ArticlePDF Available

MOVING AWAY FROM TEACHING AND BECOMING A FACILITATOR OF LEARNING

Authors:

Abstract

One only has to close their eyes and reflect on being in a typical classroom and depending on past experiences; two images might come to mind. The first image might include a teacher in the front of the room with chalk or book in hand, asking students to read along with them. Perhaps the teacher is writing on the board and asking the students closed-ended questions as they search for facts that may, or may not be meaningful to the learner. The second image is one of the facilitator and the classroom experiences that they have developed to make the leaning experience the best that it can be.
One only has to close their eyes and reflect on being in a typical class-
room and depending on past experiences; two images might come to mind. The
first image might include a teacher in the front of the room with chalk or book in
hand, asking students to read along with them. Perhaps the teacher is writing on
the board and asking the students closed-ended questions as they search for
facts that may, or may not have meaning to the learner. Unfortunately, much of
what existed in the past in education remains the same in present day teaching
as well. Many adult learners for example, might reflect on a workshop, confer-
ence, or class they recently attended and see a similar picture to the one de-
ABO UT T H I S I S S UE
Citation: Clapper, T. C. (2009). Moving away from teaching and becoming a facilitator of learning. PAILAL, 2(2).
Professionals Against Improperly
Labeling Active Learners
PAILAL Newsletter
MO V I N G A W A Y F R O M T E AC H I N G AND BE C O M I N G A F A C I L I T A T O R OF L E A R N I N G
BY TIM O T H Y C . C L A P P E R
This issue focuses on helping the teacher to move away from the deliverer of knowledge in a passive
environment, to one where all learners are actively engaged in the construction of their knowledge. In this
day of accountability, we hear too often the complaints from teachers that they are not able to teach the way
they would like to because of a need to prepare their students to be successful on a standardized examination
that may have surfaced with the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001. The reality is that too many teachers
have not changed their teaching styles in years, perhaps even before any mandatory testing came about. For
those educators willing to step up and become facilitators of learning, the following article can be used to
guide their journey. Keep spreading the word that we need to stop trying to address poor behaviors in the
classroom, and instead address the root cause of the disruptive behaviors. Many active learners may be acting
out of boredom or from being lost. Recognizing the gift of the active learner and meeting them with actively
challenging lessons will surely go a long way in creating the optimal learning environment.
Volume 2, Issue 2
July 2009
ABOUT THIS ISSUE
MO V I N G A W A Y
F R O M T E A C H I N G
AND BE C O M I N G A
F A C I L I T A T O R OF
L E A R N I N G
1-6
Did You Know?
“The best professional development sessions are ones that are run
with the same message they are sending. If you want teachers to lec-
ture; then lecture. If you want them to develop an active and engag-
ing classroom, let them experience it for themselves.
-Timothy C. Clapper
MO V I N G AW A Y FR O M T E AC H I N G A N D BE C O M I N G A F A CI L I TA T O R OF
L E AR N I N G C O N T
Professionals Against Improperly Labeling Active Learners
Page 2
scribed above in their memory. Instead of being asked to read along or answer questions
that have been written on a chalkboard, they read information from a PowerPoint presen-
tation, often by someone with actual or claimed years of teaching experience. Many may
indeed have years of teaching experience, but little experience being a facilitator of learn-
ing. The latter, relates to the second image that some may have been fortunate enough to
experience and recollect. This would be the image of the facilitator and the classroom ex-
periences they have developed to make learning the best that it can be.
Many teachers may be able to put together a well-prepared lesson plan that lists
the objectives and standards that dictate why they must teach the lesson, a possible list-
ing of handouts and textbook chapters they will read from, and certainly some form of met-
rics for evaluating the session. The lesson plan may even have been assembled using a
pattern similar to Wiggins and McTighe’s (2005) Understanding by Design (UBD) ap-
proach which follows the algorithm of identifying the objectives, defining how assessment
will occur, and then determining the strategies for learning. However, this algorithm by it-
self is not a guarantee that the lesson plan will become an effective learning plan.
