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Nunavimmiut sea ice terminology

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  • Crown-Indigenous Relations and Northern Affairs Canada

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Appendix A
Nunavimmiut Sea Ice Terminology
Chris Furgal, Martin Tremblay, and Eli Angiyou
Contributors: Annie Baron, Tuumasi Annanack, Sarah Tukkiapik, Peter Tookalook,
Annie Kasudluak, Michael Barrett, Laina Grey and Agata Durkalec.
Inuit knowledge constitutes an important tool for adaptation to climate change
among Nunavimmiut (Inuit of Nunavik) in Northern Quebec (Nunavik). Since
2003 the Kativik Regional Government (KRG) has been conducting research
with the communities of the region on the topic of climate change, impacts, and
adaptation with a specific focus on ice and ice safety for community travel and
access to land- and sea-based resources (hunting, fishing, and gathering activities).
Within the framework of this project, researchers from KRG and Trent University
have been working with Nunavik communities to establish local ice monitoring
programs as well as document Inuit knowledge. Since 2006, this project has been
conducted as part of a larger Inuit sea ice research project called the “Inuit Sea Ice
Use and Occupancy Project (ISIUOP)” funded under the International Polar Year
Program. Between 2006 and 2008 the Nunavik project team carried out a series of
semi-directed interviews with experienced hunters and elders from four Nunavik
communities – Umiujaq, Akulivik, Kangiqsualujjuaq, and Kuujjuaq. In addition,
supplementary interviews were also conducted as part of cooperative projects
in Ivujivik, Nunavik and Sanikiluaq, Nunavut. The interviews were conducted
to document and understand changes in sea and lake ice dynamics taking place
in the region and to document local knowledge on strategies and approaches to
adaptation to these changes. Through a review of the interview transcripts a lexicon
of Inuttitut terms used in the communities to describe the various ice formations
and related processes of ice formation and breakup was also developed. The initial
list of ice terminology was then verified and further developed during return trips
to the communities and follow-up interviews with the local ice experts. The list
was then enhanced by the addition of terms gathered and included in research
interviews done in Sanikiluaq, Nunavut, as part of the Voices From The Bay project
(McDonald et al., 1997). The impressive terminological richness presented in the
list below results from the great knowledge of elders and experienced hunters
of the ice-covered land and ocean and of the physical processes structuring their
environment. This list of lexicon used in the four Nunavik communities, including
additions from Sanikiluaq as presented in McDonald et al. (1997), is one of the
many products of the Nunavik research project underway on this topic.
The vocabulary presented in the attached list used to describe the ice varies
according to the dialects across the region of Nunavik. Within region differences
453
I. Krupnik et al. (eds.), SIKU: Knowing Our Ice,
DOI 10.1007/978-90-481-8587-0, C
Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010
454 Appendix A
can be observed between the terms used by Nunavimmiut from southern and north-
ern areas of Hudson Bay, Hudson Strait, and Ungava Bay. For example, the term
allanuk that means “mobile ice” among Umiujamiut is replaced by the term aulaniq
among Ivujivimiut. There are also synonyms used within the same community.
The term pirtutak used by Akulivimiut to mean ice formed by a fine layer of
snow deposited on water can also be called tuktuyaq by members of the same
community.
The Inuttitut terminology of the ice is rich and precise. Certain words, in addi-
tion to describing the actual forms of ice, relate to the processes of their formation.
An interesting example comes from the Hudson Bay area where local ice experts
use, among others, three Inuttitut terms to describe the process of sea ice melting
in spring, upingasak,upingaak, and akunaagiq.Upingasak indicates the stage of
melting at the beginning of spring, the first phase of the melt. During this phase, the
ice, which is white at the end of the winter, adopts a blue color from the snowmelt
and eventually turns white once again after the snow has melted on top of it, and the
water it forms has drained from its surface. Akunaagiq refers to the second phase
of melting that follows upingasak. From the accumulation of water related to the
melting of the ice, the ice adopts a white, blue, and then black color. It is considered
not safe to travel on when it is black in appearance. Upingaak refers to the third
and last phase of melting in spring. During this phase, the ice is not safe to travel or
walk-on.
Inuit knowledge of the ice, in particular the terminology of sea ice, formations,
and processes, provides valuable insights into the processes of ice formation and
breakup in these communities. The value of this knowledge in protecting individu-
als in the community from unsafe travel or hunting conditions related to ice stability
cannot be underestimated. Local ice terminology constitutes a set of structured terms
passed down from generation to generation describing a dynamic environment that
has always been in a state of change. However, the transmission of this knowl-
edge to younger generations appears to be challenged and perhaps hindered by a
number of other changes going on within many Inuit communities. We recommend
that this type of traditional knowledge be included in the local school curriculum
via the involvement of elders and experienced hunters and the use of student trips
or other processes for experiential knowledge transmission. To support the use of
traditional Nunavik ice terminology and facilitate its use in schools and other pub-
lic programs, the research team leading this project produced a color poster with
some (50) Inuttitut ice terms and their associated English explanations (see attached
Table for complete list of terms). We hope that this form of documentation and dis-
semination will be of some assistance in raising awareness about the importance
of this living dictionary of the environment present in the collective knowledge of
many Inuit elders and experienced travelers and the value of this knowledge for fac-
ing future changes in these regions including those related to climate change and
environmental variability.
Appendix A 455
Acknowledgments The information presented in this document is the knowledge shared
by Elders and other experts in the communities of Akulivik, Ivujivik, Kangiqsualujjuaq,
Kangiqsujuaq, Kuujjuaq, Sanikiluaq, and Umiujuaq. We are grateful to them for their willingness
to participate in the project and share their knowledge of the land and sea with the project team.
We also thank the Kativik Regional Government, ArcticNet, Consortium Ouranos, Environment
Canada, Natural Resources Canada, the International Polar Year Program (through the ISIUOP
Project), the Nasivvik Centre, Transport Québec, Centre d’études nordiques, Laval University,
Trent University, and the Makivik Corporation for financial and in-kind support for this project.
456 Appendix A
Term
(community of
specific use)
Synonym
(community of
specific use) Description Season Umiujaq Akulivik Kuujjuaq
Kangiqsua
lujjuaq Sanikiluaq
Akgutitak Qinuarq
(Akulivik) Slushy mixture of ice and snow that freezes into
flexible ice and moves with the waves
Winter X Qinuarq
Akimmitavinirk Was against the head wind X
Aggiqakkuit Were lifted onto the ice by sea currents or waves X
Aggiraqtavining Ice broken by strong currents or high winds Winter X
Akgitkuit Forms when ice is broken up by strong currents or
waves colliding against the floe edge and the
broken ice is submerged, allowing new ice to form
on top
Winter X
Apputainaq Thin layer of “false ice” covering open water; a
crack covered with snow, without any ice beneath
the snow
Aqiqakuit Akitkuit Piled ice formed on top of the submerged ice; see
akgitkuit
Winter
Aulaning Allanuk Moving ice; formed ice continuously moving in
currents beyond the floe edge; pack ice often
moving near the shore
Winter X
Ikiarik Piece of solid ice pushed on top of another during
a wind storm or by spring tides. Evidently from
ikiaq – between two surfaces that adhere to each
other
Winter X X
Ikiqtiniq Immatiniq,
Tungirliniq Water in lakes between ice and land during the
spring thaw in the west
Spring
Iktaniq Milutsinik Snow-soaked water that freezes at the floe edge.
Unsafe due to sea currents it is avoided by hunters
and animals
Appendix A 457
Term
(community of
specific use)
Synonym
(community of
specific use) Description Season Umiujaq Akulivik Kuujjuaq
Kangiqsua
lujjuaq Sanikiluaq
Immatinning A pool of melted ice in the tidal area (Ungava)
Iniruvik – ice crack (joint) that opens and closes
continuously like a hinge during high and low
tides, but does not shift sideways. Ivunik – rough,
scrambled ice of varying thickness formed when
moving ice collides with the floe edge and piles up
Spring X X
Iniruvik Ice fissured by changes in the tide and frozen
again by cold temperatures. Safe to walk-on
except when it is newly formed
Winter X
Ittiniq (Umiujaq),
Ittinirq
(Akulivik,
Kuujjuaq)
Calf ice that piles on the edge of the landfast ice
(tuvaq) at the tidal line. This ice grows
continuously above the rocks, lifted by the sea
beneath. This ice can be observed in rivers where
a tide exists
WinterXXX
Ittiniviniit Remains of pack ice at the tidal line between the
land and the solid shore ice. Can be observed in
spring when shore ice is carried off by winds or
tides
Spring X X X
Ivujialik Sikuttigutjaq Someone who is a victim of ice pressure ridges Spring X
Ivujiarivait The moving ice floes crush him in rough weather Winter X X
Ivujiarivait Ice flows that claim a life as they breakup Winter
Ivujut The piling up of ice flows under pressure out at
sea
Winter X X
Ivusijuq Strong winds or currents that are forcing ice floes
to pile up
Winter X
Killinigursituq (Killinigusiqtuq) there are ice floes forming
458 Appendix A
Term
(community of
specific use)
Synonym
(community of
specific use) Description Season Umiujaq Akulivik Kuujjuaq
Kangiqsua
lujjuaq Sanikiluaq
Killiniq Side of ice closest to open water and furthest from
mainland
XX X
Kiviniq A depression usually formed near shorelines and
created by the weight of high-tide water that has
risen through the cracks. Water exists on the ice
after the ice has cracked
XX
Maniilaq Maniiligaak A surface of pack ice with icicles (smaller than
manittuit)
X
Milutsinik Iktaniq Snow-soaked water that freezes at the floe edge. It
is unsafe in current areas and is avoided by
hunters and animals
XX X
Miqiaq “Molting ice”; thick pack ice from North Hudson
Bay that often crowds areas so there is no open
water in sight. It will stay near the shoreline until
it is clean
XX
Napakkait Newly formed ice only 3–6 mm thick and easily
broken by winds, currents, and waves. As the
pieces break they move upward or downward and
freeze into ice sheets separated by open water
Napakkuit See napakkait
Napakutak See napakkait
Pikiatuuk Surfaced X X
Puikangajuk Land or ice that appears to be suspended in air,
like a mirage
XX X
Puikkatuq When sea water begins to permeate ice softened
by warm weather conditions
Appendix A 459
Term
(community of
specific use)
Synonym
(community of
specific use) Description Season Umiujaq Akulivik Kuujjuaq
Kangiqsua
lujjuaq Sanikiluaq
Pullait Air pockets with a very thin layer of “false ice”
covering open water (see apputainaq). They are
created by current-formed air bubbles or by air
bubbles created by ducks diving for food through
the openings beneath the ice during an early
freeze-up, a bubble of air rising from the water
XX X
Pullaq A bubble of air rising from far below the surface
of the water
XX X
Putaaq A lone piece of floating ice X X X
Putatait See putataviniq XX
Putatak Sikulirutit New ice
Putataviniq Older piece of ice separated from other ice by
currents, on which new ice, sikuliak, has formed
Puttaq, Puutak
(Kangiqsualujjuaq) Autumn floating ice, the first ice floating in ice
floes; in summer, the broken pieces of shore ice
X
Qainguniq Created when slush forms under colder air
temperatures offshore and is washed ashore by the
wind. It then freezes as beach ice at the high-water
mark. Qainnguq – border of solid ice stuck to the
edge (particularly to the rocky shore) and whose
top is never passed except by the highest tides
Qainuk See qainguniq
Qalirittinik Ice created by thin pieces of ice piling atop one
another due to strong currents and moving ice
Qamait Ice pushed upward; see puqurniq – when the
pressure that causes ice to break pushes the
broken ice upward
XX
460 Appendix A
Term
(community of
specific use)
Synonym
(community of
specific use) Description Season Umiujaq Akulivik Kuujjuaq
Kangiqsua
lujjuaq Sanikiluaq
Qautsaulittu Ice which breaks after having tested it with a
harpoon; antonym of kaqusaruk
Fall X
Qinualuk Block of ice formed from sea water that, while
compact, is still soft
Qiqngurusirtuk New ice formed from slush in narrow water
bodies, like inlets; it is harder than qinuk but still
soft and unreliable for travel
Quasaq Very slippery (black) ice that can be found on
ground, sea, lakes, or pack ice. Caused by freezing
rain, too slippery to walk-on (Ungava Bay,
Western Hudson Bay)
Quliqiaq Napakkait. Newly formed ice only 3–6 mm thick
and easily broken by winds, currents, and waves.
As the pieces break they move upward or
downward and freeze into ice sheets separated by
open water
Qullunirsiutuq Hanging shore ice that has broken during low tide
leaving a gap in the ice when the tide is out
Qullupiaq New crack that forms in different directions when
ice collides at the floe edge. The force of impact
creates cracks in both the solid ice and the
incoming ice; see piquniq (has many cracks)
X
Quluniq “Has cracked” (tukkilik), deformed by the
pressure of high and low tides. Fissure, crack in
the ice (wider and deeper than aajuraq) in pack
ice; a melting of the ice floes along the iceblink
X
Appendix A 461
Term
(community of
specific use)
Synonym
(community of
specific use) Description Season Umiujaq Akulivik Kuujjuaq
Kangiqsua
lujjuaq Sanikiluaq
Qunniq Qungniq a crack (opening) in the ice on a lake or
on the shore (Ungava Bay); only in shore ice
(Labrador)
Qupugaq Striate only on sea ice in formation – (Labrador)
Qutitaq An ice hole hidden or diminished by frost
Sarliarusiq Ice on the shore
Sarliarutaq Ice floes forced onto the shore at the top of a bay
Siatuninik A grouping of ice pieces moving together in the
current
Siku Ice, icicle (ice at sea, on shore, lakes, rivers)
Sikuak,
Sikkuaq Newly formed thin layer of ice in its earliest stage
of formation
XX X
Sikuarpuq The process of ice beginning to form X
Sikuirtuq When the ice fully melts after breaking up X
Sikujuaniq Dirty, old-looking pack ice that does not melt
away in the early summer
Sikuliak Newly formed ice with no snow on top; thinner
than old ice but safe to walk or travel on. Usually
formed when uiguak and akgutinik meet and
freeze solid
Sikulirutiit Tuvaaluk Smooth ice Winter
Sikulirutit New ice, freshly frozen from part saltwater and
part freshwater along shorelines and within inlets.
High tide will float it and winds can blow it
offshore in broken pieces. Seals like to be on that
ice
Sikullaq Describes one piece of floating ice among many
(big or small)
462 Appendix A
Term
(community of
specific use)
Synonym
(community of
specific use) Description Season Umiujaq Akulivik Kuujjuaq
Kangiqsua
lujjuaq Sanikiluaq
Sikuqraaq (Sikuraaq) new ice, thick enough to carry weight
Sikurluk Small icicles (not good ice) X
Sikusuilaq A place which cannot freeze over (at sea or in a
river, because of current =aukkaniq)
Sikutait Ice in small inlets or bays formed before the
land-fast ice, tuvak, starts developing – solid
Sikutak New ice that forms from sikuak, once inlets are
frozen
Sikutsiarippuq (Sikutsiarikpuq) it is very transparent ice X
Sikuvippuq The ice is almost frozen
Sinaaq An ice flow at the edge of the shore: tuvaup
sinaanga
Siqkuitiniq A crack (tukkilik) deformed by the pressure of
high and low tides
Siqummaq A crack in glass ice, crevasse in pack ice
Tuvarlu Uneven fast moving ice or bad tuvak; (see
umartuq) (West Hudson Bay)
X
Tuvapaq At the edge of the sea (West Hudson Bay) X X X
Tuvariirpuq The sea or lake ice has finished solidifying (West
Hudson Bay)
XX X
Tuvarlipuq At breakup the sea or lake ice is dangerous Spring
Tuvarpuq Fast ice covering the sea or lake X X X
Tuvarqusaq (Tuvaqqusaq) sea ice, now good for sled trips
(Ungava)
XX
Tuvarsimajuq (Tuvaqsimajuq) the sea or lake ice had become
solid in the past
XX X
Appendix A 463
Term
(community of
specific use)
Synonym
(community of
specific use) Description Season Umiujaq Akulivik Kuujjuaq
Kangiqsua
lujjuaq Sanikiluaq
Tuvarurpuq (Tuvaruqpuq) sea or lake ice becomes strong
enough not to be broken by wind (Ungava); ice
which is thick
XX X
Tuvarursimajuq (Tuvaruqsimajuq) the sea or lake ice has become
solid
XX X
Tuvasak New ice that forms from sikuak;seesikutak;
(tuvatsak, tuvaksak) the first ice that forms on the
sea, thin but strong and will be fast ice eventually
XX X
Tuvatsaniartuq (Tuvaksaniartuq) goes hunting on the sea ice that
is forming (tries as soon as it can carry him),
Tuvvipuq – reaches the sea ice
XX
Tuviatu Water space between ice fields X X
Tuviatuk Water coming from melting ice Spring X X
Uiguak Smooth solid ice formed when wind blows from
the land-fast ice
XX X
Uiguaq Addition of new ice in an open crack; old sea ice Winter X X X
Uinning A wide stretch of open water caused by the
breakup of shore ice (parallel to the shore, hence
between the shore ice (tuvaq) and the floating
pack ice)
X
Ukiurjait New ice that forms from sikuak
Note: The terms marked with come from Miriam McDonald, Lucassie Arragutainaq, Zack Novalinga (1997). Voices from the Bay: Traditional ecological
knowledge of Inuit and Cree in the Hudson Bay bioregion. Ottawa, ON: Canadian Arctic Resources Committee; Sanikiluaq, N.W.T.: Environmental
Committee of Municipality of Sanikiluaq. All other terms marked with an X were gathered through interviews conducted for this project.
