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30x30 Nature Challenge-Final report-English Survey

Authors:
Results of the 30x30 Nature Challenge Page 1
Results of the David Suzuki Foundation
30x30 Nature Challenge English Survey
May 1-31, 2013
Prepared by Elizabeth K. Nisbet
Assistant Professor, Department of Psychology, Trent University
June 26, 2013
Results of the 30x30 Nature Challenge Page 2
Background and Survey Objectives
The 30x30 Nature Challenge is an annual intervention sponsored by the David Suzuki
Foundation (DSF), aiming to increase Canadians' contact with the natural environment.
Participants voluntarily sign up for the challenge on the DSF website before May 1st and pledge
to spend a minimum of 30 minutes outdoors, in contact with nature, for 30 days during the
month of May. A number of workplaces publicize the challenge and the DSF provides toolkits,
designed specifically for employers, containing tips that encourage employees to spend time
outdoors and in nature. Individual participants receive email updates and are able to visit the
DSF 30x30 challenge website throughout the month of May for further suggestions on how to
incorporate more nature contact into their daily life.
In 2013, a research survey (see Appendix) was designed by Senior Public Engagement Specialist,
Aryne Sheppard, at the DSF, and Dr. Elizabeth Nisbet, a psychologist at Trent University, to
assess the effects of the 30x30 challenge on participants. The goal was to measure changes in
well-being and subjective connection with nature ('nature relatedness') over the month-long
challenge. When people visited the DSF 30x30 challenge website, they were invited to
participate in the challenge survey, and were directed to the Trent University online survey
program (Qualtrics) to complete questionnaires about their nature relatedness, time use, and
well-being. At the end of May, participants were emailed an invitation for a follow-up survey,
with the same questions that had been administered a month earlier.
The data was analyzed by Dr. Nisbet, at Trent University, and overall findings were provided to
the DSF and interested participants during a webinar event June 10, 2013. The detailed findings
and more complete methodology are described in this report. Overall, the 30x30 challenge was
successful in encouraging participants to increase their nature contact. Participants also reported
increased nature relatedness and well-being at the end of the challenge. The 30x30 nature
challenge is a voluntary commitment and the respondents are self-selected, but the results
suggest that increased nature contact has benefits for increasing happiness. The results highlight
the importance of further research to refine and test interventions that strengthen connectedness
with nature, to promote regular nature contact, and to explore this potential 'happy path to
sustainability'.
Sample Characteristics
Data for the initial (Time 1) survey included participants who completed the questionnaire up to
and including May 6, 2013. After removing surveys with empty data, and those with unreliable
data (weekly time use that was unrealistic, e.g., total of > 168 hours), the final Time 1 sample
consisted of 6,483 people. Participants were mostly women (82.9%, n = 5,373; men: n = 1,027;
other: n = 12; 59 people did not indicate their gender). The average age of participants was 43.55
(SD = 13.29, range: 16 to 110; 81 people did not provide a response).
A subsample of 2,225 people (after removing missing/unreliable data) responded to the email
invitation at the end of May (Time 2) and completed the follow-up survey. This group of
participants had similar characteristics to the larger Time 1 sample. Average age was 45.76 (SD
= 13.28; range: 17 to 83; 16 participants did not indicate age) and most were women (83.8%, n =
1,864, men: n = 337; other: n = 5; 19 people did not indicate their gender).
Results of the 30x30 Nature Challenge Page 3
Results
Effects of the 30x30 Nature Challenge: Assessing Nature Contact Over Time
One goal of the study was to assess the effects of participating in the 30x30 challenge. To test
whether participants were successful in their efforts to get outdoors, in nature, during the month
of May, a number of time use questions were included in both the Time 1 and Time 2 surveys.
Participants reported on the number of weekly hours spent engaged in various activities,
including time spent "on a walk, hike, or activity in nature". Activities such as email, surfing the
internet, and watching television were included to explore how these behaviours might change if
participants spent more time in nature. Other activities, such as eating and sleeping, were
indicators of the reliability of responses (e.g., data with unrealistic hours in these activities was
excluded). Paired samples t-tests were conducted to assess changes in nature contact over time
(Table 1). Participants were successful in getting outdoors, in nature. The average weekly hours
spent outdoors almost doubled, to approximately 8.5 hours, by the end of the survey (Figure 1).