Therefore, the first thing that a facilitator of learning must do is spend some time
formulating a learning plan. For the educator that is tied to casting blame on standardized
testing requirements that may be associated with the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001
(NCLB) instead of concentrating their efforts on creating learning opportunities, this task
might not be so easy. What has to be asked is, “What are those things that my students
need to know and what activities can I use that will create real understanding for them?”
Additionally, one might ask, “What will it take for them to be successful on the standard-
ized test coming up while also preparing them for their future?” Tomlinson and McTighe
(2006) might refer to the first part of this question as determining the “big ideas”, or gist of
the lesson and certainly this will guide the formation of the essential question that will be
used to steer the entire lesson. For example, an essential question might include, “What
were some of the events that preceded the United State’s involvement in World War II?” In
doing so, we try to move toward understanding, and away from rote learning and memori-
zation.
Likewise, the objectives should be clear and functional. They are developed and
stated based on what you want the learner to do. An educator can self-evaluate their own
methodology by looking at the way they spell out their objectives. “Name each of the dates
in which…..and Name the people involved in” while sometimes acceptable, does little to
move the learner past rote memorization of facts. “Explain some similarities and differ-
ences between World Wars I and II” on the other hand asks the learner to assess and in-
ternalize what they know about the subject. Developing good objectives and a strong es-
sential question can lead the educator through the first part of transitioning from a teacher
to a facilitator of learning.
Again using Wiggins and McTighe’s (UBD) model, once the objectives are identi-
fied, the next part of the process is determining how learning will be assessed. Facilitators
of learning will note immediately the difference between evaluation and assessment.
There is often a heavy reliance on evaluation and summative-type assessments in les-
“What are those
things that my
students need to
know and what
activities can I
use that will
create real
understanding for
them?”
Volume 2, Issue 2 Professionals Against Improperly Labeling Active Learners Page 3
MO V I N G AW A Y FR O M T EA C H I N G A N D BE C O M I N G A F A CI L I TA T O R OF
L E AR N I N G C O N T
sons and not enough on formative assessment. As Williams and Dunn (2008, p. 176)
observe, many teachers are good at summative assessments, including end of chapter
quizzes and tests, or an end of unit paper. What is needed, they suggest is formative
assessment that includes feedback to both teacher and learners of next steps that need
to be taken, along with identifying areas requiring more attention, perhaps using different
activities. If one is truly concerned with performance on standardized examinations,
strategies must be used that lead to better understanding of the content. Assessing
throughout the lesson in varied ways including feedback and observation will inform the
facilitators of which strategies are working and which are not. For the facilitator, assess-
ment will also include recognizing when learners are bored, or not being adequately en-
gaged in the learning experience, and making the proper adjustments ‘on-the-fly.’ Per-
haps one of the boldest and most honorable things an educator can do is recognize that
their perfect plan and teaching style might not be working in a particular situation. When
they are able to recognize this and creatively adjust the lesson so that understanding
and the objectives can be met, they are moving toward becoming better facilitators of
learning.
Being a facilitator of learning means that strategies and activities are included
that brings the learner to a state of understanding that lead to accomplishment of the
objectives. We are natural constructivist. That is, we came into this world building our
own meaning and explanation for occurrences, based on our own findings, as well as
through socializing with others. Therefore, including activities that ask the learner to con-
struct their own meaning and then reflect their understanding off of other learners goes a
long way in creating understanding.
Further, cooperative learning activities included in lessons allow the learner to
move around and engage with others actively. Speaking, drawing, hand-waving, and
other tactile and kinesthetic gestures are encouraged in collaborative learning. Collabo-
rating with a few learners on content areas is also safer for many learners. Interpersonal
and intrapersonal intelligences can be developed in small groups while clarity and inter-
nalization of the content can be achieved. These intelligences may not be developed
fully in traditional classrooms where the learner may be lost trying to make meaning of
the content, which can lead to frustration and acting out. Other activities might include
simulation and role-play to act out experiences that lead to better understanding of con-
cepts and ideas. Sand tables and models may be constructed as interactive projects
that groups of learners tie to the content and the objectives. In explaining the events
leading up the World War II, for example, facilitators might have learners conduct re-
search on specific areas such as shipping and commerce, major factors preceding and
influencing that war, and cause and effect of major decisive engagements.
