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A comparison of the regulatory frameworks governing microbial testing of drinking water in three Canadian provinces

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Abstract

In Canada, the provinces have primary responsibility for water management, including drinking water management; the federal government has comparatively more limited water-related responsibilities. Currently, Canada does not have a harmonized federal drinking water strategy or law (although it does have non-binding guidelines); thus provinces have developed different approaches to drinking water management. In this study, key features of the current regulatory frameworks for microbial testing in drinking water quality management are examined in Canada’s three most populous provinces – British Columbia, Ontario and Quebec. Salient regulatory features including the types of drinking water samples, water quality standards, testing frequency and system size are described and compared. Distinct differences were found in provincial approaches to drinking water quality assessment, and microbial water quality management is variable not only among, but also within, provinces. This finding of inter- and intra-province variability in drinking water quality management shows that these three provinces are approaching similar challenges in different ways. In turn, these different approaches demonstrate that regulatory frameworks can be adapted in response to drinking water management challenges. Regulatory frameworks should be flexible and adaptable to new knowledge and scientific developments, such as molecular testing methods, in order to facilitate their translation into water management tools.

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... Throughout this review we use SDWS to refer to the range of capacity-limited drinking water systems (or utilities) common to small or fragmented peri-urban, rural, and Indigenous communities in industrialised countries. Definitions of 'small' systems differ significantly between jurisdictions, from systems that serve less than 500 people in British Columbia, Canada (Cook et al. 2013) to those that serve less than 50,000 people in Japan (Shinde et al. 2013). However, household-level water supplies (e.g. ...
... Some have argued that this regulatory variability results in environmental injustice, as residents are subject to varying levels of drinking water risk depending on where they are located (Balazs et al. 2012). For example, Canada lacks national drinking water standards , resulting in significant differences in the range of contaminants regulated and monitored, and degree of regulatory enforcement across provinces and territories (Cook et al. 2013;Dunn et al. 2014a). Canadian regulations also do not cover drinking water systems on First Nation reserves (Basdeo and Bharadwaj 2013) or private drinking water supplies (Charrois 2010), while some provincial regulations exclude further system categories (e.g. ...
... Unclear division of authority and responsibilities across governance scales also creates the potential for inconsistent implementation and gaps in resourcing and oversight, increasing the likelihood that poor system performance will continue undetected and unaddressed (Cook et al. 2013;Dunn et al. 2014a;McCullough and Farahbakhsh 2015). These concerns have led a number of scholars to argue that the devolution of regulatory authority is inappropriate, given equity concerns and the belief that all citizens have the right to the same drinking water quality standards regardless of where they live (Hill et al. 2008;Christensen et al. 2010;Dunn et al. 2014a). ...
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Article
Small drinking water systems (SDWS) are widely identified as presenting particular challenges for drinking water management and governance in industrialised nations because of their small customer base, geographic isolation, and limited human and financial capacity. Consequently, an increasing number and range of scholars have examined SDWS over the last 30 years. Much of this work has been technocentric in nature, focused on SDWS technologies and operations, with limited attention to how these systems are managed, governed, and situated within broader social and political-economic contexts. This review seeks to provide a comprehensive overview of the governance dimensions of SDWS by drawing together existing literature relating to SDWS governance and exploring its key themes, research foci, and emerging directions. This overview is intended to provide guidance to scholars and practitioners interested in specific aspects of SDWS governance and a baseline against which researchers can position future work. The review identified 117 academic articles published in English-language journals between 1990 and 2016 that referred to some aspect of drinking water governance in small, rural, and Indigenous communities in industrialised nations. The articles' content and bibliographic information were analysed to identify the locations, methods, journals, and themes included in research on SDWS governance. Further analysis of SDWS' governance dimensions is organised around four questions identified as central to SDWS research: what governance challenges are experienced by SDWS, and what are their causes, solutions, and effects? Overall, the review revealed that the SDWS governance literature is piecemeal and fragmented, with few attempts to theorise SDWS governance or to engage in interdisciplinary, cross-jurisdictional conversations. The majority of articles examine North American SDWS, retain a technocratic orientation to drinking water governance, and are published in technical or industry journals. Such research tends to focus on the governance challenges SDWS face and proposed solutions to systems' performance, capacity, and regulatory challenges. A small but growing number of studies examine the causal factors underpinning these governance challenges and their socio-spatially differentiated impacts on communities. Looking forward, the review argues for a more holistic, integrative approach to research on SDWS governance, building on a water governance framework.
