at base of peduncle and one at nodes of stolon,
ovoid, 0.75 mm long, mouth lateral, with dorsal appendage reduced to a slight bump, lateral appendages long
capillary or highly reduced, ventral wings absent, stalk 3–7 mm long. Inflorescence erect, solitary 40–70 mm
long; peduncle terete, glabrous, ± hollow, 0.5 mm thick. Scales absent. Bracts and bracteoles similar, basifixed,
ovate with rounded apex, c. 0.5 mm long. Flowers 1, pedicels erect or apically curved, slightly dorsiventrally
flattened, 2–5 mm long. Calyx lobes unequal; upper lobe c. 1.7 mm long, 1.6 mm wide, oblong, convex with
apex rounded; lower lobe c. 1 mm long, 1.2 mm wide, ovate with apex bifid. Corolla reddish-brown to apricot;
lower lip 5–lobed with lateral pair filiform, erect, papillose on inner surface, 9–15 mm long, three central lobes
descending, subulate/filiform, mostly equal length c. 3 mm long, usually twice the length of the spur; spur
scrotiform, glabrous, from a cylindrical base, longer than the calyx lobe, apex bilobed with each lobe more-or-
less rounded. Staminal filaments straight, c. 1 mm long, anther thecae distally confluent. Ovary ovoid, adnate
to calyx lobe, c. 1 mm long; style c. 0.5 mm long; stigma with lower lip semicircular forming a flap concealing a
slightly deltoid upper lip. Capsule ovoid, c. 1.5 mm diam.; walls thin, dehiscing by a single, ventral, longitudinal,
marginally thickened slit. Seeds ovoid 0.15–0.2 mm long, major end subtruncate, testa cells slightly elongated,
with raised anticlinal boundaries. Pollen: 3-colporate, c. 28 × 28 μm (Jobson 1921, NSW976183) (Figs 6, 8).
Etymology. The specific epithet honours botanist and colleague Allen Lowrie, who has greatly advanced the
study of Drosera, Stylidium, and Utricularia.
Phenology. Flowers recorded in July. Seed-set has been observed in the type specimen. Flowers do not emit an
obvious fragrance.
Distribution and Ecology. Australia: N of Cooktown (Fig. 7a), in shallow water at edge of depression on deep
sand with Utricularia albiflora R.Br., U. caerulea L., U. chrysantha R.Br., U. subulata L., U. quinquedentata
F.Muell. ex. P.Taylor, U. gibba L., Dapsilanthus ramosus (R.Br.) B.G.Briggs & L.A.S.Johnson, Melaleuca arcana
S.T.Blake.
Probably endemic to a small area north of Cooktown, with a brief survey of the surrounding area (several
adjacent swamps) finding no other populations. However, a single inflorescence collected by Ann G. Gunness,
at Namaleta Creek, c. 90 km N of Weipa, (AG 2306, 11 Apr 1994; specimen held in Herbarium Lowrieanum,
Perth), provides some evidence of a second population some 500 km to the NW of the type location. Although
specimen AG-2306 was poorly preserved, an interpretation of the inflorescence by Allen Lowrie seems to
match the floral morphology of U. lowriei (A. Lowrie, pers. comm.). A revisit of the Namaleta Creek site is
required for formal identification, and if positive will provide a significant extension of the U. lowriei range,
and might indicate that this species is more widespread and previously overlooked by collectors.
Conservation Status. Further study is required to determine threats and conservation status.
Key to Australian Utricularia species possessing an erect pair of capillary corolla lobes (modified from
Taylor 1989).
1a. Corolla with 2 capillary lobes arising from the corolla upper lip ............................................................... 2
1b. Corolla with 2 capillary lobes arising from the corolla lower lip ............................................................... 3
2a. Corolla lower lip 5-lobed ........................................................................................................ U. capilliflora
2b. Corolla lower lip 3-lobed ............................................................................................................. U. dunlopii
3a. Three central lower lip lobes filiform, longer than the spur ........................................................ U. lowriei
3b. Three central lower lip lobes reduced or deltoid, shorter than the spur ..................................................... 4
4a. Dorsal bladder-trap appendage always absent ....................................................................... U. dunstaniae
4b. Dorsal bladder-trap appendage long and filiform ............................................................... U. antennifera
Utricularia (Lentibulariaceae) Telopea 15: 127–142, 2013 139
Fig. 6. Utricularia lowriei a, habit; b, leaf; c, bracts & bracteoles with pedicel base in situ; d, bladder-traps in lateral view;
e, stamen ventral & dorsal view; f, flower in lateral view; g, flower in frontal view; h, corolla showing spur; i, pistil sectioned;
j, calyx dorsal view; k, fruiting capsule with calyx; l, seed. Scale bar: a = 1 cm; b = 0.6 cm; c,d,e&i = 0.2 cm; f&g = 0.4 cm;
h,j&k = 0.5 cm; l = 0.05 cm. Material used: a-l = R.W. Jobson 1921 (spirit – NSW922741).