Appendix B
Publications (a) and Posters/Presentations
(b) Given at Conferences and Workshops
on the Outcomes of the SIKU and Affiliated
Projects, 2006–2010
Gita J. Laidler, Claudio Aporta, and A. Chase Morrison
(a) Publications
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37(2): 131–146.
Arnestad Foote, B. 2009. Point hope. Life on frozen water/Tikigaq: en fotografisk reise blant
eskimoene i Point Hope 1959–1962. Chicago and Fairbanks: University of Chicago Press and
University of Alaska Press/ Oslo.
Bogoslovskaya, L., Vdovin, B., and Golbtseva, V. 2008. Izmeneniia klimata v regione Beringova
proliva: Integratsiia nauchnykh i traditisionnykh znanii (Climate change in the Bering
Strait Region: Integration of scientific and indigenous knowledge (SIKU, IPY #166)).
Ekonomicheskoe planirovanie i upravlenie 3–4 (8–9):58–68. Moscow (in Russian).
Bogoslovskaya, L.S. and Golbtseva, V.V. 2007. Traditional navigation techniques and safety rules.
In Osnovy morskogo zveroboinogo promysla. L. Bogoslovskaya, I. Slugin, I. Zagrebin, and I.
Krupnik (eds.), Moscow and Anadyr: Russian Institute of Cultural and Natural Heritage and
Chukotka Institute of Teachers’ Training, pp. 334–341 (in Russian).
Brauen G. and Taylor, D.R.F. 2007. A cybercartographic framework for audible mapping.
Geomatica (Special Issue on CNC National Report on Cartography) 61(2): 127–136.
Bravo, M.T. 2008. Sea ice mapping: Ontology, mechanics, and human rights at the ice floe edge.
In High Places: Cultural Geographies of Mountains and Ice. D. Cosgrove and V. della Dora
(eds.), London: IB Tauris, pp. 161–176.
Bravo, M.T. 2009. Voices from the sea ice and the reception of climate impact narratives. Journal
of Historical Geography 35(2): 256–278. Feature issue on Climate Change Narratives.
Druckenmiller, M.L., Eicken, H., Johnson, M.A., Pringle, D.J., and Willliams, C.C. 2009. Towards
an integrated coastal sea ice observatory: System components and a case study at Barrow,
Alaska. Cold Regions Science and Technology 56: 61–72.
Eicken, H., Gradinger, R., Salganek, M., Shirasawa, K., Perovich, D.K., Leppäranta, M. (eds.)
2009. Sea ice field research techniques.Fairbanks, AK: University of Alaska Press, 566pp.
Eicken, H., and Krupnik, I. in press. Learning about sea ice and its use from the Kingikmiut,
in Kingikmi Sigum Qanuq Ilitaavut - Wales Inupiaq sea ice dictionary. In: I. Krupnik, H.
Anungazuk, and M. Druckenmiller, (eds.) Washington, DC: Arctic Studies Center, Smithsonian
Institution.
Eicken, H., Krupnik, I., Weyapuk, W. Jr., and Druckenmiller, M.L. in press. Ice seasons at Wales,
2006–2007, in Kingikmi Sigum Qanuq Ilitaavut - Wales Inupiaq sea ice dictionary. In: I.
Krupnik, H. Anungazuk, and M. Druckenmiller (eds.) Washington, DC: Arctic Studies Center,
Smithsonian Institution.
464
Appendix B 465
Eicken, H., Lovecraft, A.L., and Druckenmiller, M.L. 2009. Sea ice system services: A frame-
work to help identify and meet information needs relevant for Arctic observing networks. Arctic
62(2):119–136.
Elders of Kangiqsualujjuaq, Furgal, C., Wilkes, J., Annanak, T., Tremblay, M., and Alain, J.
2007. Inuit Observations of Climate and Environmental Change: Perspectives from Elders in
Kangiqsualujjuaq. Peterborough: Kativik Regional Government, Kuujjuaq, Nunavik and Trent
University.
Fienup-Riordan, Ann. 2010 in press. “Yup’ik perspectives on climate change: ‘The world is
following its people.’ ” Etude/Inuit/Studies 34(1).
Fienup-Riordan, Ann and Rearden, A. 2010 in press. Ellavut/our world and weather. Seattle:
University of Washington Press.
Ford, J.D., Gough, W.A., Laidler, G.J., MacDonald, J., Irngaut, C., and Qrunnut, K. 2009. Sea ice,
climate change, and community vulnerability in northern Foxe Basin, Canada. Climate Research
38: 137–154.
Gearheard, S. 2008a. A change in the weather. Natural History, February, 32–38.
Gearheard, S. (curator). 2008b. Silavut: Inuit Voices in a Changing World. Exhibit: University of
Colorado Museum of Natural History, April 15, 2008–May 1, 2009.
Gearheard, S., Matumeak, W., Angutikjuaq, I., Maslanik, J., Huntington, H.P., Leavitt, J.,
Matumeak-Kagak, D., Tigullaraq, G., and Barry, R.G. 2006. “It’s not that simple”: A com-
parison of sea ice environments, uses of sea ice, and vulnerability to change in barrow, Alaska,
USA, and Clyde River, Nunavut, Canada. AMBIO 35(4): 203–211.
Gearheard, S., Pocernich, M., Stewart, R., Sanguya, J., and Huntington. H.P. Linking Inuit
knowledge and meteorological station observations to understand changing wind patterns
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Golbtseva, V.V. 2008. Wind regime and indigenous knowledge abound local winds in uelen.
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Chukotka Branch of the SVKNII 12. Magadan, Russia, pp. 145–161 (in Russian).
Golbtseva, V.V. 2009. Types of sea ice in marine hunters’ lexicon and safety measures during sea-
mammal hunting. Kerek Pedagogical Readings 2. St. Petersburg: Polytechnical University (in
Russian).
Henshaw, A. 2009. Sea ice: The sociocultural dimensions of a melting environment in the Arctic.
In Anthropology and Climate Change: From Encounters to Actions.M.NuttallandS.Crates
(eds.), Walnut Creek, CA: Left Coast Press, pp. 153–165.
Krupnik, I. in press. SIKU project steers to its book and to completion. ASC Newslett 17 (2010).
Krupnik, I. 2006. We have seen these warm weathers before. Indigenous observations, archaeology,
and the modeling of Arctic climate change. In Dynamics of Northern Societies.Publications
from the National Museum, Studies in Archaeology and History. J. Arneborg and B. Grønnow
(eds.), vol 10. Copenhagen: National Museum of Denmark, pp. 11–21.
Krupnik, I. 2008. Project SIKU: IPY Study of indigenous knowledge of ice. Arctic Studies Center
Newsletter 15: 16–18.
Krupnik, I. 2009a. “The way we see it coming”: Building the legacy of indigenous observations in
IPY 2007–2008. In Smithsonian at the Poles: Contributions to International Polar Year Science.
I. Krupnik, M. Lang, and S. Miller (eds.), Washington: Smithsonian Institution Scholarly Press,
pp. 129–142.
Krupnik, I. 2009b. ‘The ice we want our children to know’: SIKU project in Alaska and Siberia,
2007–2008. Alaska Park Science 8(2): 122–127.
Krupnik, I. 2009c. When the ice, photos, and memories come together. In: Berit A. Foote (ed)
Point Hope, Alaska: Life on the frozen water. Photographs 1959–1962. Fairbanks: University
of Alaska Press, pp. 10–11.
Krupnik, I. 2009d. SIKU (sea ice knowledge and use) study advances in its third year. Arctic
Studies Center Newslett 16: 26–28.
Krupnik, I. and Bogoslovskaya, L. 2007. Izmeneniie klimata i narody Arktiki. Proekt SIKU
v Beringii (Climate change and Arctic People: SIKU Project in Beringia). Ekologicheskoe
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466 Appendix B
Krupnik, I. and Bogoslovskaya, L. 2008. International Polar Year 2007–2008. Project SIKU in
Alaska and Chukotka. In Beringia: A Bridge of Friendship. Tomsk: TSPU Press, pp. 196–204.
Laidler, G.J. and Elee, P. 2008a. Human geographies of sea ice: Freeze/thaw processes around
Cape Dorset, Nunavut, Canada. Polar Record 44: 51–76.
Laidler, G.J. and Ikummaq, T. 2008b. Human geographies of sea ice: Freeze/thaw processes around
Igloolik, Nunavut, Canada. Polar Record 44: 127–153.
Laidler, G.J., Dialla, A., and Joamie, E. 2008. Human geographies of sea ice: Freeze/thaw
processes around Pangnirtung, Nunavut, Canada. Polar Record 44: 335–361.
Laidler, G.J., Ford, J.D., Gough, W.A., Ikummaq, T., Gagnon, A.S., Kowal, S., Qrunnut, K., and
Irngaut, C. 2009. Travelling and hunting in a changing Arctic: Assessing Inuit vulnerability to
sea ice change in Igloolik, Nunavut. Climatic Change 94: 363–397.
Laidler, G.J., and Kapfer, M. 2009. Connecting community observations and expertise with the
floe edge service (English/Inuktitut). Ottawa (for distribution in Nunavut): Department of
Geography and Environmental Studies, Carleton University, Ottawa, ON. (available online at:
http://www.straightupnorth.ca/Sikuliriji/Publications.html)
Lauriault, T.P., Craig, B., Pulsifer, P.L., and Taylor, D.R.F. (2008). Today’s data are part of
tomorrow’s research: Archival issues in the sciences. Archivaria 64: 165–186, December.
Lauriault, T.P., Pulsifer, P.L., Taylor, D.R.F. in press. The preservation and archiving of geospatial
digital data: Challenges and opportunities for cartographers. In: Markus Jobst (ed.), Prospective
cartographic heritage. Berlin: Springer.
Mahoney, A. and Gearheard, S. 2008 Handbook for community-based sea ice monitoring, NSIDC
Special Report 14, Boulder, CO, USA: National Snow and Ice Data Center. http://nsidc.org/
pubs/special/nsidc_special_report_14.pdf
Mahoney, A., Gearheard, S., Oshima, T., and Qillaq, T. 2009. Sea ice thickness measurements from
a community-based observing network. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 90(3):
370–377.
Pulsifer, P., Hayes, A., Fiset, J.P., and Taylor, D.R.F. 2007. An education outreach atlas based
on geospatial infrastructures: Lessons learned from the development of an on-line polar atlas.
Proceedings from the IPY GeoNorth 2007 Conference in Yellowknife, Northwest Territories.
Pulsifer, P.L., Hayes, A., Fiset, J.P., and Taylor, D.R.F. 2008. An education and outreach Atlas
based on geographic infrastructure: Lessons learned from the development of an on-line Polar
Atlas. Geomatica 62(2): 169–188.
Pulsifer, P.L. and Taylor, D.R.F. 2007. Spatial data infrastructure: Implications for sovereignty in
the Canadian Arctic. Meridian (Canadian Polar Commission). Spring/Summer: 1–5 (English
and French).
Tremblay, M. and Furgal, C. 2008. Les changements climatiques au Nunavik et au Nord du
Québec: L’accès au territoire et aux ressources. Final Report to Nothern Ecosystem Initiatives,
Environment Canada, 167 p.
Tremblay, M., Furgal, C., Larrivée, C., Annanack, T., Tookalook, P., Qiisik, M., Angiyou, E.,
Swappie, N., and Barrett, M. 2008. Climate change in Nunavik: Adaptation strategies from
community-based research. Arctic 61(Suppl. 1): 27–34.
Vdovin, B.I. and Yevstifeev, A.Yu. 2008. Climate change in Eastern Chukotka over the past cen-
tury, according to the instrumental records. In Beringia: A Bridge of Friendship. Tomsk: TSPU
Press, pp. 17–24.
Wisniewski, J. 2009. Come on Ugzruk, Have Mercy: Experience, Relationality and Knowing in
Kigiqtaamiut Hunting and Ethnography. Unpublished PhD Dissertation, University of Alaska
Fairbanks, Department of Anthropology.
(b) Posters/Presentations
Aporta, C. 2007a. Carleton Spring Conference, Guest Speaker.
Aporta, C. 2007b. Guest speaker in a presentation to the Clerk of the Privy Council, Iqaluit.
Appendix B 467
Aporta, C. 2008a. The Ice is What we Want our Children to Know: Documenting Inuit Sea Ice Use
in Canada. Paper Presented at the IPY Open Science Conference in St. Petersburg, Russia.
Aporta, C. 2008b. Overview of the Inuit Sea Ice Use and Occupancy Project. Presentation to the
Canadian Circumpolar Ambassadors, Iqaluit.
Aporta, C. 2008c. Inuit and Their Use and Knowledge of the Sea Ice. Presentation to a Delegation
of Nordic Journalists, Ottawa.
Aporta, C. 2008d. Overview of ISIUOP. Presentation to the International Polar Day, Canadian
Museum of Civilization, Ottawa.
Aporta, C., Gearheard, S., Furgal, C., Taylor, D.R.F., and Laidler, G.J. 2009. Documenting
and Representing Inuit Use of the Sea Ice. Annual Meeting of the Canadian Association of
Geographers, Ottawa, May 27.
Aporta, C., and Laidler, G.J. 2009. Overview of the inuit sea ice use and occupancy project, presen-
tation to the Cold Regions Technology Group, Canadian Hydraulics Centre, National Research
Council of Canada, Ottawa, ON, November 18.
Aporta, C. and Taylor, D.R.F. 2007. Research Works Luncheon, Carleton University, Guest
Speakers, Ottawa.
Druckenmiller, M.L. 2008. Whaling trails on landfast sea ice at Barrow, Alaska. Sixth International
Congress of Arctic Social Sciences, Nuuk, Greenland, August 26.
Druckenmiller, M.L. 2009. Working with the community of Barrow to monitor and understand
landfast sea ice. Barrow young researchers’ seminar series, University of Alaska Fairbanks,
Fairbanks, AK, March 19.
Druckenmiller, M.L., and Eicken, H. 2009a. Geophysical and Iñupiaq perspectives and observa-
tions of shorefast sea ice. Inland Northwest Research Alliance (INRA) Symposium: Lessons
from continuity and change in the 4th international Polar year, Fairbanks, AK, March 4–6.
Druckenmiller, M.L., and Eicken, H. 2009b Monitoring Alaska’s coastal sea-ice: Some work of
the seasonal ice zone observing network. Alaska Forum on the Environment, Anchorage, AK,
February 2–6.
Gearheard, S. 2008a. Silavut: Inuit Voices in a Changing World. Presentation for Teachers and
Educators, Grand Opening of the Silavut: Inuit Voices in a Changing World Exhibit, University
of Colorado Museum of Natural History. Boulder, April 19.
Gearheard, S. 2008b. Igliniit (“trails”) Project: Combining Inuit Knowledge and GPS Technology
to Track Environmental Change. Paper Presented by S. Gearheard at the 6th International
Congress of the International Arctic Social Sciences Association. Nuuk, Greenland, August
22–26.
Gearheard, S. 2008c. Syv-kabale nassarlugu piniariarneq. News article in Greenland’s National
newspaper Sermitsiaq. In Greenlanic and Danish, Interview and article by Inge Rasmussen.
Gearheard, S. 2009a. Establishing a Community-Based Sea Ice Observing Network in the Arctic.
Invited speaker, Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami (ITK) Inuit Climate Change Working Group Workshop,
Ottawa, Canada, January 15.
Gearheard, S. 2009b. Establishing a Community-Based Sea Ice Observing Network in the
Arctic. Invited speaker, Climate and Cryosphere (CliC) Sea Ice Workshop. Tromsø, Norway,
January 27.
Gearheard, S. 2009c. Siku-Inuit-Hila Project: Sea Ice Change in Greenland. Invited speaker,
Greenland Science Summit/Webinar. Kangerlussuaq, Greenland, July 8.
Gearheard, S. 2009d. Siku-Inuit-Hila Project. Invited speaker and participant, Global Long Term
Human Ecodynamics Conference. Eagle Hill, Maine, October 15–18.
Gearheard, S. 2009e. Inuit and environmental change research in Nunavut, Canada. Invited
speaker, Gettysburg College, Gettysburg, October 20.
Gearheard, S., Angutikjuak, I., and Tigullaraq, G. 2008. Silavut: Inuit Voices in a Changing World.
Public Lecture for the Grand Opening of the Silavut: Inuit Voices in a Changing World Exhibit,
University of Colorado Museum of Natural History. Boulder, April 18.
Gearheard, S. and Holm, L. 2008. Issittumi ilisimatusarnermi (Arctic Science) Inuit sule-
qatigiinnerannik (Human Collaboration) nalliuttorsiutiginninneq (Celebration). Invited Keynote
468 Appendix B
Address at the 6th International Congress of the International Arctic Social Sciences
Association. Nuuk, Greenland, August 22–26.