... Critics argue that Canada's pursuit of subsidiarity may be detrimental to drinking water management (see e.g. Hill et al. 2008 ;Weibust 2009 ;Bakker and Cook 2011 ), contributing to urban-rural disparities (Hrudey 2011 ), as well as regulatory disparities (Cook et al. 2013 ;Dunn et al. 2014a , b ), in ways that foster and entrench inequities (Boyd 2011 ), poor data collection and quality, and inadequate information sharing (Dunn and Bakker 2011 ). Another concern is that decentralization may occur without necessary and suffi cient capacity; for example, local actors might lack the power, capacity or fi nancial resources to fulfi ll expected mandates (Brown and Purcell 2005 ). ...
... Each province has responded differently to the challenge of managing water quality in smaller systems. For microbial water quality, for example, Ontario has created a separate regulatory framework for small drinking water systems; British Columbia has exemptions for smaller systems, as has Québec for systems serving less than 21 persons (Cook et al. 2013 ). ...
... Canada's voluntary system of drinking water guidelines and microbial risk assessment and management practices has produced considerable heterogeneity at the provincial level in terms of application of drinking water quality parameters, the extent of legal enforcement, and application of risk assessment and management tools. This research is supported by fi ndings in Cook et al. ( 2013 ), which also highlighted signifi cant provincial variation in regulatory approaches including uneven compliance and enforcement of microbial drinking water quality (drawing on comparisons between BC, Ontario and Quebec). ...
Chapter
This chapter reviews Canada’s approach to drinking water governance, focusing on the regulations, policies, practices and institutions related to the management and provision of drinking water. This review is significant given Canada’s highly decentralized approach to water governance. We critically evaluate the implications of decentralization for drinking water safety, examining both the uptake of voluntary national guidelines across Canadian jurisdictions, as well as application of day-to-day microbial risk assessment and management practices in various agencies in two provinces (Ontario and BC). Learning from these analyses, we identify a high degree of variability, specifically: (1) variation in the uptake of national Drinking Water Quality Guidelines across provinces and territories; and (2) considerable variability in microbial risk assessment and management practices across provinces and between agencies. We discuss the implications of these findings in light of ongoing harmonization and subsidiarity debates, as well as discussions as to whether compliance should be voluntary or legally binding. Our analysis indicates that the Canadian approach has contributed to data gaps and urban-rural disparities, and reduced capacity for integrated decision-making and effective oversight.
... However, critics argue that Canada's pursuit of subsidiarity may be detrimental to water management in other ways (see e.g. Hill et al. 2008;Weibust 2009;Bakker and Cook 2011), contributing to urban-rural disparities (Hrudey 2011), regulatory disparities (Cook et al. 2013;Dunn et al. 2014aDunn et al. , 2014b, poor data collection and quality, and inadequate information sharing (Dunn and Bakker 2011). Another concern is that decentralization may occur without necessary and sufficient capacity; for example, local actors might lack the power, capacity or financial resources to fulfill expected mandates INSTITUTE FOR RESOURCES, ENVIRONMENT AND SUSTAINABILITY UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA (Brown and Purcell 2005). ...
... In order to consider the implications of decentralized governance for microbial risk assessment and management, the analysis presents two case studies within Canada, a country whose approach to water governance is among the most decentralized of any OECD country (Harrison 1996;Saunders and Wenig 2007;Weibust 2009;Bakker and Cook 2011;Dunn et al. 2014b). In Canada, there are national guidelines for adoption of the multi-barrier approach; however, each province has its own way of dealing with microbial risk assessment and management, resulting in widely varied policies, regulatory requirements and management practices across the country (see Cook et al. 2013). Variation in microbial risk assessment and management frameworks is evident not only between provinces, but also within provinces, even within the same watershed and across water providers (Dunn et al. 2014b). ...
