Article

Cobitis amphilekta sp. nova, a new species of spined loaches (Cobitidae, Cypriniformes) from the Caspian Sea basin

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Abstract

We describe spined loaches from the Kyzylagach Bay (Azerbaijan) and from brackish waters of the northeastern Caspian Sea found in museum collections as a separate new species, the Khvalyn loach Cobitis amphilekta. The new species differs from other species of the Caspian basin in the following combination of characteristics: one very narrow, weakly discernible spot in the upper part of the base of the caudal fin; Canestrini’s organ in males with a wide and short plate, usually not reaching the end of the third segment of the attached ray; third Gambetta’s zone of pigmentation usually not reaching the base of the anal fin, often not reaching the end of the pectoral fin; scales of oval shape, with a relatively large central part, weakly shifted towards the anterior margin; pronounced ridges on the margins of the caudal penduncle; and short barbels.

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... Two new species of spined loaches were described, Khvalynskaya spined loach C. amphilekta Vasil'eva et Vasil'ev, 2012 from the Lankaran District of Azerbaijan and C. saniae Eagderi, Jouladeh-Roudbar, Jalili, Sayyadzadeh et Esmaeili, 2017 from Gilan province in Iran, as a result of further studies covering the southwestern part of the Caspian Sea basin. Another species, C. faridpaki Mousavi-Sabet, Vasil'eva, Vatandoust et Vasil'ev, 2011, was described from the southeastern part of the Caspian Sea basin. ...
... Earlier, we noted that the plate of Canestrini's organ never reaches ¾ of the third segment of the articulated ray in the new species of spined loaches from the Kura River basin described by us (Vasil'eva et al., 2020), in contrast to C. saniae. In C. amphilekta, it usually does not reach the end of the third segment, while in C. taenia, on the contrary, it reaches usually the 4th to 5th segment of the articulated ray (Vasil'eva, Vasil'ev, 2012). In this work, we studied the variability of this trait in all samples of C. saniae from the ZMMU collection. ...
... In most of the spined loaches from the Alvady River, Z3 reaches no further than the anus, and in one male it merges with Z2 along its entire length; in the juveniles from the Akusha River, Z3 reaches no further than the end of the pelvic fin or is not expressed at all; in juveniles and one adult male from the Kumbashi River, Z3 reaches no further than the beginning of the anal fin or is not expressed at all (1/18). In general, in terms of the variability of the degree of development of the Z3 zone, C. saniae is similar to C. amphilekta (Vasil'eva and Vasil'ev, 2012). C. faridpaki is characterized by similar variability of the degree of development of Z3 zone, as evidenced by the comparative analysis of our materials and photographs from earlier publications (Mousavi-Sabet et al., 2011;Eagderi et al., 2017b). ...
Article
The variability of morphological characters and coloration features used for identification of the species Cobitis saniae has been studied using the materials from the collection of the Zoological Museum of Lomonosov Moscow State University, which includes voucher samples with genetically confirmed species status, in order to clarify the dynamics of the diversity of spined loaches in Transcaucasia in the anthropo-genic period. Significant variability of many characteristics at the intraspecific level has been revealed. Previously proposed taxonomic keys do not allow to identify correctly C. saniae and C. faridpaki, which are accepted in the status of cryptic allopatric species differentiated by the analysis of the mitochondrial genome. The characters are suggested that make it possible to differentiate C. saniae from C. taenia and C. melanoleuca, inhabiting the basin of the Caspian Sea, and from two species known from water bodies within the modern range of C. saniae: Khvalynskaya spined loach C. amphilekta, common in the basin of the Kyzylagach Bay in the 1930s, and a new species C. derzhavini described from the Kura River basin.
... For a long time, it was believed that only one species of the genus Cobitis dwells in the fresh waters of the Kyzylagachskii Bay basin, the spined loach, represented here by a special subspecies C. taenia satunini Gladkov, 1935(Abdurakhmanov, 1962Kasymov, 1972). Based on the analysis of the collections at the Zoological Museum of Moscow University (ZMMU), we described another new species (Vasil'eva and Vasil'ev, 2012) that is significantly different in its morphological features from the spined loaches widespread in South Azerbaijan (Astara, Lankaran, Masalli districts) and morphologically similar to C. satunini described from the waters of Georgia, which are currently refer to the species C. saniae. ...