a
bc
d
e
f
g
h
i
j
k
l
140 Telopea 15: 127–142, 2013 Jobson
Fig. 7. a, North eastern Australia with known distribution of U. fenshamii (red squares); U. ameliae (blue triangle); and
U. lowriei (yellow cross). b, South eastern Australia showing known distribution of U. barkeri (mauve circles), with
U. grampiana shown with green diamonds.
a
b
Utricularia (Lentibulariaceae) Telopea 15: 127–142, 2013 141
Acknowledgments
I thank Roderick Fensham and Peter Bostock (both BRI), John Clarkson (then Queensland Herbarium,
Mareeba), Bruce Wannan (Queensland Environmental Protection Agency), Darren Crayn (CNS), Jo Palmer
(CANB), Wayne Gebert and Pina Milne (both MEL) for providing information on specimens. I am grateful
to Bob Makinson (NSW) for his comments on conservation issues. I also thank Wayne Cherry and Jaime
Plaza (both NSW), Robert Gibson (Conservation Officer, Office of Environment and Heritage, N.S.W.), and
Dene Quinn (Townsville, Queensland) for help with fieldwork and photography. I am grateful to Lesley Elkan
and Catherine Wardrop (both NSW) for providing the wonderfully detailed illustrations presented in this
paper. Scientific Purposes permits were obtained through the Queensland Department of Environment and
Resource Management (WITK08454010, WISP08454110), the Government of South Australian (M26099-1),
and the Victorian Department of Sustainability and Environment (10005693). This work was supported by a
grant from the Australian Biological Resources Study (ABRS) National Taxonomy Research Grant Program
(NTRGP) (RFL212-45).
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Fig. 8. Utricularia lowriei floral form a, lateral view; and b, frontal view; c, mature seed capsule (lateral view); d, emergent
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Manuscript received 27 August 2013, accepted 17 October 2013
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Six new species of Utricularia (Lentibulariaceae) are recognised from northern Australia. Descriptions of the new species Utricularia albertiana R.W.Jobson & Baleeiro, U. bidentata R.W.Jobson & Baleeiro, U. hamata R.W.Jobson & M.D.Barrett, U. magna R.W.Jobson & M.D.Barrett, U. papilliscapa R.W.Jobson & M.D.Barrett, and U. limmenensis R.W.Jobson (Lentibulariaceae) are provided. Diagnostic features for all six species are illustrated, and distribution, habitat, and conservation status are discussed.
... Notes on the 22 excluded species are provided in Appendix 1. Seven restricted and/or rare species were described or 'discovered' during our study and were added to the list. Three of these have been described (Bean 2011;Jobson 2013), whereas four await formal description. The final list comprised 91 species (Appendix 2). ...
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Lack of basic data to assess plant species against IUCN Red List criteria is a major impediment to assigning accurate conservation status throughout large areas of the world. Erroneous assessments will be most prevalent in vast poorly surveyed areas where herbarium collections are sparse. In arid environments, assessments are further confounded by extreme temporal variability and poor understanding of the nature and magnitude of threats. We systematically re-assess the conservation status of an arid-zone flora. The status of all 1781 vascular plant species occurring across 635 300 km(2) of inland eastern Australia was initially assessed through herbarium records and expert interviews. This process generated a list of apparently rare and potentially threatened species, which guided a targeted survey program over 4 years. Search effort and key data on populations of candidate species found were recorded and used to assess 91 species against IUCN criteria. One-third of species were widespread and abundant at least in certain seasons, but had been deemed rare due to sparse collections. The conservation status of 20, mostly newly recognised species from restricted habitats, was upgraded and 14 remained listed because of having restricted areas of occupancy. With the exception of 12 artesian spring species, continuing declines were documented for just six species. The criterion that allows for listing of species because of extreme fluctuations (in combination with restricted and fragmented populations) needs to be carefully interpreted in arid zones, where these fluctuations may be apparent rather than real, and may actually confer resilience to grazing for some species. Our approach facilitates robust conservation assessments across vast and poorly known arid regions, distinguishing species that have merely been lost in space and time from those that are at risk of extinction.
... 20-22% of the total species richness (Fleischmann, 2012), which challenges researchers to study the trap function in terrestrial species that have a different ecology. U. dichotoma is known as a wide-ranging, polymorphic species (Taylor, 1989) and nowadays some distinct populations are considered as new species (Jobson, 2013). It might thus be reasonable to use the number of cell layers in the trap wall as a possible taxonomic criterion. ...