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Article
This paper analyzes the barriers and opportunities that decentralized water governance regimes pose to effective microbial risk assessment and management for drinking and recreational water quality. The paper presents a case study of Canada (a country whose approach to water governance is among the most decentralized in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development [OECD]) evaluating microbial governance approaches in British Columbia and Ontario. The analysis is timely for two reasons: (1) relatively little research has been conducted on microbial risk assessment and management from a governance perspective; the literature focuses largely on technical and methodological approaches (such as Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment [QMRA] or Water Safety Plans); (2) 15 years post Walkerton,– little research has examined the implementation of source water protection as a strategy to reduce microbial risk in recreational and drinking water in the context of decentralized water governance. A range of issues are considered, including how decentralized governance might enable or constrain microbial risk assessment and management practices, and how the relationships between decentralized and multi-level governance actors might further deepen the complexity of watershed management, particularly source water protection. The analysis indicates that decentralized water governance in Ontario and BC may contribute to difficulties in effectuating source water protection and other features of a multi-barrier approach. The most significant challenges, as identified by practitioners, relate to the fragmentation of land and water jurisdiction, regulation, institutions and mandates, particularly a lack of coordination (both regulatory and institutional) and limited clarity on roles and responsibilities. Building on this analysis, the paper suggests more effort is required to support proactive institutional arrangements, including: inter- and intra-agency communication across levels of government; master planning and other initiatives to move towards integrated policy development; flexible, responsive policy environments; a governance culture that fosters leadership and collaboration; and holistic problem framing and mobilization of interdisciplinary knowledge. http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/07011784.2015.1043648
... Water management in Canada is a shared responsibility between federal and provincial governments (Cook et al., 2013), whereas municipal governments are typically responsible for providing communities with drinking water. Federal drinking water guidelines (Health Canada, 2017) exist; however, each province is entitled to develop and implement its own drinking water treatment-related standards. ...
Article
Urban source water protection planning requires the characterization of sources of contamination upstream of drinking water intakes. Elevated pathogen concentrations following Combined Sewer Overflows (CSOs) represent a threat to human health. Quantifying peak pathogen concentrations at the intakes of drinking water plants is a challenge due to the variability of CSO occurrences and uncertainties with regards to the fate and transport mechanisms from discharge points to source water supplies. Here, a two-dimensional deterministic hydrodynamic and water quality model is used to study the fluvial contaminant transport and the impacts of the upstream CSO discharges on the downstream concentrations of Escherichia coli in the raw water supply of two drinking water plants, located on a large river. CSO dynamic loading characteristics were considered for a variety of discharges. As a result of limited Cryptosporidium data, a probability distribution of the ratio of E. coli to Cryptosporidium based on historical data was used to estimate microbial risk from simulated CSO-induced E. coli concentrations. During optimal operational performance of the plants, the daily risk target was met (based on the mean concentration during the peak) for 80% to 90% of CSO events. For suboptimal performance of the plants, these values dropped to 40% to 55%. Mean annual microbial risk following CSO discharge events was more dependent on treatment performance rather than the number of CSO occurrences. The effect of CSO-associated short term risk on the mean annual risk is largely dependent on the treatment performance as well as representativeness of the baseline condition at the intakes, demonstrating the need for assessment of treatment efficacy. The results of this study will enable water utilities and managers with a tool to investigate the potential alternatives in reducing the microbial risk associated with CSOs.
... Worldwide regulation stipulates that the presence of enteric pathogens is inferred by the analysis of faecal indicator organisms, such as Escherichia coli, which are typically cultured over >18 h. Within the water industry, routine testing is typically conducted in off-site laboratories on discrete samples, collected on a daily to monthly basis (Cook et al., 2013;USEPA, 2013). However, the microbiological contamination of drinking water sources is inherently transient (Hynds et al., 2012;Kistemann et al., 2002;Worthington and Smart, 2017) and there is a shortage of suitable online detection methods that could be used to indicate contamination (Besmer and Hammes, 2016). ...