Golbtseva, V.V. 2009. Sea Ice as a Life Source to the People of the Bering Strait Region. Paper
Presented at the ‘Shared Beringia Heritage’ Conference, Anadyr, Russia, September 15, 2009.
Gough, W.A., Laidler, G.J., and Ford, J.D. 2009. The Changing Weather of Igloolik. Annual
Meeting of the Canadian Association of Geographers, Ottawa, May 27.
Karpala, K. 2008a. Preliminary Results of Constructions of Inuit Perspectives on Climate Change.
Poster Presented at the Arctic Change conference in Quebec, Canada.
Karpala, K. 2008b. Constructions of Inuit Perspectives on Climate Change. Paper Presented at the
Annual University of Ottawa-Carleton University Student Northern Research Symposium in
Ottawa, Canada.
Karpala, K., Aporta, C., and Laidler, G.J. 2009. Constructions of Inuit Perspectives of Climate
Change. Annual Meeting of the Canadian Association of Geographers, Ottawa, May 27.
Kelley, K. 2008. Preliminary Results on the Politics of Sea Ice in the Canadian Arctic. Poster
Presented at the 2008 Annual Ottawa-Carleton Student Northern Research Symposium in
Ottawa.
Kelley, K., Laidler, G.J., and Aporta, C. 2009. Politics of Sea Ice in the Canadian Arctic. Annual
Meeting of the Canadian Association of Geographers, Ottawa, May 27.
KNR-TV. 2007. Inuit isaannit silaannaq. (Documentary Film on Siku-Inuit-Hila Project
(Chapter 11)) in Qaanaaq. http://www.knr.gl/index.php?id=2022
Krupnik, I. 2006. On a Thinning Ice: Indigenous People and Icebreaker Community Face Arctic
Climate Change. Paper Presented to the Committee on the Assessment of U.S. Coast Guard
Polar Icebreaker Roles and Future Needs, U.S. National Academies, March 2.
Krupnik, I. 2007a. On a Thinning Ice: Arctic Residents Face Climate Change. Paper Presented
at the symposium “Impact of an Ice-Diminishing Arctic on Naval and Maritime Operations,”
Washington, July 12.
Krupnik, I. 2007b. The Way We See It Coming. Building the Legacy of Indigenous Observations in
IPY 2007–2008. Paper Presented at the Symposium, “Smithsonian at the Poles: Contributions
to IPY Science”, Washington, May 4.
Krupnik, I. 2007c. Arctic Residents and Climate Change: Contributions to IPY Science.
Presentation at the ‘Science Day,’ Arctic Science Summit Week, Hanover, March 19.
Krupnik, I. 2008a. “The Ice We Want Our Children to Know”: SIKU Project (IPY #166) Overview,
with an Emphasis on Alaska and Siberia. Paper Presented at the ICASS-6 Session, Nuuk,
August 26.
Krupnik, I. (moderator). 2008b. How We Learned What We Know: Indigenous Experts Document
Arctic Ice and Climate Change. Special Panel, with Hajo Eicken, Herbert Anungazuk, Winton
Weyapuk, Ronald Brower, Sr., and Joe Leavitt. University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks,
October 15.
Krupnik, I. 2009a. Sea Ice and a Cultural-Ethnographic Landscape. Paper Presented at the Russian
Institute of Cultural and Natural Heritage, Moscow, Russia, February 15.
Krupnik, I. 2009b. As the Ice Keeps Thinning: Update on Arctic People-Sea Ice Connections,
2007–2009. Paper presented at the symposium Impact of an Ice-Diminishing Arctic on Naval
and Maritime Operations. Annapolis, June 10.
Krupnik, I. and Bogoslovskaya, L. 2007. International Polar Year 2007–2008. Project SIKU in
Alaska and Chukotka. Paper Presented at the ‘Shared Beringia Heritage’ Conference. Anadyr,
Russia, September 16.
Krupniki, I. and Weyapuk, W., Jr. 2008. Qanuq Ilitaavut: How We Learned What We Know. Wales
Inupiaq Sea Ice Dictionary. Paper Presented at the ICASS-6, Nuuk, August 2008.
Laidler, G., Aporta, C., Gearheard, S., Furgal, C., and Taylor, D.R.F. 2008a. Inuit Sea Ice Use and
Occupancy Project (ISIUOP). International Congress of Arctic Social Sciences (ICASS) VI,
Nuuk, Greenland, August 26.
Appendix B 469
Laidler, G., Aporta, C., Gearheard, S., Furgal, C., and Taylor, D.R.F. 2008b. Inuit Sea Ice Use and
Occupancy Project (ISIUOP). Annual Meeting of the Canadian Association of Geographers,
Québec, May 23.
Laidler, G., DeAbreu, R., Elee, P., Furgal, C., Hirose, T., Ikummaq, T., Joamie, E., Kapfer, M., and
Piekarz, D. (Laidler & Ikummaq presenting) 2008c. Connecting Community Observations and
Expertise with the Floe Edge Service. Arctic Change 2008, Québec, December 10.
Laidler, G., Elee, P., Ikummaq, T., and Joamie, E. 2008d. Mapping Inuit Sea Ice Knowledge
and Use. International Congress of Arctic Social Sciences (ICASS) VI, Nuuk, Greenland,
August 26.
Laidler, G., Taylor, D.R.F., Pulsifer, P., Hayes, A., Fiset, J.-P., and Aporta, C. 2008e. Creating an
Online Cybercartographic Atlas of Sea Ice. Annual Meeting of the Canadian Association of
Geographers, Québec, May 23.
Laidler, G.J. 2006a. SIKU: A Circumpolar Study of Sea Ice Knowledge and Use in Northern
Communities. The CRYSYS Decade (1995–2005), Final Annual Science Meeting, Toronto,
February 24.
Laidler, G.J. 2006b. The Importance of Sea Ice Processes, Use, and Change to Residents of Cape
Dorset, Nunavut. The CRYSYS Decade (1995–2005), Final Annual Science Meeting, Toronto,
February 22.
Laidler, G.J. 2007a. Experiencing Change: Observations and Implications of Sea Ice Change
Around Three Nunavut Communities. Annual Meeting of the Canadian Association of
Geographers, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Blackwell Publishing Award Presentation), June 1.
Laidler, G.J. 2007b. Bridging Scales and Cultures: Facilitating Knowledge-Exchanges on Sea Ice
and Climate Change. Annual Meeting of the Canadian Association of Geographers, Saskatoon,
Saskatchewan (Robin P. Armstrong Memorial Prize Presentation), May 31.
Laidler, G.J. 2007c. Inuit Sea Ice Use and Occupancy Project (ISIUOP). For International Polar
Year (IPY) Launch. Iqaluit, March 7.
Laidler, G.J. 2008a. Inuit Sea Ice Knowledge and Use in a Changing Environment. For the
Department of Geography and Environmental Studies (Carleton University) Founders Seminar
Series. Ottawa, February 1.
Laidler, G.J. 2008b. Inuit Sea Ice Knowledge and Use in a Changing Environment. For the
Northumberland Learning Connection speaker series on “Ice”, Coburg, April 24.
Laidler, G.J. 2008c. Intersecting Geographies: Hunters’ and Scientists’ Indicators for SIKU
(Sea Ice) Use and Sila (Weather) Forecasting Around Baffin Island. For the Department of
Geography (York University) Colloquium Series, October 21.
Laidler, G.J. 2008d. Creating Intersections in Northern Geographies of Sea Ice: Collaboration,
Observation, and Education. For the explore! Northern Research Day, Carleton University,
Ottawa, December 3.
Laidler, G.J. 2008e. Knowledge-Sharing – Considerations in the Development of a Communication
Strategy. For the International Polar Year Researcher’s Workshop at Arctic Change 2008,
Québec, December 9.
Laidler, G.J. 2009. Knowledge-Sharing – Considerations in the Development of a Communication
Strategy. For the Aboriginal Policy Research Conference Session on “Engaging Communities
in Research: Dealing with Data and Traditional Knowledge (IPY)”, Ottawa, March 10.
Laidler, G.J., Dialla, A., Elee, P., Joamie, E., and Ikummaq, T. 2007. Sea Ice Is Not Just “Ice”: A
Regional Comparison of Inuktitut Sea Ice Terminology Around Baffin Island, Nunavut. Annual
Meeting of the Canadian Association of Geographers, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, May 31.
O’Keefe, K. 2009. The Igliniit (“trails”) Project: Inuit Hunters and Geomatics Engineering
Students Collaborating to Develop an Interactive GPS Tracking System in Nunavut, Canada.
Paper presented at the Institute of Navigation 2009 International Technical Meeting, Anaheim,
CA, January 26–28.
Pulsifer, P.L. 2008. Interactive Atlases for Polar Regions Education and Outreach: Representation
Meets Knowledge Management. Paper Presented at the International Polar Year: Researchers
Workshop 2008, December 9, Québec.
470 Appendix B
Pulsifer, P.L. 2009. Documenting inuit knowledge: Data management meets education and out-
reach. Presentation at the IPY international data meeting, Ottawa, ON, 29 September–1
October.
Pulsifer, P.L., Laidler, G., Taylor, D.R.F., and Hayes, A. 2008a. Representing Inuit Sea Ice
Knowledge and Use for Education and Outreach: Creating an IPY Legacy Using Emerging Data
Management Strategies. Paper Presented at the Arctic Change 2008 Conference, December
9–12, Québec.
Pulsifer, P.L., Taylor, D.R.F., Hayes, A., and Fiset, J.P. 2008b. Creating an Online
Cybercartographic Atlas of Sea Ice. Paper Presented at the 6th International Congress of Arctic
Social Sciences, August 22–26, Nuuk, Greenland.
Pulsifer, P.L., Nickels, S., Tomlinson, S., Laidler, G., Aporta, C., Taylor, D.R.F., Hayes, A.
2009a. Documenting inuit knowledge using distributed information and multimedia interfaces:
Knowledge preservation and sharing through partnership. Paper Presented at the GeoNorth 2009
Conference, Fairbanks, AK, August 4–6.
Pulsifer, P.L., Pyne S., Lauriault, T.P., Taylor, D.R.F., Hayes, A., Caquard, S. 2009b. The role
of cybercartography in exploring, visualizing and preserving The past. Paper Presented at the
visualizing the past: Tools and techniques for understanding historical processes workshop,
University of Richmond, VA, February 20–21.
Tremblay, M., Furgal, C., Annanack, T., Angiyou, E., Naviaxie, J., and Barrett, M. 2008a. Climate
Change in Nunavik (Canada): Adaptation Strategies Developed for a Safe Ice Access. ICASS
VI. Nuuk, Groenland, Poster.
Tremblay, M., Furgal, C., Tookalook, P., Annanack, T., Qiisiq, M., Angiyou, E., and Barrett, M.
2008b. Nunavimiut Ice Terminology: Ensuring Safe Access to Territory and Resources. Arctic
Change 2008. December 2008, Québec, Poster.
Tremblay, M., Furgal, C., Tookalook, P., Annanack, T., Qiisiq, M., Angiyou, E., and Barrett, M.
2008c. La terminologie inuite de la glace: Une valeur intrinsèque pour un accès sécuritaire aux
ressources et au territoire au Nunavik. 3e Symposium scientifique Ouranos. Montréal, Poster.
Vukvukai, N.I., and Golbtseva V.V. 2007. The use of traditional knowledge in monitoring cli-
mate change in the Arctic zone of Chukotka. Paper presented at the ‘Shared Beringia Heritage
Conference,’ Anadyr, Russia, September 18.
Wisniewski, J. 2008a. Empathising with Animals: A View Toward Inupiaq Hunting as Knowing.
Paper Presented in the Session, “The Ethnography of Relationality: Creating, Experiencing and
Being in the World.” 35th Annual Meeting of the Alaska Anthropology Association, Anchorage,
February 28–March 1.
Wisniewski, J. 2008b. Kigiqtaamiut Rules About Traveling on the Sea Ice. Paper Presented at the
Alaska Native Language Center Climate, Language, and Indigenous Perspectives Conference.
Fairbanks. August 13–15.
Wisniewski, J. 2008c. Learning as Doing, Being as Knowing About Sigu: An Inupiaq Hunting
Pedagogy of Experience in Shishmaref, Alaska. Paper Presented in Session “SIKU: Polar
Residents Document Arctic Ice and Climate Change,” ICASS VI, Nuuk, Greenland, August
22–26.
Wisniewski, J. 2008d. “Well, Let’s Go Look Around”: Kigiqtaamiut Hunting, as a Relational
Ecological Knowing. Paper Presented in Session “Animal Subjects Exploring the Shifting
Ground of Human/Animal Relationships.” 107th American Anthropology Association Annual
Meeting, San Francisco, November 19–23.
Color Plates
Plate 1 Changes in the ice-covered area used by Qeqertamiut, 1987–2007. During cold winters,
sea ice typically filled the bay, stretching north from Ilulissat to Saqqaq. Formerly, the sea ice
occupied an area of 600–3,500 km2(yellow) but in recent years this number has been reduced to
an area less than 50–70 km2(red). (See also Fig. 2.9 on page 40)
Plate 2 Map of the two land masses (selected sea ice features – in red – adapted from Laidler
and Ikummaq 2008; selected trails – in white – selected from Aporta 2009) (See also Fig. 7.1 on
page 168)
471
472 Color Plates
Plate 3 Map from Igliniit test data collected by Jayko Enuaraq while travelling between Clyde River and Arctic Bay in 2009.
(See also Fig. 8.10 on page 198)
Color Plates 473
Plate 4 Enlarged image section of the previous map. (See also Fig. 8.11 on page 199)
474 Color Plates
Plate 5 Map of the 2007 whaling trails. Many of the trails shown here traversed the region
that existed in the shorefast ice between break-out events on March 31 and May 28. The back-
ground in this image shows a sample radar backscatter image (dark speckles represent ice features)
as recorded during the break-out on May 28. The location of the main trail off Napauraq was
hand-drawn after the whaling season ended based on the input from members of the community.
The 10 kW X-band Furuno marine radar in downtown Barrow is shown in the lower right photo.