“...we came into this world building our own meaning and explanation for occurrences, based on
our own findings, as well as through socializing with others”
MO V I N G AW A Y FR O M T E AC H I N G A N D BE C O M I N G A F A CI L I TA T O R OF
L E AR N I N G C O N T
Professionals Against Improperly Labeling Active Learners
Page 4
Using the sand table as a simulation tool, each collaborative group can re-
search and then construct what they see as useful concepts for understanding that
leads to the objectives. Facilitators using simulations and role play in learning incor-
porate all three learning styles including: auditory, visual, and kinesthetic, as well as
nearly all of the multiple intelligences identified by Gardner (1983). Whatever strategy
is used, the facilitator of learning will ensure that it is one that will allow the learners to
become actively engaged with the construction of their learning and not be a passive
tool of teaching.
Additionally, facilitators of learning are very familiar with the process of trans-
fer and how this relates to learning. Reflect once again on the typical learning experi-
ence, and one might reflect upon experiences of being thrown into what seemed to
be the middle of a lesson, and while teachers only write the aim or objectives of the
lesson on the board, learners are left wondering what they are supposed to do, where
are they are going, and why. Enter the four-phase lesson plan outlined by Williams
and Dunn (2008). The four-phase lesson plan consists of active, brain-based learning
activities orchestrated in such a way that leads to better understanding of the content
and objectives. The learning activities in each of the four-phases are always followed
by a reflection process that helps the learners to reflect and internalize the infor-
mation, in what Kolb (1984) refers to as reflection-in-action, and provides the facilita-
tor with yet another opportunity to assess learning and understanding.
The process begins with the Inquire phase in which the facilitator helps the
learners to transfer in their base of knowledge. Personal meaning and relevance to
the lesson can occurs here. Relevance need not pre-exist however, for as Brooks
and Brooks (2001) observe, the facilitator can help the learner create relevance. Ex-
amples of activities might include the use of K-W-L charts that ask the learners what
they know (K), what they want (W) to know, and later, near the end of the lesson,
what they have learned (L). A variation includes the K-W-H-L chart that includes ask-
ing learners how (H) they might be able to find out what they need to learn. It should
be noted that during this phase, the facilitator is still guiding the learner to the objec-
tive, which helps to eliminate any criticism that may exist that student-centered, con-
structivism results in aimless instruction. What they want to know and how they will
learn it is still directly associated with the objective and the facilitator’s role is to keep
learning moving on that track. In fashion with constructivist principles, bringing in or
transferring in a base of knowledge including the schemas and frames of references
the learner currently possesses, helps the learner to build upon and alter those expe-
riences, leading to better understanding of the new concepts. Through the reflection
process, the facilitator then helps the learners transfer the knowledge into the next
phase, the Gather phase, where relevant information is gathered and meaning is
constructed by the learner. It is here that the learner might find a variety of relevant,
pre-determined web pages, short films, evidence-based information sheets for coop-
“The learning
activities in each of
the four-phases
are always
followed by a
reflection process
that helps the
learners to reflect
and internalize the
information”
Volume 2, Issue 2 Professionals Against Improperly Labeling Active Learners Page 5
MO V I N G AW A Y FR O M T EA C H I N G A N D BE C O M I N G A F A CI L I TA T O R OF
L E AR N I N G C O N T
erative learning, specific chapters of text, or portions of chapters that help them to
move toward understanding the objective. The gather phase might even include a com-
bination of all of these activities, or may include other sources not listed here as well.