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Article
We assessed the utility of online fluorescence spectroscopy for the real-time evaluation of the microbial quality of untreated drinking water. Online fluorimeters were installed on the raw water intake at four groundwater-derived UK public water supplies alongside existing turbidity sensors that are used to forewarn of the presence of microbial contamination in the water industry. The fluorimeters targeted fluorescent dissolved organic matter (DOM) peaks at excitation/emission wavelengths of 280/365 nm (tryptophan-like fluorescence, TLF) and 280/450 nm (humic-like fluorescence, HLF). Discrete samples were collected for Escherichia coli, total bacterial cell counts by flow cytometry, and laboratory-based fluorescence and absorbance. Both TLF and HLF were strongly correlated with E. coli (ρ = 0.71-0.77) and total bacterial cell concentrations (ρ = 0.73-0.76), whereas the correlations between turbidity and E. coli (ρ = 0.48) and total bacterial cell counts (ρ = 0.40) were much weaker. No clear TLF peak was observed at the sites and all apparent TLF was considered to be optical bleed-through from the neighbouring HLF peak. Therefore, a HLF fluorimeter alone would be sufficient to evaluate the microbial water quality at these sources. Fluorescent DOM was also influenced by site operations such as pump start-up and the precipitation of cations on the sensor windows. Online fluorescent DOM sensors are a better indicator of the microbial quality of untreated drinking water than turbidity and they have wide-ranging potential applications within the water industry.
... However, in previous work, we observed that the water suppliers did re-test sampling locations after observing contamination to verify and correct the water quality problem . Guidelines from some highincome countries and the GDWQ both provide some guidance on sampling locations, such as specifying that at least half of samples must be from the "outermost limits of the distribution system" (as in Quebec, Canada) (Cook et al., 2013;WHO, 2011); nevertheless, more detailed recommendations about sample stratification would strengthen sampling programs. ...
Article
Current guidelines for testing drinking water quality recommend that the sampling rate, which is the number of samples tested for fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) per year, increases as the population served by the drinking water system increases. However, in low-resource settings, prevalence of contamination tends to be higher, potentially requiring higher sampling rates and different statistical methods not addressed by current sampling recommendations. We analyzed 27,930 tests for FIB collected from 351 piped water systems in eight countries in sub-Saharan Africa to assess current sampling rates, observed contamination prevalences, and the ability of monitoring agencies to complete two common objectives of sampling programs: determine regulatory compliance and detect a change over time. Although FIB were never detected in samples from 75% of piped water systems, only 14% were sampled often enough to conclude with 90% confidence that the true contamination prevalence met an example guideline (≤5% chance of any sample positive for FIB). Similarly, after observing a ten percentage point increase in contaminated samples, 43% of PWS would still require more than a year before their monitoring agency could be confident that contamination had actually increased. We conclude that current sampling practices in these settings may provide insufficient information because they collect too few samples. We also conclude that current guidelines could be improved by specifying how to increase sampling after contamination has been detected. Our results suggest that future recommendations should explicitly consider the regulatory limit and desired confidence in results, and adapt when FIB is detected.
... Furthermore, Canada is the only country in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) that does not have legally enforceable federal drinking water standards (Bakker and Cook 2011). The GCDWQ provide recommended limits for 56 water quality parameters, but these are not enforceable, leading to issues with protocol and accountability in many First Nations communities (McCullough and Farahbakhsh 2012;Cook et al. 2013). ...
Article
Maintaining acceptable drinking water quality is a challenge in Canadian First Nations communities, resulting in many residents experiencing frequent drinking water advisories (DWAs). Detailed information about drinking water systems on reserves was combined with 11 years of advisory data to consolidate existing data sets and to understand historical trends. Patterns related to the frequency, duration and causes of advisories are summarized. The results show that the total number of DWAs has increased over the last decade despite recent attention, policy renewal and funding commitments. The frequency and duration of DWAs vary according to location, source type, system size and operator certification. Facilities relying on surface water have a higher likelihood of experiencing DWAs, and systems without fully trained operators are more likely to experience long-lasting DWAs. Findings indicate the need exists to maintain an up-to-date record of First Nations system information to close existing data gaps.