Nature contact was the activity that changed most; participants also reduced their television time
by approximately 2 hours per week and spent about 2.5 fewer hours per week surfing the internet
or emailing (Figure 2).
Table 1
Average Weekly Time Use: Change in Nature Contact and Daily Activities from the Beginning to
End of May
Activity
Time 1, M (SD)
Hours/Week
Time 2, M (SD)
Hours/Week
t (d)
On a walk, hike, or activity in nature
4.51 (5.10)
8.58 (7.73)
!25.11**! (0.56)
Shopping
2.30 (2.04)
2.26 (2.47)
!-0.58! (0.01)
At a gym or fitness facility
1.38 (2.75)
1.15 (2.57
!-4.47**! (0.10)
Visiting friends
4.29 (4.89)
4.88 (5.46)
!4.51**!(0.10)
Watching television
8.26 (7.64)
5.73 (5.75)
!-20.32**!(0.45)
In a vehicle
5.63 (5.14)
5.41 (4.84)
!-1.96!(0.04)
Talking on the phone/texting
2.98 (3.96)
2.55 (3.42)
!-5.60**!(0.12)
Email/surfing the internet
11.09 (10.31)
8.39 (8.47)
!-13.97**!(0.30)
Eating
10.01 (5.39)
9.80 (5.26)
!-1.74!(0.04)
Sleeping
49.76 (8.46)
49.02 (8.49)
!-3.83**!(0.08)
Relaxing
10.12 (8.88)
10.36 (9.02)
!1.21! (0.03)
Note: For each time point, table presents mean scores, with standard deviations in parentheses
and results of paired-samples t-tests, comparing means, with effect sizes (Cohen's d) in
parentheses. ** p < .01.
Results of the 30x30 Nature Challenge Page 4
Figure 1. Change in Weekly Nature Contact
Figure 2. Change in Weekly Activities
Note: Sleeping is presented separately due to differences in scale.
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
Sleeping
Average Weekly Hours
4.5114
8.5751
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Time 1 Time 2
Average Weekly Hours
Results of the 30x30 Nature Challenge Page 5
Effects of the 30x30 Nature Challenge on Connectedness with Nature
Nature relatedness was measured using the 21-item self-report "Nature Relatedness Scale"
(Nisbet, Zelenski, & Murphy, 2009). The scale assesses internalized identification with nature as
well as nature-related worldviews, people’s familiarity, comfort with, and desire to be in nature.
Participants respond to 21 statements using a 5-point Likert scale ranging from 1 (strongly
disagree) to 5 (strongly agree). Nature relatedness is comprised of three sub-dimensions, which
contribute to one’s relationship with the natural environment. The first dimension, nature
related-self, represents an internalized identification with nature, reflecting feelings and thoughts
about one’s personal connection to nature. A person scoring high on this dimension would
consider herself to be a part of nature and live life in ways that reflect this. The second
dimension, nature related-perspective, represents an external, nature-related world view about
how humans interact with other living things. This component of nature relatedness would be
reflected in a person’s views about the treatment of animals and use of natural resources, for
example, and may be apparent in pro-environmental attitudes. This aspect of nature relatedness
would also be demonstrated by a sense of agency concerning individual actions and their impact
on all living things. The third dimension, nature related-experience, reflects a physical
familiarity with the natural world, a level of comfort with and desire for nature contact. This
aspect of nature relatedness would be most evident in someone who seeks out nature, is drawn to
the wilderness, and who is aware of and fascinated with nature everywhere in daily life. Reverse
scored items were recoded and items were averaged to compute an overall score as well as scores
on each subscale. A higher score indicates stronger connectedness with the natural environment.
Challenge participants had high nature relatedness scores at the beginning of May (Table 2; in
prior research, mean scores on the 21-item scale ranged from approximately 3.2-3.7;
environmental educators averaged 4.5). Participants had small but significant increases in their
nature relatedness during the challenge. Overall nature relatedness increased, and particularly
the dimensions of nature related-self and nature related-experience. In other words, participants
had a slightly stronger subjective connection with the natural environment - mainly an increased
sense of identification with the natural world, and a greater desire to spend time in nature.
