Article

Causes of people’s death in peacetime and economic assessment of the value of losses

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Abstract

The paper gives information on the number of people, who died and were injured as a result of external causes in Russia. Traffic accidents, plane crashes, terrorism, and emergencies worsen the demographic situation in Russia, which is unfavorable even without it, and also creates severe economic consequences. An assessment of the value of lives lost due to mortality from accidents is presented.

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... For instance, over 2.5 million rear-end collisions are reported every year, making them the most common type of automobile crash (42%) (Center for Disease Control, 2009). Also, it has been reported, based on traffic police data for 2010, that in 85% of cases, accidents are caused by violations of traffic rules by vehicle drivers; from them, 25% of road accidents are caused by the non-observation of speed regulations by drivers on roads; 15%, by violations of the rules of passage through a crossroad; 10%, by moving into an oncoming traffic lane (Prokhorov and Shmakov, 2013). It is important to detect these typical driving events as they are fundamental to the evaluation of driver behavior and it would be highly beneficial to many application domains in the road safety perspective such as an automated advanced warning system (Saiprasert et al., 2017). ...
Article
Driving Behavior (DB) is a complex concept describing how the driver operates the vehicle in the context of the driving scene and surrounding environment. Recently, DB assessment has become an emerging topic of great importance. However, in view of to the stochastic nature of driving, measuring and modeling, DB continues to be a challenging topic today. As such, this paper argues that to move forward in understanding the individual and organizational mechanisms influencing DB, a conceptual framework is outlined whereby DB is viewed in terms of different dimensions established within the Driver–Vehicle–Environment (DVE) system. Moreover, DB assessment has been approached by various machine learning (ML) models. Still, there has been no attempt to analyze the empirical evidence on ML models in a systematic way, furthermore, ML based DB models often face problems and raise questions that must be resolved. This article presents a systematic literature review (SLR) of the DB investigation concept; In the first phase, a framework for conceptualizing a holistic approach of the different facets in DB analysis is presented, as well as a scheme to guide the future development and implementation of DB assessment strategies. In the second phase, an overview of the literature on ML is designed, revealing a premier and unbiased survey of the existing empirical research of ML techniques that have been applied to DB analysis. The results of this study identify an interpretive framework incorporating multiple dimensions influencing the driver’s conduct, in an attempt to achieve a thorough understanding of the DB concept within the DVE system in which the drivers operate. Additionally, 82 primary studies published during the last decade and eight broadly used ML models were identified. The findings of this review prove the performance capability of the ML techniques for assessing DB. The models using the ML techniques outperform other conventional approaches. However, the application of ML models in DB analysis is still limited and more effort is needed to obtain well-formed and generalizable results. To this end, and based on the outcomes obtained in this work, future guidelines have been provided to practitioners and researchers to grasp the major contributions and challenges in the state-of-the-art research.
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Modern society faces a serious problem of preserving the health of people. Currently, there are some wide-spread diseases that are highly dangerous because they are easily transmitted and have a high mortality rate. These diseases compose a group of socially significant diseases, their list is approved by the Decree of the RF Go­vernment of Dec. 1, 2004 No. 715. One of the key institutes of counteracting the spread of socially significant diseases is the institute of criminal law measures. A number of clauses of the RF Criminal Code regulate mandatory treatment of criminally liable persons. The use of criminal law measures is regulated by Art. 72.1, 73, 79, 82.1 and Ch. 15 of the RF Criminal Code, while Art. 18 of the RF Penitentiary Code determines the procedure of using medical measures to treat persons sentenced to punishments involving isolation from the society. However, the non-mandatory and ambiguous procedure of prescribing mandatory treatment for socially significant di­seases through criminal law means creates difficulties in organizing a comprehensive approach to treating such diseases. In the process of their research, the authors ascertained that it is necessary to adopt an uncompromising approach in prescribing treatment of a socially significant disease by using criminal law measures to a person suffering from such a disease. This goal could be achieved by replacing the phrase «could hold accountable» to «holds accountable» in the clauses of Art. 72.1, 73 and 79 of the RF Criminal Code. It is suggested that the legal limitation of the use of mandatory treatment for convicts isolated from the society should be abolished by elimina­ting the words «which is connected with danger to themselves or other persons» from Part 2, Art. 18 of the RF Penitentiary Code. Related problems arise during the mandatory treatment of psychiatric disorders that are socially significant diseases too. Thus, the elimination of legal problems of treating socially significant diseases through criminal law measures will increase the effectiveness of criminal legislation from the standpoint of its social function — the protection of the society and its representatives.
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The level of public health in the regions of Russia in the years 2002–2012 is characterized based on the indices of life expectancy of men and women, as well as infant mortality. The tendencies toward change as compared to 1990–2001 are determined. Five groups of regions with various levels of public health are identified and analyzed. The practical importance of this work is shown including its inclusion in the social policy and during the development of medico-geographical forecasts.
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