... In NL, federal, provincial and local government actors all play a role in drinking water management. Canada does not have a federal drinking water strategy or law (Cook et al. 2013). Federally, Health Canada works in collaboration with the provinces and territories, through the Federal-Provincial-Territorial Committee on Drinking Water, to develop the Guidelines for Canadian Drinking Water Quality (GCDWQ). ...
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This article outlines the results of a two-year research project that examined drinking water challenges in rural and small-town Newfoundland and Labrador. A mixed-methods approach was used, including literature review, media scans, a driver-pressure-state-impact-response analysis, policy workshops, community surveys and consultations, case studies and key informant interviews. This interdisciplinary study examined four interrelated components of drinking water systems: source water quality and quantity; water infrastructure and operations; public perception, awareness and demand; and policy and governance. Issues identified include: aging, degrading and inappropriate infrastructure; high disinfectant by-products; use and misuse of chlorine; long-term boil water advisories; use of untreated water sources; and minimal source water protection. As other studies have found elsewhere in Canada, local actors in Newfoundland and Labrador communities of 1000 or fewer often exhibit inadequate technical/human, social, institutional and financial capacity to address their drinking water challenges. New water policies and governance arrangements are needed that emphasize strategic and efficient investments, including the utilization of regional approaches, long-term planning and asset management activities. Furthermore, greater focus is needed on capacity development and the engagement and education of decision makers, staff, the public, and other groups that can help local governments address their drinking water challenges.
... The findings thus collectively offer new insights at the intersection of metagenomics technology, society and innovation policy. The data also suggest ways forward to inform future anticipatory ethics and technology governance frameworks whereby both innovation actors and innovation narrators work in tandem to examine and steer emerging biotechnologies such as metagenomics to responsible innovation [48][49][50][51][52][53][54][55]. ...
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Studies that explore social capital and political will [corrected] in the context of safe drinking water provision in [corrected] Canada are limited. This paper presents findings from a study that examines the capacity of rural Canadian communities to attain regulatory compliance for drinking water. Interviews were conducted with water operators and managers in ten rural communities across Atlantic Canada to identify the burden of compliance arising from the implementation of, and adherence to, drinking water regulations. This research identifies the operator as being particularly burdened by regulatory compliance, often resulting in negative consequences including job stress and a strained relationship with the community they serve. Findings indicate that while regulations are vital to ensuring safe drinking water, not all communities have the resources in place to rise to the challenge of compliance. As a result, some communities are being negatively impacted by these regulations, rather than benefit from their intended positive effect.
Article
We report a cost benefit analyses (CBA) for water interventions in rural populations of developed country sub-regions. A Bayesian belief network was used to estimate the cost benefit ratio using Monte Carlo simulation. Where possible we used input data from recently published primary research or systematic reviews. Otherwise variables were derived from previous work in the peer-reviewed or grey literature. For these analyses we considered the situation of people with small and very small community supplies that may not be adequately managed. For the three developed country sub-regions Amr-A (America region A), Eur-A (European region A) and Wpr-A (Western Pacific region A), we estimate the costs of acute diarrhoeal illness associated with small community supplies to be U$4671 million (95% CI 1721-9592), the capital costs of intervention to be USD 13703 million (95% CI 6670-20735), additional annual maintenance to be USD 804 million (95%CI 359-1247) and the CB ratio to be 2.78 (95%CI 0.86-6.5). However, we also estimated the cost of post infectious irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) following drinking water-associated acute gastroenteritis to be USD 11896 million (95%CI 3118-22657). When the benefits of reduced IBS are added to the analysis the CB ratio increases to 9.87 (95%CI 3.34-20.49). The most important driver of uncertainty was the estimate of the cost of illness. However, there are very few good estimates of costs in improving management of small rural supplies in the literature. Investments in drinking-water provision in rural settings are highly cost beneficial in the developed world. In the developed world, the CB ratio is substantially positive especially once the impact of IBS is included.