... A new species C. amphilekta Vasil'eva et Vasil'ev, 2012 was found in samples from the 1930s from the Kumbashinka (Kumbashi) River and the parts of the Malyi Kyzylagachskii Bay adjacent to its mouth (Vasil'eva and Vasil'ev, 2012). Although the species C. amphilekta was not found in the collections of 1982, where presumably a hybrid individual of the spined loach was identified (we did not find this species also in all subsequent collections), we considered it necessary to include it in a comparative analysis, since introgressive hybridization could potentially be the cause of its disappearance. ...
... The scales in C. saniae have a characteristic shape: oval-shaped scales, extended horizontally, with a very small central part deprived of radial furrows, strongly displaced to the anterior margin of the scale (Eagderi et al., 2017). C. amphilekta has oval-shaped scales with a relatively large central part, slightly displaced to the anterior edge of scale (Vasil'eva and Vasil'ev, 2012); in the Caspian spined loach, scales are shaped similarly. In the hybrid individual among the scales under the base of the dorsal fin, there were mostly scales of the first type, although single scales (1 : 10 ratio) of the second type with relatively large, slightly shifted central part were found. ...
Article
A detailed description of the phenotypically hybrid spined loach caught in the Malyi Kyzylagachskii Bay is given in comparison with the three known species of loach fish from the Bay basin: the Caspian spined loach Sabanejewia caspia, Cobitis saniae, and the Khvalynskaya spined loach C. amphilekta. Hybridization of the first two species supported by their sympatry, overlapping spawning periods, and a noticeable difference in numbers in co-inhabited biotopes is confirmed. The extremely low frequency of hybridization of the Caspian spined loach and C. saniae is explained by the significant differences in the ecology of spawning and in the spawning behavior of the two species.
... For a long time, it was believed that only one species of the genus Cobitis dwells in the fresh waters of the Kyzylagachskii Bay basin, the spined loach, represented here by a special subspecies C. taenia satunini Gladkov, 1935(Abdurakhmanov, 1962Kasymov, 1972). Based on the analysis of the collections at the Zoological Museum of Moscow University (ZMMU), we described another new species (Vasil'eva and Vasil'ev, 2012) that is significantly different in its morphological features from the spined loaches widespread in South Azerbaijan (Astara, Lankaran, Masalli districts) and morphologically similar to C. satunini described from the waters of Georgia, which are currently refer to the species C. saniae. ...
... A new species C. amphilekta Vasil'eva et Vasil'ev, 2012 was found in samples from the 1930s from the Kumbashinka (Kumbashi) River and the parts of the Malyi Kyzylagachskii Bay adjacent to its mouth (Vasil'eva and Vasil'ev, 2012). Although the species C. amphilekta was not found in the collections of 1982, where presumably a hybrid individual of the spined loach was identified (we did not find this species also in all subsequent collections), we considered it necessary to include it in a comparative analysis, since introgressive hybridization could potentially be the cause of its disappearance. ...
... The scales in C. saniae have a characteristic shape: oval-shaped scales, extended horizontally, with a very small central part deprived of radial furrows, strongly displaced to the anterior margin of the scale (Eagderi et al., 2017). C. amphilekta has oval-shaped scales with a relatively large central part, slightly displaced to the anterior edge of scale (Vasil'eva and Vasil'ev, 2012); in the Caspian spined loach, scales are shaped similarly. In the hybrid individual among the scales under the base of the dorsal fin, there were mostly scales of the first type, although single scales (1 : 10 ratio) of the second type with relatively large, slightly shifted central part were found. ...
... satunini. В то же время Васильева и Васильев [26] отрицают возможность обитания на Кавказе C. taenia и описывают форму из низовий некоторых прикаспийских рек и опресненных участков Каспия как самостоятельный вид -хвалынскую щиповку C. amphilekta Vasil'eva et Vasil'ev, 2012. При этом материал по щиповкам из вышележащих участков рек западной части Каспийского бассейна (в частности, в Азербайджане и Восточной Грузии) никак не прокомментирован. ...
... Здесь проводилась фотосъемка, морфометрические измерения и анализ признаков по методикам, предложенным и использованным рядом авторов при изучении щиповок [1-3, 13, 26]. Сравнительный анализ морфологических и морфометрических признаков исследуемого экземпляра с другими видами проведен согласно литературным источникам [1,14,[21][22][23]26]. ...
