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ISSN 00405795, Theoretical Foundations of Chemical Engineering, 2013, Vol. 47, No. 1, pp. 31–35. © Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2013.
Original Russian Text © P.D. Sarkisov, O.V. Stoyanova, M.I. Dli, 2013, published in Teoreticheskie Osnovy Khimicheskoi Tekhnologii, 2013, Vol. 47, No. 1, pp. 36–41.
Recently, interest in the nanoindustry has become
extremely high. Problems concerning the various
aspects of this field are being considered in Russian and
international symposia, conferences, and workshops.
Many programs are carried out at the state level and are
directed at the development of the nanoindustry.
Among successful programs, the federal target program
“Development of the Infrastructure of the Nanoindus
try in Russian Federation in 2008–2011” should be
noted. One of the results of this program is the forma
tion of the Center of Metrology Provision, which
includes nine sectors and eight regional divisions, two
standards laboratories, 35 metrological facilities, nearly
300 reference samples and check gauges, and more than
100 procedures for measurements and calibration .
Examples of other implemented and developing pro
grams in the field of nanoscience, nanotechnologies,
and nanoengineering can be found.
However, despite the obvious achievements in the
aforementioned fields, Russia trails substantially
behind the world leaders in the nanoindustry, namely,
the United States, Japan, and countries of the Euro
pean Union. One of the main reasons for this lag is the
ineffectiveness of the mechanisms used in the transition
from fundamental and applied studies to industrial
management. The establishment of technological
parks, incubators, business reactors, and other innova
tive institutes, the number of which is increasing
steadily, is aimed at solving this problem. However, the
main target of the mentioned institutes is the support of
innovative projects at the initial step, while the problems
of transitioning from this stage to the stage of batch pro
duction remain open.
In our opinion, one of the possible variants of solving
the existing problems is the transition to the project
management in the field of nanoindustry, which incor
porates entire cycle of reproduction of innovations
starting from fundamental studies and ending with
funding of these studies with the gains from the manu
facture of innovative production and benefits . This
approach requires the development of new methodol
ogy of project management, which assumes that
nanoindustry is a special field characterized not only by
its structure and properties, but also the features of sys
Each methodology requires the formulation of
intrinsic principles underlying its foundation. This arti
cle is devoted to the consideration of the principles of
project management in the field of nanoindustry.
CHARACTERISTICS OF THE FIELD
Nanoindustry is a complex structural formation that
uses the achievements from various fields of science and
technologies and production of other fields of industry
in its development and provides many fields of study
and industry with the results. The most general overview
of the structure of nanoindustry is given in the figure.
Nanoscience, which is part of nanoindustry, deals
with studies of the properties of nanomaterials and phe
nomena on the nanometer scale. It is based on the
knowledge of numerous scientific fields, which are the
branches of physics, chemistry, and biology. Results of
the studies are used by nanotechnology to design nano
structures and nanoengineering and searches for new
directions of application.
There is currently no general classification of the
directions of nanoindustry that is accepted at the inter
Principles of Project Management in the Field of Nanoindustry
P. D. Sarkisov
, O. V. Stoyanova
, and M. I. Dli
Mendeleev Russian University of Chemical Technology, Moscow, Russia
Department of MEI National University in Smolensk, Smolensk, Russia
Received September 17, 2012
—Prerequisites of the transfer to integrated project control in the field of nanoindustry, which com
prises all stages of the life cycle of innovative nanoproduction, have been considered. Structural relationships
between the directions of nanoindustry have been demonstrated and a management statement that assumes
the complex character of these relationships has been considered. Principles of project management in the
field of nanotechnologies that reflect the character of these projects, their structure, the composition of par
ticipants, and other factors that determine the features of the solution of management problems have been
JOURNAL OF CTHEORETICAL FOUNDATIONS OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING Vol. 47
SARKISOV et al.
organs and tissues
delivery of drugs
Assemblies of nanoobjects Nanostructures Bulk nanostructured
Physics Chemistry Biology
Structural relationships in nanoindustry.
national level. This is primarily related to the fact that
international standards in this field are not fully formed
and countries remain oriented toward creating intrinsic
nanotechnology glossaries . This situation has given
rise to contradictions in scientific and industrial fields
and has resulted in additional complications in the
management of projects in the field of nanoindustry.
