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Abstract

Currently, a range of common terms are being used differently within government and the emergency management community. This paper provides a foundation for an understanding of the term 'resilience' so that constructive discussion can emerge amongst those involved in disaster management policy and practice. In doing so, we provide a short review of how the term can be used differently within policy, as well as how it has come to be influential in emergency management policy.
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... With a collection of HF, VHF and UHF antennas, the station is reportedly concerned with monitoring Chinese and North Korean signals. 27 According to a JDA press release in October 2006, the station was scheduled to become operational in early 2007. 28 Data collected at the Seburi-yama SIGINT station is processed and analysed by the 2 nd Warning Data Processing Unit (until March 2001 called the Warning Data Unit) at the JASDF's base at Kasuga, and then forwarded to the Operational Intelligence Unit at the Air Defense Command HQ at Yokota. ...
... Although China's growing middle class is not yet mobilising en masse around a coherent agenda, expressions of dissatisfaction with the current regime have risen substantially over the past twenty years, despite the crackdown on the Tian'anmen Square protests in 1989. 27 Industrialisation of China's outer provinces is also occurring in the face of persistent independence movements in Xinjiang and Tibet that are supported politically and financially by diaspora communities and self-determination activists. 28 Meanwhile, Beijing has observed the contagion effects of financial crises against which China cannot be insulated as it seeks greater market penetration. ...
... And while bilateral trade had indeed grown significantly over the last ten years (US$964 million in 1996, i.e., 444 percent), their target was over-ambitious, reaching only around US$9 billion by 2010. 27 Accordingly, during Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao's visit to Pakistan in 2010, the two countries revised their target date and agreed to aim to reach US$15-18 billion by 2015 instead. 28 Finally, it is important to note that the bilateral trade is very much in China's favour, with Beijing enjoying a surplus of over US$8 billion in 2011. ...
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This article examines the link between China's grand strategy and its participation in multilateral organisations in Asia. It argues that Chinese multilateralism arises because multilateral organisations provide a highly effective mechanism for China to achieve its strategic objectives and not indicative of a more fundamental commitment by Beijing to promoting multilateral engagement on transnational issues more generally. The Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, ASEAN Plus Three, the East Asia Summit, Six-Party Talks and the South China Sea disputes are used to highlight both the continuing importance of unilateralism/bilateralism in Chinese grand strategy and the complex nature of Beijing’s multilateralism.
... Within the theoretical context of Woods' regimes, delivery agencies also need the adaptive capacity to move between strategies for the four possible realities, with an adaptive capacity that is enabled by agility and flexibility [14]. APDMs appear to support agility and flexibility by offering different contracting mechanisms with a wide spectrum of team collaboration and integration [67], encouraging diverse input to design, and using inclusive processes that can be extended to broader community engagement to facilitate identifying, understanding, and protecting against future hazards. ...
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As climate change increases the frequency and intensity of disasters and associated infrastructure damage, Alternative Project Delivery Methods are well positioned to enable innovative contracting and partnering methods for designing and delivering adaptation solutions that are more time- and cost-effective. However, where conventional “build-back-as-before” post-disaster reconstruction occurs, communities remain vulnerable to future disasters of similar or greater magnitude. In this conceptual paper, we draw on a variety of literature and emergent practices to present how such alternative delivery methods of reconstruction projects can systematically integrate “build-back-better” and introduce more resilient infrastructure outcomes. Considering existing knowledge regarding infrastructure resilience, post-disaster reconstruction and project delivery methods, we consider the resilience regimes of rebound, robustness, graceful extensibility, and sustained adaptability to present the potential for alternative project delivery methods to improve the agility and flexibility of infrastructure against future climate-related and other hazards. We discuss the criticality of continued pursuit of stakeholder engagement to support further improvements to project delivery methods, enabling new opportunities for engaging with a broader set of stakeholders, and for stakeholders to contribute new knowledge and insights to the design process. We conclude the significant potential for such methods to enable resilient infrastructure outcomes, through prioritizing resilience alongside time and cost. We also present a visual schematic in the form of a framework for enabling post-disaster infrastructure delivery for resilience outcomes, across different scales and timeframes of reconstruction. The findings have immediate implications for agencies managing disaster recovery efforts, offering decision-support for improving the adaptive capacity of infrastructure, the services they deliver, and capacities of the communities that rely on them.
... This, therefore, means recovery is not just about rebuilding infrastructure, it should also include the plan for future economic growth [18]. This is essential to protect societies, assets, infrastructures, and institutions from disastrous events, and to train and exercise arrangements towards responding and recovering from them [19]. In this case [20], argued there is a strong link between disaster impact and preparedness for the possibilities of future occurrences. ...