... Агстев отличается от самок других щиповок рода Cobitis (C. Так, у хвалынской щиповки C. amphilekta [26] темное пятно у основания хвостового плавника маленькое, нечеткое и может отсутствовать; пятна IV зоны Гамбетты крупные и не слиты; дорсальные и вентральные кожные гребни на хвостовом стебле более развиты; чешуя овальной формы, несколько сжатая дорсовентрально, с широкой фокальной зоной. У самок мандибулярные усики короткие и не достигают переднего края глаза. ...
Article
Full-text available
The morphological and karyotype features of the fish of genus Cobitis found in Armenia (in Aghstev river) for the first time are adduced. According to morphological characteristics, the fish from Armenian is similar to Cobitis satunini Gladkov, 1935. For clarification of the taxonomic position of the fish investigation of additional material is necessary.
... Cobitis amphilekta is known from coastal habitats in the Caspian Sea basin. It has been found in the Kyzylagach Bay south of the estuary of the Kura River and in the lower Kumbashi River, approximately 150 m from the coast of Azerbaijan as well as from the desalinated area of the Caspian Sea off Durnev Island and the Prorva (Vasil'eva & Vasil'ev 2012). ...
... Remarks. Vasil'eva & Vasil'ev (2012) suspect that Cobitis amphilekta could be extinct, as it has not been found since 1937. Diagnosis. ...
Article
The diversity of Cobitis in the Middle East is reviewed, resulting in the recognition of 30 species, of which eight are described herein as new. Two species, C. amphilekta and C. kellei, seem to be extinct. Hypotheses on species-level diversity derived from distance and Poisson tree process analyses of DNA barcode data are tested against morphometric and morphological characters including colour patterns. For species pairs separated by small K2P distances in COI sequence data we follow a practitioner-oriented diagnostic species concept, in which we recognise species only if differentiated morphologically (including by colour pattern). For all 30 species we provide diagnoses and identification keys. Cobitis afifeae, new species, from the Büyük Menderes River drainage in the Aegean Sea basin, is distinguished by having two laminae circularis in the male, a row of blotches below Z4, a small, roundish or comma-shaped black spot at the upper caudal-fin base, and elevated mental lobes. Cobitis aliyeae, new species, from the lower Seyhan and Ceyhan River drainages, is distinguished by having two laminae circularis in the male, the blotches in Z2 and Z4 anterior to the dorsal-fin origin usually well separated from each other, and the pigmentation in Z1 well distinguished from the pigmentation in Z2. Cobitis anabelae, new species, from the lower Orontes River drainage, is distinguished by having two laminae circularis in the male, the pigmentation in Z2 formed by small, brown spots, always much smaller than blotches in Z3, much smaller than the pupil diameter, Z2 and Z3 well separated, and no pigmentation below Z4. Cobitis erkakanae, new species, from the Gölbasi Lakes, adjacent to the Ceyhan River drainage, is distinguished by having two laminae circularis in the male, no blotches below Z4, the blotches in Z2 and Z4 being horizontally elongated and often fused with adjacent ones, and the caudal fin with 4–6 wide, regularly-shaped, brown bands. Cobitis emrei, new species, from the Lake Sapanca basin is distinguished by having one lamina circularis in the male, a large black spot at the upper caudal-fin base, and Z3 fully covered by very small spots forming a sand-like pattern. Cobitis joergbohleni, new species, from the Sultan marshes in Central Anatolia is distinguished by having two laminae circularis in the male, and the flank colour pattern being completely disorganised, not following the Gambetta zones. Cobitis pirii, new species, from the endorheic Lake Eğirdir basin and the Mediterranean Aksu and Köprü Rivers, is distinguished by having two laminae circularis in the male, a simple external part of the suborbital spine and two distinct rows of small blotches in Z4, one along the lateral midline and one distinctly below. Cobitis troasensis, new species, from the Tuzla River drainage, is distinguished by having one lamina circularis in the male and 25–36 small, comma-shaped brown blotches in Z4. A lectotype is designated for Cobitis battalgilae. As First Revisers, priority is given to Cobitis fahireae over C. kurui. Cobitis damlae and C. kurui are treated as synonyms of C. fahireae. Cobitis strumicae and C. taenia are recorded for the first time from Anatolia and C. saniae is newly documented from the Black Sea basin in Georgia. The Poisson tree process analysis of COI data proposed 31 groups, most of which could be distinguished by morphological characters. Cobitis troasensis is described based on morphological data alone.