Again, the emphasis is on meaning-making which can make a big difference for those
students that seems to be bored, as well as selecting activities that allow for physical
movement throughout the lesson.
During the Process phase, the next phase of the plan, movement is likely to be
a dominant factor in the activities selected by the facilitator. One might select activities
that allow for the development of weaker intelligences, while enhancing the learner’s
stronger ones. Here is where the learners will do something with the information to help
them internalize and come to grasps with the material. It might include constructing a
project, a class presentation by groups having responsibility for key components of a
lesson, or a demonstration or skit that ties it together. Facilitators will select activities
that will help them assess the process, as well as the depth or level of learning that
might be occurring. Again, this may be different from evaluation because any failure in
understanding still provides the facilitator with an opportunity to re-direct and clarify
misconceptions about the objectives.
Finally, the last phase, the Apply phase, asks the learners “So what now” and
“what can you do with this new information.” Here, the process of transfer surfaces
again as the facilitator helps the learner to transfer the new knowledge to other applica-
tions. This might include a community service learning event, or even some application
of the lesson to another school subject. If the lesson were graphic organizers for exam-
ple, the students might demonstrate how they can now use these tools to help them
achieve understanding in their math, or other classes. One might see here a clear ex-
ample of how this form of authentic assessment adds far more value than many quiz-
zes and examinations for assessing understanding beyond memorization of facts and
figures, another emphasis associated with facilitators of learning.
We are in a critical time where many adult learners may be asking whether any
lack of understanding during formal education endeavors was caused by own defect, or
by teaching attempts that missed their target entirely. For facilitators of learning, this is
less of a concern because it is already understood that they are responsible for creating
the conditions and environment that is most beneficial for learning. They know that lack
of understanding is not the learner’s fault and they must do whatever it takes to inspire
a love for learning. Great strides can be made so long as educators do whatever it
takes to reach learners. With the dropout rates in our nation still at alarmingly high lev-
els, a new charge goes out to educators: become facilitators of learning.
REF E R E NC ES
Brooks, J., & Brooks, M. (2001). In search of understanding: The case for constructivist
classrooms. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall.
“...they are
responsible for
creating the
conditions and
environment that is
most beneficial for
learning”
MO V I N G AW A Y FR O M T E AC H I N G A N D BE C O M I N G A F A CI L I TA T O R OF
L E AR N I N G C O N T
Professionals Against Improperly Labeling Active Learners
Page 6
Gardner, H. (1983). Frames of mind. New York: Basic Books.
Kolb, D. A. (1984). Experiential learning: Experience as a source of learning and devel-
opment. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Tomlinson, C. A., & McTighe, J. (2006). Integrating differentiated instruction + under-
standing by design. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.
Wiggins, G. & McTighe, J. (2005). Understanding by design (2nd ed.). Alexandria, VA:
ASCD.
Williams, B. R., & Dunn, S. E. (2008). Brain-compatible learning for the block. Thou-
sand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
Photos from Microsoft Office.
We’re on the Web!
http://tccid.dover.net/
PAILAL.htm
We hope that you enjoyed this newsletter. Sharing information and strategies
can make a difference. There are so many great educators. They see in each
learner the full potential of what can be.
Contact information: Tim Clapper TCCID@Dover.net
... Teachers need to be looked at from a different angle now. Great strides can be made so long as educators do whatever it takes to reach learners (Clapper, 2009). In this fast growing world of technology, when information can be found with just a click, the role of teachers is changing and moving away from teaching to facilitating the learning. ...
... Tools such as educational websites, projector, and smart board provide teachers with a method in which they can actively engage their students in the learning process. Whatever strategy is used, the facilitator of learning will ensure that it is one that will allow learners to become actively engaged with the construction of learning and not be a passive tool of teaching (Clapper, 2009). Teachers need to keep themselves updated with the latest innovations in educational technology to utilize various tools such as educative websites like Khan Academy, Quizlet, etc. ...
