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An applied framework for Positive Education


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The increasing momentum of the Positive Psychology movement has seen burgeoning research in positive mental health and adaptive functioning; a critical question is how this knowledge can now be applied in real-world settings. Positive Education seeks to combine principles of Positive Psychology with best-practice teaching and with educational paradigms to promote optimal development and flourishing in the school setting. Interest in Positive Education continues to grow in line with increasing recognition of the important role played by schools in fostering wellbeing, and the link between wellbeing and academic success. To date, however, a framework to guide the implementation of Positive Education in schools has been lacking. This paper provides an overview of the Geelong Grammar School (GGS) Model for Positive Education, an applied framework developed over five years of implementing Positive Education as a whole-school approach in one Australian school. Explicit and implicit teaching in combination with school-wide practices target six wellbeing domains, including positive emotions, positive engagement, positive accomplishment, positive purpose, positive relationships, and positive health, underpinned by a focus on character strengths. The Model provides a structured pathway for implementing Positive Education in schools, a framework to guide evaluation and research, and a foundation for further theoretical discussion and development.
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Norrish, J. M., Williams, P., O’Connor, M., & Robinson, J. (2013). An applied framework for positive
education. International Journal of Wellbeing, 3(2), 147-161. doi:10.5502/ijw.v3i2.2
Meredith O’Connor
Geelong Grammar School &
The University of Melbourne
Copyright belongs to the author(s)
An applied framework for Positive Education
Jacolyn M. Norrish · Paige Williams · Meredith O’Connor
Justin Robinson
Abstract: The increasing momentum of the Positive Psychology movement has seen burgeoning
research in positive mental health and adaptive functioning; a critical question is how this
knowledge can now be applied in real-world settings. Positive Education seeks to combine
principles of Positive Psychology with best-practice teaching and with educational paradigms to
promote optimal development and flourishing in the school setting. Interest in Positive
Education continues to grow in line with increasing recognition of the important role played by
schools in fostering wellbeing, and the link between wellbeing and academic success. To date,
however, a framework to guide the implementation of Positive Education in schools has been
lacking. This paper provides an overview of the Geelong Grammar School (GGS) Model for
Positive Education, an applied framework developed over five years of implementing Positive
Education as a whole-school approach in one Australian school. Explicit and implicit teaching in
combination with school-wide practices target six wellbeing domains, including positive
emotions, positive engagement, positive accomplishment, positive purpose, positive
relationships, and positive health, underpinned by a focus on character strengths. The Model
provides a structured pathway for implementing Positive Education in schools, a framework to
guide evaluation and research, and a foundation for further theoretical discussion and
Keywords: positive psychology, Positive Education, wellbeing, flourishing
1. An applied framework for Positive Education
There is increasing recognition that good mental and physical health consists of the presence of
wellbeing in addition to the absence of pathology and illness (Keyes, 2006), and the emergence
of the Positive Psychology movement has seen a significant redirection of scientific inquiry
towards the exploration of optimal human functioning (Rusk & Waters, 2013). A wealth of new
knowledge has been generated as a result, but a remaining question is how this knowledge can
be applied in real-world settings to promote wellbeing across the general population. This
question is particularly salient in regards to young people, given levels of mental health
difficulties observed during adolescence and the transition to adulthood that are cause for
concern (Sawyer, Miller-Lewis, & Clark, 2007).
Schools are one of the most important developmental contexts in young peoples’ lives, and
can be a key source of the skills and competencies that support their capacity for successful
adaptation (Hamilton & Hamilton, 2009). Furthermore, schools provide accessible and
relatively stable sites within which to locate interventions to promote wellbeing (Bond et al.,
2007), and represent a common setting for children and adolescents, thus facilitating universal
promotion-based interventions (Short & Talley, 1997). Hence, schools are uniquely placed to
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Norrish, Williams, O’Connor, & Robinson
promote the wellbeing of young people and of school communities more broadly (Seligman,
Ernst, Gillham, Reivich, & Linkins, 2009).
Capitalising on this potential, Positive Education is a recently developed paradigm that,
broadly speaking, refers to the application of Positive Psychology in educational contexts
(Green, Oades, & Robinson, 2011). Seligman (2011) further defines Positive Education as
traditional education focused on academic skill development, complemented by approaches
that nurture wellbeing and promote good mental health. In addition, the significant and
transformative contribution that best-practice teaching and educational theories bring to the
process of applying principles of Positive Psychology in educational contexts should also be
acknowledged. Thus, Positive Education could more completely be described as bringing
together the science of Positive Psychology with best-practice teaching to encourage and
support schools and individuals within their communities to flourish.
While this goal is relatively clear-cut, the practical implementation of Positive Education is
complex, and to date there has been no empirically-based operational framework to guide its
application. In 2008, during a six-month visit by Professor Martin Seligman and with extensive
support from a team of international experts, Geelong Grammar School (GGS) began a
pioneering journey in applying Positive Psychology as a whole-school approach. The purpose
of this paper is to introduce the Geelong Grammar School Applied Framework for Positive
Education, which provides an empirically-informed roadmap for how Positive Psychology can
be applied and embedded in schools. More specifically, following the approach of Page and
Vella-Brodrick (2009) in explicating employee wellbeing, this paper will explore Positive
Education by discussing what flourishing is, why the promotion of positive mental health in
schools is so important, and, finally, the practical how of implementation. Together, this will
provide a structured pathway for implementing Positive Education in schools, a framework to
guide evaluation and research, and a foundation for further theoretical discussion and