The results given in the figure represent n attempt to
emphasize the general directions of nanoindustry con
sidered by various classifications.
Five directions, including nanomaterials, nanoelec
tronics, nanophotonics, nanobiotechnologies, and
nanomedicine, have been highlighted by leading orga
nizations on standardization, such as the International
Organization for Standardization, European Patent
Office, Nanotechnology Research Center of Japan,
Statistics Canada, and Australian Bureau of Statistics.
These directions are of high importance around the
world; however, some national priorities exist . For
example, in Japan, the primary focus is on fundamental
studies related to materials. In India, emphasis is placed
on the use of nanotechnologies in healthcare. In the
United States, special attention is focused on the engi
neering and development of fundamental theoretical
knowledge, as well as nanobiotechnologies.
OAO Rusnano (www.rusnano.com) emphasizes the
following promising directions of the development of
nanoindustry and uses its achievements, namely, solar
energy and energy conservation, nanostructured mate
rials, medicine and biotechnologies, the auto industry
and metal treatment, and opto and nanoelectronics.
This list is not exhaustive and the number of direc
tions is far larger and follows an increase in the develop
ment of knowledge on nanoscale phenomena and
materials. It has become evident from the aforemen
tioned that the nanoindustry has suprasectoral priority
THEORETICAL FOUNDATIONS OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING Vol. 47
PRINCIPLES OF PROJECT MANAGEMENT IN THE FIELD OF NANOINDUSTRY 33
in the development of national economies. For this rea
son, the nanoindustry has been drawing increased
FEATURES OF PROJECT MANAGEMENT
As was mentioned earlier, the solutions of problems
in the field of nanoindustry are possible thanks to the
transition from currently used conventional mecha
nisms of management to project management that
incorporates all stages of the cycle for reproducing
innovations. This cycle, which represents the complete
life cycle of the project in the nanoindustry, involves
fundamental studies, applied developments, the cre
ation of technologies, the market launch of technolo
gies, production and implementation, and the funding
of new studies with the gains obtained .
At each stage considered, intrinsic management
problems are solved that require the use of intrinsic
methods and sources. Implementing project manage
ment means solving the aforementioned problems by
creating a general control loop. The formation of this
loop is only possible based on the system approach to
the study of projects as complex systems that involve
organization, economical, and technical subsystems. In
accordance with the system approach, the complex
study of these systems would be achieved by modeling.
The set of models obtained in this project will serve as
the basis of the management system when to satisfy the
requirements determined by the features of manage
ment. Thus, understanding the principles that should
be assumed in the management of projects in nanoin
dustry is a necessary condition for the creation of an
effective system of project management in nanoindus
The analysis of the features of the problems of
project management in nanoindustry given in 
enabled us to formulate the principles given below.
PRINCIPLES OF PROJECT MANAGEMENT
Principle of assuming the developing character of the
Most projects in nanoindustry have a develop
ing character. A developing project is one that does not
have a final goal at its initiation that, once achieved,
would signal the end of the project . Relative to these
projects, one only can state terminal targets that char
acterize the termination of a particular stage of develop
ment. Moments of determining the terminal targets in
developing projects depend on many factors, primarily
on the effectiveness of preliminary acts and external
For projects in the field of nanoindustry, high activ
ity of studies and high competition between countries
and individual companies for leadership in this field
have the largest influence on the system of terminal tar
gets. The possibilities of developing other projects in a
given direction of study are limited by patents obtained
by any participant in the key solution. Thus, project
management in the field of nanoindustry should be per
formed by the support of not static targets, but rather a
dynamic system of target directives, for which it is pos
sible to change not only the parameters, but also the
In the theory of project management, the problems
of the formation of this system are solved using methods
of content control. Most these methods are related to
experts and are characterized by a high subject charac
ter. Structuring the procedures for controlling the con
tent within the projectmanagement system is a topical
problem that requires the development of new methods
Principle of unity of targets, resources, risks, and
structure of project.