(See also Fig. 9.9 on page 218)
Color Plates 475
Plate 6 Map of the 2008 whaling trails. Trails are shown here with ice thickness data over-
laid on select trails where measurements were made. The two trails south of Nunavaq were
not fully mapped since they were incomplete at the time of mapping in early to mid-April. The
trail off Barrow was abandoned before making it to the ice edge. The SAR image, acquired by
the RADARSAT-1 satellite and provided by the Canadian Space Agency and C.E. Tweedie and
A.G. Gaylord, is from April 5, 2008. (See also Fig. 9.11 on page 221)
476 Color Plates
Plate 7 Map of the 2009 whaling trails. This exact map was provided to the community during
the whaling season. The SAR image, acquired by the European Remote Sensing satellite ERS-2
and provided by the Canadian Space Agency and C.E. Tweedie and A.G. Gaylord, is from May 16,
2009, just prior to the opening of the lead shown in Fig. 9.1. Various GPS locations are labeled to
assist with navigation. Locations are also shown for the camp of the 2009 bowhead whale census
orchestrated by the North Slope Borough’s Department of Wildlife Management and of our sea ice
mass balance site that measured level ice growth and other variables of interest. (See also Fig. 9.13
on page 224)
Color Plates 477
Plate 8 An interactive map provides information about partner communities. The historical, geo-
graphical, and sociological aspects of the communities are described using text, photographs,
sound, and potentially video (See also Fig. 10.2 on page 237)
Plate 9 Users select the type of feature and the initials of the knowledge holder (in this case
MN [Mosesee Nuvaqiq]) using the selection bars. Clicking on a feature displays more information
about that feature in the right frame of the window. This information may include multimedia
content such as digital photographs, audio clips, or video clips. In this figure an audio clip (top
of information box) is provided along with a photograph of the knowledge contributor (See also
Fig. 10.4 on page 239)
Index
A
Aappilattoq, community, 148
Aasiaat, community, 150
Adams, Billy, 362
Adams, Jacob, 220, 222–223, 366
Adaptation, xv, 70, 115, 141–142, 258, 273,
369–371, 453
Aglu (Inukt–seal breathing hole), ix
Agnus, Simeon, 298, 304–305, 312, 314–318
Agriculture, 147, 233, 262, 448–449
Ahmaogak, Roy, 215, 225–227
Ahsoak, Herman, 222, 227
Aiken, Wesley, 219, 262
Aipellee, Gary, 18, 181–202
Akulivik, community, 453
Akuluraq (Etolin Strait), 311
Alaska, xiv, xv, xvi, xvii, xviii, xix, xx, xxii,
5–6, 8, 12, 16, 19–20, 22–24,
81–111, 115–143, 146, 183,
203–227
Alaska Eskimo Walrus Commission (AEWC),
120
Alaska Native Language Center, 346
Alaska Weather Service, 110–111
Aleut International Association, 435
Alirkar, John, 303, 308
Allpergen, Boris, 324, 333
American Philosophical Society, Philadelphia,
379
Ammassalik, community (cf. Tasiilaq), 413
Angaiak, Susie, 305
Angiyou, Eli, xiv, 18, 453–463
Angutikjuak, Ilkoo, xxvii, 13, 22, 155,
259–261, 269, 270
Anmiak (young ugzruk, Inupiaq), 278, 293
Annanack, Tuumasi, 18, 453
Antarctica, xxi, 24, 336
Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting
(ATCM), vi, xx
Anthony, Stanley, 315, 318–319
Anthropology, xv, xvii, xix, xx, xxi, xxii, 72,
164, 377, 408, 428
Anungazuk, Herbert, 19, 24, 321–347
Aizu˙
gaksrat iniqti˙
gutait (‘Rules of Old Folks’),
281–283
Apak, Apiusie, 18, 181, 188, 196
Apalu, Arthur, 20–21, 23, 82, 84, 324, 333
Apangalook, Leonard, Sr., 8, 81–111, 116,
118–119, 121–124, 131, 134, 136,
138, 141–142, 369
Apangalook, Paul, xiv, 16, 19, 81–111
Apassingok, Daniel, 136
Apatiki, Ralph, 93, 97
Aporta, Claudio, 1–25, 45–73, 163–179, 182,
217, 243, 322, 324, 362, 386–387,
401, 408–410, 433, 451
Arctic
Canadian, 72, 166–167, 169, 173, 368–369,
379, 395, 409
Central, 450
communities, 46, 147, 156, 201, 217, 258,
268, 297, 322, 359, 369
Eastern, 165
exploration, 448–449
governance, 440–441
indigenous people, 3, 428, 432, 435,
439–441
navigation, 449
people, 3–5, 109, 344, 345, 385
residents, vi, vii, x, 2, 17, 82, 109, 156
warming, 82, 157
Western, 204, 333–334, 433
Arctic Athabaskan Council, 435
Arctic Bay, community (Ikpiarjuk), 166
Arctic char, 152, 271, 401
Arctic Circle, 329, 448
Arctic Climate Impact Assessment (ACIA),
xvi, 13, 24, 71, 82, 116, 146, 436
479
480 Index
Arctic Council
permanent participants, vi, 428, 435–439,
450
Senior Arctic Officials (SAO), vi, xix, 439
Arctic Human Development Report, vi, 437
Arctic Marine Shipping Assessment, 436
Arctic Observing Network (AON), 109, 268,
371–372
Arctic Ocean, xv, 262, 291, 364, 428, 441
Arctic Oscillation (AO), 116, 140
Arctic Peoples’ Observation Center (APOC),
Project, 5
Arctic Science Summit Week, v
Arctic Station (Greenland), 40
Arctic Treaty, vi, xx, 440–441
Armaergen, Roman, 23, 82, 84, 110, 324, 346
Atlas
cybercartographic, 12, 19, 229–253, 433
interactive, 234, 238, 249
online, 235, 248–249, 451
Avalanche, see Snow
Ayughayaak (Yupik) winter bull walrus off
Gambell, 95
B
Back River, 409
Baffin Island
South, 378, 381
Bailey, Alfred M., 328, 340–344, 347
Baker Lake, community (Qamani’tuaq), xviii,
326, 409
Baltic Sea, v, 2, 24
Barents Sea, 2
Baron, Annie, 453
Barrett, Michael, 18, 453
Barrow, community, xv, 5, 8, 19–20, 22, 84,
140, 203–227, 347, 360, 373
Barrow Arctic Science Consortium (BASC),
xv, 261
Barrow, John, 449
Barrow Sea Ice Symposium, 373
Bathymetry, 206, 227
Beach combing, 86
Bearded Seal (Erignathus barbatus), 32,
104–106, 122, 136, 170, 208, 278,
281, 284, 291, 293, 308, 313, 319,
430
See also,Ugzruk/ugruk (Inupiaq)–bearded
seal
Beaufort Sea, 140, 203, 214, 364
Beluga (white whale), see Whales
Benter, Brad, 118, 120–122, 133–134, 136,
141
Beringia Natural and Ethnic Park, Provideniya,
20–21
Bering Sea, 20, 25, 83–84, 86, 93, 101,
103–107, 116, 118–120, 122, 133
Bering Sea Sub Network (BSSN), Project,
437
Bering Strait, 106, 116, 139, 276, 278, 280,
288, 292–293, 297, 328–330, 333,
335, 335–336, 340, 358, 364
‘Big Water’ (local term, Shishmaref), 284–285,
289, 291
Blizzard, see Snow
Boas, Franz, 167, 325, 377–396, 445
Boats
fiberglass
Kayak, 33, 300, 303–305, 312–314,
316, 319
skin-covered, 33, 293
small, 38, 116, 148
Umiak, 33, 343
Bogoslovskaya, Lyudmila S., 8, 12, 20–21,
23–25, 82, 110, 324, 333–334, 336,
346, 464–465, 468
Borovik, Alexander, 23, 82, 84
Bowhead whale, see Whales
Brand, Michael, 18, 181, 192–193, 202
Brandt, Kaspar, 150, 152
Bravo, Michael, xv, 5, 17, 24, 445–451
Briggs, Jean, 283, 409–410
Brower, Arnold, Sr., 19, 84, 206, 211, 213,
219, 225–226
Brower, Eugene, 207, 220, 227
Brower, Gordon, 222
Brower, Harry Jr., 220
Brower, Lewis, xv, 203–227
Brower, Ronald, Sr., 323, 386, 388–389
Brower, Tom III, 220, 226
Bulmer, Ralph, 409
Bum Trail, 289
Burch, Jr, Ernest S., 23, 278–279
C
Calista Elders Council, xvi, 295
Canada, 323–324, 333, 345, 367, 378,
434–435, 465–470
Capacity building, 14, 432
Cape Dezhnev, 333
Cape Dorset, community
island, 70
Cape Espenberg, 281
Cape Prince of Wales, see Wales, community
Carleton University, Ottawa, xv, xix, xx, xxi, 9,
13, 72, 196, 246, 248, 250, 469
Index 481
Cartography
visualization, 232
Casey, Edward, 276
Chefornak, community, 296
Chimigak, Lizzie, 319
Chiu, Desmond, 18, 202
Chukchi, language, 110, 333
Chukchi Peninsula, 84
Chukchi, people, 3
Chukchi Sea, xxii, 83, 95, 118, 206, 208, 393,
335, 340
Chukotka, 6, 8, 16, 20–21, 23, 82–84, 92–93,
102, 323–324, 333–334, 446
Citizen science, 183
Clancy, Elizabeth, 346–347
Climate Change
access to hunting grounds, 4
adaptation to change
adaptive capacity, 71, 433
concerns, xvi, xix, 14, 85, 145–159
cycles, 3–4, 93–94, 153, 158
delayed freeze-up
documentation, 7, 46
exposure, 69, 72
global warming, 131
growing season, 35, 90, 103
historical, 100, 106, 159, 367
human dimensions, v, 15, 46, 266, 451
ice distribution, 115–143, 368
impacts, 453
increased risks, 4, 345
indigenous perspectives, 15
late arrival of pack ice, 95, 116, 158
local implications, 47, 68
local observations, 4, 7, 17, 51, 82, 121,
234
long term cycles, 69–70
minimum summer ice extent, 132
mitigation, 46
rapid
ice retreat, 142
record anomalies, 132
reduced arctic ice extent, 132
resilience, 7, 46–47, 71, 267, 370
science perspectives, 15, 17, 46, 100, 159,
265, 369
scope, 7, 82, 87, 94, 100–101, 106, 342
sea ice feedbacks, 46, 235, 263, 436
sea ice indicators of, 52
earlier break-up, 158
floe edge positions, 46, 192
later freeze-up, 60, 68, 158
presence/absence of multi-year ice, 51,
214
size of polynyas, 153, 169, 328, 334
thinning sea ice, 59, 68, 158
timing of safe travel, 311
seal distribution, 116, 432
shorter ice season, 62, 65, 70
shorter winter season, 105–106
snow, 3, 98
storm frequency, 66, 96
strong winds, 34, 41, 96–97, 101, 457
temperature rise, 59
thin ice, 41, 97, 170, 197, 213–214,
218–220, 282
timelines of local observation, 51, 234,
370–371
unpredictable weather, 100, 156
violent storms, 98
vulnerability, 46–47, 71
warming
temperature, 304, 318
weather indicators of, 55, 57
weather variability, 31–43
whale migration, 102
wind direction, 64, 66, 83–84, 86, 97,
101–102, 107, 120, 303
wind speed, 33, 83, 138, 159
Climate and Cryosphere (CliC), Project, 268
Climate models, 3
Climate variability, 4, 141–142, 268, 369–371
Clyde River, community (Kangiqtugaapik),
155, 166, 178, 182, 262, 264
Coastal communities, 106, 116, 141, 318, 357,
362, 366, 374
Coastal retreat, 374
Cochran, Patricia, 439
Collaboration
cross-cultural, 199
interdisciplinary, 13, 15
Colorado Museum of Natural History, Denver,
340
Commerce, 447–450
Communities of Practice, 373
Community-based observations, 268, 372
Community exchange, 260, 262–263, 267–268
Comparative Eskimo Dictionary (1994), 415
Cook, Conor, 409
Cormorant, 91, 100
Country food, 69, 71
Cross-cultural communication, 265
Csonka, Yvon, 22–23, 261
Culling, Brandon, 18, 181, 188, 202
482 Index
Cumberland Sound, 52–53, 55–56, 59–61,
64–65, 67, 69–70, 378, 380–381,
385–386, 389–391
Currents
cold, 39, 96
significance, 50
warm, 34, 43, 106, 210, 214, 220, 263, 309
Cybercartographic Atlas, 12, 19, 229–253, 433
Cybercartography
Cybercartographic Atlas of Inuit Sea Ice
Knowledge and Use, 12, 229–253
Cybertracker (program), 183
D
Danish, language, 12, 38, 379, 385, 439
Danish Meteorological Institute, 39–40
Data
analysis, 49
content analysis, 49
conversion, 240, 242
database, xviii, 16, 82–83, 86, 109, 165,
239, 243–244, 247–250, 253, 409
model, 230, 240, 244–247
publication, 247–249
qualitative analysis, 49
relationship, 244, 249–251
view, 7, 244
visual spatial analysis, 49
Davidsen, Augo, 150–151, 153–155
Defense Meteorological Satellite Program
(DMSP), 119
Deignan, Margaret, 23
Denmark, 5, 25, 33, 379, 428, 435, 441
Denver, CO, 340, 346–347
Denver Museum of Nature and Science
(DMNS), 340–341, 343, 346–347
Derivative terms, 388
Digital cameras, 191
Digital photography
as data collection technique, 286
Digitization, digitizing, 48, 243
Diomede, community, 106–107
Diomede Islands, 329–330
Disko Bay, 31–32, 34, 38–40, 43, 150,
155–156, 158, 413
Disko Island (Qeqertarsuaq), 40
Dobrieva, Elizaveta, 21, 324, 333
Dogs
dog racing, 38, 42
dogsled, ix, xxi, 34–43, 91, 153–154, 261,
385
dog team, ix, xvi–xvii, xx, 60, 69, 173,
190–192, 195–196, 239, 269,
279–280, 304, 318, 332
number per hunter, 120, 129, 133, 139–141,
345
Dorais, Louis-Jacques, 5, 22–23, 25, 388, 395,
413
Doty, William, 87, 106, 110
Downscaling of climate model projections,
370–371
Druckenmiller, Matthew, xv, 12, 19, 20, 25, 83,
110, 142, 203–227, 327, 329, 341,
362, 366–367, 370, 432–433
‘Dry Mouth’ (local ice-related term,
Shishmaref), 19–20, 275–292,
333–339, 347
Dull, Peter, 300, 316
E
Ecosystem services, 20, 360
Edinburgh, 449
Education, xviii, 3, 12, 19, 25–26, 166, 229,
230, 234, 430, 440, 447, 451, 466,
469
Eicken, Hajo, xvi, 5, 19–20, 24–25, 46, 106,
109–110, 115–143, 203–227, 297,
309–310, 312, 314, 327, 341,
357–374, 402
Elachik, Peter, 318
Elders of the Northern Ice, Project, 5
Elee, Pootoogoo, xvi, 18, 24–25, 45–77, 170,
325, 334, 401, 403, 405–408, 429
Emergency Locator Transmitter (ELT), 200
Emergency Position Indicating Radio Beacon
(EPIRB), 200
Emergency response, 366
Emma Harbor, 82
English, language, 12, 38, 83, 88, 110, 147,
186–188, 197–198, 208, 263, 281,
283–284, 289, 299, 322, 328, 332,
340, 344–345, 379–381, 390–392,
404, 413–420
Enns, Ryan, 18, 181, 192, 194–196, 202
Enuaraq, Jayko, 181, 195, 198, 472
Environment
change, xvi, 16, 18, 65, 68–69, 71, 82, 147,
157, 176, 182, 198, 203, 226, 262,
295, 360–361, 370, 428, 440
monitoring, 159, 182–183, 201
Epistemology, 276, 450
Erdmann, Friedrich, 325, 378–379, 385–389,
391–393
Eric, John, xviii, 18, 45–77, 241, 296, 298–301,
303–311, 313, 316, 318–319
Erk-sin-ra, 368
Escape, evacuation, and rescue (EER), 367
Index 483
Eskaleut language family (Eskimo-Aleut), xxi,
413
Eskimo, language, xxi, xxii, 5, 388–391
Eskimo, see Ice, indigenous terms for,
Inuit/Inuktitut/Inupiaq/Kalaallisut;
Yupik, language; Yup’ik, language
ESRI R
Shapefile, 243
Ethnography, 164, 292, 378, 440, 466
Etolin Straight, see Akuluraq (Etolin Strait)
Eurasia, 329
Europe, xix, 395, 448–449
Exchange for Local Observations and
Knowledge of the Arctic (ELOKA),
Project, 24, 266
Experience, ix, x, xv, 5, 14–15, 45–46, 48–49,
51–52, 57, 58, 70–72, 98, 109, 133,
136, 138, 142, 146–147, 151–154,
157–158, 164–165, 172–173,
176–178, 181, 183, 190–192,
200–201, 204–205, 207, 209, 217,
220, 225–227, 233–235, 240–242,
249, 258, 261–262, 264, 266–267,
274, 276, 281–289, 291–293, 297,
305, 315–317, 323, 335–344, 358,
363–364, 371, 381–382, 391, 404,
409, 427, 446, 453–454
F
Family Radio Service (FRS)
for data collection, 200
Feature (geographic), 145, 168, 246,
251
Field courses, 372–373
Field guides, 366
Fienup-Riordan, Ann, xvi, 24, 278, 293,