2. Flourishing: What?
The fundamental goal of Positive Education is to promote flourishing or positive mental health
within the school community. To achieve this outcome first requires a clear definition of what
flourishing is. Exploration of what it means to live a good life is frequently characterised as
being consistent with one of two philosophical traditions: the hedonic approach and the
eudaimonic approach (Deci & Ryan, 2008). Hedonism is a philosophical school of thought that
focuses on feelings and experiences (Keyes & Annas, 2009), and is often associated with the
maximisation of pleasure and the minimisation of pain (Ryan & Deci, 2001). From this
perspective, a good life is one where a person frequently experiences positive emotions, and
feelings of happiness and satisfaction. Eudaimonia as a philosophical tradition posits that
happiness results from the actualisation of individual potential and from fulfilling one’s daimon
or true nature (Deci & Ryan, 2008). Where hedonic approaches focus on how people feel,
eudaimonic approaches focus on what people do, how they act, and the choices they make
(Keyes & Annas, 2009). From a eudaimonic perspective, being psychologically well involves
more than feelings of happiness and entails personal growth, giving to others, and living in
accordance with values (Ryff & Singer, 2008).
While research has tended to focus on either hedonic or eudaimonic approaches, recently
there has been increased recognition that both feeling good and functioning well are important
elements of psychological health (Keyes & Annas, 2009). Therefore, recent definitions of
flourishing combine hedonic and eudaimonic elements to create a comprehensive and holistic
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Norrish, Williams, O’Connor, & Robinson
approach. For example, Keyes (2002) defines flourishing as comprising three components: (1)
emotional (hedonic) wellbeing or the presence of positive feelings about oneself and life; (2)
social wellbeing, which includes feeling connected to others and valued by the community; and
(3) psychological (eudaimonic) wellbeing that focuses on functioning well. Seligman (2011)
proposes five elements of optimal wellbeing: positive emotions, engagement, relationships,
meaning, and achievement. Similarly, Diener et al. (2010) define flourishing as a psychosocial
construct that includes having rewarding and positive relationships, feeling competent and
confident, and believing that life is meaningful and purposeful.
While each of these various definitions takes a slightly different approach, the common
element is that recent conceptualisations of flourishing recognise that optimal wellbeing is a
multi-dimensional and holistic concept, and includes both hedonic (e.g., positive emotions and
emotional stability) and eudaimonic (e.g., self-esteem, growth, meaning) components. Hence,
within the GGS model for Positive Education, flourishing is seen to reflect both ‘feeling good’
and ‘doing good’ (Huppert & So, 2013). Feeling good is consistent with hedonic approaches and
includes a wide range of emotions and experiences such as feeling content about the past,
happy in the present, hopeful about the future, and able to cope with difficult emotions and
experiences in a healthy and adaptive way. Doing good is aligned with a eudaimonic approach
and focuses on equipping students with the skills and knowledge that help them to thrive
when faced with both challenges and opportunities. Doing good embodies functioning
effectively across a wide spectrum of human experiences. Also important is a commitment to
pro-social behaviours and choices that benefit others and the wider community. The simplicity
of the phrase ‘feeling good and doing good’ serves to ensure that even the youngest members
of the school community can begin to understand what it means to flourish.
Flourishing in schools exists on multiple levels. Individual students may be considered to
be flourishing when they are happy, thriving in their social relationships, achieving their goals
with competence and confidence, and making valued contributions to others. A staff member
may be flourishing when he or she experiences positive emotions throughout the day, obtains a
deep sense of value from his or her work, and feels like a valued member of the school
community. A class may be flourishing when students feel included, where the teacher feels
confident and satisfied, and where all members of the class feel engaged and committed to
learning. A school community may be flourishing when members of the community feel a deep
sense of commitment and belonging to the school and the culture promotes positive emotions,
effective learning, and social responsibility. Hence, the goal of promoting flourishing relates to
multidimensional outcomes across multiple levels within the school system.
3. Flourishing: Why?
Alongside their homes, schools are one of the most important developmental contexts in
students’ lives (Gilman, Huebner, & Furlong, 2009). Evidence suggests that relationships with
peers and school staff (Chu, Saucier, & Hafner, 2010; Hawker & Boulton, 2000), and the overall
school climate and culture (Way, Reddy, & Rhodes, 2007), are integrally linked with a range of
student wellbeing and mental health outcomes. As schools are central to students’ physical and
mental health, a whole-school commitment to creating a nourishing environment and
cultivating wellbeing is imperative.
A focus on flourishing in schools is particularly important because adolescence is a pivotal
stage of development that carries implications for functioning over the life-course. Adolescence
is often viewed as a critical stage in the emergence and trajectory of mental illness (Paus,
Keshavan, & Giedd, 2008), and rates of mental health problems, especially depression and
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Norrish, Williams, O’Connor, & Robinson
anxiety, are consistently reported as problematically high (Sawyer et al., 2007). Equally
important to the prevention of ill-health is building good health and wellbeing. The inclusion
of flourishing as a valued outcome explicitly recognises that mental health is more than the
absence of mental illness, and that young people who do not have a diagnosable disorder may
nevertheless not be functioning at their optimal level (Suldo, Thalji, & Ferron, 2011). For
example, in a large sample of American adolescents, Keyes (2006) found that over half did not
meet criteria for flourishing, and rates of flourishing decreased as adolescence progressed.
Cultivating flourishing may also carry benefits for academic skill development. A common
assumption is that a focus on wellbeing within education takes time and resources away from
academic pursuits. However, there is good evidence to suggest that students who thrive and
flourish demonstrate stronger academic performance. Suldo et al. (2011) found that students
with higher wellbeing demonstrated the highest grades and lowest rates of school absences one
year later. Similarly, Howell (2009) found that students who were flourishing reported superior
grades, higher self-control and lower procrastination than students who were moderately
mentally healthy or languishing. In addition, there is consistent evidence that positive emotions
are associated with broad, creative, and open-minded thinking whereas negative emotions
restrict focus and narrow attention (Fredrickson, 2001; Fredrickson & Branigan, 2005). Hence,
flourishing is a complementary rather than competing goal with academic development.