Article
Education is under pressure to respond to the changing modern world. Education system worldwide aims to develop students into well-rounded citizens and help them become creative problem-solvers. Several theories have been proposed in the research literature which emphasizes the importance of social and cultural context to creativity. Eastern and Western world are extremely complex and differentiated both politically and historically. Their educational systems are two fundamentally different approaches to teaching and learning. It is a common thinking that Eastern society is reserved and conservative whereas Western society is more creative and assertive. The holistic approach develops students to be critical, confident and independent (Patel, 2003). This article aims to compare and evaluate these differences, in view of achieving holistic education focusing on the fullest possible development of the individuals. Key words: Education system, Eastern and Western system, creativity, society, culture, holistic education.
... She also talked about how a teacher facilitates his or her students by understanding issues to do with their learning and relating to them. According to Clapper (2009), moving away from teaching and becoming a facilitator of learning showcased how teachers' role and role of a facilitator are different from each other. Traditional teacher who controls the whole class always stands in front of the class, follows a lesson plan that has been planned years ago etc. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigated the roles of teachers in managing teaching and learning situations in secondary schools in Esan West Local Government Area of Edo State. The study focused on public secondary schools in Esan West Local Government Area of Edo State and the study was guided by four research questions. The study employed the descriptive research design. The population of the study was made up of all the two hundred and seven (207) teachers in all the 16 public secondary schools in the study area. The simple random sampling technique was used to se-lect a sample size of 79 teachers which was 38% of the population. An adapted questionnaire titled Role of Teachers in Managing Teaching and Learning Situa-tions Questionnaire (RTMTLSQ) was used to elicit responses from the respondents and the data obtained were analyzed using mean, standard and deviation. The study found out among others that teachers played the role of a facilitator in managing teaching and learning situations in Esan West Local Government Area of Edo State. Based on the findings, the study recommended among others that in playing the role of facilitators, the teachers should often times adopt active learning methodology to enhance effective teaching and learning situations
... With changes in views of modern specialties and increasingly open access to knowledge, education has become an experience in which students think about a subject as they interact with the instructor and each other. Therefore, the role of traditional teachers as information transmitters has evolved into a role as organizers and partners in student learning (Clapper 2009;Kudryashova et al. 2015). Teachers and students play an equally active role in the learning process. ...
Article
Full-text available
In recent years, growing interest has been seen in the application of gamification in education, which can be defined as the application of game design elements in learning activities. The goal of gamification is to motivate students by creating an engaging learning experience that can keep them focused on learning tasks in the classroom. However, gamification is a major challenge for education, particularly in higher education institutions. The present work presents 11 gamification activities for teaching pharmacology in a medical course. The moment at which the activity fits best in the class, the ways in which the activity can be applied, and the advantages and difficulties that are associated with each game in the classroom are presented. We report student evaluations of the gamification learning activities. The use of these games fosters learning, increases academic engagement, and makes classes more enjoyable.
... The class objectives are based on learning goals and take into account non academic and cognitive skills, as well as computational thinking skills (Walden, et al, 2013). Therefore, the learning goals of each game must be clearly defined and build towards the overall objective of the class (Clapper, 2009). For curriculum adaptation, the objectives of selected subjects were prioritised and this curriculum was mapped in the developed game templates. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Game creation challenges in schools potentially provide engaging, goal-oriented, and interactive experiences in classes; thereby supporting the transfer of knowledge for learning in a fun and pedagogic manner. A key element of the ongoing European project No One Left Behind (NOLB) is to integrate a game-making teaching framework (GMTF) into the educational app Pocket Code. Pocket Code allows learners to create programs in a visual Lego®-style way to facilitate learning how to code at secondary high schools. The concept of the NOLB GMTF is based on principles of the Universal Design for Learning (UDL) model. Its focus lies on three pillars of learning: the what, how, and why. Thereby, the NOLB GMTF is a common set of concepts, practices, pedagogy, and methods. This framework provides a coherent approach to learning and teaching by integrating leisure oriented gaming methods into multi-discipline curricula. One output of this framework is the integration of game-based methods via game templates that refer to didactical scenarios that include a refined set of genres, assets, rules, challenges, and strategies. These templates allows: 1) teachers to start with a well-structured program, and 2) pupils to add content and adjust the code to integrate their own ideas. During the project game genres such as adventure, action, and quiz, as well as rewards or victory point mechanisms, have been embedded into different subjects, e.g., science, mathematics, and arts. The insights gained during the class hours were used to generate 13 game templates, which are integrated in Create@School (a new version of the Pocket Code app which targets schools). To test the efficiency of these templates, user experience (UX) tests were conducted during classes to compare games created by pupils who used templates and those who started to create a game from scratch. Preliminary results showed that these templates allow learners to focus on subject-relevant problem solving activities rather than on understanding the functionality of the app. This directly leads to more time to express their creativity in different levels and more time for extra tasks.