In addition to the nonstationary
character of targets, in nanoindustry, project manage
ment is characterized by a nonstationary character of
risks and resources. The nonstationary character of risks
manifests not only in a change in their composition, but
also the consequences that carry these risks. With regard
to resources, the highest instability is intrinsic for
human resources, which play an most important role in
projects in the field of nanoindustry.
Changes in any of the aforementioned components
affect the structure of project, i.e., the sequence of con
nections and types of relations between individual
works . For this reason, the management of these
projects should be performed with the support of the
knowledge of relationships and the coupling of targets,
resources, and risks.
Principle of priority of optimizing time characteristics
The main problem of project management
is the search for controlling actions, which provide the
maximum effective use of resources in order to achieve
the target states within the life cycle with the assumption
of existing limitations conditioned by the internal and
external medium. The class in which this problem is
solved involves material, financial, human, intellectual,
and time resources. It is evident that, for complex
projects, the search for a global critical point of the tar
get function in this class is linked to many problems. For
this reason, most mathematical methods used in project
management are reduced to solving problems of search
ing for local critical points on individual types of
resources that consider the states of all other types of
resources to be limitations.
The life cycle of projects in the field of nanoindustry
involves the stages mentioned above, each of which is
heterogeneous and is composed of various stages and
substages, the composition of which depends on the
type of project. It is evident that, for projects that have a
long life cycle, the problem of the effective use of time
resources comes to the first plan . Consequently, the
problem of management considered above for the
projects in the field of nanoindustry is reasonable to
consider the problem of optimization of time character
JOURNAL OF CTHEORETICAL FOUNDATIONS OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING Vol. 47
SARKISOV et al.
istics of project at limited character of other types of
Principle of continuity of processes of planning and
This principle is derived from the principle
of the assumption that projects have a developing char
acter. It is impossible to manage the support of a
dynamic system of target directives without organizing
the monitoring of implementation of the project and
planning based on an analysis of environmental
changes and the deviations of the project parameters
from those planned. Furthermore, it should be noted
that the processes of monitoring and planning are
resourceintensive, which leads to increased require
ments for the choice of procedures of their organiza
Principles of assumption of project potential.
ture of sciencebased projects that relate to most
nanoindustry projects is the possibility to postpone the
use of results obtained in their realization. Conse
quently, the effectiveness of these projects should be
estimated based on the criteria that assume the post
poned effects that make up the project potential.
Intellectual resources form the foundation of the
projects and are accumulated during as the projects are
carried out . Furthermore, the possibilities of using
these resources to solve various problems of both the
current project and the next level of projects in the cycle
of reproducing innovations, rather than the capacity of
these resources, are the first plan. Thus, in order to esti
mate the project potential, the following problems must
– the accumulated intellectual resources must be
– promising directions of project development must
– the possibilities of using the intellectual resources
considered within the identified directions are ana
Principle of assumption of coupling projects and their
The close relationship between
fundamental and applied studies in nanoindustry has
led to the fact that various projects carried out in this
field have many points of contact, including those at
intersectoral level [10–12]. Procedures on the develop
ment of the infrastructure of nanoindustry are directed
at providing the effective interaction between projects.
