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European Online Grooming Project - Final Report

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... Актуальность проблемы подтверждается появлением значительного числа исследований зарубежных [3][4][5][6][7] и российских ученых [8][9][10][11][12][13][14]. Различные направления противоправного онлайн-взаимодействия на сексуальные темы именуются по-разному: секстинг, киберсекстинг, сексуальный груминг, кибербуллинг, цифросексуализм, порноместь и др. ...
... Применительно к понятию сексуальное домогательство (sexual harassement) отмечается, что единственное стоящее за ним определение дано в Стамбульской конвенции 6 , не подписанной Российской Федерацией. В ст. ...
... Примером могут служить нежелательные сексуальные комментарии, когда лицо, их делающее, не ставит своей целью ущемление достоинства человека. 6 Конвенции Совета Европы о предотвращении и борьбе с насилием в отношении женщин и домашним насилием (принята в Стамбуле 11 мая 2011 г.). нии взрослых (как форма гендерного насилия) и часто в связи с ситуациями вне дома, в том числе на работе. ...
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The article deals with the issue of the terminology used to define different phenomena of illegal sexual interaction through indirect communication – via electronic means, including the Internet. There is a certain ambiguity of some concepts and terms used in the context of sexual abuse against children and of the violation of their sexual integrity, for instance such as “sexting” and “online grooming”. At the same time the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation operates with the concepts of “sexual acts” and “lewd acts”.The author makes an attempt to bring clarity and unambiguity to the understanding of the terms used both in scientific studies, and in forensic psychological and comprehensive psychological and linguistic examinations. The presented article is debatable, invites to the discussion of the pressing issue of the language of scientific research in forensic expertise.
... They reviewed 22 studies that looked at the proposed distinction of fantasy-and contactdriven offenders and found that both groups engage in both activities, making the distinction vague. Broome et al. (2018) proposed adopting the European Online Grooming Project's typology (Webster et al., 2012), which focused on the intensity of the interaction. They classified offenders into intimacy seeking, adaptable and hypersexualised groups (Webster et al., 2012). ...
... Broome et al. (2018) proposed adopting the European Online Grooming Project's typology (Webster et al., 2012), which focused on the intensity of the interaction. They classified offenders into intimacy seeking, adaptable and hypersexualised groups (Webster et al., 2012). ...
... Groomers within this group also sought to schedule face-to-face meetings, but this is likely because all groomers in the PJ archive did so. Webster et al. (2012) report that some groomers in this group did seek out meetings and that they 'seemed particularly susceptible to undercover police operations' (Webster et al., 2012: 86). The short duration groomers in this study also arranged further contact by phone, unlike Webster et al.'s (2012) categorisation. ...
Thesis
Online grooming has become a widespread and worryingly fast increasing issue in society. This thesis analyses a corpus of online grooming communication, made available by the Perverted Justice (PJ) archive, a non-profit organisation that from 2004 until 2019 employed volunteers, who pretended to be children and entered chat rooms to catch and convict groomers, collaborating with law enforcement. The archive consists of 622 grooming chat logs and approx. 3.7 million words of groomer language. A corpus of this database was built, and a Corpus-Assisted Discourse Studies (CADS) approach used to analyse the language therein. Specifically, the language was compared to a reference corpus of general chat language data (PAN2012) and duration of online grooming and manipulative requesting behaviour were also investigated. The following research questions were answered: 1) What are the features of a corpus of online groomer language compared to that of a general digital chat language reference corpus? Is online groomer language distinct? How are online grooming intentions realised linguistically by online groomers? 2) Does duration of grooming influence the grooming process/intentions? Is usage of specific words/specific grooming intentions associated with different duration of grooming? Can different duration profiles be established and, if so, what are the cutoff points for these duration profiles? 3) How are requests realised in online grooming and how does duration influence this? How do groomers make requests and what support move functions do they use? Does duration influence how requests are made, and the type of support move function that are used? The thesis newly identifies nuanced linguistic realisations of groomers' intentions and strategies, proposing a new working terminology for discourse-based models of online grooming. This is based on a review of the literature followed by an empirical analysis refining this terminology, which has not been done before. It finds evidence for two distinct duration-based grooming approaches and yields a fine-grained qualitative analysis of groomer requests, also influenced by grooming duration. There have only been very few studies using a CADS analysis of such a large dataset of groomer language and this thesis will lead to new insights, implications and significance for the successful analysis, detection and prevention of online grooming.