295–320, 323, 336, 372, 434
Fish
Capelin, 32, 152
Cod, 32, 35–35, 152, 155, 158, 387
Halibut, 32, 35–36, 41, 269
Qaleralik (Greenland halibut), 269
Turbot, 65, 67
Fishing
commercial, v, 32–33, 50, 64–65, 69
equipment
holes, 36, 63, 337, 348, 350–352, 408,
411, 417, 419, 421
ice fishing, 337, 352, 421
jigging, 34, 350
lakes, 49, 89, 103, 168–169
line, 35, 417
long line, 33, 35, 65
ocean, deepwater, 35
subsistence
under ice, 138, 365
Floe edge, 38, 45–46, 48–59, 63–66, 68, 70,
164–166, 170, 172, 174–176, 179,
192, 238, 270, 386–387, 405, 407,
456–458, 460
Flooding, 362
Foam, 90, 309
Focus groups, 49, 182, 231, 240–241, 243
Foote, Berit Arnestad, 12, 19
France, xxi, 5, 25, 31
Franz-Josef-Land, 360
Frederiksen, Erik Røde, 156–157
Freeman, Milton M., 23–25, 70, 242, 377, 445
French, language, 379
‘Funny Ice’ (local term, Shishmaref), 275, 289
Furgal, Chris, xvi, 18–19, 24–25, 46, 263, 325,
453–463
Fury and Hecla Strait (Ikiq), 52, 54, 58–61, 64,
166
G
Gambell (Sivuqaq), community, xiv, 8, 19–20,
84, 105, 118, 129, 322, 360
Gearheard, Shari, xvi, 5, 10, 12–13, 17–19, 22,
24–25, 47, 110–111, 140, 181–202,
257–274, 322, 325–326, 346, 360,
362, 371, 408–409, 429, 434,
468–469
Geir Tommy Petersen, 439
General Mobile Radio Service (GMRS), 200
Geographic information
formats, 244
processing, 231
system (GIS), 249, 434
Geography, xix, xx, xxi, 4, 52, 72, 147,
378–379, 385, 408
Geomatics
engineering, xx, 181–202
Geomatics and Cartographic Research Centre,
xv, 196, 233, 246, 248, 250–251,
470
Geophysical Institute, Fairbanks, xvi, 82, 86,
87, 110, 347
Geophysical Institute, UAF, 347
Geophysics, Geophysical, xv, xvi, 4, 25, 82,
86–87, 110–111, 205, 216, 342,
346, 359, 363, 368, 370–371, 408,
447, 451
Geo-referenced information, 186, 192
George, Craig, xvii, 24–25, 45, 110, 127, 131,
135, 140–141, 178, 203–227, 259,
322, 362, 365, 367, 370–371
484 Index
German, language, xvi, xviii, xix, 360,
378–381, 385, 395–396
German Polar Commission, 395
GIS, 216, 243–245, 247, 249, 252, 434
Glenn, Richard, 372–373
Global Positioning System (GPS)
as data collection tool, 182
maps from, 433
ruggedized, 189, 189, 200
Goddard, Ives, 395
Golbtseva, Victoria V., 11, 20–21, 23, 110–111
GoogleTM Earth, 232
Government of Canada, IPY 2007–2008
Programme, xv, 8, 18–19
GPS Exchange Format (GPX), 243
GPS (Global Positioning System), xv, 14, 49,
66, 69, 176, 181–182, 184–185,
191–193, 195, 197, 216–217, 222,
243, 248, 299, 332, 363, 434
Grammar, 379, 381
Great Eskimo Vocabulary Hoax, 377–397
Greenland
Avanersuaq (North Greenland), 147
Kitaa (West Greenland), 147
Kujataa (South Greenland), 147
Tunu (East Greenland), xxi, 152, 158–159,
326, 413
Northwest, xxi, 413
Greenland ice sheet, 145–146
Greenlandic, language
East Greenlandic, Tunumiisut, xxi, 326
Northwest Greenlandic dialect, 413
Thule dialect, 326
West Greenlandic, Kalaallisut, 326,
352, 385, 388, 390
Grenoble, Lenore, 23
Grey, Laina, 453
Grise Fjord, community, 7
Gulf of Anadyr, 103–105
Gwich’in Council International, 435
H
Hallowell, A. I., 281, 281
Halpern, Mark, 396
Hamlet Council, 182
Handheld computer, 185–186
Harvest, harvesting, xvii, xviii, 48, 50–51, 64,
69–70, 111, 115–131, 134–136,
138–141, 156, 181, 184–185, 200,
242, 310, 360, 368
Harvest studies, 181
Hayes, Amos, xvii, 12, 19, 229–253
Hazard assessment, 365–366
Hazards, on sea ice, 70, 121, 191
Health Canada, 22, 260, 273
Heilmann, Anna, 147
Hendee, Russel, 341
Henshaw, Anne, xvii, 24–25, 427–442
Herding, reindeer, xix, 147, 275
Heyes, Scott, 325
Holman, community, 325
Holm, Lene Kielsen, xvii, 10, 21–22, 25,
145–159, 257–274, 326, 432, 437,
467
Hooper, Edward, 305
Hooper, Tommy, 316
Horizon, 98, 167–168, 170–177, 212–213,
330, 340, 342, 350–351
Hudson Bay, 454, 458, 460, 462–463
Hudson Strait, 50, 52, 63, 70, 454
Hufford, Gary, 23, 86, 110, 116
Human dimension, v, vi, 15, 46, 266, 451
Human-Environmental interactions, 385
Humanism, 445–451
Humanities, xv, 447, 450–451
Human rights, 450
Human and Social Dynamics Program, 260
Humboldt, Wilhelm von, 451
Humility, importance of, 264, 266
Hunt, George, 389
Hunt/hunting
beluga (white whale), 32, 40, 50, 155, 159,
166, 350, 369, 430
bird, 104
boat hunting, 68, 98, 104–105, 124
with boats dragged over the ice, 98
cabins, 49, 184, 190
camp, 279, 367
caribou, xix, 32, 171
change in, 106
commercial, 50
fall, 90, 278
favorable hunting days, 133–134, 159–142
on foot, 95, 100, 209
hare, 192
hazardous weather, 121
hunting on and among sea ice, 140
hunting condition, 105, 115, 120–121, 135,
141, 310, 454
hunting effort, 123
hunting season, 85, 111, 118, 120–121,
129–130, 214, 280, 292–293, 319,
331, 343–344
hunting success, 68, 116, 118, 121, 133,
135–136, 140–141, 432
hunt monitors, 120
Index 485
ice hunting, 7, 39, 42, 67–68, 99, 262, 291,
293, 321, 344
land-mammal hunting, 329
marine, xix, xxii, 32–33, 85, 171, 278–279,
329, 341
marine mammal, also sea-mammal hunting,
xix, xxii, 277–279
migratory birds, 32, 38, 42, 342
minke whale, see Whales
with nets
polar bear, 67, 166
ptarmigan, 32
quota, 32, 201
risk to hunters, 142
safety, 4, 7, 42, 64, 108, 116, 184
seal, 32, 35, 67, 89–90, 106, 154, 209, 278,
288, 305, 319, 321, 332, 362
spring, 85, 101, 111, 118, 120–121,
129–130, 135, 141, 278–291, 292,
305, 331, 341
subsistence, xv, xxii, 32, 84, 87, 95, 108,
116., 119, 141, 342
tradition of hunt, 278
travel distances, 122
walrus, 66–67, 93–94, 97, 102–103, 107,
111, 115–143
Whale, 40, 101, 119, 206, 210, 217, 225,
262
winter, xv, 95, 100, 142, 310
Hunting crew, xxii, 278, 281, 332, 344, 347,
362
Huntington, Henry, 16, 24, 46, 82, 110, 116,
118, 131, 146–147, 257–274,
359–360, 362, 367–369, 372–373,
408, 429, 433–434, 436
I
Ice
biology, 372
change in, 7, 368
conditions, 33–34, 39–41, 43, 46, 48–52,
55, 57–58, 60–70, 83–84, 86–87,
92–93, 102, 105, 118–119, 121,
124, 129, 131–142, 152–153,
191–192, 203–207, 209–212, 214,
217–227, 234, 238–242, 251,
258, 260–261, 276, 279–282, 284,
288–291, 297, 319, 323, 328, 334,
336, 342, 344–345, 367–369, 402,
434
cover, 3, 7, 33–34, 39–41, 56, 65, 93, 95,
101, 108, 119–120, 127, 139, 152,
205, 220, 277–278, 297, 312, 331,
359–360, 364, 424, 459, 462, 471
crystals, on parka hoods, 56
dictionaries, 12, 19, 21–22, 322–328
distribution, 115–142, 368
extent, 46, 51–52, 54–55, 70, 131–132,
139–142, 205, 214, 368
feature, ix, 48–49, 104, 168–169, 171,
184–185, 205, 218, 238–239, 241,
244, 261, 283, 297, 335–336, 360,
362, 474
freshwater, 302, 334, 382, 391, 397,
424–425
as frozen water, v, 447
glacier, 391, 416–417, 420–421
geophysics, 357, 370, 447
habitat, ix, 285–286
as hazard, 121, 184–185, 191, 212, 220,
238, 264, 303–304, 311, 344, 360,
362, 366–367
historical records, 106, 329, 331, 367
importance of, 48–51, 138, 142, 158–159,
278, 289, 450–451
lake, 304, 411, 420, 453, 462–463
language of, ix, 423
lexicons, 334, 345, 378
in marine ecosystem, 446
nomenclatures, 109, 322, 335–336, 391,
423, 446
obstacle to navigation, 57, 433, 447–448
ontology of, 446–447, 449
regime, 33, 95–101, 297
river, 302, 310, 411, 419–420
seasonality, 297, 360
social life, of, 15, 332, 446
as social object, 446–447
temperature, 84, 119, 121, 129, 140
terminology, 19, 49, 67, 110, 205, 283, 284,
312, 323, 334–336, 388, 401–412,
453–463
thickness, 36, 45–46, 51, 62–63, 68, 135,
205, 216–217, 220–222, 263, 265,
339, 475
Ice (also Sea Ice) forms and associated
features–English terms
beach (pressure) ridge, 96
berm (splashed ice on shore), 337, 348, 358
crack, 170, 397, 457
deformation features, 362
edge, 38, 117–118, 141, 210–212, 223,
225–226, 265, 284–285, 288, 383,
397, 421–423, 475
floe, 308–309, 347–351, 397, 422
floe edge, position, 45–46, 52–53, 192
foot, 34, 383, 397
486 Index
Ice (also Sea Ice) forms and associated
features–English terms (cont.)
grounded ridge, 226
hole, 34, 38, 461
hummock, 95, 363, 416–417, 424
iceberg, 32–37, 41, 64, 88, 91, 348, 382,
391, 397, 406, 410–411, 416, 419,
421, 423–424
lead, 170
melt hole, 63
melt pond, 119
overhangs, 314, 341, 348, 351
polynya, 49, 60, 62–63, 68, 70, 102, 104,
153, 166, 169–171, 238, 328, 334,
339, 384, 386, 416
pressure ridge, 89, 93, 95–98, 174,
208–209, 264, 285, 334, 348–351,
366, 385, 397, 417, 457
tidal crack, 48, 61, 242
water on ice, 382, 397
Ice, indigenous terms for1
Inuit/Inuktitut/Inupiaq/Kalaallisut
Akunaagiq (Inukt, second phase of
melting ice), 454
Aukkarniit (polynays/areas that open
early in the spring), 60
Aaulajuq (Inukt, moving ice), 61,
64–66, 68, 165, 170, 172, 174, 311,
335–336, 339, 350–351, 386, 404,
456–457, 459, 462
Iiguaq (Inukt, ice floe that takes one
when breaking up), 208, 210, 212,
387
Iluqnauq (Shishmaref, large piece of
floating ice), 284–287, 289–290,
347
Iuniq-(Shishmaref, pressure ridge;
Barrow ivuniq), 89, 93, 95–98, 174,
208–209, 264, 285, 334, 348–351,
385, 397, 417, 457
Ivunirarjuq (a reef between Igloolik
Island and Melville Peninsula), 54
Kikiak (something that provides “an
anchor” for the ice, e.g. a reef), 54
Millutsiniq (Cape Dorset, slushy patch
on the ice), 406
Mubaliq (Barrow, slush ice on the sea),
386
Nigajutaq (Inukt, an area of sea ice that
freezes later than other), 405–407
Nunniq (Inukt, used to refer to the
extent of freezing in Cumberland
Sound), 53, 65
piqalu’jang (Inukt, floating iceberg),
382, 391, 397
Piqaluyak (Inupiaq, ice floe), 362
Piqaluyak (Barrow, multi-year ice), 362
Puktaaq (Inuit, general, ice floe), 348
Qaanngoq (Inukt, Greenlandic, ice foot,
ice frozen on the shore), 397, 418
Qaimuguq (Wales, slush ice berm), 337,
358
Qaimut (Shishmaref, slush ice formed
by water waves on shore), 288, 337
Qanguti/qanngut (Inukt.)–ice with
crystal-like snow formations on to
Qaanngoq, 152, 407, 418
Qinu (Inupiaq, slush ice), 60, 288–289,
337, 348, 386–387, 394
Saqvaq (Inuktitut, polynya), 49, 60,
62–63, 68, 70, 102, 104, 153, 166,
169–171, 238, 328, 334, 339, 384,
397, 416
Sikuliaq (Inuit, general, young ice),
222–223, 338, 387, 420
Sikuaq/siquaq (Inuit, general, thin
newly formed ice), 387, 403, 408,
420
Siku (Inuit, Yupik, general, sea ice), 8,
85, 109, 117, 322–323, 333, 388
Sikutuqaq (Igloolik, multi-year ice),
408
Sinaaq (Inuit, general, ice edge, floe
edge), 170, 405–407, 421, 462
Tuvagruaq (Barrow, ‘old ice’), 215,
221–222, 225–226
Tuvaq/tuaq (Inuit, general, shore-fast
ice), ix, 63, 170, 204, 457, 463
Upingaak (Inuktitut, third and last
phase of ice melting in the spring,
454
Uukkaqtuq (Igloolik, the ice breaking
off from the sinaaq), 406
Yupik/ Yup’ik
Ivghaghutkak (Y)–ice from the southern
side of St. Lawrence Island, 104
Kelliighineq (Y)–large polynya, 102,
104, 369
Kulusiq (Y)-floating iceberg, 110
Maklukestaq (Y)–smooth solid ice, 98
Pequneq (Y)–bubbled ice, 135
Qayemgu (Y)-frozen ice on the
beach, 88
Qenu (Y)–slush ice, 88, 91
Siku–sea ice, general term, 234
Index 487
Sikupik (Y)-Arctic pack, genuine winter
ice, 89, 93–94, 96, 109
Tunglu (Y)–ice ridges on the northern
side of Gambell, 127
Tuvaq (Y)-shore-fast, ix, 63, 170, 204,
457
Ugmetaghaq (Y)–young thin ice, 98
Vuusleq (Y)–pressure ridge, 93
Ice knowledge
documentation, 5, 8, 82, 234, 322,
434–435, 436–437
indigenous, vi, x, 3–4, 7, 12–13, 17, 25, 82,
161–253, 268, 341, 357–374, 378,
395, 436–439, 450–451
of Northern residents, 14
preservation, 252, 334, 440
traditional, v–vi, 119, 206, 268, 296, 326,
361, 371, 437, 454
transmission, 7, 402, 454
Ice (Sea Ice) processes–English terms
Breaking, 55, 65–66, 406, 411
break-up, spring, 103
consolidation, 93
cracking, 214, 336
deformation, 362
fall freeze-up, 63–64, 87–95, 214, 334,
336, 358, 370
flooding, 362
freezing, 304, 407
hardening, 93
melting, 454
piling, 348, 382, 397, 459
rafting, 336
refreezing, 89, 93, 386
retreat, 101–107, 115, 122, 131, 212, 281,
344, 358, 368
ridging, 214, 336
spring melt, 66, 280, 388
spring retreat, 87, 100, 105
thickening, 63–64, 93, 99
thinning, 59, 62, 68, 118, 154, 158, 214,
358, 389, 406
Ice research
ice dictionary (also ‘ice vocabulary’), 12,
19, 21–22, 321–352, 415–425
modeling, 3, 232, 240, 244–247
monitoring, ice monitoring network, 3, 14,
205, 213–214, 263, 272, 453
studies of, 358, 362
trips, research method, 67, 101, 269, 262,
267
Ice, indigenous terms for2
Inuit/Inuktitut/Inupiaq/Kalaallisut
Akunaagiq (Inukt, second phase of
melting ice), 454
Aukkarniit (polynays/areas that open
early in the spring), 60
Aaulajuq (Inukt, moving ice), 61,
64–66, 68, 165, 170, 172, 174,
311, 335, 339–340, 350, 386, 404,
456–457, 459, 462
Iiguaq (Inukt, ice floe that takes one
when breaking up), 208, 210, 212,
387
Iluqnauq (Shishmaref, large piece of
floating ice), 284–287, 289–290,
347
Iuniq-(Shishmaref, pressure ridge;
Barrow ivuniq), 89, 93, 95–98, 174,
208–209, 264, 334, 348–351, 366,
381, 397, 417, 457
Ivunirarjuq (a reef between Igloolik
Island and Melville Peninsula), 54
Kikiak (something that provides “an
anchor” for the ice, e.g. a reef), 54
Millutsiniq (Cape Dorset, slushy patch
on the ice), 406
Mubaliq (Barrow, slush ice on the sea),
486
Nigajutaq (Inukt, an area of sea ice that
freezes later than other), 405–407
Nunniq (Inukt, used to refer to the
extent of freezing in Cumberland
Sound), 53, 65
piqalu’jang (Inukt, floating iceberg),
34, 36, 391
Piqaluyak (Inupiaq, ice floe), 362
Piqaluyak (Barrow, multi-year ice), 362
Puktaaq (Inuit, general, ice floe), 348
Qaanngoq (Inukt, Greenlandic, ice foot,
ice frozen on the shore), 152, 155,
383, 386, 397, 418
Qaimuguq (Wales, slush ice berm), 337,
358
Qaimut (Shishmaref, slush ice formed
by water waves on shore), 288, 337
Qanguti/qanngut (Inukt.)–ice with
crystal-like snow formations on
toQaanngoq, 157, 407
Qinu (Inupiaq, slush ice), 60, 288–289,
337, 348, 386–387, 393
Saqvaq (Inuktitut, polynya), 49, 60,
62–63, 68, 70, 102, 104, 153, 166,
169–171, 238, 328, 334, 339, 384,
397, 416
488 Index
Ice, indigenous terms for2(cont.)
