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Cosmetics are products which are intended to be used for cleaning, perfume or enhancing appearance. The face foundations and face powder has a very high consumption rate. However, cosmetics composed of different chemical materials which may interact together and become harmful to the skin. The current survey is focusing onto a possible problems might be encountered throughout the use of face powders in Tripoli areas, Libya. This perception and assessment survey has been applied using closed end questionnaire. The sample of study was circulated over 170 female participants and 91.8% percent of them provided clear and obvious participation. The results showed over 66.6% of participants suffered from problems as a result of applying a face powder. Problems appeared was dryness is 56.7%, irritation is 29.8%, Acne is 26.9% and Spots is 16.3%. The market screening at Tripoli showed more than 25 brands of face powder from different origins, the most popularly used were Nibo, Pupa, Max Factor and Deborah. The four mentioned problems appeared with Nibo and Pupa, dryness and spots appeared with Deborah, and just dryness appeared with Max Factor. In conclusion our results, although give information on many health problems encountered during the use of face powder from different sources on what the participants responses, and due to the relative large incidence of problems mentioned, the need of a system able to report, evaluate, withdraw of harmful cosmetics partially or totally cannot be ignored.
Content may be subject to copyright.
International Journal of Pharmaceutical Science Invention
ISSN (Online): 2319 6718, ISSN (Print): 2319 670X
www.ijpsi.org Volume 2 Issue 6 June 2013 ‖ PP.09-18
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Face Powder Problems Perception Survey
Nagib A. Elmarzugi1,2,3,*, Eseldin I. Keleb1, Aref T. Mohamed1, Hesham A. El
Enshasy3, Amal M. Hamza4, Marwa M. Dlim4, Ahmed A. Layla 5, Mohamed
Salama6
1Dept. of Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy/ Tripoli University, Libya
2Biotechnology Research Center, NASR, Libya
3Institute of Bioproduct development/Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Malaysia
4National Medical Research Center, NASR, Alzawia, Libya
5Dept. of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy/ Alazhar University, Egypt
6Faculty of Pharmacy, Universiti Teknologi Mara, Malaysia
* Corresponding Author, Institute of Bioproduct Development, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM
Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia.
ABSTRACT: Cosmetics are products which are intended to be used for cleaning, perfume or enhancing
appearance. The face foundations and face powder has a very high consumption rate. However, cosmetics
composed of different chemical materials which may interact together and become harmful to the skin.
The current survey is focusing onto a possible problems might be encountered throughout the use of
face powders in Tripoli areas, Libya. This perception and assessment survey has been applied using closed end
questionnaire. The sample of study was circulated over 170 female participants and 91.8% percent of them
provided clear and obvious participation. The results showed over 66.6% of participants suffered from
problems as a result of applying a face powder. Problems appeared was dryness is 56.7%, irritation is 29.8%,
Acne is 26.9% and Spots is 16.3%. The market screening at Tripoli showed more than 25 brands of face powder
from different origins, the most popularly used were Nibo, Pupa, Max Factor and Deborah. The four mentioned
problems appeared with Nibo and Pupa, dryness and spots appeared with Deborah, and just dryness appeared
with Max Factor.
In conclusion our results, although give information on many health problems encountered during the
use of face powder from different sources on what the participants responses, and due to the relative large
incidence of problems mentioned, the need of a system able to report, evaluate, withdraw of harmful cosmetics
partially or totally cannot be ignored.
KEYWORDS
:
Cosmetics, Face powder, Survey, Dryness, Acne, Irritation
I. INTRODUCTION
Cosmetics are products which are intended to be used for cleaning, perfume or enhancing appearance, and the
use of cosmetics preparations all over the world become a part of the personal daily routine particularly for
women [1].
Face powder is a cosmetic product used to provide a special touch on the skin, to control oil and
combat shines, or, in addition to provide a matt finishing effect on the skin. This matt effect, combined with the
high transparency of the powder can develop a special soft focus effect on the skin, blurring the appearance of
wrinkles and lines as well as reducing the visibility of discoloration to enhance skin appearance [2, 3].