Article
Millions of people die every year around the world from diarrheal diseases much of which is caused by contaminated drinking water. By contrast, drinking water safety is largely taken for granted by many citizens of affluent nations. The ability to drink water that is delivered into households without fear of becoming ill may be one of the key defining characteristics of developed nations in relation to the majority of the world. Yet there is well-documented evidence that disease outbreaks remain a risk that could be better managed and prevented even in affluent nations. A detailed retrospective analysis of more than 70 case studies of disease outbreaks in 15 affluent nations over the past 30 years provides the basis for much of our discussion [Hrudey, S.E. and Hrudey, E.J. Safe Drinking Water--Lessons from Recent Outbreaks in Affluent Nations. London, UK: IWA Publishing; 2004.]. The insights provided can assist in developing a better understanding within the water industry of the causes of drinking water disease outbreaks, so that more effective preventive measures can be adopted by water systems that are vulnerable. This preventive feature lies at the core of risk management for the provision of safe drinking water.
Article
Risk mitigation provided by human monitoring and control over a water supply system has been consistently overlooked when estimating pathogen exposure to consumers. The Systems-Actions-Management (SAM) framework lends itself neatly to Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment (QMRA) as one way to establish this link. The general premise is that an organisational protocol will influence how a human controller behaves, in turn influencing the system performance. For illustrative purposes, the framework was applied to a hypothetical water supply system to quantify the risk reduction offered by routine Cryptosporidium monitoring and the response to oocyst 'detects'. Our findings suggest that infrequent direct pathogen monitoring may provide a negligible risk barrier. The practice of sampling treated water to verify microbiological integrity is also dubious: oocyst densities were largely under-estimated, in part due to the spatial dispersion of oocysts in the waterbody, but predominantly from imperfect detection methods. The development of 'event-driven' monitoring schemes with barrier performance-based treatment verification methods, as promoted in new guidelines, is supported as a pressing issue to reduce the likelihood of undetected pathogen passage through a treatment plant.
Article
Human bacterial pathogens are considered as an increasing threat to drinking water supplies worldwide because of the growing demand of high-quality drinking water and the decreasing quality and quantity of available raw water. Moreover, a negative impact of climate change on freshwater resources is expected. Recent advances in molecular detection technologies for bacterial pathogens in drinking water bear the promise in improving the safety of drinking water supplies by precise detection and identification of the pathogens. More importantly, the array of molecular approaches allows understanding details of infection routes of waterborne diseases, the effects of changes in drinking water treatment, and management of freshwater resources.
Province of British Columbia: Queen’s Printer. frameworkfor (accessed Canadian Water Resources Journal9 Downloaded by [McGill University Library] at 11:24 21 A comparative analysis of current microbial water quality risk assessment and management practices in British Columbia and Ontario, Canada
  • Drinking
  • Water
  • S B C Act
Drinking Water Protection Act, S.B.C. 2001, c. 9. Province of British Columbia: Queen’s Printer. frameworkfor (accessed Canadian Water Resources Journal9 Downloaded by [McGill University Library] at 11:24 21 October 2013 rDunn, G., L. Harris, C. Cook, N. Prystajecky (accepted). A comparative analysis of current microbial water quality risk assessment and management practices in British Columbia and Ontario, Canada. Science of the Total Environment
The Water Supply (Water Quality) Regulations
  • Water
  • England
  • Wales
Water, England and Wales, 2000. No. 3184, The Water Supply (Water Quality) Regulations 2000.
Water-borne disease outbreaks in Canadian small drinking water systems
  • H Moffatt
  • S Struck
Moffatt, H. and S. Struck. 2011. Water-borne disease outbreaks in Canadian small drinking water systems. Vancouver, BC: National Collaborating Centres for Public Health. http:// www.nccph.ca/docs/SDWS_Water-borne_EN.pdf. (accessed January, 2012).
Environne-ment et des Parcs Bilan de mise en oeuvre du Règlement sur la qualité de l'eau potable
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Québec. Ministère du Développement durable, de l'Environne-ment et des Parcs. 2006. Bilan de mise en oeuvre du Règlement sur la qualité de l'eau potable (L.R.Q., chap. Q-2, r.18.1.1): Juin 2001 à juin 2005. http://www.mddep.gouv.qc. ca/eau/potable/bilans/faits01-05.pdf. (accessed May, 2012).