Sikuliaq (Inuit, general, young ice),
222–223, 338, 337, 420
Sikuaq/siquaq (Inuit, general, thin
newly formed ice), 387, 403, 408,
420
Siku (Inuit, Yupik, general, sea ice), 8,
85, 104, 116, 323–324, 335, 365
Sikutuqaq (Igloolik, multi-year ice),
408
Sinaaq (Inuit, general, ice edge, floe
edge), 170, 405–407, 421, 462
Tuvagruaq (Barrow, ‘old ice’), 216,
222–223, 225–226
Tuvaq/tuaq (Inuit, general, shore-fast
ice), ix, 63, 170, 204, 457, 463
Upingaak (Inuktitut, third and last
phase of ice melting in the spring,
454
Uukkaqtuq (Igloolik, the ice breaking
off from the sinaaq), 406
Yupik/ Yup’ik
Ivghaghutkak (Y)–ice from the southern
side of St. Lawrence Island,
104
Kelliighineq (Y)–large polynya, 102,
104, 369
Kulusiq (Y)-floating iceberg, 110
Maklukestaq (Y)–smooth solid ice, 98
Pequneq (Y)–bubbled ice, 135
Qayemgu (Y)-frozen ice on the beach,
88
Qenu (Y)–slush ice, 88, 91
Siku–sea ice, general term, 230
Sikupik (Y)-Arctic pack, genuine winter
ice, 89, 93–94, 96, 108
Tunglu (Y)–ice ridges on the northern
side of Gambell, 127
Tuvaq (Y)-shore-fast, ix, 63, 170, 204,
463
Ugmetaghaq (Y)–young thin ice, 98
Vuusleq (Y)–pressure ridge, 93
Ice knowledge
Documentation
Indigenous, vi, x, 3–4, 7, 12–13, 17, 25, 82,
161–252, 268, 341, 357–374, 378,
395, 427–429, 436–437, 440–441,
450–451
of Northern residents, 14
preservation, 252, 334, 440
traditional, v–vi, 119, 206, 268, 296, 326,
361, 371, 437, 454
transmission, 7, 402, 454
Ice (Sea Ice) processes–English terms
Breaking, 55, 65–66, 406, 411
break-up, spring, 103
consolidation, 93
cracking, 214, 336
deformation, 362
fall freeze-up, 63–64, 87, 88–95, 214, 334,
336, 358, 370
flooding, 362
freezing, 299, 407
hardening, 93
melting, 454
piling, 348, 382, 397, 459
rafting, 334
refreezing, 89, 93, 486
retreat, 101–107, 115, 131, 142, 214, 281,
344, 358, 368
ridging, 214, 336
spring melt, 66, 280, 388
spring retreat, 87, 100, 105
thickening, 63, 93, 99
thinning, 406
Ice research
ice dictionary (also ‘ice vocabulary’), 12,
19, 21–22, 321–352, 415–422
modeling, 3, 232, 240, 244–247
monitoring, ice monitoring network, 3, 14,
205, 213–214, 236, 273, 453
studies of, 358, 362
trips, research method, 49, 67, 240, 243,
260
Ice safety
dangerous, 62, 66–68, 70, 109, 119, 152,
171, 192, 210, 286, 307, 309,
311–319, 334–336, 338, 348–350,
387
falling through ice, 41, 282
more accidents, 41, 66, 69, 192, 385
thin ice, 34, 41, 62, 97–98, 116, 172,
197, 210, 213–214, 216, 218, 220,
223, 262, 282, 338–339, 382–383,
386–387, 396–397, 406, 411–412,
424
Ice terminology
collecting, 37, 339, 385–386, 402–403
counting, 208, 395, 402
documentation, 5, 7–8, 15, 17, 46, 48, 82,
164, 177–178, 230–231, 234–236,
238–241, 260, 262, 292, 322, 359,
430–433, 437–439, 466
traditional, v–vi, 38, 119, 206, 227, 268,
296, 326, 344–345, 360–361, 371,
386, 401, 437, 441, 450
Index 489
Ice terms
composite, 242
contextual, 191, 281, 287, 289–291,
403–405
dedicated, 403–406
descriptive, 289, 334, 414
lexicalized, 405
Ice (Sea Ice) types–English terms, for
broken, 94, 97, 309, 313, 316, 417, 456
calving, 33, 148
dense, 95, 97, 101, 105, 424
disappearing, 158
drifting, 35, 85, 89, 93, 95, 101, 206,
311–312, 331, 336, 342, 388, 497,
404, 411, 421
fall, 401
first-year, ix, 215, 218–219, 297, 339
flat, 208–209, 213, 216, 222–223,
433
“flimsy”, 98, 101
floating, 34, 36, 41, 88, 97, 102, 220, 222,
279–280, 284, 306, 311–313, 315,
331, 334–335, 341, 343, 386, 391,
404, 459, 461
Frazil, 88, 93, 299, 337
frozen beach spray, 88
glacier, 391, 416–417, 420–421
grease, 299, 337–338, 349
ground, 382–383, 391, 397
heavy, 153, 210, 360
land-fast
break-out, 363, 367, 371
ride-up, 365–367
stability, 362–363, 370
layered, 335, 385, 397, 411
locally built, 88
melting, 151–152, 169, 213, 226, 263, 309,
314, 335, 359, 388, 417, 454, 460
moving, 61, 64, 65–66, 68, 165, 170, 172,
174, 311, 335–336, 339, 350, 386,
404, 456–457, 459, 462
multi-year
loss of, 210, 214, 362
as a source of freshwater, 362
near shore, 118, 123–124, 216, 220, 458
new, newly formed, ix, 34, 41, 58, 67,
88–89, 92–93, 99, 213–214, 299,
301, 316, 338–339, 350, 386–387,
391, 424–425, 459–463
nilas (young ice), 34, 88–89, 98, 101,
222, 225, 328, 334, 336–339, 349,
385–388, 396
old, 106, 214–216, 223, 336, 347, 362, 396,
408, 420, 461
pack, 34, 57, 88, 92–98, 100–106, 124, 136,
138, 158, 207–208, 211–212, 223,
279–281, 315, 328, 331, 334–336,
340–344, 347–352, 382–383, 391,
396, 420, 425, 456–458, 460–463
piled, 304, 306–308, 312–313, 336, 456
recent (newly formed), 58, 338, 386–387,
389, 418, 424–425, 458, 462–463
rafted, 204, 210, 212, 334–335, 338–339,
397
rough, 209, 216, 223, 284, 297, 302–303,
382, 397, 433
sediment-laden, 312, 364
shore-fast (also land-fast), 34–36, 38, 41,
52, 67, 95–98, 100–101, 103, 105,
109, 327, 349–350–351, 385, 387,
391, 397, 463
slippery, 419
slush, 88, 91–93, 95, 213–, 225–226, 288,
305, 337–338, 358, 386, 407, 424
smooth, 65, 98, 302–304, 306, 334, 461
solid, 50, 70, 95, 97–98, 222, 338, 387,
407, 416, 459–460, 463
thick, 96, 305, 338–339, 382–383,
386–387, 391, 396–397, 425
thin, 34, 41, 62, 97–98, 116, 170, 197,
210, 213–214, 216, 218–220, 223,
225, 262, 282, 338–339, 382–383,
386–387, 396–397, 406, 411
vertical, 411
winter, 35–36, 58, 60, 69, 89, 92–93,
95–101, 121, 152–153, 155, 365,
383, 391, 396
young, 34, 88–89, 98, 101, 222, 225, 328,
334, 336–339, 349, 385–388, 396
Ice use
community meetings, 395
dogsled race, 38, 42
dogsled traveling, 37
drinking water, 36–37, 216, 223, 336, 396
european mariners, 448
fishing, 35, 42, 51, 65, 69, 85–86, 90,
103–104, 166–167, 184, 261–262,
269, 329, 332, 334, 337, 348,
350–352, 404, 410, 416–417, 421,
448, 453
hunting, 35, 39, 42–43, 64–70, 85–86, 90,
103, 121, 166–167, 184, 261–262,
267, 275–294, 329, 331–332, 334,
404, 408, 422–423, 432, 447, 453,
463
490 Index
Ice use (cont.)
hunting platform, 50
international commerce, 450
living, x, 2, 85, 158, 328–333
observation, 20, 29–159, 181–202, 205,
207–211, 230, 234, 258, 260, 263,
297–298, 368, 437
playing, 39, 435
seal net hunting, 42, 422–423
shipping, 336, 448–450
soccer matches, 36
subsistence, 4, 14, 32, 64, 84, 87, 95, 101,
118–119, 140, 156, 281
telling stories, 344
trade routes, 445
training, 7, 38–39, 195, 265, 438
travel platform, 3, 50, 359–360
traveling, 37, 59, 67, 69, 149, 153–154,
169, 171, 261, 264, 404, 434
Ice and Weather regime, 100
Ice Working Groups, 325–326
Iceland, 2, 24, 435
Icescape, 93, 98, 244, 246
Iginniarfik, community, 149–150, 153
Igliniit (Inukt)–trails, 18, 181–202
Igliniit (“Trails”) Project, 181–202, 434
Igloolik, community, 18–19, 45–77, 165–167
Island, 169
Ikerasak, community, 36
Ikiq (Fury and Hecla Strait), 59, 64, 166–167,
169, 174
Ikummaq, Theo, xviii, 3, 18, 45–77, 404
Ilulisaat Declaration, 428
Ilulissat, community, 36
Inchoun, community, 7
Indicators
of climate change, 447
indigenous, 46, 370
scientific, 46–47, 227
Indigenous
Hunters, 120
Knowledge, vi, x, 3–4, 12–13, 82, 161–254
people/peoples, vi–vii, 3–4, 15, 360, 428,
432, 435–437, 439–442, 450
terminologies, 336, 388, 395
Indigenous Peoples Secretariat, 442
Ingold, Tim, 164–165, 172, 276, 446
Institute of Cultural and Natural Heritage,
Moscow, 468
Institut National des Langues ét Civilizations
Orientales (INALCO), Paris, xxi, 33
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
(IPCC),3,71
International Association of Arctic Social
Sciences (IASSA), 4, 23
International Congress of Arctic Social
Sciences, 6 (ICASS-6), 8, 16, 23,
468–469
International Council for Science (ICSU), 3, 5,
15, 24, 451
International Geophysical Year 1957–1958
(IGY), 4
International Polar Year (IPY)
First 1882–1883 (IPY-1), 1, 367, 377, 395
Second 1932–1933 (IPY-2), 4
International Polar Year (IPY) 2007–2008
Joint Committee, 5, 23–24
planning group, 4
Interoperability, 232–233, 235, 247–248, 250
Interviews, 48, 52, 72, 86, 110, 147, 149–150,
157–159, 165, 169, 182, 207, 222,
225, 239, 243, 246–247, 453
semi-directed, 48, 147, 453
Inuit
dialects, 390, 413
dictionaries, 385
elders, 13, 45–46, 48, 71, 171, 433, 454
expert, 164, 178, 230, 238, 445
glossary, 380
hunters, 165, 169, 181–183, 189, 195, 434
knowledge, 15, 46, 163–164, 173, 178,
181–202, 230, 234–235, 238, 241,
243, 252, 391, 395
languages, 33, 378–381, 385, 391
lexicons, 385
Texts, 379–380
terms, 380
Traditions, 401
vocabulary, 389, 392
terminology, 385–390
Inuit, people/territorial groups
copper, 325, 388
East Greenlandic, 326
Inughuit (also Thule Inuit, Polar Inuit),
258, 266, 433
Inuvialuit, 388
Kangiryuarmiut (division of Copper Inuit),
325
Kigiqtaamiut, see Shishmaref, community
Kingikmiut,seeWales
Qeqertamiut (‘people of Qeqertaq’), 32
Thule, 388
Utkuhiksalingmiut (division of Netsilik
Inuit), 326, 403–412
West Greenlandic, 326, 385, 388
Index 491
Inuit Circumpolar Council (ICC), 3, 22–23,
146–147, 273, 428, 435, 438
General Assembly, 145, 147
Inuit Circumpolar Council-Greenland
(ICC-Greenland), 22, 146–147
Inuit Heritage Trust, 433, 441
Inuit Land-Use and Occupancy Project
(ILUOP), 7
Inuit Qaujimajatuqangit (Inuit Traditional
Knowledge/Heritage), xvi, xxi, 401,
433, 441
Inuit Sea Ice Use and Occupancy Project
(ISIUOP), 5, 8, 46, 163, 182, 430
Inuktitut (language)
computer interface, 185–187, 189
Eastern, 408
South Baffin, dialect, 402–403
Inupiaq, language, 323, 332, 345–346, 391
Iñupiat, people, 258, 367, 370, 372
Inuttut, dialect (Labrador), 325, 388–390
Inuvik, community, 326
Iqaluit, community, xvi, 172, 190
Iqaqrialu, David, 18, 181, 188, 194–195,
201–202
Iterative development, 235, 240, 433
Ittaq Heritage and Research Centre, 265–266
Ittoqqortoormiit, community, 413
Ivujivik, community, 7, 453
J
Jensen, Halfdan, 43
Jensen, Jorgen, 43
Joamie, Eric, xviii, 45–77
Joanasie, Lasalie, 272
John, Mark, 20, 296, 313, 318, 320
John, Michael, 304
John, Paul, 299–305, 307–309, 311–312, 314,
316–318
John, Peter, 305, 308, 316, 318
Johns, Alana, xviii, 22, 401–412
Jolles, Carol Zane, 328
Junior Rangers, 433
K
Kalaallisut (Greenlandic), language, see Wes t
Greenlandic, dialect
Kalaallit (Greenlanders), 146
Kalaallit Nunaanni Aalisartut Piniartullu
Kattuffiat (KNAPK), 23, 147
Kalam, language, 409
Kalyuzhina, Natalya, 20–21, 23, 324, 333
Kangersuatsiaq, community, 148–149
Kangiqsualujjuaq, community, 18, 325, 453,
459
Kangiqsujuaq, community, 18
Kangiqtugaapik, community, 149, 182
Kangirpak, place name, 305, 315
Kangirrluar (Toksook Bay), 315, 318–319
Kaplan, Lawrence D., 19, 22, 321–352
Kapsch, Marie, 115–143
Karoo National Park, 183
Karpala, Kelly, 12–13, 18–19, 72, 74–77, 253
Kassam, Karim-Aly, 5, 25
Kasudluak, Annie, 453
Kativik Regional Government, xiv, xxi, 25, 453
Kekerten, whaling station, 380
Kelley, Karen, 13, 18–19, 45, 72–77
Kelliighineq (also, Gelleghenak)–Siberian
Yupik, open water in pack ice off
Gambell, 104, 106, 369
Kestrel 4000 pocket weather meter, 184
King Island, 295
Kingua Fjord, 380, 395
Kinngait, community, see Cape Dorset,
community
Kipnuk, community, 318
Kiruna, v
Kitikmeot, 168, 251, 433, 441
Kitikmeot Place Name Atlas, 251
Kiunya, Paul, 318
Kleinschmidt, Samuel, 379, 382
Knowing (s), 20, 255–294, 308, 344, 429, 431
Knowledge
collective, 146, 454
community, 257
cultural, 265, 296, 321, 323, 328, 332, 334,
336, 346, 372–373, 385, 395, 402,
429–430, 432, 434–435, 438, 447
documenting (documentation), 4, 146, 182,
231, 239–241, 260, 359, 429, 432
environmental, 48, 83, 164, 177, 371, 388,
429
exchange, 25, 49, 261
expert, 7, 13, 323, 326, 389
geographical, 167, 169, 232, 237–238,
244, 333–334, 380, 433
holders, 147
holistic, 361
Indigenous, 3–4, 7, 12–13, 17, 25, 82,
161–179, 257, 268, 341, 357–374,
378, 428–429, 436–437, 440–441,
450–451
Inuit, 15, 46, 163–164, 173, 181–202,
234, 238–239, 251–252, 241, 243,
251–252, 384, 391, 453–454
local, 2, 7, 13, 149, 257, 276, 289, 323,
326, 360–361, 364, 495, 453
492 Index
Knowledge (cont.)