... Probably, these species are sympatric in other parts of the Kura River drainage. Another species recorded in Azerbaijan, Cobitis amphilekta, has historically been found in rivers flowing into the Kyzylagach Bay (Vasil'eva and Vasil'ev, 2012), far from the range of C. derzhavini. These allopatric species demonstrate significant differences in their color pattern, the shape of scales, the number of blotches in Z4 and the length of caudal peduncle (see diagnosis). ...
Article
Full-text available
The study of spined loaches from the southwestern Caspian Sea basin revealed one new species. Cobitis derzhavini sp. nova is described from the lower Kura River drainage in the Ganja-Qazakh region of Azerbaijan. It is distinguished from the most of its congeners distributed in the Caucasus and in the Caspian Sea basin (C. saniae, C. faridpaki, C. satunini, and C. taenia) by the absence of an obvious dark spot at the uppermost caudal-fin base, as well as by a combination of other morphological features, none of them unique. In the Agstafa River Cobitis derzhavini sp. nova is found sympatrically distributed with C. saniae, its closest relatives in our molecular dataset. These species form separate phylogenetic lineages with high support (PP 0.9 for COI and 1.0 for RAG1). In addition, their reproductive isolation is confirmed by the karyological differences: C. derzhavini sp. nova has 8 meta-and 12 submetacentric chromosomes in its karyotype against 6 meta-and 14 submetacentric chromosomes in C. saniae. Besides the dark spot at the uppermost caudal-fin base developed in the C. saniae, C. derzhavini sp. nova differs from this species by having the plate of lamina circularis reaching in front of ¾ of the third segment of the attached ray, blotches in Z4 smaller than eye diameter , shallow adipose crests on the caudal peduncle, and a shorter caudal peduncle (10-14% SL).
... amphilekta, C. faridpaki, C. keyvani, C. melanoleuca, and C. taenia). From these, C. melanoleuca and C. taenia are restricted to the northern Caspian Sea basin (Kottelat & Freyhof 2007) while the other three species have recently been described from the southern Caspian Sea basin (Mousavi-Sabet et al. 2011, 2012Vasil'eva & Vasil'ev 2012). Three Cobitis species are known from the Persian Gulf and Kor basins: C. elazigensis from the upper Euphrates (Coad & Sarieyyiipoglu 1988), C. kellei from the upper Tigris (Erk'akan et al. 1998), and C. linea from the Kor endorheic basin in Central Iran (Esmaeili et al. 2010). ...
Article
Full-text available
Cobitis avicennae, new species, from the Karkheh and Karun sub-drainages in the Tigris catchment is distinguished from other Cobitis species in the Persian Gulf, Kor and the southern Caspian Sea basins by having a single lamina circularis in males, a small comma-shaped black spot on the upper caudal-fin base, 5½ branched anal-fin rays, 5–6 rows of dark spots on the dorsal and caudal fins, scales below the dorsal-fin base with a small focal zone and pigmentation zone Z4 with 12–17 large, partly fused blotches. It is also distinguished from other Cobitis species in the comparison group by six fixed, diagnostic nucleotide substitutions in the mtDNA COI barcode region.
... Caucasus is considered as one of the world's biodiversity 'hotspots' with high level of endemism among fishes [26]. Although Caucasian fishes are studying for long time, regional fish fauna is still under investigated [3,6,7,9,23,24,27,29]. ...
Article
Full-text available
A new species of Capoeta is described from the Araxes River basin in Armenia based on morphological characters and mtDNA COI sequences. Capoeta kaput sp. n. can be distinguished by a combination of the following characters: usually 9 branched rays in the dorsal fin, shape of the denticles on the last unbranched ray of the dorsal fin, shape of the pharyngeal bones and the masticatory plate of the basioccipital, the body and skull proportions. Capoeta kaput sp. n. is well identified by the sequences of COI barcoding fragment.
... European Cobitis species have been reviewed in several studies [13], [15], [16]; however, the Western Asian species remain poorly studied. Only a couple of local revisions [17,18] and individual species descriptions [19][20][21][22][23][24] of Cobitis species in this region have been published thus far. ...