4. Flourishing: How?
The goal of promoting flourishing within schools is clearly a worthwhile pursuit, but how can
this be achieved at a practical level? Implementation within the GGS model focuses on six
domains central to wellbeingpositive emotions, positive engagement, positive
accomplishment, positive purpose, positive relationships, and positive health (these areas are
defined and discussed below)underpinned by a focus on character strengths. The wellbeing
domains are integrated into the School on three levels, referred to as: live it, teach it, and
embed it (see Figure 1 below).
4.1 Live it, teach it, embed it
Live it. Comprehensive programmes support staff wellbeing and help staff to ‘live’ the skills
taught within Positive Education and to act as authentic role models for students. Across the
campuses, the vast majority of staffboth teaching and non-teachingparticipate in multi-
day training programmes to develop their knowledge and application of Positive Education to
their personal lives and in their work at the school. Refresher workshops are provided for
teaching and non-teaching staff each term to develop individual understanding and practice,
and the school strives to create a community of practice through activities such as discussion
groups and a Journal Club.
Teach it. The teaching of Positive Education helps students to understand key ideas and
concepts, engage meaningfully in exploration and reflection, and apply the skills and mindsets
for flourishing in their lives. The teaching of wellbeing is further divided into explicit and
implicit learning. The explicit teaching of Positive Educationwhere students attend regular,
timetabled lessons on Positive Education in the same way that they attend Maths and History
classesnow occurs in Year 5 through to Year 10 of the school. Initially based on the Penn
Resiliency Program (Brunwasser, Gillham, & Kim, 2009) and the Strath Haven Program
(Seligman et al., 2009), the explicit teaching programme has evolved and grown to reflect a
diverse range of skills, knowledge, and mindsets covering the breadth of the Model for Positive
Applied framework for positive education
Norrish, Williams, O’Connor, & Robinson
Figure 1. Summary of the GGS Applied Model for Positive Education
Positive Education is also implicitly embedded into the academic curriculum across a broad
range of subjects, creating links between Positive Psychology concepts and curricula in ways
that remain true to core academic objectives. For example, in History, students explore the topic
of genealogy through the lens of character strengths by interviewing family members about
their own and relatives’ strengths. In art, students are asked to explore the word ‘flourishing’
and to create a visual representation of their personal understanding; and in Geography,
students examine how flourishing communities can be enabled through the physical
environment of towns and cities. Teaching pedagogy is also informed by Positive Education,
for example through teaching staff integrating mindfulness practices into their class routines
and fostering a growth mindset in their students.
Embed it. Complementary school-wide processes help embed a culture for wellbeing across
the school community. Some of the most powerful school-wide practices include devoting
assemblies or chapel services to character strengths, having ‘what went well’ boards that create
visual displays of gratitude, and regularly running projects devoted to random acts of
kindness. Consistent with a whole-school approach engaged with all stakeholders of the school
community, parents are also invited to take part in multi-day, residential training programmes
to support their understanding of Positive Education and personal growth.
Character strengths. A focus on character strengths, operationalised through the Values in
Action survey (Park & Peterson, 2006), underpins all of these efforts. Peterson and Seligman
(2004) define character strengths as a ubiquitously recognised subset of personality traits that
are morally valued. From a strengths perspective, everyone has unique abilities and capacities
that can help them to flourish and perform at their best (Wood, Linley, Maltby, Kashdan, &
Hurling, 2011). Individuals who use their strengths have been found to report increased vitality
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Norrish, Williams, O’Connor, & Robinson
and subjective and psychological wellbeing (Govindji & Linley, 2007; Linley, Nielsen, Gillett, &
Biswas-Diener, 2010), increased progress towards their goals (Linley et al., 2010), and enhanced
resilience after stressful events (Peterson & Seligman, 2003). Research also supports the
relevance of strengths to children’s wellbeing and healthy development (Park & Peterson, 2008;
Rashid et al., 2013). An example of how character strengths are integrated into the programme
is discussed below in relation to positive engagement.
4.2 Targeted wellbeing domains
Six broad and interrelated wellbeing domains are targeted within the model. The positive
emotion domain encourages individuals to anticipate, initiate, prolong and build positive
emotional experiences and accept and develop healthy responses to negative emotions. The
positive engagement domain examines pathways to complete immersion in activities to support
understanding and experience of optimal functioning. The positive accomplishment domain
focuses on developing confidence and competence through striving for and achieving
meaningful outcomes. The positive purpose domain develops an understanding of the benefits of
serving a greater cause and engaging in activities to support that. The positive relationships
domain develops social and emotional skills to enable the development of nourishing
relationships with self and others; and the positive health domain aims to help individuals
develop a sound knowledge base from which to establish habits that support positive physical
and psychological health across the lifespan. These broad overarching domains of wellbeing
are targeted through a range of concrete behavioural skill areas. Although an exploration of all
of the implicit, explicit, and school-wide practices used to support the six wellbeing domains
targeted in the model is beyond the scope of this paper, illustrative examples are explored
below in relation to each domain.