Table 2
Change in Nature Relatedness and Nature Relatedness Dimensions from the Beginning to End of
May
Time 1
M (SD)
Time 2
M (SD)
t (d)
Nature Relatedness
4.29 (0.44)
4.40 (0.42)
18.60**!(0.40)
nature related-self
4.36 (0.54)
4.50 (0.49)
17.79**!(0.38)
nature related-perspective
4.38 (0.49)
4.43 (0.48)
5.53**!(0.12)
nature related-experience
4.09 (0.66)
4.24 (0.60)
15.60**!(0.33)
Note: For each time point, table presents mean scores, with standard deviations in parentheses,
and results of paired-samples t-tests, comparing means, with effect sizes (Cohen's d) in
parentheses. ** p < .01.
Results of the 30x30 Nature Challenge Page 6
Effects of the 30x30 Nature Challenge on Well-Being
To assess the well-being benefits of the challenge, participants were asked general questions
about their perceived vitality, stress levels, sleep quality, negative and positive mood.
Participants rated five well-being statements using a 5-point Likert scale ranging from 1
(strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree). Indicators of ill-being (stress, problems sleeping,
negativity) were reverse scored in order to compute a composite measure of general well-being
(averaging all 5 items). Higher scores indicate more positive functioning.
The challenge was a positive experience for participants. Scores at the start of May reflected
generally positive moods and relatively moderate levels of stress and negativity. There were
significant increases on all indicators of well-being at the end of May. Participants reported
feeling more vitality and energy, and a greater sense of calm and peacefulness. Feelings of stress,
negativity, and sleep disturbances were lower at the end of the month (Table 3, Figure 3).
Table 3
Change in Well-Being from the Beginning to End of May
Note: For each time point, table presents mean scores (on 1-5 scale), with standard deviations in
parentheses. Results of paired-samples t-tests, comparing means, with effect sizes (Cohen's d) in
parentheses. Indicators of ill-being (stress, problems sleeping, negativity) were reverse coded in
order to compute the composite measure (averaging all 5 items); for all items higher scores
indicate better well-being. ** p < .01.
Time 1
M (SD)
Time 2
M (SD)
t (d)
vitality, energy, enthusiasm
3.39 (1.20)
3.99 (0.94)
24.34**!(0.53)
feeling less stressed
2.48 (1.18)
3.04 (1.22)
22.42**!(0.48)
sleep quality
3.07 (1.46)
3.51 (1.37)
15.84**!(0.33)
(lack of) negativity
2.80 (1.23)
3.47 (1.18)
26.00**!(0.55)
mental calm, contentment,
peacefulness
3.24 (1.15)
3.82 (0.96)
24.26**!(0.52)
General Well-being
(composite of all items)
4.00 (0.74)
4.14 (0.66)
35.27**!(0.87)
Results of the 30x30 Nature Challenge Page 7
Figure 3. Change in General Well-Being
The more time participants spent in nature, the greater well-being they reported. More nature
contact was also weakly associated with stronger nature relatedness, both in terms of reports at
the end of May, and for relative changes over the month. Participants varied in terms of how
much they were able to spend time in nature, but the more nature contact people had, the more
they reported being happier and connected with nature. In terms of relative changes during the
challenge, the more people increased their nature contact and nature relatedness, the more their
well-being improved (Table 4).
Table 4
Correlations Between Nature Contact, Nature Relatedness, and Well-Being Changes
1.
2.
3.
1. Nature contact change
1.00
-
-
2. Nature Relatedness change
.10**
1.00
-
3. General Well-Being change
.16**
.24**
1.00
Note: change scores for nature contact, nature relatedness, and general well-being were
calculated by regressing the Time 2 variable on the corresponding Time 1 variable, with the
standardized residuals becoming the new variable reflecting change over the month-long
challenge. ** p < .01.