... Rather, it refers to a psychological manipulative process used to lure children online: it is based on "care," apparent interest and involvement through which the groomer "works" to earn relationship trust, closeness and intimacy with the aim of engaging a minor in sexual activities. The illusion of a private and anonymous context provides young people a pretext to interact with strangers, who sometimes turn out to be malicious and to take advantage of an initial friendship to deceive the victim (Davidson et al., 2012). Groomers usually leverage psychological fragilities of the troubled subject, dragging him or her into a confidential space where it is possible to open up about family issues or teenage crises with a "person of trust." ...
... Pasca et al. 14 A graphical representation is provided in Figure 3. . Accordingly, the proposed scale measure seems to detect online grooming risk. ...
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Backgrounds: Among the problematic online behaviours, online grooming, that is, a manipulative process leading to sexual solicitation between an adult and a minor, is receiving increasing attention. However, most of the studies come from qualitative data, confirming that a formalized measurement tool is still missing. Moreover, online grooming measurement mostly relies on its latest, advanced stages, when the abuse and the actual exchange of sexual material has already occurred and reported to the authorities. The aim of the present study is to develop and validate a measurement instrument grasping the earlier stages of the phenomenon. Methods: The psychometric properties of the Online Grooming Risk (henceforth, OGR) scale were assessed in a validation study conducted on 316 adolescents, and its location within a network of psychological constructs relevant to the literature was examined with a non-parametric approach, the Structural Equation Modeling based on Partial Least Squares. Results: Results confirmed reliability and validity of the OGR scale. Moreover, its association with both protective (e.g., a good family support) and risk antecedents (e.g., low self-esteem), as well as with the development of clearly sexualized references, seems also confirmed. Conclusions: The OGR tool configures itself as a useful resource in perspective of an early detection of online grooming. The study also highlights the protective role of family support and low self-esteem as a significant risk factor.
... Les moins soucieux révèleraient plus d'informations personnelles, notamment à propos de leur véritable nom, âge et occupation (Briggs et al., 2011). À l'opposé, les plus sensibles utiliseraient, quant à eux, différentes stratégies afin de protéger leur identité comme l'utilisation d'ordinateurs ou d'appareils intelligents spécifiquement dédiés à leurs activités illégales et non accessibles à leur entourage, l'utilisation de pseudonymes, et la communication sur des plateformes ou espaces privés (p.ex., courriel, Facebook Messenger, messagerie textuelle) (Balfe et al., 2015 ;Graham, 2000 ;Holt et al., 2010 ;Kierkergaard, 2011 ;Webster, 2012). ...
... Cette hypothèse serait cohérente avec les résultats de l'étude de Webster et ses collaborateurs (2012) qui ont trouvé que les cyberdélinquants utilisant le moins de stratégies de protection de l'identité étaient des hommes dont la sexualité est envahissante et régulation des comportements déficitaire. Typiquement, ces hommes ne perçoivent ni le caractère répréhensible de leurs gestes et, conséquemment, ni l'utilité de cacher des informations à propos d'eux (Balfe et al., 2015 ;Webster et al., 2012). D'autre part, pour les cyberdélinquants sexuels désireux d'obtenir une rencontre hors ligne et de s'adonner à des contacts sexuels avec leurs victimes, il est possible que le fait de mentir sur son âge, à tout le moins de manière exagérée, compromette le lien de confiance qu'ils ont établi au cours des échanges virtuels, réduisant ainsi la probabilité d'actualiser les contacts sexuels. ...
Article
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En regard de ses avantages perçus, nombre d'individus utilisent l'internet, les technologies numériques et les réseaux sociaux pour exploiter des jeunes à des fins sexuelles. Considérant la présence policière accrue en ligne, notre hypothèse est que les cyberdélinquants sexuels, soucieux des risques associés à leurs activités illégales, tendent à adopter diverses stratégies afin de masquer les traces numériques qu'ils laissent, dans l'espoir de préserver leur anonymat. L'objectif de cette étude est de dresser le portrait des identités virtuelles et activités de subterfuges entreprissent par 161 cyberdélinquants sexuels, avec un intérêt particulier sur les tendances contemporaines. Utilisant les données du projet de recherche PRESEL, cette étude examine les caractéristiques des identités virtuelles et des plateformes de clavardage (discussion en ligne) utilisées par les hommes qui sollicitent les jeunes en ligne à des fins sexuelles, ainsi que des outils technologiques d'acquisition du matériel des hommes qui consomment de la pornographie juvénile. Des analyses corrélationnelles ont été réalisées afin d'examiner les liens unissant la propension à utiliser les techniques numériques de préservation de l'anonymat et les paramètres du crime. Les résultats montrent que même si les stratégies de protection de l'identité sont plus fréquemment utilisées par les cyberdélinquants que les stratégies de protection des systèmes informatiques, un plus grand nombre n'utilise aucune stratégie. Par ailleurs, les résultats suggèrent que le niveau d'engagement dans la criminalité et la contemporanéité des cybercrimes influencent la propension à la préservation de l'anonymat en ligne, alors que l'âge n'a aucun impact. Les implications pour la recherche et la pratique des enquêtes criminelles en ligne sont discutées.