Cosmetics are mixtures of some surfactants, oils and other ingredients [4]. They are required to be
effective, long lasting, stable and last not least safe to human use. Most cosmetics are complex mixtures
containing perfumes, preservatives, stabilizers, various lipids, higher alcohols and other substances [5]. These
chemicals in cosmetics may produce primary irritant reactions, allergic dermatitis, photosensitivity and breakage
of hair and nails [6, 7].
Cosmetics contain mineralic or metallic and nonmetallic additives. For example in sunscreens titanium and
zinc are used as sun blockers. The color of makeup is determined by the concentration and the ratio of black or red
iron oxide, titanium dioxide and/or zinc oxide [8]. Metal dyes are used in finger nail polish and also the use and
concentration of heavy metals play an important role in cosmetics production [9, 7].
Like all processes producing goods that get ingested or can otherwise reach into human bodies the manufacturing of
cosmetics is under strict regulations and legislations and thus needs continuous control and monitoring [10].
Accurate trace element analysis is becoming increasingly important for many reasons, among them the
process control associated with cost savings, minimizing and controlling contamination and environmental pollution,
quality control of products and pure research.
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Skin is the subject of vigorous research among both dermatologists who treat skin problems and cosmetic chemists
who formulate specialty skin care products [11, 12].
The cosmetics become widely used in the daily world [13, 14, 5], therefore the current study is
focusing onto a health concern during its excessive use and problems may be caused to the skin by daily using
of cosmetics. The choosing the face powder as a kind of cosmetics due to it is directly contacted with the face,
and as any negative change as a result of such powder could have bad impact onto health, psychological,
economical and social life [15, 16].
The daily use of cosmetics preparations has an important impact on the people health and economy,
therefore, achieving effective use and increasing the public awareness about using the face powder is one of our
goals in the current study.
Although it is a little bit difficult to analyze the effectiveness and performance of wide range cosmetic
preparations [17], it is believed spotting the highest influencing trade mark of face powder in the Libyan market
will help tracing some of the problems may be encountered. Moreover, variable types of such powder with their
frequency number of use could also reflect the growth in use. The recognizing of the most problems may be
encountered during the applying of face powder and finding out the most popular powder brands in our market
and which of them are safe for use are vital consideration in the current survey.
II. PRESENTATION OF DATA
The instrument used for the collection of data was specially constructed questionnaire, and accordingly
to the instrument design the outcomes were mainly quantitative in nature [18, 19]. After the questionnaire
design was agreed, the time was right to begin distributing the questionnaire. The questionnaire contains a
cover letter was supplied by a number of means; some participants were contacted personally by our project
group, and the rest received the questionnaire by assistant staff.
The questionnaire contained the following questions:
Part A: personal information
P1: what is your employment?
P2: to which of the following period of age, you are belonging?
P3: what is your skin type?
Part B: Subject's information
S1: Do you apply face powder daily?
S2: What is your purpose of applying face powder?
S3a: what is your powder name?
S3b: what is the name of your powder manufacturing country?
S3c: what is the price of your powder?
S3d: Do you use any other powder?
S4: What is your powder kind?
S5: From when do you apply face powder?
S6: Do you clean your face before applying the powder?
S7: Do you clean your face after applying the powder?
S8: What is the kind of your face cleaner?
S9: Do you apply the powder and foundation cream together
S10: Do you apply the powder with any other cream?
S11: Have you ever been suffer from any skin problems during applying face powder?
S12: If you answer yes, what is this problem?
S13: What do you do if one of these problems occurs?
S14: Have you ever been suffering from one of these problems and a change this powder?
S15: Do the problems occur in the winter differ from those occur in the summer?
S16: What is your powder applying tool?
S17: Do you clean this tool?
S18: Do you have any comments?
III. RESULTS AND FIGURES
The questionnaire was the project instrument for collecting the data; the completed questionnaires were
numbered and coded [20, 21]. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the responses in Tripoli areas using face
powder all 156 out of 170 questionnaires. Quantitative data yielded from the questionnaire were analyzed using SPSS
for Windows and Microsoft Excel. According to the number of collected questionnaires, most of the targeted
questionnaires were received, 156 out of 170 females who already using face powder replied which is 91.8% percent,
and nine of them did not provide obvious reply, while five retained them back blank.
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Figure 1: the different employments of participants.
Fifty percent of female participants were students and the second was employ which was 18.5 percent; however
the rest of female participants were lower than 10 percent as introduced in the figure 1.