... 20-22% of the total species richness (Fleischmann, 2012), which challenges researchers to study the trap function in terrestrial species that have a different ecology. U. dichotoma is known as a wide-ranging, polymorphic species (Taylor, 1989) and nowadays some distinct populations are considered as new species (Jobson, 2013). It might thus be reasonable to use the number of cell layers in the trap wall as a possible taxonomic criterion. ...
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Phylogenetic relationships among 26 of the 37 recognised taxa of Utricularia subgenus Polypompholyx sensu Müller & Borsch were assessed by cladistic analysis of DNA sequences from the plastid rps16 intron. We also examined the placement of the recently described U. simmonsii (sect. Minutae), which was reported to share some morphological characters with subgenus Polypompholyx. We found strong jackknife support for a monophyletic subgenus Polypompholyx lineage; however, our strict consensus tree shows an unresolved relationship between the sections Polypompholyx and Pleiochasia. Within the section Pleiochasia, we found two supported clades, generally differing in a more northern or southern distribution. Despite high levels of morphological heterogeneity and convergence, we found some clade-specific character homogeneity within these two clades, particularly that of growth and bladder-trap form, and floral structure. Bladder-trap form corresponds most strongly with terrestrial v. aquatic habits. The evolution of filiform corolla appendages corresponds with floral colour, and is possibly associated with sexual mimicry, with those of the upper corolla arising twice independently. Furthermore, we found that U. monanthos and U. novae-zelandiae remain synonyms of U. dichotoma, and that U. simmonsii is not included in the subgenus Polypompholyx, but instead is allied with sections Stomoisia and Enskide of subgenus Bivalvaria.
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Phylogenetic relationships among 75 species of Lentibulariaceae, representing the three recognized genera, were assessed by cladistic analysis of DNA sequences from the plastid rps16 intron and the trnL-F region. Sequence data from the two loci were analyzed both separately and in combination. Consensus trees from all analyses are congruent, and parsimony jackknife results demonstrate strong support for relationships both between and within each of the three demonstrably monophyletic genera. The genus Pinguicula is sister to a Genlisea-Utricularia clade, the phylogenetic structure within this clade closely follows Taylor's recent sectional delimitations based on morphology. Three principal clades are shown within Utricularia, with the basal sections Polypompholyx and Pleiochasia together forming the sister lineage of the remaining Utricularia species. Of the fundamental morphological specializations, the stoloniferous growth form apparently arose independently within Genlisea and Utricularia three times, and within Utricularia itself, perhaps more than once. The epiphytic habit has evolved independently at least three times, in Pinguicula, in Utricularia section Phyllaria, and within the two sections Orchidioides and Iperua (in the latter as bromeliad tank-epiphytes). The suspended aquatic habit may have evolved independently within sections Utricularia and Vesiculina. Biogeographic optimization on the phylogeny demonstrates patterns commonly associated with the boreotropics hypothesis and limits the spatial origin of Lentibulariaceae to temperate Eurasia or tropical America. Communicating Editor: Matt Lavin
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4751 ISSN Tasmania has been divided into 13 regions for the purpose of mapping plant distribution. Eleven of these regions are large ecogeographic zones, the other two being defined to accommodalc historic and administrative requirements of the Tasmanian Herbarium. The boundaries of all regions are defined on natural features, principally rivers and a Ititudinal contours. The region names are being routinely added to labeL; of specimens in the Tasmanian Herbarium. Very similar regions are recognised in a scheme being used by other agencies in Tasmania for nature conservation purposes, and the differences between the two schemes are discussed.
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The vegetation and environmental setting of permanent spring wetlands are described from a survey of 269 spring complexes throughout seasonally arid Queensland. Wetlands associated with springs in the western and southern discharge areas of the Great Artesian Basin are floristically distinct from other spring wetlands. Ordination analysis suggests that the biogeographic regions and the broad geological substrates that support spring wetlands provide a meaningful representation of floristic range. An existing classificatory system that defines ‘regional ecosystems’ on the basis of the biogeographic region and broad geological substrate is adopted to define 15 spring-wetland types in seasonally arid Queensland. The conservation value of the springs is assessed by a scheme that weights plant species populations on the basis of their endemicity and isolation from other populations, demonstrating that both Great Artesian Basin and non-Great Artesian Basin springs have similar conservation values. Australian Journal of Botany 52(5) 583–595
Flora of South Australia. Part 1 Lycopodiaceae–Rosaceae, front end paper. (South Australian Government Printing Division
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Natural regions and vegetation of Victoria
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Conn BJ (1993) Natural regions and vegetation of Victoria, pp. 79–158. In Foreman DB, Walsh N (eds). 'Flora of Victoria', vol. 1. (Inkata Press: Melbourne)
Introduction. Contributions of the New South Wales National Herbarium Nos 1
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