Positive emotion. This domain reflects students’ capacities to anticipate, initiate, experience,
prolong, and build positive emotional experiences. Helping young people to live lives where
they experience positive emotions such as joy, gratitude, hope, and inspiration is a worthwhile
goal in itself. In addition, recent research has found that experiencing positive emotion has
benefits for mental and physical health, social relationships, and academic outcomes
(Lyubomirsky, King, & Diener, 2005). For example, Lyubomirsky et al. (2005) conducted a
meta-analysis of 293 studies (resulting in a sample of over 275,000 participants) and found that
positive emotions benefited social (e.g., social interactions and relationships), work (e.g.,
productivity and absenteeism), physical (e.g., immune functioning and vitality), personal (e.g.,
creativity and energy), and psychological (e.g., resilience, self-confidence, and self-regulation)
As an example of the explicit teaching of positive emotions, in the Year 10 Positive
Education programme at GGS, students learn about broaden and build theory (Fredrickson,
2001) to develop their understanding of the benefits and importance of positive emotion. They
explore the concept of ‘positivity’ (Fredrickson, 2009) as a broader and richer interpretation of
positive emotions and look at the positivity toolkit for specific strategies to increase their
frequency of experiencing positive emotions day to day. Students develop awareness of their
own balance of positive to negative emotions by completing Fredrickson’s positivity ratio
exercise in a variety of circumstances, across different classes, days, activities, and
environments. Appreciating the danger of promoting the idea that positive emotions and
thoughts must be experienced continuously (Held, 2004), students are encouraged to cultivate
and enhance positive emotions without avoiding, suppressing, or denying negative reactions
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Norrish, Williams, O’Connor, & Robinson
or emotions. An overarching objective is to help students understand that all emotions are
normal, valid, and important parts of life.
Positive engagement. Being engaged involves living a life high in interest, curiosity, and
absorption, and pursuing goals with determination and vitality. There is substantial evidence
that engagement is associated with wellbeing, learning, and the accomplishment of important
goals (Froh et al., 2010; Hunter & Csikszentmihalyi, 2003). Engaged individuals are curious
(Kashdan, Rose, & Fincham, 2004), interested (Hunter & Csikszentmihalyi, 2003), and
passionate about worthwhile pursuits (Vallerand et al., 2003). Closely related to engagement is
the concept of flow, defined as a state of intense absorption and optimal experience that results
from taking part in intrinsically motivating challenges, a key feature of which is a close match
between individual skill level and task complexity and challenge (Czikszentmihalyi, 1990).
Flow is conceptualised as the peak experience of engagement when people are most immersed,
focused, and energised (Bakker, 2005). Promoting engagement within the GGS Model for
Positive Education focuses on cultivating flow, nurturing intrinsic motivation, and applying
signature strengths.
An example of developing this understanding in an implicit classroom setting is the
application of signature strengths as a path to enriched engagement. Wesson and Boniwell
(2007) propose that using a strengths approach can lead to flow as improved awareness of
strengths and can enhance individuals’ perceptions of their skills, thereby increasing the
likelihood of challenge-skill congruence. Prior to attending camp in Term 2, Year 6 students at
GGS undertake a multi-disciplinary project around character strengths. In their class groups
they discuss the 24 VIA Character Strengths (Park & Peterson, 2005), and explore their
individual strengths and ways in which they action them. The students then create a
representation of their strengths in Visual Arts by making ‘shields’ that depict their top
strengths. Back in their class groups, ideas are further developed through discussion about
ways in which they could use their ‘shield of strengths’ to engage fully in the camp activities
and to support them in overcoming challenges that they may face. Helping students to explore
and apply their strengths in this way creates pathways towards activities that are consistent
with their values and interests and supports the development of student self-efficacy when
faced with challenges.
Positive accomplishment. Positive accomplishment is defined as the development of
individual potential through striving for and achieving meaningful outcomes, and involves the
capacity to work towards valued goals, the motivation to persist despite challenges and
setbacks, and the achievement of competence and success in important life domains. Research
suggests a bi-directional relationship between flourishing and positive accomplishment. Mental
health is a requisite of effective learning (Hendren, Weisen, & Orley, 1994), and positive
emotions contribute to creative and flexible thinking (Fredrickson, 2001); in turn,
accomplishing worthwhile goals leads to positive emotions and wellbeing (Sheldon et al.,
2010). Helping students to strive for meaningful outcomes and persist despite obstacles is
especially important as young people today face challenges such as an increasingly global and
competitive workforce. Hence, it is essential to help students to develop skills and resources
that will allow them to devote effort to important goals, capitalise on opportunities, and cope
adaptively with disappointments and challenges.
An example is a school-wide practice relating to implicit theories of intelligence. According
to Dweck (2006), individuals generally embody one of two mindsets: either a fixed mindset,
where intelligence and talents are viewed as naturally determined and unchangeable, or a
growth mindset, where talent and intelligence are seen as malleable and can be developed
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Norrish, Williams, O’Connor, & Robinson
further with effort and persistence. Dweck (2006) suggests that praise is especially salient in
influencing whether a person develops a fixed or growth mindset; specifically, praise focused
on effort and persistence (e.g., ‚you worked so hard‛), as opposed to praise focused on abilities
or outcomes (e.g., ‚you are so clever‛), is imperative for helping students to develop a growth
mindset. This premise has received strong empirical support (Mueller & Dweck, 1998). At GGS,
teaching and non-teaching staff attend a training workshop specifically designed to develop
their understanding of mindsets and the significant impact that they have on a broad range of
life domains. They are given opportunities to reflect on their mindset in different areas of their
lives and are encouraged to explore the strategies developed by Dweck and colleagues to
promote a growth mindset. Teaching staff also participate in a workshop specifically designed
to help them to understand recent research on the most effective forms of feedback under
different situations.