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
%
15-25 25-35 35-45 More than 45
Age
Figure 2: age of participants
59.6 percent of female participants were between 15-25 years old, and as age increased the participants was
decreased (fig. 2).
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
%
Normal Oily Dry Combination
Type of Skin
Figure 3: skin types of participants
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The participants with oily skin were 33.3 percent, a normal skin were 30.7 however 20.5 percent a dry skin 14.1
percent had a combination skin characters within less than 20 percent (Fig. 3).
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
%
No Sometimes Yes
Figure 4: the percentage of face powder daily use
53.2 percent of participants are using face powder sometimes (ρ=0.11); the second are using face powder daily
33.9 percent (ρ=0.10) and the rest do not use it daily were 12.8 percent (ρ=0.11) (fig. 4).
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
%
Protection Beauty Other reasons
Purposes
Figure 5: why do participants use face powder?
84.6 percent of the participants are using face powder for beauty, and 8.9 percent for protection and 5.1 percent
for other reasons (fig. 5).
Figure 6: the used brands by participants
19.2 percent of participants are using Nibo, followed by Pupa about 15.3 percent, then Max Factor in the third
about 7.6 % and Deborah about 6.4% (fig6).
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0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
%
One year or less 1-3 years 5-3 Years More than 5 years
Period of Time
Figure 7: For how long participants began to apply face powder
35.2 percent of participants begin to apply face powder from 1-3 years, and 24.3 percent from more than five
years, and then 21.1percent from one year, and the rest of participants from 3-5 years were 17.3 percent (fig. 7).
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
%
Yes No
Answers
Do you Clean Your Face before Applying the Powder??
Figure 8: the participants whose clean the face before applying the powder
89.1 percent of female participants clean their face before applying the powder (fig. 8).
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
%
Yes No
Answers
Do You Clean Your Face after Applying the Powder??
Figure 9: the participants whose clean the face after removing the powder
More than 92.2percent from participants clean their face after applying the powder (fig.9).
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0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
%
Orignal soap Deep skin cleaner Other cleaners Nothing
Cleaner Type
Figure 10: the different skin cleaners used by participants
48 percent from participants clean their face using original soap, 37.1 percent clean their face using deep skin
cleaner (fig. 10).
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
%
Yes No
Answers
Do You Apply the POwder with Foundation Cream??
Figure 11: the participants whose apply the powder with foundation cream
67.3 percent of female participants were applying the powder only without foundation cream, and the rest are
applying powder with foundation cream (fig. 11).
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
%
Sun screen Skin lighting No
Answers
Figure 12: the different types of creams or cosmetics in use
58.9 percent of female participants were not using any other creams, and about 30.1 percent of females
participants were using sun screen cream, and the rest of them were using skin lighting (fig. 12).
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0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
%
Yes No
Answers
Have You Ever Been Suffer from Any Problems During Using Face Powder??
Figure 13: the participants whose suffer from problems
66.6 percent of female participants were suffering from problems during using of face powder (fig. 13).
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
%
Dryness Irritation Acne Spots Other
problems
Answers
Figure 14: the different problems or symptoms participants suffered
56.7 percent of female participants were suffer from dryness symptoms, 29.8 percent of female participants
suffer from irritation, and 26.9 percent suffer from acne and the rest of them suffer from spots and other
problems (fig. 14).
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
%
Yes No.
Answers
Have YOu Ever Been Suffer from One of theses Problems and change this Powder?
Figure 15: who has changed the powder brand as a result of problem
37 percent of participants change their powder as a result of skin problems, but most of them were not change
their powder (Fig. 15).
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0
10
20
30
40
50
60
%
Yes No
Answers
Do the Problems Occure in the Winter Differe from Those Ocurre in th Summer??
Figure 16: Do the season has effect on the skin powder
53.8percents from those suffering from problems, their problems different from winter to summer (fig. 16).
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
%
Sponge Brush Other
Tool
Figure 17: the participants applying tool
91.9 percent of female participants were using sponge to applying the powder and the rest of them applying the
brush and other tools (fig. 17).
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
%
No Yes, weekly Yes, monthly
Answers
Do You Clean this Tool??