... The class objectives are based on learning goals and take into account non academic and cognitive skills, as well as computational thinking skills (Walden, et al, 2013). Therefore, the learning goals of each game must be clearly defined and build towards the overall objective of the class (Clapper, 2009). For curriculum adaptation, the objectives of selected subjects were prioritised and this curriculum was mapped in the developed game templates. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Game creation challenges in schools potentially provide engaging, goal-oriented, and interactive experiences in classes; thereby supporting the transfer of knowledge for learning in a fun and pedagogic manner. A key element of the ongoing European project No One Left Behind (NOLB) is to integrate a game-making teaching framework (GMTF) into the educational app Pocket Code. Pocket Code allows learners to create programs in a visual Lego-style way to facilitate learning how to code at secondary high schools. The concept of the NOLB GMTF is based on principles of the Universal Design for Learning (UDL) model. This framework provides a coherent approach to learning and teaching by integrating leisure oriented gaming methods into multi-discipline curricula. One output of this framework is the integration of game-based methods via game templates that refer to didactical scenarios that include a refined set of genres, assets, rules, challenges, and strategies. These templates allows: 1) teachers to start with a well-structured program, and 2) pupils to add content and adjust the code to integrate their own ideas. During the project game genres such as adventure, action, and quiz, as well as rewards or victory point mechanisms, have been embedded into different subjects, e.g., science, mathematics, and arts. The insights gained during the class hours were used to generate 13 game templates, which are integrated in Create@School (a new version of the Pocket Code app which targets schools). To test the efficiency of these templates, user experience (UX) tests were conducted during classes to compare games created by pupils who used templates and those who started to create a game from scratch. Preliminary results showed that these templates allow learners to focus on subject-relevant problem solving activities rather than on understanding the functionality of the app.
... Studies have demonstrated (Abel & Freeze, 2006;Clapper, 2009) that students must be actively involved in learning to develop critical thinking skills, meaning that they must move from rote memorization to active learning to achieve long-term comprehension, application, and synthesis of knowledge. Concept maps are an example of an active learning strategy that may move students from rote learning, memorization, and superficial, short-term knowledge to higherlevel metacognitive analysis and critical thinking (Addae, Wilson, & Carrington, 2012). ...
Article
Aim: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of using concept maps as a teaching and learning strategy on students' critical thinking abilities and examine students' perceptions toward concept maps utilizing the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines. Background: Researchers have found that almost two thirds of nurse graduates do not have adequate critical thinking skills for a beginner nurse. Critical thinking skills are required for safe practice and mandated by accrediting organizations. Nursing educators should consider teaching and learning strategies that promote the development of critical thinking skills. Method: A literature review was conducted using "concept maps, nursing education, and critical thinking" as the combined search terms. Inclusion criteria were studies that measured the effects of concept mapping on critical thinking in nursing students. Results: Seventeen articles were identified. Conclusion: Concept maps may be useful tools to promote critical thinking in nursing education and for applying theory to practice.