In Russia, national nanotechnological network was
created, the purpose of which is to coordinate the activ
ity in the field of nanoindustry. Recently, the function
ing of national nanotechnological network has been
reduced to filling the databases created within the infra
structural projects of the Federal Target Program
“Development of Infrastructure of Nanoindustry in the
Russian Federation in 2008–2011.” The data stored in
the aforementioned databases are required as the initial
parameters to arrive at many decisions on project man
agement in nanoindustry. Recently, most participants
do not have access to view these data; this substantially
restricts the possibilities of project management.
Principle of consistency of interests among all partic
The makeup of participants of projects in the
field of nanoindustry is very heterogeneous. Here, one
can emphasize research organizations that create fun
damental and applied solutions, innovative institutes
that deal with the commercialization of scientific devel
opments, industrial facilities that organize the product
output, higher educational institutions that provide the
human resource of nanoindustry, investment institutes
that provide financing, and state services that monitor
the development of nanoindustry.
In order to ensure effective project management, the
development of a system for motivating participants is
required, which would ensure the consistency of their
interests in carrying out projects. For this purpose, a
management system should have maximum transpar
ency and the principles of its functioning should be
clear to all participants. For this reason, one must use
methods and instruments for supporting decisionmak
ing that are based on an analysis of the objective data
that characterize various aspects of the project.
Principle of provision of consistent transformation of
models of project at its transition between stages.
aforementioned principle is based on a generalsystem
principle of the modeling ability of complex systems
and the need to increase the objectiveness of the con
trol, which is the consequence of the principle of con
sistency of the interests of participants. Furthermore,
the principle determines the need to transform models
used to manage the transition of a project between the
stages because, during this transition, the substantial
transformation of the project goals is possible, which
leads to many changes. A special role is devoted to the
consistency of the transformation, which is required to
provide the balance of many models, which are the basis
of the management system.
Principle of minimizing total amount of controlling
A nanoindustry project is a complex object of
management. At first glance, the management of this
object requires the introduction of the large number of
controlling actions and governed parameters. However,
it is known that the complication of the system gives rise
to a decrease in its stability and resistance to disturbing
effects . Thus, in order to provide the stability of the
system of project management in the field of nanoin
dustry when the required degree of ability to govern
object is retained, there must be a decrease in the num
ber of controlling actions to the minimum possible
Upon a decrease in the number of controlling
actions, the number of parameters also decreases,
which should be managed because the control should
be not only stable, but also moneysaving, that is, using
the minimum amount of resources.
This principle describes the requirements to the total
amount of controlling actions in the general control
THEORETICAL FOUNDATIONS OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING Vol. 47
PRINCIPLES OF PROJECT MANAGEMENT IN THE FIELD OF NANOINDUSTRY 35
loop, and their distribution in loop can differ for various
types of projects. Consequently, the development of a
classification of projects from the aforementioned view
point is a topical problem.
The high value of nanoindustry in the Russian econ
omy and the presence of a series of problems in this field
require that effective solutions be developed in order to
bring the nanoindustry of Russia to the new level.
In this work, it was shown that one of the possible
approaches is the transition to project management as a
concept of complex management, which provides pro
viding the elimination of the problem of the consistency
of the interaction between elements of the nanoindustry
structure. It is reasonable to use this approach for the
– the complexity of structural relationships in
nanoindustry due to the presence of complex intersec
– the close relationship of fundamental and applied
studies, technologies, and engineering;
– the possibility of formation of new structural ele
ments (in the field of science, technologies, and appli
– the need to integrate interests in the heteroge
neous composition of participants;
– the long cycle for reproducing innovations to
ensure the priority of time management;
– the high degree of system dynamics in the field of
It was shown that the transition to project manage
ment should be performed based on the principles men
tioned in work, which assume the features of (1) nano
industry, (2) projects carried out in solving them with
respect to the considered object.
It is considered that the transfer to project manage
ment based on the aforementioned principles would
enable a substantial increase in the effectiveness of the
processes that take place in this field and eliminate our
country from lagging behind in the manufacturing of
The work was supported by the Russian Foundation
for Basic Research (project no. 110700241a).
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