Province of Ontario: Queen's Printer Hill
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Health Protection and Promotion Act, R.S.O. 1990, C. H. 7. Province of Ontario: Queen's Printer Hill, C., K. Furlong, K. Bakker, and A. Cohen. 2007. Appendix 1. In Eau Canada: The future of Canada's water, ed. K. Bakker, 369-392. Vancouver, BC: UBC Press.
Direction des politiques de l'eau. 2012a. Guide d'interprétation du Règlement sur la qualité de l'eau pota-ble, Ministère du Développement durable, de l'Environne-ment et des Parcs
  • O Connor
O'Connor, D.R. 2002b. Report of the Walkerton Inquiry: A strategy for safe drinking water, Part Two. Toronto, ON: Ministry of the Attorney Genera. O. Reg. 169/03 Ontario Drinking Water Quality Standards. Regulations to Ontario Safe Drinking Water Act. O. Reg. 170/03 Drinking Water Systems. Regulations to Ontario Safe Drinking Water Act. O. Reg. 318/08 Transitional Small Drinking Water Systems. Regulations to Ontario Health Protection and Promotion Act. O. Reg. 319/08 Small Drinking Water Systems. Regulations to Ontario Health Protection and Promotion Act. Québec. Direction des politiques de l'eau. 2012a. Guide d'interprétation du Règlement sur la qualité de l'eau pota-ble, Ministère du Développement durable, de l'Environne-ment et des Parcs, Québec, last revised April 2012. www. mddep.gouv.qc.ca/eau/potable/reglement/guide_interpreta-tion_RQEP.pdf. (accessed July, 2012).
Retrospective surveillance for drinking water-related illnesses in Canada
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Wilson, J., J. Aramini, S. Clarke, M. Novotny, M. Quist, and V. Keegan. 2009. Retrospective surveillance for drinking water-related illnesses in Canada, 1993-2008: Final Report. Moat, ON: Novometrix Research Inc. http://www. ncceh.ca/sites/default/files/DW_Illnesses_Surveil-lance_Aug_2009.pdf. (accessed March, 2013).
Province of British Columbia: Queen's Printer
  • Drinking Water
  • Protection Act
Drinking Water Protection Act, S.B.C. 2001, c. 9. Province of British Columbia: Queen's Printer. Canadian Water Resources Journal Environment Quality Act, R.S.Q., c Q-2. Province of Quebec: Queen's Printer.
Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater American Water Works Association, and Water Environment Federation Province of Ontario: Queen's Printer
  • E W Rice
  • R B Baird
  • A D Eaton
  • L S Clesceri
Rice, E. W., R. B. Baird, A. D. Eaton, and L. S. Clesceri. 2012. Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater. 22nd ed. Washington, DC: American Public Health Association, American Water Works Association, and Water Environment Federation. Safe Drinking Water Act, 2002, S.O. 2002, c.32. Province of Ontario: Queen's Printer. Schuster, C. J., A. G. Ellis, W. J. Robertson, C. F. Charron, J. J. Aramini, B. J. Marshall, and D. T. Medeiros. 2005. Infectious disease outbreaks related to drinking water in Canada, 1974–2001.
Fit to drink: Challenges in providing safe drinking water in British Columbia, to the Legislative Assembly of British Columbia
British Columbia Office of the Ombudsman (BCCO). 2008. Fit to drink: Challenges in providing safe drinking water in British Columbia. Special Report No. 32, June 2008, to the Legislative Assembly of British Columbia. Victoria, BC: Office of the Ombudsman.
Drinking Water Protection Regulation. British Columbia: Queen's Printer
  • Reg Bc
BC Reg. 200/2003. Drinking Water Protection Regulation. British Columbia: Queen's Printer.
Safe drinking water policy for CanadaTurning hindsight into foresight, C.D. Howe Institute Commentary, The Water Series
  • S E Hrudey
Hrudey, S. E. 2011. Safe drinking water policy for CanadaTurning hindsight into foresight, C.D. Howe Institute Commentary, The Water Series, No. 323, February. www. cdhowe.org. (accessed October, 2012).