Article
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Accurate determination of species diversity in areas of high endemicity, particularly those lacking comprehensive systematic knowledge, represents a challenge for both taxonomists and conservationists. This need is particularly evident in areas greatly affected by anthropogenic disturbances such as the Eastern Mediterranean and its freshwater environments. To improve our knowledge of Eastern Mediterranean freshwater fishes, we phylogenetically studied Western Palearctic Cobitis species, focusing on those found in Turkey. Overall, our results provide a robust framework to assess the number of species of Cobitis. Phylogenetic reconstructions based on mitochondrial (cyt b) and nuclear (RAG1) sequences show seven major clades (Clades 1–7) grouping all Western Palearctic Cobitis species, except C. melanoleuca. In general, each major clade comprises Cobitis species that inhabit geographically close areas and have similar secondary sexual characters. Multiple divergent lineages were identified in our analyses, some of which were highly divergent such as the ones inhabiting Turkish freshwaters. Moreover, in some analyses, several of the identified lineages were incongruent with a priori defined species. Furthermore, our analyses identified eight potentially new candidate species, six that had been suggested in previous studies and two that are reported here for the first time. Our results reveal Turkey as the area with the greatest diversity of spined loaches in the Mediterranean.
... taenia are restricted to the northern Caspian Sea basin (Kottelat and Freyhof, 2007) while the other three species have been just recently described from the southern Caspian Sea basin (Mousavi-Sabet et al., 2011b;Mousavi-Sabet et al., 2012d;Vasil'eva and Vasil'ev, 2012). In Iran, 27 loach species belonging to two families (Nemacheilidae and Cobitidae), and eight genera have been recorded from 19 water basins, which eleven of them are endemic to Iran (Nalbant and Bianco, 1998;Coad, 2013). ...
Article
Full-text available
In order to clarify the distribution pattern of Cobitis populations along the southern Caspian Sea basin, 97 specimens collected from five localities were morphologically examined. Univariate analysis of variance showed significant differences (P<0.05) among the means of the five groups for 28 of 33 standardized morphometric measurements and 7 of 10 meristic counts. In the linear discriminant function analysis (DFA) for morphometric characteristics, the overall assignment of individuals into their original groups was high (84.9%), indicating that these populations are highly divergent. The proportion of individuals correctly classified into their original groups were 77.4%, 77.3%, 100%, 100% and 89.5% for Cobitis sp. (Gisum River), Cobitis keyvani (Sefidroud River), C. keyvani (Tonekabon River), Cobitis farid- paki (Siahroud River) and C. keyvani (Talar River), respectively. Clustering based on Euclidean distances among these groups of centroids using UPGMA and principal component analysis (PCA) indicated that the southeastern Caspian spined loach populations are C. faridpaki and the south central ones are C. keyvani, and an unknown population, Cobitis sp. is distinguished from the southwestern populations of the basin. Also the Tonekabon and Sefidroud Rivers were determined to be the two new habitats for C. keyvani in the region.
... Sabet et al., 2011b;Mousavi-Sabet et al., 2012d;Vasil'eva and Vasil'ev, 2012 a. 91.8% of original grouped cases correctly classified. ...
Conference Paper
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This study was done to evaluate the variation and differentiation of Spined loach populations in the Sefidrud, Valmerud and Talar rivers, located inthe southern Caspian Sea basin. A total number of 53 fish specimens were collected by electrofishing and fixed in 10% formaldehyde then morphologically were examined. Univariate analysis of variance showed significant differences among the means of the three groups for 28 out of 33 morphometric characters. Principal component analysis' results for morphometric data indicated that populations of these rivers distinct from each other in 8 factors. In linear discriminant function analysis (DFA), for morphometric characteristic the overall assignment of individuals into their original groups was 91.8%, which indicate there is overlap among the populations. The proportion of individuals correctly classified into their original groups were 95.5%, 87.5% and 89.5% for Sefidroud River, Valmerud River and Talar River respectively. Clustering based on Euclidean distances among groups of centroids using an UPGMA shows overlap among these populations. The results of this paper introduce Sefidroud and Valmerud rivers as two new habitats for C. keyvani.
... The freshwater ichthyofauna of Caucasus and Transcaucasia are characterized by high endemicity: from 38% in West Ciscaucasia ecoregion to 68% in East Transcaucasia ecoregion with average endemicity of 51.25% throughout Caucasus according to Naseka (2010). Based on ongoing discoveries of new species, fish diversity has still not been explored enough in this area (Bogutskaya & Komlev 2001;Boldyrev & Bogutskaya 2004;Naseka & Freyhof 2004;Vasil'eva et al. 2004;Naseka et al. 2009;Turan et al. 2009;Vasil'eva & Vasil'ev 2012). All spirlin species that inhabit the Caucasus region are considered to be endemic. ...