To determine whether improvements in well-being were due to increases in nature relatedness,
mediation analyses were conducted using both Baron and Kenny’s technique (1986) and a
bootstrapping method (Preacher & Hayes, 2008). Both approaches revealed significant partial
4 4.14
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
Time 1 Time 2
Average Well-Being
Results of the 30x30 Nature Challenge Page 8
.10**
.24**
R2change =.05
.14** (.16**)
mediation (see Table 5 and Fig. 4; Sobel Z = 4.53, p < .001; bootstrapping path = 0.22, 95%
confidence interval, or CI = [0.59, 1.61]). The well-being benefits associated with greater nature
contact were partly due to increases in nature relatedness. In other words, people who spent
more time in nature during the month of May showed improvements in well-being, and this was
partly due to (mediated by) a strengthened sense of connectedness with the natural environment.
Table 5
Regression Analysis for Variables Predicting Well-Being Change
Variable
β
SE β
t
R2
Step 1
Nature Contact
.16
.02
7.48**
.03
Step 2
Nature Contact
.14
.02
6.52**
Nature Relatedness Change
.22
.02
10.72**
.05
Note: change scores for nature relatedness and the composite well-being variable were
calculated to capture variation from Time 1 to 2. Each variable at Time 2 was regressed on the
corresponding Time 1 variable, with the standardized residuals becoming the new variable
reflecting change over the month-long challenge. ** p < .01.
Figure 4.
Mediation model for nature contact, nature relatedness change, and change in well-
being.
Note: mediation model for the effect of change in nature contact on change in well-being via
change in nature relatedness. Values outside parentheses are standardized regression coefficients
derived from multiple regression analyses, following Baron and Kenny’s (1986) procedure.
Along the lower path, the number inside parentheses is the standardized regression coefficient
for the relationship between nature contact and well-being before the mediator was added to the
model. Asterisks indicate significant coefficients (**p < .01).
Change in
Nature
Relatedness
Change in
Well-Being
Change in
Nature
Contact
Results of the 30x30 Nature Challenge Page 9
Effects of the 30x30 Nature Challenge on Work Functioning
A number of workplaces across Canada publicized the challenge to their employees. At the
beginning of the survey, respondents were asked if they had learned about the 30x30 challenge at
work. Participants who indicated 'yes' (n = 332) were directed to three additional questions
about job functioning (those who answered 'no' to this item skipped these questions): how
satisfied they were with their job in the previous month, how well they were getting along with
colleagues, and how productive they felt they were in their work role.
Participants reported no changes in either job satisfaction or interactions with co-workers.
People did feel they were being slightly more productive in their work roles at the end of the
challenge, however (Table 6).
Table 6
Change in Job Functioning from the Beginning to End of May
Note: For each time point, table presents mean scores (on 1-5 scale), with standard deviations in
parentheses. Results of paired-samples t-tests, comparing means, with effect sizes (Cohen's d) in
parentheses. Due to non-significant differences on 2 of 3 items, no composite variable was
computed. ** p < .01.
Discussion
The purpose of surveying participants was to assess whether the 30x30 nature challenge was
effective in promoting nature contact. The survey was designed to measure changes in well-
being and subjective connectedness with nature. Overall, participants reported that the 30x30
challenge was a positive experience. Not only did people almost double their weekly nature
contact, but participants also had better moods and less stress at the end of the challenge.
Despite the fact that challenge participants were highly nature related at the beginning of the
study, there were still increases in connectedness. The largest effects were for the nature related-
self and nature related-experience dimensions, reflecting enhanced self-identification with the
natural environment and a greater desire for nature contact. The perspective dimension of nature
relatedness reflects a pro-environmental attitude. The high scores on this aspect of
connectedness at the beginning of the study suggest challenge participants were already
conscious of ecological issues. The purpose of the nature challenge is to reconnect Canadians
with nature, as opposed to a direct environmental attitude intervention. Although repeated and
increased nature contact may promote pro-environmental attitudes, educational information is
likely an important component in fostering more environmental concern. In a less nature related
Time 1
M (SD)
Time 2
M (SD)
t (d)
job satisfaction
3.82 (1.01)
3.92 (0.94)
1.62!(0.10)
getting along with colleagues
4.26 (0.78)
4.34 (0.73)
1.82!(0.10)
productive in work role
3.93 (0.86)
4.17 (0.76)
4.68**!(0.25)
Results of the 30x30 Nature Challenge Page 10
or less ecologically minded group of people, combining natural history education with nature
contact may be effective in cultivating connectedness and motivating environmental behaviour.