Local indigenous (LIK), 359–361, 371
loss, 4
modeling, 232
new impediments, 284
scientific, 47, 429
sharing, 38, 182, 261, 433
shift, 5
sea ice, 2, 5, 12, 18, 45–77, 117, 163, 177,
227, 229–253, 264, 267, 297, 359,
368–369, 447, 450–451
subsistence, 31
teaching, 3, 15, 109, 164, 173, 214, 397,
307–308, 372–373, 402, 433
traditional (ecological), 360
training , 3, 7, 38–39, 195, 263, 265, 409,
434, 438
transmission , 7, 402, 454
travel, 3, 7, 35, 42–43, 49–50, 59, 67
Knowledge dissemination/preservation, 252,
334, 440
CD-ROM, 14, 451
Internet, 14, 192, 247–248, 345, 438, 451
online atlas, 235, 248–249, 451
KNR-TV (Kalaallit Nunata Radioa)-TV, 265
Koryak, people, 3
Krauss, Michael, 391, 395
Kresta Bay, 103, 105
Kristiansen, Mamarut, 22, 154, 261, 269, 271
Kruger National Park, 183
Krupnik, Igor, xix, 1–25, 81–111, 116–119,
121, 134, 136, 139, 141–142,
146, 156, 164, 203, 262, 321–352,
358–359, 368–370, 377–397, 402,
404, 408, 429, 432
Kuitse, Isais, 422
Kuskokwim River, 303
Kuujjuaq, community, 453, 456–463
‘Kuuk’ (‘river,’ crack–local term, Shishmaref),
291
L
Labrador, xviii, xix, 2, 19, 64, 325, 377–382,
385–393, 405–408, 461
Labrador Inuttut, 388, 390
Labrador Narrows, 64
Laidler, Gita J., xix, 1–25, 45–77, 168, 170,
172, 229–253, 320, 324–325, 334,
362, 369, 378, 386–389, 401, 401,
403–408, 429, 433, 434, 464–470
Lambert Conformal Conic (Projection), 242
Lam, Sheldon, 181
Land-use planning, 181, 200
Language
base word, 414
forms
derived, 414
indicative, 415
(knowledge) preservation, 431–432,
440, 334
lexicalization, 405
morpheme, 403, 405–408
morphophonological rules, 415
orthography, 380–381, 415
polysynthesis, 403
polysynthetic, 413
possessive forms, 405, 408
program, 332
proto-forms, 415
Lau, Josiah, 18, 181
Lavrentiya, community, 21, 324
Leavitt, Joe, xxvii, 19–20, 22, 82, 84, 211, 219,
225, 259, 261–262, 270
Lerrigo, P.H.J, 87
Leslie, John, 449
Levson, Andrew, 18, 181
Lexicon, 283, 289, 291, 325–326, 334, 345,
378–382, 385, 388–390, 415, 422,
453
Linguistics, xviii, xxi, 17, 385, 390, 402–403
Little Ice Age, 367
Livelihoods, 3, 156–158, 171
Lopp, Ellen Kittredge, 342
Lynge, Aqqaluk, 149
M
Mackenzie (River) Delta, 371, 385, 389
Magnussen, Tittus, 150–152, 154–155
Maguire, Rochfort, 367
Mahoney, Andy, 22, 205, 226, 261, 263, 265,
272
Mainland, 32, 36, 54, 142, 166–168, 170,
172–173, 425, 458
Makkovik, community, 19
Maps, mapping
electronic, 14, 395
from GPS, 176, 185, 193, 216, 248
interactive, 237, 236–237, 241, 249, 433
by Inuit, xv, 70, 168, 182, 230, 252
metaphor, 232, 237–238
online, 12, 229–253, 451
paper, 12, 199, 235, 238, 241–242
participatory, 7, 48–49, 229–230, 233–235,
238, 240–242, 252
photo, 7, 185, 192, 237–240, 243–244, 251,
267
Index 493
projection, 242, 247
scale, 48, 242
topographic, 48, 63, 173, 177, 241, 242,
248, 430
Maqi, Elisa, 422
Marine Mammal Commission, xx
Marine mammals
behavior, 292
subsistence use of, 83, 89
clothing, 50
craft products, .50
fat, 50
food, 50, 68
heating, 193–194
oil, 50
skins, 50, 67, 340
survival, 50, 446
See also Bearded Seal (Erignathus
barbatus); Beluga (white whale);
Seals; Walrus (Odobenus rosmarus);
Whales; Hunt/hunting
Marking, Tagging and Reporting Program
(MTRP), 120, 122–124
Martin, Laura, 390
Mashup (comp–integrated content from
number of sites and services), 232,
239
Mattak (Inuit): whale skin with blubber, 40, 42
Matumeak, Warren, 22, 210–211, 261, 265
McKenzie, Jennifer, 13
Melville Peninsula, 54, 165, 168, 174
Meteorological records, 86–87
Methodologies, 361, 408–409
Metzner, Ron, 365
MicrosoftRBingTM, 232
Migratory birds, 32, 38, 42, 342
Mismatches, 87, 93, 98
Missionaries, 87, 379, 381
Mittheilungen der Anthropologischen
Gesellschaft, 389
Mobile weather stations, 184
Moravian missionaries, 379
Morrison, Chase A., xix, 464–470
Moses, James Kivertoruk (artist), 286
Moses, Phillip, 304
Mosstajiri, Tina, 18, 181, 186
Müller-Wille, Ludger, xix, 22, 377–395
Multimedia
audio, 48, 239, 243, 433
CD ROM, 14, 249, 433, 451
photograph, 7, 12, 14, 19, 49, 84, 184–185,
191, 237–239, 243–244, 267, 322,
327–328, 341, 358, 363, 366, 370,
430–432
video, 7, 48–49, 191, 232, 247, 239,
243–244, 251, 409, 433
Mutch, James S., 380, 389, 390
N
Nain, community, 19
Nammautaq Hunters and Trappers Association,
182
Nanortalik, community, 149, 152, 157
Narrative, 7, 15, 164, 172–176, 178, 238–239,
282, 287, 396, 446
National Aeronautics and Space Administra-
tion (NASA), 119
National Center for Scientific Research-CNRS,
Paris, xxi
National Climate Data Center (NCDC), 120,
219
National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS),
365
National Meteorological Office, France, 33
National Museum, Copenhagen, 379
National Museum of Natural History,
Washington, DC, iv, xix, 82
National Park Service, 8, 19–21
National Science Foundation (NSF), xvii, 8,
19–20, 22, 82, 258, 260–261, 268,
295
National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC),
Boulder, CO, xvi, 119
National Topographic Service mapsheets, 48
National Weather Service, 124
Nationalism, 449
Native Village of Wales, xxii, 330
Natsilingmiutut, language, 326
Nattiq (Inukt–ringed seal), x
Natural history, xix, 12, 82, 340, 434, 447–450
Natural philosophy, 448
Natural Resources Canada, 248
Natural theology, 448
Naval (Arctic) Research Laboratory, 363
Navigation, xx, 3, 7, 49, 57, 66, 69, 136, 170,
211, 216, 224, 257, 308, 332, 335,
433, 447–449, 476
Nelson Island, xvi, 20, 278, 295, 297, 304,
311, 323, 364
Nelson Island Natural and Cultural History
Project, 20, 434
Nelson, Richard, 25, 209, 346, 359, 445
Nenets, people, 3
New Chaplino (Novo-Chaplino), community,
82, 84
494 Index
Newtok, community, 20, 300, 304–305, 374
Niaqornaarsuk, community, 153
Nielsen, Qaerngaaq, 22, 261, 266–267, 271
Nightmute, community, 20, 298, 300, 304,
315, 317
Niiqquluktuq (Inukt-ice rubbing sound), ix
Nome, community, 328
Noongwook, Chester, 131
Noongwook, George, 85, 89, 100, 107–108,
109, 131, 135, 138, 140, 142
North America, 164, 329, 380, 447, 449
North Slope, xvii, 116, 139, 216, 224,
349–349, 365, 476
North Slope Borough, Department of Wildlife
Management, 216
Northwest Passage, 169, 449
Norton Sound, 328, 364
Nunaliit, Cybercartographic Atlas Framework,
248–251
Nunatsiavut, see Labrador
Nunavik, xiv, xxi, 18, 25, 168, 263, 325, 377,
386–389, 434, 453–454, 465–466,
470
Nunavut, xiv–xx, 6, 18, 22, 24–26, 45–77,
149, 155, 182, 240, 258, 263, 378,
401–412, 430, 433¸ 438, 441, 453,
465–467, 469
Nunivak Island, 311, 315–316, 433, 441
Nutawyi, Aron, 324, 333
Nuuk, town, xvii, 8–10, 16, 147, 261, 467–469
Nuussuaq Peninsula, 31–32, 36
Nuvaqiq, Mosesee, 238–239
Nuvuk, place name, see Point Barrow, place
name
O
Object, 174, 393, 403, 414–415, 446–447
Observations
automatic, 86
of climate change, 4, 368, 370, 433
cloud cover, 120, 129
community-based, 4, 181, 268, 359,
372–373, 433
daily logs, 121, 124, 136
dataset, 110
environmental, 159, 176, 181–182, 200,
360
expert, 147, 159
geo-referenced, 181, 185, 192
historical, 2, 7, 12, 86–87, 94, 100, 106,
110, 328–329, 331, 347, 367
by hunters, 4, 40, 45, 48–49, 51, 94,
100–108, 120–124, 131, 133–134,
138–139, 147
ice and weather, 4, 19–20, 81–84
indigenous, 14, 16, 82, 110, 437
instrumental, 21, 368, 406–407
by inuit hunters, 181, 182, 195, 200, 434
local, 4, 7–8, 17, 51, 82, 86, 117, 121, 234,
260, 266, 268, 370–371, 446
meteorological, 33, 451
by meteorological variables, 120
program of, 82–85
qualitative, 159, 260
satellite, 121, 131, 368
scientific, 205
sea ice, 434
systematic, 82
temperature, 56, 58, 66, 83
by village monitors, 82–83
visibility, 66, 120, 135–136, 210
weather, 19–20, 82–84, 120
Ocean
currents, 126, 309, 342, 351
swells, 303, 310–311, 319
temperature, 140
Ödmark, Helena, v–vii, xix, 17
Oil and gas
exploration, 365
industry, 366
O’Keefe, Kyle, 18, 181–202
Olemaun, Nate, 211, 227
Ongtowasruk, Fae, 19, 326, 336, 342, 346
Ontology
indigenous, 451
Inuit, 451
social, 446–447, 449–451
Oozeva, Conrad, 24, 82, 85, 88–89, 95–96,
98–100, 106, 110, 116, 120, 127,
131, 262, 320, 322–323, 333, 346,
408, 429
Open Source Geospatial Foundation (OSGEO),
233
Open source software, 233
Open standards, 232–233, 247
Oral History, 165, 178, 367, 429
Oshima, Toku, 22, 154, 261–262, 271, 273,
326
Ottawa Declaration, 435
Otuaq, Marie, 422, 425
P
Pacific, 5, 116–117, 139–141
Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), 116,
139–140, 143
Pacific Ocean, 329
Paley, William, 448
Index 495
Palluq, Jaykurassie, 57, 60, 63, 73, 76, 202
Palluq, Laimikie, 18, 181, 188, 195–196, 202
Pangnirtung, community, 18–19, 45–77, 178,
231, 238, 240, 251, 325, 405, 407
fiord, 52, 56, 60–61, 64
Panipak, Jacopie, 18, 181, 188–189, 202, 267
Papatsie, Ame, 241
Papua New Guinea, 409
Park, Jeremy, 181, 202
Parry, William E., 166, 169
Patkotak, Crawford, 208, 215
Patkotak, Simeon Sr., 215
Peary, Taliilannguaq, xvii, 271
Peck, Edmund James, 325, 379, 386–387,
388–389
Pedagogy, 275–294
Peetook, Rossman, 346
Permanent Participants (of Arctic Coucil), 428,
435–439, 450
Personal Digital Assistant (PDA), 181,
183–195, 201
Petitot, Émile, 385, 389
Phillips, Trevor, 181, 202
Pigott, Paul, 19, 22, 325
Piqqusilirivvik Cultural School, 440
Piru˙
ga˙
gnaq (Inupiaq–Northeast current off
Barrow), 206
Place names, 7, 15, 83, 167–169, 171–173,
178, 192, 206, 211, 296, 378,
380–385, 388, 429–433
Pluralism, 451
Point Barrow, place name, 206–207, 214–215,
449
Point Barrow, community, 206–207, 214
Point Hope, community, 5, 19, 204
Polar bear, ix, 50, 67–68, 165–166, 191–192,
200, 285, 340, 346, 351
Polyester film, 242–243
Polynya, 38, 40, 42, 48–49, 60, 62–63, 68, 70,
102, 104, 124, 153, 166, 169–172,
238, 328, 334, 339, 384, 386, 397,
410, 416
Pond Inlet, community, 166, 168
‘Pot Hole’ (local term–Shishmaref), 279, 289,
291
Provideniya, town, 84
Provideniya Bay, 82, 111
Pullum, Geoffrey, 390–392, 396
Pulsifer, Peter, 18–19, 181, 229–253
Q
Qaanaaq, community, 7, 22, 148, 258,
260–267, 273–274, 326
Qaerngaaq, Ilannguaq, 271
Qaisagnaq (Inupiaq-southwest current near
Barrow), 206
Qalupaliit (Inukt-mythical beings under sea
ice), x
Qamani’tuaq (Baker Lake), community, 326,
409
Qamutiik (Inukt-sled), 195
Qasigiannguit, 149–150, 152–155
Qassiarsuk, community, 149, 152, 157
Qayilleq (Yupik, place name), 95, 100,
136–137
Qeqertaq, community, 21, 31–43, 326, 395,
413–415
Island, 31–34, 36, 41, 43
QGIS, 247–248
Qikertaugaq, place name (Toksook Bay), 299,
301–304, 307, 309, 315, 319
Qillaq, Teema, 272
Qimuksiqtiit (Inukt-dog teamers), ix, 195
Qiqiktaaluk Region, 429
Qualitative methods, 235, 240
Qujaukitsoq, Uusaqqak, 271
Qurrlurta, place name (Toksook Bay), 318
R
Raghtilkon, Oleg, 82
RAIPON, 435–436
Rapley, Chris, vi, 23
Rasmussen, Knud, 164, 166, 445
Ray, Carleton G., 23, 25, 85, 107, 110, 116,
118
Read, Lucian, 23–24
Rearden, Alice, 20, 295–320, 434
Regulatory agencies, 366
Relational database management system, 244
Relationality, 282–283
Remote sensing, 3, 115, 119, 122, 142, 224,
263, 265, 361, 364, 369–370, 476
Research
collaborative, 4, 234, 428–429, 432
community-based, 47, 181, 233, 249
community researchers, 47–49, 72, 231,
238
comparative, 267
design, 15, 46, 181, 183, 193, 231, 233,
336, 371, 434
documentation (audio, video, transcripts,
maps), 5, 46, 234, 243, 250, 252,
429, 431–433
hypothesis, 128, 131
logistics, 23, 261–262, 268, 395
qualitative methods, 235, 240–241
496 Index
Research (cont.)
team, 257–258, 260–262, 266–268,
270–271, 454
university researchers, 47, 49, 72, 230
Resource management, 181, 292
Reversing Language and Knowledge Shift in
the North (2004), symposium, 5
Reykjavik, vi
Rigolet, community, 19
Rink, Hinrich Johannes, 379–382, 389
Risks, 4, 62, 64, 66, 67–68, 139, 142, 158,
207, 209–212, 218, 244, 300,
317, 344–345, 363, 365, 432–433,
448–449
Robards, Martin, xx, 23, 25, 85, 106–107,
115–143
Rodionova, Natalya, 21, 324, 333
Routes
evacuation, 209, 367
ice, 69, 171
traditional, 48, 69, 154, 231, 239
travel, 4, 48–49, 63, 65, 67, 154, 170, 184,
192, 239–243, 260
Royal Library, Copenhagen, 379, 395
Russia, 2, 5, 7–8, 11–12, 16, 23–25, 82, 321,
333, 394, 441, 447
Russian, language, 12, 360, 379, 394
S
Saami Council, 435–436, 438–439
Sámi, language, xix, 395
Sámi, people (also Saami), 3
Sagoonick, Clara Mae, 19, 82, 84
St. Lawrence Island, xiv, 8, 24, 27, 82, 84–86,
88, 93–95, 99–100, 102–104,
115–143, 262, 322–323, 333–334,
336, 346, 368–369, 388–389
Salekhard, city, vi
Sam Ford Fjord, 270
Sampling site selection, 364
Sanguya, Igah, 22, 261, 273
Sanguya, Joelie, ix–x, 17, 22, 261–262, 264,
270, 273
Sanikiluaq, community (also Sanikiluak), 325,
453, 463
Saqqaq, community, 36–37
Sartre, Jean-Paul (John Paul), 292
Sassat (Grenl: beluga entrapment in ice), 32,
40, 42, 155, 159, 419, 424
Satellite
Imagery, 66, 86, 109, 138, 140, 142, 265,
358, 362, 434
remote sensing, 119, 141–142+, 265
sensor, 117, 358
Savissivik, community, 261, 274
Savoonga (Sivungaq), community, 84, 106,
110, 116–120, 122–142, 322
Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer
(SMMR), 119
Savoonga (also Sivungaq), 84, 106, 110,
116–142, 322
Scale
large, 116, 116, 135, 141, 183, 201, 358,
370, 434
local, 47, 71, 117, 135, 370
regional, xix, 46, 119, 207
village, 131
Scandinavia, v, 146
Scanner, 242–243
Schneider, Lucien, 325, 388–389, 392–393
Schulich School of Engineering, 183
Sciences
earth, 447
environmental, 46
geophysics, 370, 372, 447
natural, 1, 257, 265, 372, 379
physical, v, 361, 371
polar, 1, 13, 17, 25
social, xix, 1, 4, 8–9, 15–16, 23, 71, 164,
253, 257, 265, 359, 372, 428–429,
447, 450–451
Scientific method, 361
Scoresby, William Jr, 447
Sea ice, see Ice
Sea ice biology, see Ice, biology
Sea ice extent
inter-annual variability, 55, 105, 133, 139,
364, 367–368
record summer minima, 3
summer minimum, 117, 131, 205
Sea ice (system) services, 25–26, 360
Sea Lion, 91, 94
Seals
Bearded, see Bearded Seal (Erignathus
barbatus)
breathing holes, 58, 61, 63, 95–96, 159,
348, 350, 384, 416, 422–424
changes in, 155–156
dens, 170
harbour, 50
harp, 32, 152, 155
health, 67
hooded, 50, 158
hunting, 32, 35, 67, 89–60, 106, 288, 305,
317, 319, 332, 422–423
ice-associated, 360
Index 497
molting, 152, 155–156
nets, 34, 42, 63, 190
pups, 67, 308
ribbon, 100, 103, 105, 278
ringed, x, 32, 66–68, 152, 155, 278,
318–319, 424, 430
Sealskins
commercial use of, 32, 42
processing, 32
souvenir, 42
use for clothing, 32
Search and rescue, 71, 181, 200, 216, 431, 433
Seasonal cycle, 121, 139, 298, 365, 369
Seasonal Ice Zone Observational Network
(SIZONet) Project, 8, 20, 82, 84,
86, 110, 346
Sea-surface temperature (SST), 34, 116, 140,
420
Sedentarization, 166
Seetook, Raymond, Sr., 342
Seitchek, Cara, 23
Sejersen, Frank, 5, 25
Semantic Web, 233
Sereadlook, Lena, 342
Sereadlook, Pete, 326
Services
ecosystem, 20, 360
sea ice (system), 25–26, 70, 360
Settlements
permanent communities, 69
Seward Peninsula, 279–280, 328
Shaktoolik, community, 19, 82, 84, 110, 323,
333
Shapiro, Lew, 365
Shared Beringia Heritage Program, 8
Sheep farming, 147, 156–157
Shishmaref, community, xxii, 19–20, 275–284,
286–289, 292–293, 323, 333–334,
336–337, 347
Shortridge, Louis, 390
Shulski, Martha, 110, 347
Siberia, 2, 84, 91, 94–95, 105, 110, 340, 343,
394
Siglitun, language, 326, 389
Sila (Inuit, universe, weather, outside world),
12, 21, 23, 25, 145–159, 273, 283,
437, 449
Siku-Inuit-Hila, Project, xx, 22–23, 25,
148–149, 155, 159, 257–274,
433–434
Siku (sea ice), see Ice
SIKU (Sea Ice Knowledge and Use) Project,
vii, xiv, xviii, 1–2, 5, 7–8, 11–17,
23, 82–85, 121, 159, 251, 321–323,
333–334, 345, 358, 378, 385, 388,
390–395, 432–433, 440, 451
Sikusilaarmiut Place-Name Project, 429, 431
Sila-Inuk, Project, 21, 23, 25, 147, 149, 159,
437
Silavut: Inuit Voices in a Changing World,
exhibit, 12
Simigaq, Otto, 154, 271
Sinaazruaq (West Channel, off Shishmaref),
275
Siorapaluk, community, 154, 157, 264, 269
Sisimiut, community, 43, 149, 157
Sivugat, Amosie, 18, 181, 195, 202
Skills, 3, 25, 39, 66, 69–71, 118, 140, 164,
182–184, 189, 208, 235, 265, 267,
292, 363, 367, 372, 409, 433–434,
440, 446–447
Skin boat, 98, 101, 208, 210, 282, 288, 332
Smithsonian Institution, xix, 23, 82, 292, 306
SNAP (Project), 142
Snow
avalanche, 394
ball, 390–392, 394, 396
bank, 391
block, 384
blowing, 396
cap, 391
cover, 33, 66, 152, 169, 301, 309, 362,
392–393
crust, 393, 394
crystaline, 389, 391, 396, 407
drift/drifting, 348
fall/falling, 392
flake, 93, 391, 394
fresh, 220
good to walk on, 304
on the ground, 89–90, 93, 383, 388–389,
391–392, 394, 396
hard-pack, 392
house, 384, 393
lexicon (English, of snow terms), xxi, 283,
289, 291, 325–326, 334, 378–382,
385, 388–391, 395, 415, 422, 425,
453
melt, 61, 98, 103, 210, 214, 308, 391, 454
melted for water, 402
melting, 103
mushy, 391, 393–394, 396
on the ocean, 305, 311, 316
powder, 91, 393, 396
slushy, 305, 386, 456
soaked with water, 304
498 Index
Snow (cont.)