Article
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Spirlins of the genus Alburnoides are widespread fishes, which taxonomy has been rapidly developing in recent years. Mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) was used as DNA barcode marker to create a reference dataset of Caucasian Alburnoides and to test its barcoding efficiency. All four previously known Caucasian species of Alburnoides were confirmed as valid species with high genetic distances to sister species as well confirmed as Caucasian endemics. Alburnoides samiii, previously known from Sefidroud basin (Iran), was discovered in Transcaucasia. The accuracy of species identification of Ponto-Caspian Alburnoides by DNA barcodes was 100%. In addition, one potentially new species within A. gmelini was revealed. Despite the limited ability of COI to infer phylogenetic relationships, study provided evidence that Ponto-Caspian lineage of Alburnoides includes significantly larger number of species from Caspian Sea basin and inland basins of Central Asia. A full text of paper is available on http://www.tandfonline.com/eprint/BANS3g3Y5i7aaKQg5E6P/full
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about iuCn IUCN, International Union for Conservation of Nature, helps the world find pragmatic solutions to our most pressing environment and development challenges. IUCN's work focuses on valuing and conserving nature, ensuring effective and equitable governance of its use, and deploying nature-based solutions to global challenges in climate, food and development. IUCN supports scientific research, manages field projects all over the world, and brings governments, NGOs, the UN and companies together to develop policy, laws and best practice. IUCN is the world's oldest and largest global environmental organization, with more than 1,200 government and NGO Members and almost 11,000 volunteer experts in some 160 countries. IUCN's work is supported by over 1,000 staff in 45 offices and hundreds of partners in public, NGO and private sectors around the world. www.iucn.org iuCn – the species survival Commission The Species Survival Commission (SSC) is the largest of IUCN's six volunteer commissions with a global membership of 7,000 experts. SSC advises IUCN and its members on the wide range of technical and scientific aspects of species conservation and is dedicated to securing a future for biodiversity. SSC has significant input into the international agreements dealing with biodiversity conservation. http://www.iucn.org/about/work/programmes/species/who_we_are/about_the_species_survival_commission_/
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An illustrated description of the features of the external morphology, coloration (taking into account variability), the structure of the cranium, and the karyotype of the Caspian spined loach Sabanejewia caspia are presented. As a result of a comparative analysis based on the study of collections for closely related species and literature data, a new species diagnosis of S. caspia was compiled, which allows one to avoid erroneous species identification. Confirmed data on species distribution are presented. The current state of the problem of assessing the phylogenetic relationships of S. caspia and other Sabanejewia species is discussed. Doubts about the correctness of attribution of the AU059338 and AU059339 Genbank haplotypes (widely used in phylogenetics of Cobitidae) to the species S. caucasica are substantiated.
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Introduction All together 162 species of freshwater fish and four species of lampreys are known from the Caucasus Ecoregion, of which 51 are endemic and 11 alien to the region. The fauna is biogeographically close to the adjacent faunas of the Caspian and Black Seas and many species occur beyond the Caucasus or are closely related to species outside of the Caucasus. The Caucasus represents a regional centre of endemism for freshwater fish. Remarkably diverse are the fishes of the Kura and Ara(k)s rivers with 16 endemic species and the Kuban, with eight endemic species. An important single hotspot is the upper Kura in the area of Ardahan (Turkey) where a very locally endemic loach (Oxynoemacheilus cyri) co-occurs with an endemic genus and species of freshwater fish (Leucalburnus satunini). Since 2000 the fish fauna of the Ecoregion is much better understood due to a revolution in molecular methods of identification and a strongly increased engagement in the exploration of fish diversity in the Caucasus and in adjacent Europe, Iran and Turkey. However, not all taxonomic challenges have been resolved; new species will be recorded in the future and others might be excluded from the list due to taxonomic changes. The conservation status of Caucasian freshwater fish and lampreys has been only incompletely assessed but the region holds major conservation responsibilities. On the forefront of fish conservation have always been sturgeons which spawn in rivers flowing to the Black and Caspian Seas. Sturgeons are still poached and sold in the Caucasus. Although all sturgeons are protected by national legislation, there is a problem of law enforcement. The actual situation of sturgeons in the Caucasus remains unclear as information about their status is contradictory. Sturgeons still spawn in the Rioni river in Georgia and are believed to spawn in the Kura river in Azerbaijan and in the Sefid river in Iran. Other threatened or endemic species in the region are generally ignored when it comes to the construction of hydropower plants or other modifications of rivers. The exploitation of rivers for hydropower is now a massive threat even for protected areas and it harms the region’s biodiversity resources considerably.