Article
Earthquakes have become a constant threat in West Sumatra, Indonesia, with the most recent occurring in 2009. This phenomenon has been observed to be due to the inhabitation of people, predominantly the Minangkabau ethnic group in the “ring of fire,” which potentially causes the megathrust earthquakes and arguably shaped entrepreneurial behaviors. Therefore, the objective of this study was to examine the relationship between earthquake impact, preparedness for megathrust, fear of failure, Small Medium Enterprise (SME) financial performance, and entrepreneurs’ wellbeing. Furthermore, the fear of failure was regarded as a construct which significantly shaped the responses of entrepreneurs towards natural disasters. This investigation adopted a quantitative approach, using SmartPLS, to survey 120 small and medium enterprises affected by the 2009 West Sumatra’s earthquake. The results showed the post-earthquake impact was positively and significantly related to fear of failure while the relationships between fear of failure, financial performance, and well-being of SME were also established. Moreover, the context of Minangkabau as a completely Muslim society generated arguments regarding religiosity and organizational resilience. These factors were discovered to have influenced entrepreneurship towards making a significant contribution to the body of knowledge in disaster entrepreneurship studies.
... The aim of many current emergency management policies is to use the Prevention, Preparedness, Response, and Recovery (PPRR) model to work toward a more disaster-resilient population, that is, one that is able to recognize current and future risk, reduce and manage those risks, and is better-able to recover from disasters (Council of Australian Governments [COAG], 2011;Prosser and Peters, 2011). Increased emphasis on resilience requires emergency practitioners to shift focus from a top-down "command-and-control" model to one more strategic, participatory, and dialogic with communities and stakeholders; where value is increasingly recognized in both authoritative and citizen information and practices (Burnside-Lawry et al., 2013). ...
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The adoption of location-based information sharing technologies, and the emergence of volunteered geographic information (VGI), has seen changes to community involvement in disaster management. The concept of resilience, and recognition of the capacity for renewal, reorganization , and societal development, has gained currency in disaster management. However, the opportunities presented by spatially referenced data for sourcing contextual information for understanding processes of social-ecological resilience and fostering local inclusion has not been examined. We examine how web 2.0 platforms, including VGI and social media, can support resilience building, and critically evaluate how these technologies potentially undermine resilience. We concentrate our analysis on factors deemed important for community disaster resilience through review of recent literature, policy documents, and author experience. Establishing which elements of VGI in disaster management should be emphasized, such as increased flexibility or individual empowerment, and which require careful management, such as compromised privacy or data quality, will enable VGI to become less opportunistic, data-centric, disruptive, and exclusionary, and allow for more reliable, community-centric, complementary, and socially inclusive practices. Incorporating awareness and training on collaborative geoweb technologies into disaster preparedness programs will equip individuals to make informed judgments on VGI content and reduce unintended consequences of social media initiatives.
... For example, Australia's National Partnership Agreement on Natural Disaster Resilience defines resilience as "the capacity to prevent/mitigate, prepare for, respond to and recover from the impacts of disasters" (COAG 2009:Schedule A). Senior Australian bureaucrats, when discussing the establishment of new arrangements, state the following: "the foundations of this new way of thinking came largely from work within the field of organisational resilience...the aim of current EM policy is to use [the PPRR] model to work towards a more disaster resilient Australia" (Prosser and Peters 2010). Australia is not the only country where resilience and PPRR are closely connected. ...
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Although many researchers explore disaster resilience as an ongoing process or as a measurable property with indicators, few study whether disaster resilience policies are likely to lead to outcomes that are adaptive over the longer term. Some measures intended to increase local resilience may actually decrease the ability to cope with large-scale disasters. In the context of flood management, this work looks at activities supported in the name of resilience and whether they will result in long-term adaptive outcomes. It is proposed that the interpretation of "resilience" in emergency management has been influenced by pre-existing disaster management concepts, such as the prevent-prepare-respond-recover (PPRR) framework. These have not been adequately reassessed in the light of resilience theories. Disaster resilience was examined using the PPRR framework as a lens. With a focus on flooding, national disaster resilience policy documents from four countries and the global arena were studied to find out which activities were linked to resilience and whether this varies between countries. Subnational policies were also examined in areas that had recently experienced major flooding. Resilience interpretations in some countries were found to support resistance strategies while others were more accommodating. The continued development of floodplains, facilitated by structural mitigation, is an example of a highly resilient but maladaptive feedback loop. This results in risk accumulation and higher consequences during extreme floods. Research explores ways interventions could alter feedbacks and transform to more desirable resilience regimes. It is proposed that negotiating long-term adaptation pathways should be the ultimate aim for planners and emergency managers rather than resilience, which tends to support the status quo. Emergency management concepts and frameworks need to be amended in the light of resilience theories to make it easier to achieve adaptive outcomes.