Figure 18: do participants clean their applying tool
49.3percent of female participants were not clean their tool, 29.4 percent of them clean their tool weakly and
21.1 percent of them clean their tool monthly (fig. 18).
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IV. DESCUSSION AND CONCLUSION
The survey has fulfilled its aim through the exploring and perception of the face skin problems may be
encountered as a result of applying the face powder.
The analysis of the findings based on the aims of the study, which were shown earlier. However, the
authors, novice researchers are now aware of the need to rewrite the data as presented in the previous section.
Therefore the intention is to focus on principles and areas for future study. This section will dip into a number
of issues raised by participants and extracting useful data for discussion.
The results showed that the response rate was about 92 percent. This may be considered an excellent
response rate for a voluntary questionnaire by a group of respondents who, as research culture premature of
different jobs personnel, are considered to be elusive groups of subjects.
Currently, the majority of participants were students; therefore it is essential to consider the analysis will
be based upon those at all stages of analysis, and it will reflect mainly their opinion and age. There were many
reasons for this highest percent participation, among them are:
The current research is conducting by a final year team of students.
It is quite common these days that students use a make-up and cosmetics preparations in the university
days, however, such use was not accepted by the family and the conservative society few years ago.
Table 1: Problems occur with the most trademarks used by participants.
From the table we observed that the four expected problems mentioned in the questionnaire were been
found out and recurrently happened with Nibo (ρ=0.44) and Pupa (ρ=0.05). However, dryness, spots and
others appeared with Deborah (ρ=0.36) while, just Dryness occur with Max Factor (ρ=0.42).
From the above results we finally conclude that acne [22], irritation and spots problems are altered by both
skin type and powder trade name, Nevertheless dryness problems are altered by the type of the powder
trade name only not as the expected .
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
%
powder plus cream foundation powder only
Figure 19: the relation between dryness and applying the powder only without foundation cream
32 percent from those using the powder and foundation cream together suffer from dryness, while 43percent
of those using face powder only suffer from dryness (fig. 19).
Finally, from the result we found that more than 60% of participants suffer from skin problems as a result of
applying face powder.
Most types of skin problems were dryness, irritation, acne followed by spots. Dryness appears in a less
percent with those using foundation cream with face powder and what it was not expected that it appears in
participants who have a normal and oily skin respectively. Irritation appears in a high percent with those having a dry
skin and acne appear clearly with those having an oily skin. Spots appear with those have a normal skin.
Further research needs to be carried out to explore and investigate the specific cause of the problems may be
observed during the use of face powders.
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In conclusion our results, although give information on many health problems encountered during the
use of face powder from different sources on what the participants responses, and make the users of cosmetics
think about the safety, and due to the relative large incidence of problems mentioned, the need of a system and
control able to report, evaluate, withdraw of harmful cosmetics partially or totally cannot be ignored.
V. CONFLICT OF INTEREST
The authors have no conflict of interest directly relevant to the contents of this study.
VI. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The authors would like to thank Tripoli University students particularly (A. Dadoush, R. Ashames and S.
Mahmoud) for their helpful collaboration that has been fundamental for the study.