Technical Report
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https://portals.iucn.org/library/sites/library/files/documents/RL-262.2-001.pdf
Article
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Spined loaches from the Siahrud River of the southern coast of the Caspian Sea in the province of Mazandaran, north of Iran, are described as a new species Cobitis faridpaki. This species belongs to Cobitis species group with a single lamina Canestrini at the base of the second pectoral-fin ray in males and subdorsal scales with reduced eccentric focal zone. These characters differentiate C. faridpaki from both southern Iranian species C. linea and C. melanoleuca distributed in the northern Caspian Sea basin. The stout body, small and numerous (25–30) lateral spots and the presence of 14–16 branched caudal-fin rays separate C. faridpaki from Caucasian species C. satunini.
Space and Time Genetic Structure of the Members of Bisexual and Clonal Species of Vertebrates Composition and Genetic Structure of Clonal-Bisexual Complexes of Fishes of Genus Cobitis (Cobitidae), in Mater. otchet. konf., posvyashch. pamyati akad
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Family 16: Cobitidae, in Annotirovannyi katalog kruglorotykh i ryb kontinental'nykh vod Rossii (Annotated Catalogue of Cyclostomes and Fishes of Conti nental Waters of Russia)
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Vasil'eva, E.D., Family 16: Cobitidae, in Annotirovannyi katalog kruglorotykh i ryb kontinental'nykh vod Rossii (Annotated Catalogue of Cyclostomes and Fishes of Conti nental Waters of Russia), Moscow: Nauka, 1998, pp. 97-103.
TL 43.2 mm, SL 37.3 mm, off the Akusha River mouth, approxii mately 150 m from the coast ZMMU P one female, TL 64.9 mm, SL 56.2 mm, the Kumbashi River, second fishing ground above a place of commercial fishing
  • Kumbashi Mm
  • Zmmu Pp
6 mm, between Kyzylagach settlements and the Kumbashi River, September 26, 1936; ZMMU PP3773*, one male, TL 43.2 mm, SL 37.3 mm, off the Akusha River mouth, approxii mately 150 m from the coast, April 27, 1937; ZMMU P one female, TL 64.9 mm, SL 56.2 mm, the Kumbashi River, second fishing ground above a place of commercial fishing, April 11, 1934; ZMMU PP22795, five males, TL 41.8–47.
Re description, Morphological and Eco logical Characteristic, and Distribution of Cobitis granoei
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Vasil'eva, E.D., Re description, Morphological and Eco logical Characteristic, and Distribution of Cobitis granoei (Teleostei, Cobitidae), Zool. Zh., 1988, vol. 67, no. 7, pp. 1025-1036.
To a Prob lem of Net Speciation in Vertebrates: Diploid Triploid Tet raploid Complex in Genus Cobitis (Cobitidae)
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Vasil'eva, E.D., Osinov, A.G., and Vasil'ev, V.P., To a Prob lem of Net Speciation in Vertebrates: Diploid Triploid Tet raploid Complex in Genus Cobitis (Cobitidae). Chapter 1: Diploid Species, Vopr. Ikhtiol., 1989, vol. 29, no. 5, pp. 705-717.
Space and Time Genetic Structure of the Members of Bisexual and Clonal Species of Vertebrates. Composition and Genetic Structure of Clonal Bisexual Complexes of Fishes of
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Vasil'ev, V.P., Lebedeva, E.B., Vasil'eva, E.D., and Ryskov, A.P., Space and Time Genetic Structure of the Members of Bisexual and Clonal Species of Vertebrates. Composition and Genetic Structure of Clonal Bisexual Complexes of Fishes of Genus Cobitis (Cobitidae), in
Populyarnyi atlassopredelitel': Ryby (Popuu lar AtlassClassifier: Fishes)
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Chapter 1: South Russian Spined Loach Cobitis rossomeridionalis sp. nova
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Vasil'eva, E.D. and Vasil'ev, V.P., Sibling Species in Genus Cobitis (Cobitidae). Chapter 1: South Russian Spined Loach Cobitis rossomeridionalis sp. nova, Vopr. Ikhtiol., 1998, vol. 38, no. 5, pp. 604-614.