Positive purpose. The intrinsic value of contributing to others and the community provides a
strong rationale for a focus on purpose within schools. In addition, there is evidence that doing
things for others, and having a sense that life is purposeful and meaningful, contributes to
students’ psychological and physical health (Post, 2005). The importance of purpose in life is
reflected in eudaimonic approaches to wellbeing, where a sense of meaning and direction is
viewed as integral to optimal health (Ryan & Deci, 2001). Purpose provides people with a
central mission or vision for life and a sense of directedness (Ryff & Keyes, 1995). Having a
purpose in life has been found to be associated with good physical health, high life satisfaction,
and strong social relationships, and to be protective against depression, risky behaviours, and
somatic complaints (Cotton Bronk, Hill, Lapsley, Talib, & Finch, 2009; Damon, Menon, &
Bronk, 2003). Meaning, altruism, and spirituality are explored as pathways to a purposeful and
flourishing life with students in Year 10 as part of the explicit Positive Education programme.
The following example focuses on work around the concept ‘meaning’. Strategies for living
a life high in meaning include acting in accord with one’s values (Waterman, Schwartz, &
Conti, 2008) and using signature strengths in the service of others (Peterson, Park, & Seligman,
2005). In the Year 10 Positive Education programme students are asked to reflect on what it
means to live a meaningful life, to explore diverse sources of meaning, and to consider the
complex relationship between meaning and happiness. Stories from inspirational people who
exemplify meaning in life, such as Dr Viktor Frankl, Dame Elisabeth Murdoch, and Jim Stynes,
are used to stimulate students’ thinking about their own purpose. Students are asked to
commit to one short-term and one long-term action that would add meaning and purpose to
their lives. This in-depth exploration of meaning and purpose enhances the students’ personal
experience of participating in community service activities during their time at the school.
Positive relationships. Central to this domain are strong social and emotional skills that help
create and promote strong and nourishing relationships with self and others. Child and
adolescent development does not occur in isolation and social context has a powerful impact on
adaptive and healthy growth (Bronfenbrenner, 2004). There is an abundance of evidence
suggesting that social support is integral to wellbeing and mental health. For example, social
isolation is a risk factor for depression, substance abuse, suicide, and other symptoms of mental
ill-health (Hassed, 2008). Supportive school relationships have been linked with child and
adolescent wellbeing and resilience (Stewart, Sun, Patterson, Lemerle, & Hardie, 2004). Social
relationships have also been found to be important predictors of subjective wellbeing (Myers,
2000), and meaning in life (Hicks & King, 2009). There is substantial evidence that, in addition
to benefits for mental health and wellbeing, social support is good for physical health (Uchino,
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Cacioppo, & Kiecolt-Glaser, 1996), and for student accomplishment (Wentzel & Caldwell,
The following example related to positive relationships focuses on a school-wide practice
relating to active-constructive responding (ACR). ACR refers to responding to others’ good
news with authentic, active and supportive interest in order to build strong relationships
(Gable & Reis, 2010). At GGS, ACR is taught to staff and all senior school students and has
become invaluable in nurturing supportive communication and positive social interactions.
According to Gable, Reis, Impett, and Asher (2004), reactions to good news that are active and
constructive enable capitalising, which takes place as people tell their story and re-live and
savour the experience, enhancing the positive emotions drawn from it. Students and staff role-
play different types of responding and discuss ways to authentically engage in ACR with their
peers. They are then given time to become fully absorbed in a discussion with a partner where
they can practise listening mindfully and respectfully and capitalising on good news. Applied
learning such as this encourages staff and students to be genuinely and sincerely supportive of
the accomplishments of their family, friends, colleagues and peers.
Positive health. There has been an increased focus on holistic health in recent times, whereby
the entire person is considered as an integrated and interconnected entity (Hassed, 2008).
Within the GGS Model, health is defined as practising sustainable habits for optimal physical
and psychological health. Health is important for effective learning and there is evidence that
students who thrive physically and psychologically also perform well in their studies (WHO,
2011). The importance of promoting mental and psychological heath is also underscored by
high rates of depression, anxiety, and other mental health problems during adolescence
(Sawyer et al., 2007). In addition, developing positive health behaviours in adolescence can
carry a beneficial impact over the life course in preventing adverse health conditions such as
diabetes or heart disease. Health is a broad and comprehensive concept, ranging from physical
health (such as healthy sleeping and eating habits), to psychological health (including
resilience), and the Model takes account of the strong interconnection between physical and
mental wellbeing.
The following example related to positive health focuses on resilience in the explicit Year 9
Positive Education programme. Resilience refers to the capacity to bounce back from challenges
to adaptation or development (Masten, 2001). The Penn Resiliency Program (PRP; Gillham et
al., 2007), is a school-based resiliency programme underpinned by the cognitive-behavioural
framework. The programme aims to enhance resilience and prevent depression by teaching
young people social problem solving skills and cognitive and behavioural skills including
cultivating an optimistic explanatory style, disputing automatic negative thoughts, and
generating alternative actions when faced with challenges (Gillham et al., 2007), and has
received consistent empirical support (Brunwasser et al., 2009). Year 9 students at Geelong
Grammar School complete their academic year at Timbertop, a full boarding campus based in
the Victorian Highlands. Alongside a full academic curriculum, there is a focus on exploring
the natural environment through hiking, running, camping, and skiing. During this year,
students spend one lesson per fortnight studying Positive Education, particularly focusing on
learning a set of resilience skills, based on the PRP, which can be applied to the real-life
challenges that arise during a student’s Timbertop journey.