... As evidenced in previous studies, there is a growing awareness of integrating previous experience in policy making processes (Prosser and Peters, 2010;Marsden and Stead, 2011). However, most previous studies are built on manual content analysis or case analysis methods, which involve considerable subjectivity and are unable to handle massive policy texts (Zirn and Stuckenschmidt, 2014). ...
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The management of bridges has major influence on the safety of transport system. Bridge management (BM) practices are carried out in compliance with policies and regulations. This study aims to identify the major aspects of BM from policy documents. We conducted a two-round retrieve to construct a comprehensive dataset of 263 related policies and regulations issued in the 31 provinces/municipalities of mainland China in recent 30 years. The Author-Topic Model (ATM) text mining approach was adopted to identify the key topics in the policies. The revealed 12 topics correspond to 12 major aspects of BM. Some topics, such as bridge maintenance and safety responsibility system, are gaining increasing attention in recent years, while the prevalence of some topics, such as bridge maintenance department configuration, is decreasing. The Granger causality tests suggest that remedial measures attract immediate regulatory attention in response to accidents, while proactive measures contribute to bridge collapse accident reduction, however, in a relatively long term. These findings provide practical implications for policy makers by reminding them that proactive measures should be emphasized alongside remedial measures.
Chapter
The Nexus of Resilience and Public Policy in a Modern Risk Society is to investigate the nexus of resilience and public policy to articulate resilience-based public policy which can be utilized in diverse contexts and scales to operationalize resilience in a constantly changing, complex, and uncertain risk society. The major goal of resilience-based public policy is to provide pathways for nurturing, strengthening, or creating resilience for communities, different layers of societies, and their relations. This could be implemented through innovative dimensions of knowledge and practices, i.e., by recombining and restructuring existing knowledge and practices, and more specifically, by going back and forth between concepts and practices to implement systemic and overarching analysis of multifaceted concepts, cases, and practices that transcend disciplines or sectors. Especially, with special attention to relationships or boundary areas, resilience-based public policy will be elucidated which is a broad, flexible, and multifaceted framework for actions for resilient societies.
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Evidence-based policymaking is often promoted within liberal democracies as the best means for government to balance political values with technical considerations. Under the evidence-based mandate, both experts and non-experts often assume that policy problems are sufficiently tractable and that experts can provide impartial and usable advice to government so that problems like climate change adaptation can be effectively addressed; at least, where there is political will to do so. This book compares the politics and science informing climate adaptation policy in Australia and the UK to understand how realistic these expectations are in practice. At a time when both academics and practitioners have repeatedly called for more and better science to anticipate climate change impacts and, thereby, to effectively adapt, this book explains why a dearth of useful expert evidence about future climate is not the most pressing problem. Even when it is sufficiently credible and relevant for decision-making, climate science is often ignored or politicised to ensure the evidence-based mandate is coherent with prevailing political, economic and epistemic ideals. There are other types of policy knowledge too that are, arguably, much more important. This comparative analysis reveals what the politics of climate change mean for both the development of useful evidence and for the practice of evidence-based policymaking.
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Volunteered geographic information (VGI) refers to changing practices in recent years associated with technological advancements that provide increasing opportunities for private citizens to produce geographic information. VGI activities range from public contributions to online crowdsourced mapping projects to location-related posts on social media sites. These changing practices have important implications for citizens, traditional authoritative systems of geographic knowledge production, and the disciplines of geography and GIScience. One field affected by VGI is disaster management, with numerous studies reporting on the opportunities associated with increased citizen data and involvement in crisis response. There are also significant limitations to the application of VGI, however, notably related to scale, the digital divide, trust, uneven power relations, and adaptability of existing authoritative systems, such as formal emergency management. In this article, these issues and more are critically discussed through examination of three discreet yet related studies of VGI in community bushfire (wildfire) risk reduction in Australia. Although each study has its own unique contributions already published, the collective insight gained by analyzing the studies together provides new and deeper perspectives on critical issues of relevance to both disaster management policies and geography and GIScience. Importantly, the article advocates for greater emphasis on the social aspect of VGI, with citizens mapping and sharing knowledge together, rather than on individual observations and large volumes of data. Further, it raises questions of some of the much-promoted promises of VGI, particularly those that suggest that VGI can allow “everyone” to contribute to geographic knowledge production.