The well-being benefits people experience when spending time in nature are also likely to foster
greater environmental awareness and concern. The more contact people have with the natural
environment, the more they are likely to feel connected with nature and want to protect it. When
nature contact results in more positive feelings and reduced stress, these experiences are likely to
be self-rewarding, motivating people to maintain regular nature contact. Modern lifestyles often
make this challenging and can disconnect people from the natural environment. The results of
the nature challenge suggest that, with commitment and effort, it is possible to find time to
reconnect and experience the mental health benefits that come from regular nature contact.
Regular nature contact is possible, even the city. In the responses to open-ended survey
questions, many challenge participants reported feeling happier, just by having lunch outside or
walking through a park. For some people, nature contact was already a regular part of their daily
routine, but others noted that making the effort each day eventually became an enjoyable new
habit. Not everyone was successful in meeting their goals for nature time, but for those who did,
the result was greater happiness and connection with the natural environment. For the workplace
participants, there was an added benefit of feeling more productive on the job. Time spent in
nature seems to have positive spillover effects in that daily doses of nature are beneficial for
well-being, beyond the positive momentary experiences of nature contact.
Limitations and Future Directions
Despite the encouraging results of the challenge, there are a number of limitations to consider
with this research. First, there are several other potential factors that could account for why
participants experienced greater well-being at the end of May. Weather usually improves and
temperatures increase at this time of year in Canada. Although this can coincide with the
unpleasant onset of biting insects (indeed several participants mentioned this in the open-ended
questions), warmer and sunnier weather is likely to enhance well-being. Nonetheless, relative
increases (although small) in nature contact were associated with improvements in well-being,
suggesting there are good reasons to encourage regular nature contact. It is also possible that
increases in well-being and nature contact are the result of changes in workload or vacation time.
Assessing these, and other factors such as weather, will be important in future work testing
nature's causal effects on well-being.
The research design was correlational in nature, and participants were self-selected. Challenge
participants are familiar with the DSF, so are likely not representative of all Canadians; they
were also more nature related, potentially creating a ceiling effect in terms of measuring change.
It is also possible that challenge participants were above average in their daily nature contact at
the beginning of the study, although reports varied considerably (10% of participants reported no
nature contact at all at the beginning of the challenge; this percentage dropped to 2.2% by the
end of May). Further work, examining weekly nature exposure in a more diverse sample of
Canadians would be a useful goal in future studies.
Due to the high face validity of the survey questions and the explicit goals of the study, it is
possible that the results are due to demand characteristics - that participants were reporting what
Results of the 30x30 Nature Challenge Page 11
they believed the researchers expected. There were no reported changes over time for some
activities, however (e.g. time sleeping, eating, and relaxing). Thus, the surveys may have
captured genuine shifts in how people spent their time during the challenge. Future research
would benefit from the inclusion of a control group, and assessment of potential confounding
factors such as weather, socio-economic status, and geography.
Finally, an important consideration in any interpretation of these results is the large sample size;
the magnitude of the correlations and effect sizes should be considered even where findings
reach statistical significance. The changes in nature relatedness are relatively small and the
contribution of nature relatedness to the nature contact-well-being relationship is also small. It is
encouraging, however, that even a few additional hours in nature each week has an effect on
well-being. Participants reported improved mood and mental calm, but also decreased stress and
negativity. This is consistent with the research evidence that brief nature contact enhances
positive mood and reduces stress responses (see Selhub & Logan, 2012, for a review of the
physical and psychological effects of nature). Nature contact may be a relatively easy, low-cost
intervention to promote physical and mental health. Indeed, promoting nature contact as a way
to enhance personal well-being may be a way to increase both human and environmental health
simultaneously.
