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Competing Theories: Wrong or Not Even Wrong?

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products sold for less than
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12,000 = 5/3=1.66
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... Análises empíricas da economia de um grande número de países, no entanto, não fornecem qualquer evidência estatística de uma tendência das taxas de lucro à equalização (FARJOUN; MARCHOVER, 1983;ZACHARIAH, 2006). Além disto, muitos estudos empíricos têm demonstrado a inexistência de qualquer influência da equalização das taxas de lucro sobre os preços (COCKSHOTT, 2011). Ao contrário, observa-se uma alta correlação das taxas de lucro com a composição orgânica do capital (COCKSHOTT; COTTRELL; MICHAELSON, 1993). ...
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Neste artigo é desenvolvida uma abordagem das relações entre a formação dos preços e o desenvolvimento capitalista cujo ponto de partida é o processo de trabalho em sua articulação com a reprodução material da sociedade. Metodologicamente, isto se expressa pela consideração da agregação monetária de valor baseada no tempo de trabalho como o processo básico da formação dos preços, de acordo com a teoria do valor de Marx. A partir da demonstração de que o valor agregado é a categoria econômica que permite analisar a articulação do processo de trabalho com a reprodução material da sociedade, neste artigo foi também demonstrado que tal reprodução pode ser caracterizada como um processo em que riquezas, valores e preços, embora sujeitos à luta de classes, determinam-se reciprocamente ao longo do tempo. Neste processo foi evidenciado que uma equalização estável das taxas de lucro dificilmente pode ocorrer. Ao contrário, a adoção da taxa de lucro como critério microeconômico de decisão sobre a qual se baseia a sua contínua equalização, assim como o distanciamento do valor agregado em relação ao equivalente monetário do tempo de trabalho provocado pelo processo global de equalização das taxas de lucro, têm como consequência uma ineficiência alocativa que se mostra inerente ao capitalismo. A produção capitalista, assim, ao ser determinada pela dinâmica da própria acumulação do capital coloca-se em contradição com as necessidades sociais. Pelos seus efeitos perturbadores sobre a reprodução material da sociedade, tal contradição pode ser considerada como uma das causas fundamentais do caráter desigual do desenvolvimento capitalista.
... Vidyasagar's (1987) research discusses systems theory and robotics in terms of design for ease of control, design for flexible effects and a systematic approach. In the natural sciences, scientific models are taught to give credence to theory and historical examples are used to teach the method (Cockshott, 2011). ...
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Orientation: Industry 4.0 promotes technological innovations and human–robot collaboration (HRC). Human–robot interaction (HRI) and HRC on the manufacturing assembly line have been implemented in numerous advanced production environments worldwide. Collaborative robots (Cobots) are increasingly being used as collaborators with humans in factory production and assembly environments. Research purpose: The purpose of the research is to investigate the current use and future implementation of Cobots worldwide and its specific impact on the African workforce. Motivation for the study: Exploring the gap that exists between the international implementation of Cobots and the potential implementation and impact on the African manufacturing and assembly environment and specifically on the African workforce. Research design, approach and method: The study features a qualitative research design. An open-ended question survey was conducted amongst leading manufacturing companies in South Africa in order to determine the status and future implementation of Cobot practices. Thematic analysis and content analysis were conducted using AtlasTi. Main findings: The findings indicate that the African businesses were aware of the international business trends, regarding Cobot implementation, and the possible impact of Cobots on the African work force. Factors specifically highlighted in this study are fear of retrenchment, human–Cobot trust and the African culture. Practical implications and value-add: This study provides valuable background on the international status of Cobot implementation and the possible impact on the African workforce. The study highlights the importance of building employee trust, providing the relevant training and addressing the fear of retrenchment amongst employees. http://www.sajhrm.co.za/index.php/sajhrm/article/view/901
... We could go on with other disciplines, but we prefer to turn the attention to the most important aspect of any scientific theory: validation. As clearly stated in [5]: "Math can be seductive(...) But when the maths claims to be a model of real world, beauty can mislead". Therefore, a scientific theory must be tested against real-world data to be valid (or not), otherwise it can be classified as "not even wrong". ...
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