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RÉSUMÉ Dans cet article, nous présentons les recherches, relativement récentes, sur l'intégration du genre dans la représentation mentale d'une lectrice ou d'un lecteur, en mettant l'accent sur leurs controverses ainsi que sur les pistes encore peu (ou pas) explorées. Nous espérons ainsi susciter l'intérêt de la communauté francophone sur ce sujet, jusqu'ici relativement discrète. Au travers de cette présentation, nous souhaitons également souligner les retombées sociétales des recherches sur ce sujet, principalement au travers de l'identification de processus langagiers discriminants. Si la recherche a jusqu'ici principalement ciblé des adultes dits monolingues entre 19 et 25 ans, nous présenterons également les quelques études qui ont été menées sur les enfants entre 6 et 15 ans, un projet en cours sur des enfants entre 2 et 3 ans et quelques résultats d'une étude récente examinant l'influence du bilinguisme sur la représentation du genre.
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... Psycholinguistic research on the interpretation of gender marking in French is much more recent (see Gygax et al., 2013, for an overview). However, confirming literary and grammatical studies going back to Beauvoir (1949) and Yaguello (1979), Houdebine (1987), and Michard (1996), a large and growing body of work on this language has shown that French behaves similarly to English: It is almost impossible to refer both men and women in an equal way by using a masculine marked expression (Brauer & Landry, 2008;Chatard et al., 2005;Gabriel et al., 2008;Garnham et al., 2012;Gygax et al., 2008Gygax et al., , 2012Gygax et al., , 2019, among many others). ...
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en Écriture inclusive (EI) has long been the topic of public debates in France. These debates have become more intense in recent years, often focusing on the higher education system and culminating in the formulation of three separate laws banning it for public administration. In this paper, we investigate the foundations of these conflicts through a large quantitative corpus study of the (non)use of EI in Parisian undergraduate brochures. Our results suggest that Parisian university professors use EI not only to ensure gender neutral reference but also as a tool to construct their political identities. We show that both the use of EI and its particular forms are conditioned by how brochure writers position themselves on non gender‐related‐related issues within the French university's political landscape, which explains how conflicts surrounding a linguistic practice have become understood as conflicts about larger issues in French society. Our paper thus provides new information to be taken into account in the formulation and promotion of nonsexist language policies and sheds light on how feminist linguistic activism and its opposition are deeply intertwined with other kinds of social activism in present‐day France. Abstraite fr L'écriture inclusive (EI) fait depuis longtemps l'objet de débats publics en France. Ces débats, devenus plus intenses ces dernières années, se sont souvent concentrés autour de l'éducation supérieure et ont mené à la formulation de trois lois proscrivant l'EI pour les administrations. Dans cet article, nous analysons les raisons de ces conflits en présentant une étude de corpus quantitative sur l'utilisation ou la non‐utilisation de l'EI dans les brochures de licence des universités parisiennes. Nos résultats montrent que les enseignants et enseignantes des universités parisiennes utilisent l'EI non seulement pour marquer une référence générale (neutre au niveau du genre), mais aussi pour construire leur identité politique. À travers cette étude, nous montrons que l'utilisation de l'EI et de ses formes est déterminée par le positionnement des personnes écrivant les brochures sur les problématiques non liées au genre dans le paysage politique des universités parisiennes. Notre article donne ainsi de nouvelles informations dont il faut tenir compte pour la formulation et la promotion des politiques linguistiques non sexistes, et met en lumière comment le militantisme linguistique féministe est profondément lié à d'autres formes de militantisme social dans la France actuelle.
... Le terme genre biologique, que nous avons évoqué plus haut, pourrait alors être envisagé, à son tour, comme une sous-catégorie du genre sémantique. Une dernière utilisation du terme genre a surgi à partir de préoccupations sociales plus récentes, et plus précisément à partir de l'émergence d'une nouvelle discipline dans les années 1980 en Amérique du Nord, à savoir les études de genre (gender studies), qui s'oppose à « la vieille discipline » de la grammaire traditionnelle, prônée par l'Académie (Chevalier 2013), et qui examine les faits de langagestéréotypie et de sexisme dans le langage (voir par exemple Gygax et al. 2013). ...
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The present study examines cross-linguistic influences of L1 German and L1 English grammatical gender (GG) systems on GG mastery in French L2. It compares oral production data by two different learner groups of French and a francophone control group. The L1’s have been selected on the basis of the nature of their gender assignment systems (AS), which differ from the French system according to macro and micro parameters, that is the number of distinguished gender values and the different assignment criteria at hand (Corbett 1991). The study posits as a starting point that these L1 parametric differences affect assignment performances in FL2. The results indicate firstly that performances on gender assignment are higher among learners whose L1 AS shows the least parametric asymmetries with the French system. Secondly, learners whose L1 does not operate GG are more likely to overassign the masculine gender.
... This creates some semantic ambiguity (Irmen and Kurovskaja, 2010) as in (2a) where it is unclear whether both people are fun or not. It is generally resolved by assuming that a masculine interpretation is favored over a feminine interpretation in French (e.g., Gygax, Sarrasin, Lévy, Sato and Gabriel, 2013;Gygax and Gabriel, 2008), as in other languages such as German or Norwegian (e.g., Gabriel, 2008;Irmen and Schumann, 2011;cited in Gygax et al. 2013). ...
Article
This study highlights the complexity of French grammatical gender as a lexical property at the interface of morpho-phonology and the lexicon. French native speakers (n = 168) completed a gender assignment task with written stimuli illustrating common versus uncommon nouns, vowel-initial versus consonant-initial nouns, compounds and grammatical homonyms; they also indicated the strategies they used to assign a gender to stimuli. The findings showed strong lexical and gender effects suggesting that grammatical gender must be acquired for individual lexical items as morpho-phonological cues alone are unreliable and vary greatly.