... Another strategy commonly employed by adults to encourage minors to engage in sexual activity is giving them gifts or money ). These favors may be given while explicitly indicating that some type of sexual favor is expected in return (Shannon 2008), or they may be given in a more implicit way, making it seem as if they are part of the dynamics of a typical trusting relationship (Webster et al. 2012). This strategy may prompt children to carry out sexual requests made by adults because, in accordance with the principle of reciprocity, they may feel that it is only fair to respond by returning the favor. ...
Chapter
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Online grooming is the process by which an adult, through the use of information and communication technologies, gains access to a minor and obtains their trust to engage in some type of sexual interaction with them. This process involves the use of a series of persuasion strategies that allow the adult to progressively gain the child’s trust. This chapter examines these strategies and presents the Multidimensional Online Grooming Questionnaire, a validated and reliable instrument to multidimensionally assess the strategies used by aggressors to trap minors in online grooming situations.
... In this respect, as the use of ICTs has become widespread, the means for CSEC have become more sophisticated. Material goods or money can be explicitly offered via ICTs in exchange for sex (Shannon, 2008), or implicitly and subtly through gifts in the context of a relationship of apparent trust without explicitly requesting anything in return (Webster et al., 2012). For example, the use of gifts in online grooming situations can predispose minors to agree to send photographs or videos with sexual content to adults (De Santisteban et al., 2018). ...
Article
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Commercial sexual exploitation of children (CSEC) is a multifaceted global phenomenon in which adolescents involved in the child welfare system form a high-risk population. However, studies conducted in European countries remain scarce. We recruited a sample of 67 adolescents (50.7% girls and 47.8% boys) aged between 13 and 18 years old (M = 15.8; SD = 2.2) in residential care in the child welfare system in the south-east of Spain, and surveyed them about their runaway behavior, knowledge and perception of CSEC, and possible related preventive measures. Using a mixed-methods approach, we found that 47.8% of the adolescents reported having run away from the residential center and 92.5% knew someone that had run away. A total of 71.6% of the adolescents were aware of the problem of CSEC, and demanded more education and protection. They highlighted various motivations for engaging in this type of behavior. The use of ICT emerged as an important risk factor to take into account in prevention programs.
Chapter
The online solicitation and sexual grooming of minors via online settings (e.g., chatrooms, social media, gaming) is pervasive. Researchers have sought to understand the individuals who seek to commit online sexual offenses and those who may be victimized, which has included the development of typologies related to different types of offense patterns that may be observed. Thus, this chapter provides an overview of what is known about online sexual grooming and solicitation in general. This is followed by a description of several proposed models that are specific to the sexual grooming process online and a comparison of these models to a content-validated model of in-person sexual grooming, the Sexual Grooming Model (SGM). We provide recommendations for how knowledge of online sexual grooming can inform education for children and caregivers on the risks and appropriate online behavior and can also inform law enforcement practices, policy, and treatment related to online sexual abuse.
Chapter
Models are important in the development and testing of theories related to a construct. As sexual grooming has yet to be well understood in the research literature, a model of sexual grooming may be particularly important for the assessment and measurement of this construct. This chapter examines models that have been used to explain child sexual abuse generally. This is followed by a detailed description of the development and content validation of the Sexual Grooming Model (SGM) and how this model can be used in future research exploring sexual grooming. The chapter concludes with a review of models of sexual grooming that have been developed for specific contexts such as online sexual grooming and specific populations such as adult victims and priests.KeywordsSexual abuseSexual groomingSexual Grooming ModelModelsTheoryConstructAssessmentMeasurementValidationOnline sexual groomingAdult sexual groomingPriestClergyCriminologyPsychologySelf-Regulation Model of Illicit GroomingContextPopulation
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A group of nine intrafamilial child molesters of daughters and stepdaughters from Canada and the United Kingdom were interviewed about their analysis of opportunities to sexually offend. Questions focused on the evaluation of immediate and life circumstances surrounding the offence, including how the offender defined, created and responded to opportunities for offending. An equally important goal was identifying strengths in resisting opportunities and coping with spoiled attempts. The interviews were transcribed and subjected to grounded theory analysis. Consistent with the rational choice theory of criminal behaviour the majority of offenders identified information and decision-making processes used to evaluate opportunities for offending. Themes related to offender and victim characteristics, as well as situational factors, are identified and discussed with respect to risk and protective factors. Offenders described positive relationships, greater social/community connectedness and successful employment as present in their lives when not offending. These elements are consistent with positive approaches to sexual offender treatment and management.
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