5. Issues for further exploration
The GGS Model for Positive Education is underpinned by a growing body of research on the
nature and promotion of optimal developmental pathways. However, rigorous evaluation is
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now needed to explore the impact of Positive Education programmes on students, staff, and the
school community (Norrish & O'Connor, in preparation). To this end, GGS is currently
embarking on a three-year longitudinal research programme under the direction of Dr Dianne
Vella-Brodrick from the University of Melbourne and Associate Professor Nikki Rickard from
Monash University. The study will follow Year 9 students across three years from 2013 to 2015
to determine the effects of Positive Education on students’ daily functioning and wellbeing
using a mixed methods approach, including surveys, biosamples, focus groups, and experience
sampling to understand how students are applying skills ‘in the moment’. Recent funding will
also allow an exploration of how the programme translates to other school settings. This
research will provide invaluable insight into how various activities and strategies influence
students’ thoughts, feelings, and behaviours as they go about their daily lives. Better
understanding of the critical elements of the programme will also help in prioritising areas of
implementation in other schools.
Character strengths can be illustrated in concrete behavioural examples and so provide an
accessible entry point for exploring wellbeing, particularly with younger children. The aim is to
develop a shared language for strengths across the school community, creating a sense of
belonging and connectedness. A focus on spotting strengths in the self and in others helps
people of all ages to develop self-confidence and enrich social interactions. Possible
applications of character strengths in schools are virtually endless, and further consideration
should be given to exploring creative ways in which character strengths can be used to support
students’ wellbeing, ranging from how young children can learn acceptance of others to how
senior students can make more informed choices about their further study and careers.
As noted previously, the GGS Model ultimately aims to promote flourishing across
multiple levels of this school system, at both an individual and institutional level. However,
most research to date has focused on understanding Positive Education at the level of
individual students, probably because there have been so few schools implementing Positive
Education as a whole-school approach, thus providing limited opportunity to explore systemic
elements (Seligman et al., 2009). Research is now needed to contribute to understanding of the
school as a positive institution, including what a flourishing school looks like and how positive
organisational functioning can be promoted (Kristjánsson, 2012). Similarly, while the focus of
this applied framework has been at the individual level, further exploration is needed as to
how this model could be utilised to understand pathways to organisational thriving. This will
have important implications for maximising programme sustainability as Positive Education
becomes ingrained at the institutional level.
6. Conclusions
As the field of Positive Psychology progresses and the mechanisms and predictors of
flourishing are more fully understood, the question moves to how this knowledge can be used
to improve society. In this regard, schools are uniquely placed to teach Positive Psychology to
wide audiences, thereby moving closer towards mentally and physically thriving individuals,
communities, and societies. The GGS Model provides a flexible framework through which
schools can identify areas in which they are already doing well and targets for improvement.
Capacity in each domain is cultivated through a whole-school approach that involves explicit
and implicit learning in the classroom and positive practices integrated throughout school life.
The GGS Model for Positive Education facilitates the planning, implementation, and evaluation
of knowledge derived from Positive Psychology within school settings, providing a sustainable
and flexible framework for moving towards flourishing school communities.
Applied framework for positive education
Norrish, Williams, O’Connor, & Robinson
We wish to thank all staff, visitors and academics who have generously contributed their time and
expertise to the development of Positive Education at Geelong Grammar School. We would also like to
warmly acknowledge the contribution of Robyn Brook, who worked closely with the authors in initially
conceptualising this framework. This research was funded by Geelong Grammar School, Australia,
which provided personnel support for all named authors.
Conflict of Interest Statement
All named authors are employees of Geelong Grammar School, Victoria, Australia.
Jacolyn M. Norrish
Geelong Grammar School
Paige Williams
Geelong Grammar School
University of Melbourne
Meredith O’Connor
Geelong Grammar School
University of Melbourne
Justin Robinson
Geelong Grammar School
Publishing Timeline
Received 1 September 2013
Accepted 6 September 2013
Published 7 October 2013
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... These may include "creative thinking, " "public speaking, " "storytelling and communication, " "co-operation and team-building, " the mindset of "accepting mistakes and failure as a healthy component of a learning process, " "taking risks" [2], and greater exploration. These traits are consistent with features of positive education, which seeks to cultivate an all-round sense of well-being in emotional, psychological, and social dimensions [3][4][5]. This form of education is beneficial for students, particularly in Chinese contexts where the education system is famously competitive and puts significant emphasis on academic achievement [6], potentially resulting in mental health issues [7]. ...
... As a strengths-based practice [17], it is a form of education not merely for students' academic achievement [18] but also "for both traditional skills and for happiness" [19]. Despite the differing models and approaches to positive education, the key elements of well-being to be nurtured among students to help them flourish can be summarized as: 1) positive emotions ("hedonic feelings of happiness"); 2) positive health (physical health and mental health); 3) positive engagement ("psychological connection to activities"); 4) positive relationships ("feeling socially integrated" and receiving social support from other people); 5) positive accomplishment ("a sense of achievement" and "feeling capable"); and 6) positive meaning/purpose ("believing that one's life is valuable and feeling connected to something greater than oneself "; being "spiritual, humanitarian, or otherwise altruistic"; "contributing to others and the community") [4,[20][21][22][23]. Flourishing means "feeling good" ("hedonic…experiences such as feeling content" and "hopeful about the future") and "doing good" (the "eudaimonic approach", which "focuses on equipping students with the skills and knowledge that help them to thrive when faced with both challenges and opportunities") [3,4]. ...
... Despite the differing models and approaches to positive education, the key elements of well-being to be nurtured among students to help them flourish can be summarized as: 1) positive emotions ("hedonic feelings of happiness"); 2) positive health (physical health and mental health); 3) positive engagement ("psychological connection to activities"); 4) positive relationships ("feeling socially integrated" and receiving social support from other people); 5) positive accomplishment ("a sense of achievement" and "feeling capable"); and 6) positive meaning/purpose ("believing that one's life is valuable and feeling connected to something greater than oneself "; being "spiritual, humanitarian, or otherwise altruistic"; "contributing to others and the community") [4,[20][21][22][23]. Flourishing means "feeling good" ("hedonic…experiences such as feeling content" and "hopeful about the future") and "doing good" (the "eudaimonic approach", which "focuses on equipping students with the skills and knowledge that help them to thrive when faced with both challenges and opportunities") [3,4]. In sum, positive education is a form of education that offers opportunities for students to cultivate their character strengths ("individual positive traits that are widely valued") and capabilities, including empathy, social skills, emotional competencies, problem-solving skills, resilience skills, and a growth mindset ("talent and intelligence are seen as malleable and can be developed further with effort and persistence"), so that they can function and cope with challenges adaptively [4,20]. ...