Report of the Walkerton Inquiry: The events of May 2000 and related issues, Part One
  • D R O'connor
O'Connor, D.R. 2002a. Report of the Walkerton Inquiry: The events of May 2000 and related issues, Part One. Toronto, ON: Ministry of the Attorney Genera.
Report of the Walkerton Inquiry: A strategy for safe drinking water, Part Two
  • D R O'connor
O'Connor, D.R. 2002b. Report of the Walkerton Inquiry: A strategy for safe drinking water, Part Two. Toronto, ON: Ministry of the Attorney Genera.
169/03 Ontario Drinking Water Quality Standards. Regulations to Ontario Safe Drinking Water Act
  • O Reg
O. Reg. 169/03 Ontario Drinking Water Quality Standards. Regulations to Ontario Safe Drinking Water Act.
318/08 Transitional Small Drinking Water Systems. Regulations to Ontario Health Protection and Promotion Act
  • O Reg
O. Reg. 318/08 Transitional Small Drinking Water Systems. Regulations to Ontario Health Protection and Promotion Act.
319/08 Small Drinking Water Systems. Regulations to Ontario Health Protection and Promotion Act
  • O Reg
O. Reg. 319/08 Small Drinking Water Systems. Regulations to Ontario Health Protection and Promotion Act.
Guide d'interprétation du Règlement sur la qualité de l'eau potable, Ministère du Développement durable, de l'Environnement et des Parcs, Québec, last revised
  • Québec
Québec. Direction des politiques de l'eau. 2012a. Guide d'interprétation du Règlement sur la qualité de l'eau potable, Ministère du Développement durable, de l'Environnement et des Parcs, Québec, last revised April 2012. www. mddep.gouv.qc.ca/eau/potable/reglement/guide_interpreta-tion_RQEP.pdf. (accessed July, 2012).
Bilan de la qualité de l'eau potable au Québec
  • Québec
Québec. Direction des politiques de l'eau. 2012b. Bilan de la qualité de l'eau potable au Québec: 2005-2009, Ministère du Développement durable, de l'Environnement et des Parcs, 2012. http://www.mddep.gouv.qc.ca/eau/potable/ bilans/bilan2005-2009.pdf. (accessed July, 2012).
Environnement et des Parcs Bilan de mise en oeuvre du Règlement sur la qualité de l'eau potable (L.R.Q., chap. Q-2, r.18.1.1): Juin 2001 à juin
  • Québec
Québec. Ministère du Développement durable, de l'Environnement et des Parcs. 2006. Bilan de mise en oeuvre du Règlement sur la qualité de l'eau potable (L.R.Q., chap. Q-2, r.18.1.1): Juin 2001 à juin 2005. http://www.mddep.gouv.qc. ca/eau/potable/bilans/faits01-05.pdf. (accessed May, 2012).
Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater
  • E W Rice
  • R B Baird
  • A D Eaton
  • L S Clesceri
Rice, E. W., R. B. Baird, A. D. Eaton, and L. S. Clesceri. 2012. Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater. 22nd ed. Washington, DC: American Public Health Association, American Water Works Association, and Water Environment Federation.
United States (US) Clean Water Act (Federal Water Pollution Control Act)
United States (US) Clean Water Act (Federal Water Pollution Control Act). 2011. 62 Stat 115 (codified as amended at 33 USC § §1251-1376 (2011).
The Water Supply (Water Quality) Regulations
  • England Water
Water, England and Wales, 2000. No. 3184, The Water Supply (Water Quality) Regulations 2000. 194 C. Cook et al.
Guidelines for drinking water quality
World Health Organization (WHO). 2003. Guidelines for drinking water quality. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO.
Safe drinking water policy for Canada -Turning hindsight into foresight, C.D. Howe Institute Commentary
  • S E Hrudey
Hrudey, S. E. 2011. Safe drinking water policy for Canada -Turning hindsight into foresight, C.D. Howe Institute Commentary, The Water Series, No. 323, February. www. cdhowe.org. (accessed October, 2012).
170/03 Drinking Water Systems. Regulations to Ontario Safe Drinking Water Act
  • O Reg
O. Reg. 170/03 Drinking Water Systems. Regulations to Ontario Safe Drinking Water Act.