soft, 182–183, 383–384, 391–393, 396
storm, 95–96, 99, 388, 391, 394
surface, 388, 391
temperature, 260, 263
terminology, 385–390, 396
thickness, 260
wet, 389, 392–393, 418
Snow, Inuit/Eskimo terms for3
Aniu–soft snow, good for drinking water,
392, 396, 402
Apputtattuq–snow accumulation on the
newly formed ice, 389
Aput/Apun–snow on the ground
(general term), 392, 396, 422
Aqilluqqaq–light soft snow, 396
Kiviniq-wet snow sinking into the sea ice,
389, 458
Masak–mushy, wet snow, 391–393, 396
Mauya/mauja-deep soft snow, 383–384,
391, 393, 396
Piqsirpoq (Inukt)–blowing snow, 384, 391,
396
Pukak-crystalline snow, 391, 393, 396
Qaneq–falling snow, 384, 396
Qimuqsuq–snowdrift, 384, 391, 396
Qiqsruqqaq–glazed snow, 393, 396
Qissuqaqtuq–snow hardened by night frost,
389
Snow, Russian terms for
Buran–violent snowstorm, 394
Metel’–snowstorm, 394
Nast–snow crust, 394
Poorga–long protracted snowstorm in
Arctic Russia, 95
Porosha–first snow on the ground,
394
Pozemok–low-level snowdrift, 394
Sneg–snow (most general term), 394
Sugrob-heap of snow, 394
Viyuga–snowstorm with noisy wind, 394
Zastruga-snow wave, 394
Snow, Sámi terms for, 395
Snowmobiles
Inuit use of, 7
use in data collection, 239–240
Snowshoes, 288, 300, 351, 384
Soap stone
mines, 59, 63, 67
Social scientists, xv, 163, 265, 322, 377
Sørensen, Hanne, 147, 159
South Africa, 183, 449
Sovereignty, 427–428, 435, 441
Spatial perception
reference, 170, 175–177
Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I),
119, 358
Steensby Inlet, xviii, 64
Storm
frequency of, 66, 96
surges, 397
String games, 272
Study of the Heat Budget of the Arctic Ocean
(SHEBA), Project, 364
Sturm, Matthew, 23, 388–389, 395
Sub-Arctic, 157, 164, 312
Svanholm, Kathrine, 422, 425
Sweden, v, xix, 231, 435
Syllabics (Inuit writing system), 186
Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR), 136–137,
142, 216, 221, 224, 475–476
T
Tasiilaq (Ammasalik), community, 7, 414
Tate, Henry, 390
Taverniers, Pierre, xxi, 21, 31–43, 326,
386–387, 395, 413–425
Taylor, D.R. Fraser, xxi, 19, 229–253, 464,
466–470
Teachers, 13, 87, 267, 279, 464, 467
Teit, James, 389–390
Tellik Inlet, 60
Terminology, see Ice Terminology
Tersis, Nicole, xxi, 25, 326, 413–425
Therchik, Nick, Jr, 299, 301–302, 309
Thule, district, 164, 166, 260, 326, 388, 429
Tidal variations, 297, 314
Tides, 34, 152, 177, 218, 297, 303, 314, 411,
418, 456–457, 459–460, 462
Tigullaraq, Geela, 13, 22, 259, 261, 465, 467
Tobiassen, Aka, 42–43, 415, 425
Tobiassen, Thora, 42–43, 415, 425
Tobiassen, Zacharias, 42–43, 415, 425
Toksook Bay, community, 5–6, 20, 299,
301–304, 307, 309, 315, 319
Tom, Mark, 300
Tocktoo, Arthur, 282, 286–287, 289
Tookalook, Peter, 453, 466, 470
Took (Grenl. hunters’ ice-testing rod), 293, 310
Toovak, Kenneth, 363–365, 374
Topography, 65, 138, 165–166, 169–170, 179,
197–198, 284, 363
Toponym, 177, 380, 382, 385, 432
Toponymy, 432
Torsukatak Fjird, 31, 35
Traditional (ecological) knowledge, see
Knowledge
Index 499
Trails
ice, 171–172, 209–211, 216–217, 226–227,
367, 432
land, 167
traditional, 66, 69, 154, 206, 231, 386, 446,
454, 464
whaling, 203–227, 366, 370, 467, 474–476
See also Routes
Travel
accidents, 41, 66, 69, 192, 385
boat, 59, 63, 67–68, 85, 98–99,
101–106, 118–119, 122, 124, 127,
135–138, 169–171, 179, 239, 264,
281, 288, 293, 304, 306, 315–316,
319, 337, 340, 344, 347–349, 351,
385–386, 416, 419–422
canvas tents, use , 56
caribou skin clothing, use , 56
dangerous, 59, 67–68
dog team, xvi, 60, 69, 173, 190–192,
195–196, 239, 269, 279, 318
navigation, xx, 7, 49, 57, 136, 209–211,
216, 224, 257, 308, 332, 335, 433,
447–449, 464, 469, 476
risk, 66, 139, 142, 158, 207, 209–212,
218, 244, 344–345, 363, 365,
432–433, 448–449
safety, 7, 15, 18, 42, 51–53, 62–64, 69,
88, 108, 119, 135, 138, 140, 184,
205, 209, 216, 257, 263–265, 308,
311, 336, 340, 344–345, 366–367,
370, 432–433, 464–465
snowmobile, 50, 60, 68–69, 91, 95, 124,
140, 166, 173, 179, 183, 189–190,
194–195, 201, 209–210, 213–214,
216–217, 220, 239, 332, 396
Tremblay, Martin, xxi, 18, 22, 25, 217, 325,
429, 434, 453–455, 465–466,
470
Trimble Recon, 184
Tromsö, vi–vii
Trondhjem, Naja Frederikke, 415, 425
Tukimuatitauniq “Elders Guide Use” (Cape
Dorset), 431
Tulik, Camilius, 304, 315–317
Tunuchuk, Paul, 297, 301, 304, 308–309,
311–314, 316
Tunumiisut, dialect, see Greenlandic, language,
East Greenlandic, Tunumiisut
Tununak, community, 304–305, 316, 319
Tusaqtuut (Inukt-November), ix
Tuukiapik, Sarah, 453
Typological groupings, 334, 385
U
Uelen, community, 8, 11, 20–21, 84, 110, 324,
333–336, 346
Ugzruk/ugruk (Inupiaq)–bearded seal,
278–281, 285–286, 291, 293
Ulurruk, place name, Toksook Bay, 301, 304
Umiujaq, community, 453, 456–463
Umkumiut, place name, Toksook Bay,
318–319
Ummanak, community, 440
Undergraduate field experience, 183
Ungava Bay, 454, 460–461
Ungaziq (also Chaplino), community, 324
United Nations, 2–3, 438, 442
United Nations Environment Programme
(UNEP), 2–3
Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM),
242–243
University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF), 12,
20, 23, 82, 86–87, 110, 142, 342,
346–347, 365, 466–468
University of Calgary, 183, 185
University of Copenhagen, 415, 425
Upernavik, community, 7, 148–149
Uqsuqtuuq (Gjoa Haven), community, 326,
409
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), 120,
142
Utkuhik (Chantrey Inlet), 409
Utkuhiksalingmiutitut Dictionary Project
Utkuhiksalingmiutitut, dialect, 326, 404–405,
407–412
Uuttut (Grenl.) hunting for seals basking on
ice, 35, 42
V
Value, 3, 15, 17, 50, 82, 94, 115, 121, 132,
138, 141, 149, 164, 179, 298, 239,
243, 258, 263–264, 292, 296–297,
321, 336, 357–360, 362, 364,
366–367, 372–373, 377–378, 394,
435, 447–450, 454
Variability, 4, 7–8, 21, 31–44, 51, 55, 65,
89, 100, 105, 115–117, 133, 135,
138–139, 141–142, 154, 205, 275,
281, 364, 368–371, 454
Vdovin, Boris, 21, 23
Vinokour, Anya, 24
Virtual globe, 232
Vocabulary, 43, 322, 334, 336, 347, 377–400,
422, 453
Hoax, see Great Eskimo Vocabulary
Hoax
500 Index
W
Wainwright, community, 5, 19, 204, 207, 209,
324, 333–341, 346, 359
Wales, community, xv, 8, 19–20, 84, 106–107,
139, 321–352, 360
Wales Inupiaq Sea Ice Dictionary, 12, 321–352
Wal rus ( Odobenus rosmarus), 115–142, 369
fall hunting, 66–67, 93–94, 97, 102–103,
107, 118, 135, 170, 342–343, 352
fall migration, 97
haul-out, 91–92, 98, 104
peak of migration, 101
spring migration, 102
Walrus Harvest Monitoring (WHMP),
120–121, 124, 129, 133
Walunga, Willis, 322, 388–389
Washington, D.C., vi, xix–xx
Watt-Cloutier, Sheila, 3, 438, 440, 450
Waves, 34, 68, 97–98, 101, 105, 288, 302, 307,
310–311, 317, 337, 339, 340, 348,
358, 360, 386, 419, 456, 458, 460
Wayfinding, 25, 164–165, 172, 430, 433
Weather
calm, 99
clear, 98
clouds, 57
cycles, 69–70
extreme cold, 56
forecasts, 69
ice fog, 56
overcast, 56, 124
prediction, 66
prevailing winds, 88
seasons, 89
snowfall, 90
Storms, 59, 97–98
temperature, 31, 34, 39, 56, 87
traditional prediction techniques, 66
unpredictability, 56, 66
unstable, 101
wind direction, 101
wind strength, 66
Web 2.0, 232–233, 251
Weber Müller-Wille, Linna, 378, 385, 440
Web services, 247–249
Web Coverage Service (WCS), 247
Web Feature Service (WFS), 247, 249
Web Map Service (WMS), 247–249
West, 2, 31–43, 91, 97–99, 101, 104, 127,
135–136, 138, 145, 147, 152, 169,
222–226, 260, 275–276, 284, 288,
326, 369, 381, 385–490, 405, 413,
430, 456, 462
West Greenland, 2, 31–43, 147, 386–387, 413
West Greenlandic, dialect, see Kalaallisut
(Greenlandic), language
Weyapuk, Winton, Jr, 19–20, 84, 327, 358,
370, 374
Weyiouanna, Clifford, 275–276, 280–282, 285,
292
Whales
Beluga, white whale (Delphinapterus
leucas), 32, 40, 50, 155, 166, 350,
369, 430
Bowhead (Balaena mysticetus), 91–92,
94, 100–102, 108, 203–204, 208,
210–211, 224, 226, 262, 332, 365,
368–369, 371, 476
Bowhead whale breaking ice, 368
Gray (Eschrichtius robustus), 102
migration, 102
Minke (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), 152,
157
Narwhal (Monodon monoceros), 50, 155,
422, 424
shift in distribution, 370
winter range, 94–95
Whalers, 205, 207, 207–208, 215, 227, 279,
447, 449
Whaling
in Barrow, 366
commercial, 207
crew, 205–207, 209–210, 212, 216, 333,
362, 433
fall, 370
indigenous, 110, 370
spring, 101–102, 106, 207, 211, 216,
226–227
subsistence, 118, 207
trail, 203–227, 366, 370, 474–476
winter, 101, 106
White Sea, 2
Whorf, Benjamin Lee, 390
Wildlife studies, 181
Winds
changing, 156
direction, 57, 64, 66, 83–84, 86, 97,
101–102, 107, 120, 125–128, 135,
219, 303, 342, 407
Avannaq–north wind, 151
speed, 33, 58, 83, 86, 120–121, 126–128,
135–138, 159
unpredictable, 60, 99
Wingate, Edward, 18, 181, 192–194, 202
Index 501
Wisniewski, Josh, 12, 19–20, 275–294, 323,
331, 333, 336–339, 344–346, 402,
466, 470
Woodbury, Anthony, 388–391, 396, 402
Wood, Kevin, 25, 367
World Climate Conference, 2
World Climate Research Programme (WCRP),
268
World Meteorological Organization (WMO),
3, 335, 337–339, 391, 451
Y
Yanrakinnot, community, 20–21, 82, 84, 324,
333
Yukon, 298, 318, 367, 372
Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, 298
Yukon River, 318
Yupik, language
Chaplinski Yupik, 324, 333
Naukanski Yupik, 324, 333–334
Siberian Yupik, 117, 388–389
St. Lawrence Island Yupik, 336, 346, 388
Yup’ik, language
Central Alaska Yup’ik, 389
Yup’ik elders
Yup’ik knowledge, 296, 320
Z
Z.agrebin, Igor, 21, 23, 82, 84
Article
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Full-text available
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Full-text available
Article
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Article
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Article
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Article
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Sea ice has been, and continues to be, an integral component of life in the Inuit community of Igloolik, Nunavut. Located on an island of the same name off the northeastern coast of Melville Peninsula, extensive ice formation occurs in Fury and Hecla Strait. This creates an important travel and hunting platform, and enables access to Baffin Island, the mainland, moving ice, hunting and fishing grounds, and nearby communities. With the combined importance, dynamism, and continuous use of this frozen ocean environment, local Inuit elders and hunters have developed a detailed and nuanced understanding of sea ice conditions, freeze/thaw processes, and the influences of winds and currents on ice conditions. Working collaboratively with the community of Igloolik since February 2004, we present the results of 24 semi-directed interviews and 4 sea ice trips to provide a baseline understanding of local freezing processes (near-shore, open water, sea ice thickening, landfast ice, tidal cracks, floe edge, and moving ice), melting processes (snow melt, water accumulation and drainage, and break-up), wind influences on sea ice (wind direction and strength affecting sea ice formation and movement), and, current influences on sea ice (tidal variations and current strength affecting sea ice formation, movement, and polynya size/location). Strong emphasis is placed on Inuktitut terminology and spatial delineations of localised ice conditions and features. Therefore, this paper provides insights into local scale ice conditions and dynamics around Igloolik that are not captured in regional scale studies of Foxe Basin and/or Fury and Hecla Strait. Results have the potential to inform future research efforts on local/regional sea ice monitoring, the relationship between Inuit knowledge, language, and the environment, and addressing community interests through targeted studies.