Conclusion
In sum, the 30x30 challenge was successful in encouraging participants to increase their regular
nature contact. The commitment to spending more time in nature had benefits for participants'
nature relatedness and well-being. The 30x30 nature challenge is a voluntary commitment with
self-selected participants, however the results suggest that increased nature time can promote
happiness and strengthen human-nature bonds. Our natural environment is an important mental
health resource. Human well-being and ecological sustainability are complementary, not
competing goals and our connection with nature offers a potential 'happy path to sustainability'.
Results of the 30x30 Nature Challenge Page 12
References
Baron, R. M., & Kenny, D. A. (1986). The moderator-mediator variable distinction in social
psychological research: Conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. Journal of
Personality and Social Psychology, 51, 1173–1182.
Nisbet, E. K. L., Zelenski, J. M., & Murphy, S. A. (2009). The Nature Relatedness Scale:
Linking individuals’ connection with nature to environmental concern and behavior.
Environment and Behavior, 41, 715-740.
Preacher, K. J., & Hayes, A. F. (2008). Asymptotic and resampling strategies for assessing and
comparing indirect effects in multiple mediator models. Behavior Research Methods, 40,
879–891.
Selhub, E. M., & Logan, A. C. (2102). Your brain on nature. Mississauga, ON: John Wiley &
Sons Canada, Ltd.
Results of the 30x30 Nature Challenge Page 13
Appendix: Nature Challenge 30x30-English Survey:
Welcome to Canada’s 30x30 Nature Challenge!
We know that you care how information about you is used and safeguarded. The purpose of an informed consent is
to ensure that you understand the purpose of the study and the nature of your involvement. The informed consent
must provide sufficient information such that you have the opportunity to determine whether you wish to participate
in the study.
Informed Consent
Present study. Canada’s 30x30 Nature Challenge
Research Personnel. The following people are involved in this research project and may be contacted at any time if
you have questions or concerns:
Dr. Elizabeth Nisbet (email: elizabethnisbet@trentu.ca, 705-748-1011 ext 7855)
Should you have ethical concerns about this research, please contact:
Karen Mauro, Certifications and Regulatory Compliance Officer, Office of Research at Trent University,
phone: 705-748-1011 ext. 7896, email: kmauro@trentu.ca
the Research Ethics Board, Office of Research at Trent University, Suite 344, Gzowski College, Symons
Campus, Peterborough, Ontario, Canada K9J 7B8).
Purpose. The purpose of this research is to advance our understanding of how time in nature is related to well-
being. Additionally, we are investigating the effects of people’s connection with nature. You will receive feedback
about the general result of the study following the challenge.
Task Requirements. We will ask you to fill out two online surveys, at the beginning and end of the month-long
challenge.
Potential Risk/Discomfort. Although we do not expect there to be discomfort associated with this study, in the
event that you do feel uncomfortable, you may choose to not answer any questions. You may also withdraw from
the study at anytime with absolutely no adverse consequences.
Confidentiality. The data collected in this study will be kept confidential. The data is being collected through the
secure servers with Trent University’s Qualtrics survey tool. The researcher’s data files will be encrypted and stored
in a locked laboratory. Only the Trent University researchers will see your responses. Any identifying information,
such as your email address, will be stored separately from your responses once the study is finished. The email
address you enter here will only be used to invite to you to complete the May 1st follow-up survey. Only aggregated
scores from these questionnaires will be provided to the David Suzuki Foundation and only aggregated results will
be used in presentations or publications of this research.
Right to Withdraw. At any point during the study, you have the right to not complete certain questions, or to
withdraw from the study completely without penalty, in which case your data will not be used. You may withdraw
from the survey at any time by emailing the researcher (elizabethnisbet@trentu.ca).
I have read the above description of the 30x30 Nature Challenge study. The data collected may be used in research
publications and/or for teaching purposes. My endorsement indicates that I agree to participate in the study, and this
in no way constitutes a waiver of my rights. I am at least 16 years of age.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
By entering my email address and clicking "next", I acknowledge that I have read and understood this agreement,
that I have executed this agreement voluntarily. Please print out a copy of this consent form for your own
records. This study has received clearance by the Trent University Research Ethics Board (2013-22884).
Please enter your email below:
Results of the 30x30 Nature Challenge Page 14
Is your organization officially participating in Canada’s 30x30 Nature Challenge?