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Resilience is widely seen as a desirable system property in environmental management. This paper explores the concept of resilience to natural hazards, using weather-related hazards in coastal megacities as an example. The paper draws on the wide literature on megacities, coastal hazards, hazard risk reduction strategies, and resilience within environmental management. Some analysts define resilience as a system attribute, whilst others use it as an umbrella concept for a range of system attributes deemed desirable. These umbrella concepts have not been made operational to support planning or management. It is recommended that resilience only be used in a restricted sense to describe specific system attributes concerning (i) the amount of disturbance a system can absorb and still remain within the same state or domain of attraction and (ii) the degree to which the system is capable of self-organisation. The concept of adaptive capacity, which has emerged in the context of climate change, can then be adopted as the umbrella concept, where resilience will be one factor influencing adaptive capacity. This improvement to conceptual clarity would foster much-needed communication between the natural hazards and the climate change communities and, more importantly, offers greater potential in application, especially when attempting to move away from disaster recovery to hazard prediction, disaster prevention, and preparedness.
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Traditional risk management and business continuity management practices are well suited to meeting the challenges of foreseeable risk. In a rapidly changing world, organisations may be subject to natural disasters, widespread and sustained critical infrastructure disruptions and the impacts of international supply chain disruptions. These threats can exceed the scale foreseen and planned for by an organisation. The ability to survive and take advantage of these events depends on the resilience capacity of the organisation. An organisation wishing to survive and prosper from adversity could optimise its opportunity by enhancing its resilience attributes in preparation for such events.
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As organisations engage with communities they develop social capital that adds value to their community. Social capital in the context of this paper refers to the investment of an organisation in community programs where employee involvement is central to the success of these programs. If organisations intend to engage communities in effective emergency management, this paper suggests that relationships and networks need to be established that form the basis for all planning and community response including response to emergencies. A qualitative study of Australian and Canadian credit union employees' community engagement indicated that organisations need to actively engage with their local and regional communities by giving back, volunteering and partnering with other organisations such as local hospitals, schools and non-profit organisations so they have the capacity to respond to issues and emergencies. Credit unions' social responsiveness is fundamental to their business practice and it is the platform for community engagement and responsiveness.
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Over the last few years there has been considerable interest in the idea of resilience across all areas of society. Like any new area or field this has produced a vast array of definitions, processes, management systems and measurement tools which together have clouded the concept of resilience. Many of us have forgotten that ultimately resilience is not just about 'bouncing back from adversity' but is more broadly concerned with adaptive capacity and how we better understand and address uncertainty in our internal and external environments. The basis of organisational resilience is a fundamental understanding and treatment of risk, particularly non-routine or disruption-related risk. This paper presents a number of conceptual models of organisational resilience that we have developed to demonstrate the range of inter-dependant factors that need to be considered in the management of such risk. These conceptual models illustrate that effective resilience is built upon a range of different strategies that enhance both 'hard' and 'soft' organisational capabilities. They emphasise the concept that there is no quick fix, no single process, management system or software application that will create resilience.
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Taking advantage of two large, population-based, and longitudinal datasets collected after the 1999 floods in Mexico (n=561) and the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks in New York (n=1267), we examined the notion that resilience may be best understood and measured as one member of a set of trajectories that may follow exposure to trauma or severe stress. We hypothesized that resistance, resilience, recovery, relapsing/remitting, delayed dysfunction, and chronic dysfunction trajectories were all possible in the aftermath of major disasters. Semi-parametric group-based modeling yielded the strongest evidence for resistance (no or mild and stable symptoms), resilience (initially moderate or severe symptoms followed by a sharp decrease), recovery (initially moderate or severe symptoms followed by a gradual decrease), and chronic dysfunction (moderate or severe and stable symptoms), as these trajectories were prevalent in both samples. Neither Mexico nor New York showed a relapsing/remitting trajectory, and only New York showed a delayed dysfunction trajectory. Understanding patterns of psychological distress over time may present opportunities for interventions that aim to increase resilience, and decrease more adverse trajectories, after mass traumatic events.
Federalism and the Emergency Services', Paper developed from a speech presented at the AFAC/ Bushfire CRC 2009 Conference', The Australian Journal of Emergency Management
  • R Wilkins
Wilkins, R. (2010), 'Federalism and the Emergency Services', Paper developed from a speech presented at the AFAC/ Bushfire CRC 2009 Conference', The Australian Journal of Emergency Management, 25 (1), pp.3-6.
Australian Emergency Management Arrangements
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Attorney-General's Department (2009), Australian Emergency Management Arrangements, website, URL: http://www.ema.gov.au/www/emaweb/rwpattach.nsf/VAP/(3A 6790B96C927794AF1031D9395C5C20)~Australian+Emergenc y+Management+Arrangements.pdf/$file/Australian+Emerge ncy+Management+Arrangements.pdf, Accessed 16/2/2010.
National Disaster Resilience Statement', Excerpt from Communiqué, Council of Australian Governments
COAG, (2009), 'National Disaster Resilience Statement', Excerpt from Communiqué, Council of Australian Governments, Brisbane, 7 December.