FishBase, World Wide Web Elecc tronic Publication, ver The Data on Variability of the Spined Loach
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Froese, R. and Pauly, D., FishBase, World Wide Web Elecc tronic Publication, ver. 02/2011, 2011. http://www.fishh base.org Vol. 52 No. 3 2012 VASIL'EVA, VASIL'EV Gladkov, N.A., The Data on Variability of the Spined Loach (Cobitis taenia L.), Tr. Gos. Zool. Muzeya, 1935, vol. 2, pp. 69–74.
ZMMU PP4268*, one female, TL 55.5 mm, SL 49.0 mm, Dolgii Island
  • Mm
0 mm, off Sara Island, September 23, 1936; ZMMU PP4268*, one female, TL 55.5 mm, SL 49.0 mm, Dolgii Island, July 17, 1935; ZIN RAS no. 26661***, one female TL 67.5 mm, between Durnev Island and Cape Kyzyll Kair, May 27, 1935; ZIN RAS no. 40883***, eight females TL 44.0–63.
Ryby presnykh vod SSSR i sopredel’nykh stran (Fishes of Fresh Waters of USSR and Adjacent Countries)
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Berg, L.S., Ryby presnykh vod SSSR i sopredel'nykh stran (Fishes of Fresh Waters of USSR and Adjacent Countries), Moscow: Izd. AN SSSR, 1949, part 2, pp. 469-926.
Freshwater Fishes of South Coast of the Caspian Sea
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Derzhavin, A.N., Freshwater Fishes of South Coast of the Caspian Sea, Tr. Az. Otd. Zakavkaz. Filiala AN SSSR, 1934, vol. 7, pp. 91-126.
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Ryby presnykh vod Azerbaidzhana (Fishes of Fresh Waters of Azerbaijan)
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Abdurakhmanov, Yu.A., Ryby presnykh vod Azerbaidzhana (Fishes of Fresh Waters of Azerbaijan), Baku: Izd. AN AzSSR, 1962, 408 p.
The Data on Variability of the Spined Loach (Cobitis taenia L
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Gladkov, N.A., The Data on Variability of the Spined Loach (Cobitis taenia L.), Tr. Gos. Zool. Muzeya, 1935, vol. 2, pp. 69-74.
Ryby Kaspiiskogo morya. Opredelitel’ (Fishes of the Caspian Sea. Classifier), Moscow: Leg. i Pishch
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Presnovodnaya fauna Kavkaza (Freshwater Fauna of Caucasia)
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Kasymov, A.G., Presnovodnaya fauna Kavkaza (Freshwater Fauna of Caucasia), Baku: ELM, 1972, 288 p.
Fishes of the Komsomolets (the Mertvyi Kultuk) and Kaidak Gulfs in the Caspian Sea
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Svetovidov, A.N., Fishes of the Komsomolets (the Mertvyi Kultuk) and Kaidak Gulfs in the Caspian Sea, in Tr. komis sii po kompleks. izucheniyu Kaspiiskogo morya (KASP) i soveta po izucheniyu proizvodit. sil (SOPS) (Transactions of Commission on Investigation of the Caspian Sea (CASP) and Board on Study of Labor Forces (BSLF)), 1937, issue 1, part 1, pp. 183-212.
World Wide Web Electronic Publication
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Froese, R. and Pauly, D., FishBase, World Wide Web Elec tronic Publication, ver. 02/2011, 2011. http://www.fish base.org JOURNAL OF ICHTHYOLOGY Vol. 52 No. 3
Ryby Kaspiiskogo morya (Fishes of the Caspian Sea)
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Kazancheev, E.N., Ryby Kaspiiskogo morya (Fishes of the Caspian Sea), Moscow: Ryb. Khoz., 1963, 180 p.
Ryby Kaspiiskogo morya. Opredelitel’ (Fishes of the Caspian Sea
  • E N Kazancheev
  • E.N. Kazancheev
Kazancheev, E.N., Ryby Kaspiiskogo morya. Opredelitel' (Fishes of the Caspian Sea. Classifier), Moscow: Leg. i Pishch. Prom., 1981, 168 p.