! Yes!(1)!
! No!(2)!
If!No!was!Selected,!Then!Participants!Skipped!To!End!of!Page!
Which organization do you work for? (if your workplace is not shown, please select "other" and
then just type in the name of your workplace when prompted)
In the past month, how satisfied were you with your job?
! Very!Unsatisfied!(1)!
! !!(2)!
! !!(3)!
! !!(4)!
! Very!Satisfied!(5)!
In the past month, how well have you been getting along with your colleagues?
! Very!poorly!(1)!
! !!(2)!
! !!(3)!
! !!(4)!
! Very!well!(5)!
In the last month, how productive have you been in your work role?
! Not!at!all!productive!(1)!
! !!(2)!
! !!(3)!
! !!(4)!
! Very!productive!(5)!
Results of the 30x30 Nature Challenge Page 15
Please enter a number in each box, below, which best represents your time use in the last week.
In the last week, how many hours did you spend . . .
Shopping!!
At!a!gym!or!fitness!facility!
On!a!walk,!hike,!or!activity!in!nature!!
Visiting!friends!!
Watching!television!!
In!a!vehicle!!
Talking!on!the!phone/texting!!
Email/surfing!the!internet!!
Eating!!
Sleeping!!
Relaxing!!
For each of the following, please rate the extent to which you agree with each statement, using
the scale from 1 to 5 as shown below. Please respond as you really feel, rather than how you
think “most people” feel.
!
Disagree!
strongly!(1)!
Disagree!a!
little!(2)!
Neither!agree!
or!disagree!(3)!
Agree!a!little!
(4)!
Agree!
strongly!(5)!
I feel vital,
energetic and
enthusiastic
! !
! !
! !
! !
! !
I often feel stressed
during the day
! !
! !
! !
! !
! !
I have difficulty
getting to sleep or
staying asleep
! !
! !
! !
! !
! !
I often experience
feelings of
negativity
(irritability, anger,
frustration)
! !
! !
! !
! !
! !
I often experience
feelings of mental
calm, contentment
and peacefulness
! !
! !
! !
! !
! !
Results of the 30x30 Nature Challenge Page 16
For each of the following, please rate the extent to which you agree with each statement, using
the scale from 1 to 5 as shown below. Please respond as you really feel, rather than how you
think “most people” feel.
!
Disagree!
strongly!(1)!
Disagree!a!
little!(2)!
Neither!agree!
or!disagree!(3)!
Agree!a!little!
(4)!
Agree!
strongly!(5)!
I enjoy being
outdoors, even in
unpleasant weather.
! !
! !
! !
! !
! !
Some species are
just meant to die
out or become
extinct.
! !
! !
! !
! !
! !
Humans have the
right to use natural
resources any way
we want
! !
! !
! !
! !
! !
My ideal vacation
spot would be a
remote, wilderness
area.
! !
! !
! !
! !
! !
I always think
about how my
actions affect the
environment.
! !
! !
! !
! !
! !
I enjoy digging in
the earth and
getting dirt on my
hands.
! !
! !
! !
! !
! !
My connection to
nature and the
environment is a
part of my
spirituality.
! !
! !
! !
! !
! !
I am very aware of
environmental
issues.
! !
! !
! !
! !
! !
I take notice of
wildlife wherever I
am.
! !
! !
! !
! !
! !
I don’t often go out
in nature.
! !
! !
! !
! !
! !
Nothing I do will
change problems in
other places on the
planet.
! !
! !
! !
! !
! !
Results of the 30x30 Nature Challenge Page 17
!
Disagree!
strongly!(1)!
Disagree!a!
little!(2)!
Neither!agree!
or!disagree!(3)!
Agree!a!little!
(4)!
Agree!
strongly!(5)!
I am not separate
from nature, but a
part of nature.
! !
! !
! !
! !
! !
The thought of
being deep in the
woods, away from
civilization, is
frightening.
! !
! !
! !
! !
! !
My feelings about
nature do not affect
how I live my life.
! !
! !
! !
! !
! !
Animals, birds and
plants should have
fewer rights than
humans.