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Background Due to the scarcity of research on the benefits of theatresports for youth, this study examined the outcomes of theatresports as a means to implement positive education in youth work settings. Methods To this end, qualitative research was conducted with 92 participants in a theatresports program. Thematic analysis was applied to analyze the participants’ experiences of the program, using the framework of positive education. Results Results showed that the processes and practices of the theatresports program helped the participants achieved well-being in terms of various domains namely positive emotions, positive health, positive relationships, positive engagement, positive accomplishment, and positive meaning. These capabilities and qualities acquired helped them achieve well-being, and the learning acquired from the program could even be applied to daily life situations and deal with the challenges. Conclusions This shows that the theatresports program manifests the benefits of positive education. Corresponding implications were discussed.
... Seligman first introduced PERMA, where he theorized that having high levels of each PERMA component constituted well-being, a multi-dimensional construct with both hedonic and eudaimonic components (Seligman, 2011). Since the introduction of PERMA, practitioners have adopted the model, and a number of PERMAbased interventions aimed at improving well-being have been developed, such as Positive Psychotherapy (Seligman et al., 2006) and PERMA training in workplaces (Norrish et al., 2013). Others have also built on the PERMA framework to include additional elements. ...
... Others have also built on the PERMA framework to include additional elements. For example, PERMA-H includes physical health and has been applied to support student and educator wellbeing in education settings (Norrish et al., 2013) and PERMA-V includes vitality to describe physical health and has been used in positive psychology training for practitioners (The Flourishing Center, n.d.). Goodman et al. (2018) published a critique of Seligman's work, asserting that PERMA does not describe a distinct type of well-being that is unique from subjective well-being (SWB). ...
One of the most recent influential constructs based on positive psychology is PERMA, a framework that articulates five major building blocks that contribute to well-being: positive emotions, engagement, relationships, meaning, and accomplishment. In 2020, 4 additional building blocks were added – physical health, mindset, environment, and economic security – expanding the framework into PERMA+4 to describe 9 building blocks that contribute to well-being and positive functioning. The purpose of this systematic review is to determine if the empirical evidence supports the assertion that PERMA and PERMA+4 are strongly associated and predictive of well-being and positive functioning. While strong associations were found in this review, most of the published empirical research on PERMA was found to be correlational, cross-sectional, and based on a variety of self-report surveys. Implications and recommendations for future research using rigorous experimental designs as well as opportunities for improving the measurements of PERMA and PERMA+4 are discussed.
... "Bringing together the science of positive psychology with best-practice teaching to encourage and support schools and individuals within their communities to flourish" (Norrish et al., 2013) Positive education initially was concerned about the well-being of students. However, it soon was revealed that supporting students with their mental health is only possible through teachers and nonteaching staff who are themselves skilled in such topics evident by their lack of mental health struggles. ...
Research Proposal
Students in higher education enter the university life with certain expectations, skill levels, and life experiences. They come from a variety of background including cultural differences. Research has highlighted many underlying factors of developing wellbeing difficulties within the higher education. However, it is less explored that to which extent the current wellbeing services located at university campus can recognise, address, and remedy such ailments. The other questions is weather the wellbeing services are the responsible entities to remove such underlying factors or if they are even equipped for such task. The research will review well-researched underlying factors and try to identifying the current system in place to address them in higher education and cross reference them with what students expect from universities is supporting them with their wellbeing.
... For another thing, as indicated elsewhere in the literature, positive education is associated with positive mental health (Norrish et al., 2013). This in itself will greatly facilitate the development of emotional stability that is so fundamental to high-quality intercultural communication. ...
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This research essay concerns a brief exposition on intercultural communication and mixed cultures in an instructional setting (in the context of international education).
... To this point, positive education is the implementation of PP in schools (Green et al., 2011). Given this, positive education seeks to connect the PP principles to all effective methods of teaching and learning to promote thriving in educational situations (Norrish et al., 2013). ...
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Positive psychology (PP) has attracted considerable attention in the education context. Yet, positive emotions have largely been left in the shadows. Given the scarcity of research in the last few years on this front, there is now a greatly expanding body of literature that has offered some useful insight. Interestingly, the advent and introduction of PP, with its underlying theories, the control value theory (CVT) (Pekrun, 2006; Pekrun et al., 2007) and the broaden-and-build theory of emotions (Fredrickson, 2001, 2003, 2006) to applied linguistics sparked the interest of researchers to study positive emotions (e.g., enjoyment, hope, happiness…etc.) in greater detail. As such, it marked a shift in psychology away from an emphasis just on fixing the worst aspects of life and toward creating the best aspects of existence in an attempt to produce a novel understanding of the issue. The present paper is a critical review of a great body of literature on the flourishing of PP in education. The paper also highlights the innovative work inspired by PP in respect of the various aspects of the study at hand. In addition, a brief history of the PP movement is briefly discussed. The chapter also sheds some light on the measurement of emotions as being one of the vexing issues in the science of emotions since instruments, on this front, have been largely lacking.