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We attempt to review the safety assessment of personal care products (PCP) and ingredients that are representative and pose complex safety issues. PCP are generally applied to human skin and mainly produce local exposure, although skin penetration or use in the oral cavity, on the face, lips, eyes and mucosa may also produce human systemic exposure. In the EU, US and Japan, the safety of PCP is regulated under cosmetic and/or drug regulations. Oxidative hair dyes contain arylamines, the most chemically reactive ingredients of PCP. Although arylamines have an allergic potential, taking into account the high number of consumers exposed, the incidence and prevalence of hair dye allergy appears to be low and stable. A recent (2001) epidemiology study suggested an association of oxidative hair dye use and increased bladder cancer risk in consumers, although this was not confirmed by subsequent or previous epidemiologic investigations. The results of genetic toxicity, carcinogenicity and reproductive toxicity studies suggest that modern hair dyes and their ingredients pose no genotoxic, carcinogenic or reproductive risk. Recent reports suggest that arylamines contained in oxidative hair dyes are N-acetylated in human or mammalian skin resulting in systemic exposure to traces of detoxified, i.e. non-genotoxic, metabolites, whereas human hepatocytes were unable to transform hair dye arylamines to potentially carcinogenic metabolites. An expert panel of the International Agency on Research of Cancer (IARC) concluded that there is no evidence for a causal association of hair dye exposure with an elevated cancer risk in consumers. Ultraviolet filters have important benefits by protecting the consumer against adverse effects of UV radiation; these substances undergo a stringent safety evaluation under current international regulations prior to their marketing. Concerns were also raised about the safety of solid nanoparticles in PCP, mainly TiO2 and ZnO in sunscreens. However, current evidence suggests that these particles are non-toxic, do not penetrate into or through normal or compromised human skin and, therefore, pose no risk to human health. The increasing use of natural plant ingredients in personal care products raised new safety issues that require novel approaches to their safety evaluation similar to those of plant-derived food ingredients. For example, the Threshold of Toxicological Concern (TTC) is a promising tool to assess the safety of substances present at trace levels as well as minor ingredients of plant-derived substances. The potential human systemic exposure to PCP ingredients is increasingly estimated on the basis of in vitro skin penetration data. However, new evidence suggests that the in vitro test may overestimate human systemic exposure to PCP ingredients due to the absence of metabolism in cadaver skin or misclassification of skin residues that, in vivo, remain in the stratum corneum or hair follicle openings, i.e. outside the living skin. Overall, today's safety assessment of PCP and their ingredients is not only based on science, but also on their respective regulatory status as well as other issues, such as the ethics of animal testing. Nevertheless, the record shows that today's PCP are safe and offer multiple benefits to quality of life and health of the consumer. In the interest of all stakeholders, consumers, regulatory bodies and producers, there is an urgent need for an international harmonization on the status and safety requirements of these products and their ingredients.
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Fifty patients of both sexes with clinically suspected cosmetic dermatitis were subjected to patch testing with a cosmetic and fragrance series, approved by the Contact and Occupational Dermatosis Forum of India (CODFI), and with selected allergens from the Indian Standard Series (ISS). Most of these patients were young adults between 10-29 years; the mean age was 27.5 years. The majority of the patients had cosmetic dermatitis of <1 year duration (68%). The occupational profiles of the patients included students (46%), housewives (18%), teachers (10%) and laborers (4%). A miscellaneous group, comprised of tailors, farmers, staff nurses, beauticians, jewellers and engineers, accounted for the remaining 22%. The most commonly involved site was the face, followed by the forehead, neck and scalp. Patch testing of these patients revealed that, out of the 50 subjects tested, thirty-three (66%) reacted to one or more allergens. Fragrance components were the most common offending allergen (51.5%) followed by preservatives (39.3%), paraphenylenediamine (PPD) (21.2%), and cetrimide and tertiary butyl hydroquinone (12.1% each), in descending order of frequency. Hence, patch testing, with the standard series supplemented by personal cosmetics; should be considered for patients with cosmetic dermatitis to determine the offending allergen so as to avoid further contact with that allergen.
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The art of cleansing has progressed immensely over several thousand years from simply scraping the skin to an exercise in relaxation and improvement in the skin's health and appearance in the present day. Soaps - the basic cleansing agent has also undergone a sea change in its evolution with many variants and newer constituents being incorporated into it. In dermatological disorders like acne, rosacea, atopic dermatitis, photoaging, 'sensitive skin', occupational dermatosis cleansers may have a beneficial role along with other therapeutic measures. With the advent of aesthetic dermatology, the act of cleansing and the use of various cleansing agents prior to aesthetic procedures has also assumed significance.
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Patches of common cosmetics like lipstick, sindhoor, cold cream, eyebrow pencil, rouge, bindi and their ingredients including methyl paraben, colophony, para phenylene diamine, balsam peru, cetostearyl alcohol, formaldehyde, lanolin, beeswax and liquid paraffin were applied in 200 females. Ingredients of cosmetics showed more frequent sensitivity as compared to the cosmetics applied as such. Para phenylene diamine (35%) being the most common allergen followed by balsam peru (22.5%) and parabens (19.25%). The least common allergen was liquid paraffin (0.5%). Among cosmetics, the most common agent was sindhoor (5.5%) followed by lipstick (5.1%) cold cream (3.75%) rouge (2%), bindi (1.75%) and eyebrow pencil (1.5%)