... Bibliografie); -Studien zur Schweizer «Leitfadenliteratur» (v. a. Christen 2004); die diskurslinguistische Analyse der Darstellung des Themas in der Schweizer Tagespresse von Solís (2011); -Artikel zu psycholinguistischen Aspekten (mentalen Repräsentationen) geschlechtergerechten Sprachgebrauchs (Irmen & Steiger 2005, Braun et al. 2007, Gygax et al. 2013, Steiger-Loerbroks & von Stockhausen 2014, Sczesny et al. 2015. ...
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Wie wird die sprachpolitische Forderung nach sprachlicher Gleichbehandlung von Mann und Frau in amtlichen Texten umgesetzt? Dieser Frage ist das Forschungsprojekt Sprachpolitik und Sprachgebrauch in der mehrsprachigen Schweiz: Personenbezeichnungen in der Behördensprache1 nachgegangen, dessen erste Resultate nun in einem Bericht erschienen sind. Inhalt: • Einführung in die sprachpolitische Situation der Schweiz in Bezug auf geschlechtergerechte Sprache • Resultate der Korpusarbeit, die sich mit den zwischen 1849 und 2014 im Bundesblatt veröffentlichten Texten beschäftigt hat • Auswertung der Interviewaussagen von Behördenvertreterinnen und -vertretern aus dem Redaktions- und Gleichstellungsbereich zur praktischen Umsetzung • Diskussion der wichtigsten Befunde • Dokumentation darüber, wie das Thema beim Bund und in ausgewählten Kantonen bislang behandelt worden ist (Porträts, Anhang I) • Chronologie der regulierenden Dokumente, welche in den letzten mehr als dreissig Jahren schweizweit zum Thema erschienen sind (Zeitleiste von 1971 – 2016, Anhang II) Der Hauptteil des Berichts ist auf Deutsch verfasst. Auf Französisch und Italienisch übersetzt sind die Hinweise zur Gliederung des Berichts und zur Methodologie sowie die Diskussion der wichtigsten Befunde.
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We present a quantitative study of the linguistic and social factors conditioning the use of grammatical gender with reference to women, focusing on variation in the debates of the French parliament. Two prime ministers of similar political leanings regulated the use of feminine g-gender through identical policies in 1986 and 1998, with no effect on parliamentary speech in the first instance, and dramatic success in the second. We claim that the latter outcome resulted from changes in gender ideologies between these two dates. The 1990s saw the emergence of a new social type for female politicians, which only feminine g-gender can construct. We hypothesize that the 1998 policy was effective because it strengthened existing associations between feminine g-gender and a persona, while the original policy tried to build on ideological structure that was not widespread. We conclude that linguistic prescriptions are only successful if they build on existing ideologies. (Linguistic prescription, gender ideology, grammatical gender, ideological structure)*
Chapter
In 1984, the Minister for Women’s Rights, Yvette Roudy, created a Terminology Commission to examine the possibility of feminizing the names of professions, titles and public offices. The article présents the results of this work based on many surveys examining the current use of language. À majority of responses were already quite positive towards feminization in 1986, and the article concludes that common practice has clearly decided in its favour today.
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Two experiments (N=48 each) were conducted to investigate gender-specific elements in the mental representation of short German texts. The texts contained a specific male or female designator (e.g., Mr. Smith, Mrs. Meyer) or a masculine generic phrase (CM) in either singular or plural usage (e.g., the student, the students) as text-subject. Two testphrases were constructed for each text, which did not appear in the text but reflected a masculine or feminine understanding of the text. Gender-specific associations were measured via the time that was required to reject the masculine and feminine test-distractors in a subsequent recognition task. Reading the texts with a specific male or female designator as text-subject increased the rejection time for the gender-congruent testphrases. For texts containing a GM as text-subject, the pattern of gender-specific associations was dependent on the grammatical numberof the GM-phrase. Reading a scenario containing a GM in the singular increased rejection times for the masculine test-phrases, while reading a scenario with a GM in the plural increased rejection times for the feminine test-phrases.
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The participants of this study, two hundred fifty French pupils aged fourteen and fifteen years, had to estimate their degree of self-efficacy toward various occupations. According to the experimental condition, occupations were presented only with the male grammatical gender [e.g., enseignant] or with the feminine grammatical gender [e.g., enseignant(e)]. Results obtained in this study indicate that, on average, pupils reported significantly more self-efficacy when occupations were presented with the feminine grammatical gender. Implications of this result are discussed with regard to the lack of the feminine grammatical gender in French for the most prestigious occupations.
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Two experiments tested a form of automatic stereo-typing Subjects saw primes related to gender (e g, mother, father, nurse, doctor) or neutral with respect to gender (e g, parent, student, person) followed by target pronouns (stimulus onset asynchronv = 300 ms) that were gender related (e g, she, he) or neutral (it, me) or followed by nonpronouns (do, all, Experiment 2 only) In Experiment 1, subjects judged whether each pronoun was male or female Automatic gender beliefs (stereotypes) were observed in faster responses to pronouns consistent than inconsistent with the gender component of the prime regardless of subjects' awareness of the prime-target relation, and independently of subjects explicit beliefs about gender stereotypes and language reform In Experiment 2, automatic stereotyping was obtained even though a gender-irrelevant judgment task (pronoun/not pronoun) was used Together, these experiments demonstrate that gender information imparted by words can automatically influence judgment, although the strength of such effects may be moderated by judgment task and prime type