... In adult literature, numerous health benefits have been shown to be associated with aspects of positive mindsets that lead to positive psychological well-being such as here-and-now "hedonic" markers (like happiness, satisfaction, and positive emotions) as well as future facing "eudaimonic" measures (including greater sense of meaning, growth, and purpose) (32)(33)(34)(35). Specifically, simply having a greater sense of meaning and purpose in life is associated with lower all-cause mortality, and improvements in meaning and purpose scores relate to improved health behaviors over time (36,37). ...
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Introduction Patients with congenital heart disease (CHD) have variable degrees of peak oxygen consumption (VO 2 ) that can be improved with supervised fitness training. The ability to exercise is affected by anatomy, hemodynamics, and motivation. Motivation is in part related to mindset, or personal attitudes and beliefs, and a more positive mindset around exercise has been associated with better outcomes. It is unknown whether variations in measured peak VO 2 in patients with CHD are related to having a positive mindset. Methods Patient's ages 8–17 years with CHD were administered quality of life and physical activity questionnaires at the time of their routine cardiopulmonary exercise test. Those with severe hemodynamic burden were excluded. Patients were grouped based on disease classification. Mindset was evaluated via validated questionnaires including a PROMIS Meaning and Purpose (MaP) survey and an Anxiety survey. Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated to estimate the magnitude of the association between percent predicted peak oxygen consumption (pppVO 2 ) and questionnaire scores overall and within CHD subgroups. Results Eighty-five patients participated; median age was 14.7 years, 53% were female, 66% had complex CHD, 20% had simple CHD, and 14% had single ventricle heart disease. Mean MaP scores were significantly lower in all CHD groups compared to population norms ( p < 0.001). As a group, MaP scores were positively associated with the amount of reported physical activity ( p = 0.017). In patients with simple CHD, MaP scores were positively associated with pppVO 2 ( p = 0.015). The association was even stronger for MaP:Anxiety, with worse ratios associated with lower pppVO 2 ( p = 0.005). Patients with complex and single ventricle CHD did not show a similar association. Conclusions Patients with CHD, regardless of severity, had lower meaning and purpose scores than the general population, and these scores were associated with amount of reported physical activity. In the simple CHD subset, having a more positive mindset was associated with higher peak VO 2 and a more negative mindset with lower peak VO 2 . This relationship was not seen with more significant CHD. While underlying CHD diagnoses are not modifiable, mindset and peak VO 2 are, and consideration should be given to measuring both as each may be a target for intervention.
This chapter introduces positive education as an innovative educational paradigm targeting students' traditional learning skills and well-being. By fostering crucial components of well-being, like the PERMA well-being model, positive education employs effective positive activities and practical exercises to directly promote student flourishing. Supported by strong empirical evidence, the effectiveness of positive education is underscored. The chapter also discusses the development of a unique positive education model, “6+2,” specifically tailored for China, which incorporates the positive-self module, the physical and mental health regulation system, and the character strength and virtue cultivation system into the PERMA framework. Furthermore, the chapter reviews existing literature on positive education and positive psychological interventions implemented within school contexts. This comprehensive examination contributes to the growing body of knowledge on the implementation and impact of positive education in educational settings.
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The aim of this study is to define the essence of wellbeing in employee management, and present the functionality of the PERMA model in positive psychology. The first part of the study describes the multidimensionality of the concept of wellbeing and the difficulties in defining it. An important element of the conducted analysis is the presentation of the positive effects of the implementation of wellbeing in organisations, including elements of wellbeing dimensions and activities affecting wellbeing, while the most important part of the article is the diagnosis of the applicability of the PERMA model in the study of employee wellbeing and positive education. Different elements of the model are described and the latest solutions with regards to its improvement are presented. An analysis of the literature showed that a model with four additional dimensions - physical health, mindset, work environment and economic security - may be the most useful for analysing employee wellbeing. The next part of this publication is devoted to the use of the PERMA model in the classification of interventions, where we show that the model not only enables diagnosis of the weaknesses of wellbeing, but even facilitates the assigning of specific interventions. These solutions make it possible to build wellbeing that positively impacts employee behaviour, with the authors indicating discrepancies in the activities undertaken by organisations and the needs of employees with regards to wellbeing. The findings suggest that employees expect activities related to the development of their mental dimension and economic security, not necessarily related to physical health, which are most commonly implemented by organisations.
Purpose: Being ‘in flow’ or ‘in the zone’ enables individuals to focus on tasks more fully and to maximise performance. As this phenomenon results in pleasure being experienced whilst mastery is gained, it can be a natural aid to goal-oriented activities such as coaching. This paper explores the applications of flow theory to coaching psychology. Method: Various conditions are thought to influence the acquisition and maintenance of psychological flow. These are reviewed and linked to the work of coaches and coaching psychologists. Results: The literature and models reviewed indicate that flow theory has a number of applications to coaching psychology, and that it can provide a useful framework for coaching psychology practice. Conclusions: This paper suggests how these factors may be captured by coaching methodology thereby: (i) helping the client and coach to find focus and fulfilment during sessions; and (ii) encouraging the client to remain ‘on task’ whilst engaging in goal actioning activities afterwards.
The study of resilience in development has overturned many negative assumptions and deficit-focused models about children growing up under the threat of disadvantage and adversity. The most surprising conclusion emerging from studies of these children is the ordinariness of resilience. An examination of converging findings from variable-focused and person-focused investigations of these phenomena suggests that resilience is common and that it usually arises from the normative functions of human adaptational systems, with the greatest threats to human development being those that compromise these protective systems. The conclusion that resilience is made of ordinary rather than extraordinary processes offers a more positive outlook on human development and adaptation, as well as direction for policy and practice aimed at enhancing the development of children at risk for problems and psychopathology. The study of resilience in development has overturned many negative assumptions and deficit-focused models about children growing up under the threat of disadvantage and adversity.