! !
! !
! !
! !
! !
Even in the middle
of the city, I notice
nature around me.
! !
! !
! !
! !
! !
My relationship to
nature is an
important part of
who I am.
! !
! !
! !
! !
! !
Conservation is
unnecessary
because nature is
strong enough to
recover from any
human impact.
! !
! !
! !
! !
! !
The state of non-
human species is an
indicator of the
future for humans.
! !
! !
! !
! !
! !
I think a lot about
the suffering of
animals.
! !
! !
! !
! !
! !
I feel very
connected to all
living things and
the earth.
! !
! !
! !
! !
! !
Results of the 30x30 Nature Challenge Page 18
How much do you expect to enjoy participating in the 30x30 Nature Challenge?
! Not!at!all!(1)!
! !!(2)!
! !!(3)!
! !!(4)!
! Very!much!(5)!
What is your gender?
! Female!(1)!
! Male!(2)!
! Other!(3)!
! Prefer!not!to!answer!(4)!
Your birth year:
(response options ranged from 1997 to 1898)
----------------------------------------
You have now completed the first step in the Nature Challenge. Thank you!
At the end of the Challenge, on May 31st, we will contact you by email with a follow up survey.
By filling out the surveys before and after taking the 30x30 Nature Challenge, you will be
helping us document the benefits of getting outside. Over the next 30 days, David Suzuki
Foundation staff will be supporting you in getting outside with regular tips and stories. And don’t
forget to check out www.davidsuzuki.org/30x30challenge to join our national photo contest!
The follow-up survey administered at the end of the May contained the same questions
(demographic information was omitted). Items that asked about the prior month on the May
1st survey were worded to inquire about the prior week on the May 31st survey. The final
question about anticipated enjoyment of the challenge was reworded to ask about actual
enjoyment. Two additional open-ended questions were added.
Please describe any changes in your mood or quality of life over the past month (max. 150
words):
How has the 30x30 Challenge impacted your day-to-day life? (max. 150 words):
Thank you for participating in the Nature Challenge and for your help with this study! This
completes the official nature challenge research. You have helped us to better understand how
nature influences our well-being. Look for more information on the science of connecting with
nature and results of the study on the David Suzuki Foundation website and Facebook page in
June.
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
Article
Full-text available
In this article, we attempt to distinguish between the properties of moderator and mediator variables at a number of levels. First, we seek to make theorists and researchers aware of the importance of not using the terms moderator and mediator interchangeably by carefully elaborating, both conceptually and strategically, the many ways in which moderators and mediators differ. We then go beyond this largely pedagogical function and delineate the conceptual and strategic implications of making use of such distinctions with regard to a wide range of phenomena, including control and stress, attitudes, and personality traits. We also provide a specific compendium of analytic procedures appropriate for making the most effective use of the moderator and mediator distinction, both separately and in terms of a broader causal system that includes both moderators and mediators. (46 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Hypotheses involving mediation are common in the behavioral sciences. Mediation exists when a predictor affects a dependent variable indirectly through at least one intervening variable, or mediator. Methods to assess mediation involving multiple simultaneous mediators have received little attention in the methodological literature despite a clear need. We provide an overview of simple and multiple mediation and explore three approaches that can be used to investigate indirect processes, as well as methods for contrasting two or more mediators within a single model. We present an illustrative example, assessing and contrasting potential mediators of the relationship between the helpfulness of socialization agents and job satisfaction. We also provide SAS and SPSS macros, as well as Mplus and LISREL syntax, to facilitate the use of these methods in applications.
The Nature Relatedness Scale: Linking individuals' connection with nature to environmental concern and behavior
  • E K L Nisbet
  • J M Zelenski
  • S A Murphy
Nisbet, E. K. L., Zelenski, J. M., & Murphy, S. A. (2009). The Nature Relatedness Scale: Linking individuals' connection with nature to environmental concern and behavior. Environment and Behavior, 41, 715-740.
Your brain on nature
  • E M Selhub
  • A C Logan
Selhub, E. M., & Logan, A. C. (2102). Your brain on nature. Mississauga, ON: John Wiley & Sons Canada, Ltd.