... The class objectives are based on learning goals and take into account non academic and cognitive skills, as well as computational thinking skills (Walden, et al, 2013). Therefore, the learning goals of each game must be clearly defined and build towards the overall objective of the class (Clapper, 2009). For curriculum adaptation, the objectives of selected subjects were prioritised and this curriculum was mapped in the developed game templates. ...
Conference Paper
Game creation challenges in schools potentially provide engaging, goal-oriented, and interactive experiences in classes; thereby supporting the transfer of knowledge for learning in a fun and pedagogic manner. A key ele-ment of the ongoing European project No One Left Behind (NOLB) is to integrate a game-making teaching framework (GMTF) into the educational app Pocket Code. Pocket Code allows learners to create programs in a visual Lego®-style way to facilitate learning how to code at secondary high schools. The concept of the NOLB GMTF is based on principles of the Universal Design for Learning (UDL) model. Its focus lies on three pillars of learning: the what, how, and why. Thereby, the NOLB GMTF is a common set of concepts, practices, pedagogy, and methods. This framework provides a coherent approach to learning and teaching by integrating leisure ori-ented gaming methods into multi-discipline curricula. One output of this framework is the integration of game-based methods via game templates that refer to didactical scenarios that include a refined set of genres, assets, rules, challenges, and strategies. These templates allows: 1) teachers to start with a well-structured program, and 2) pupils to add content and adjust the code to integrate their own ideas. During the project game genres such as adventure, action, and quiz, as well as rewards or victory point mechanisms, have been embedded into different subjects, e.g., science, mathematics, and arts. The insights gained during the class hours were used to generate 13 game templates, which are integrated in Create@School (a new version of the Pocket Code app which targets schools). To test the efficiency of these templates, user experience (UX) tests were conducted during classes to compare games created by pupils who used templates and those who started to create a game from scratch. Preliminary results showed that these templates allow learners to focus on subject-relevant prob-lem solving activities rather than on understanding the functionality of the app. This directly leads to more time to express their creativity in different levels and more time for extra tasks.
... With the change in the vision of modern specialists and an increasingly open access to knowledge, education is now referred to as "experiences in which students are thinking about the subject matter" as they interact with the instructor and each other (McKeachie 1999;Chickering and Gamson 1987). Therefore the traditional teachers' function of transmitters of information has transformed into that of organizers and partners in students' learning (Clapper 2009). Nowadays, teachers and students play an equally active role in the learning process (Gelisli 2009;Ercan 2004) and active learning strategies refer to a variety of collaborative classroom activities ranging from long-term simulations to fiveminute cooperative problem solving exercises (Bonwell and Eison 1991;Sutherland and Bonwell 1996). ...
Article
Full-text available
This article gives a detailed analysis on the role of a teacher in the modern educational environment and justifies the need to reconsider instructional strategies following the shift from teaching to learning that has recently appeared in higher professional education and was provoked by a growing access to professional knowledge and revision of requirements to university graduates under the pressure of societal, academic and industrial community. The Bloom’s taxonomy and the 5E’s Instructional model that are commonly applied in active learning are reviewed and compared. Their significant similarity and compatibility is used to define the teaching approaches that best fit the new educational goals. A teaching model is proposed to provide educators with guidelines on how to facilitate a successful active learning where the authors specify optimal teaching roles for each learning phase. DOI: 10.5901/mjss.2016.v7n1p460
... Like learning, hierarchal power and emotions are two powerful forces that are present in the learning space and at all levels of an organization. In the learning space, a good facilitator will help learners to convert hierarchal power into collaboration and team/group learning where we learn from, and appreciate one another's gifts and input (Clapper, 2009;Pedler & Abbott, 2008). Emotions are also a major consideration. ...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this article is to propose a strategy for ensuing simulation training following the implementation of a thorough Team Strategies and Tools to Enhance Performance and Patient Safety (TeamSTEPPS®) training initiative. The strategies include observing Teams in the workplace to facilitate the construction of organization-wide, follow-on simulation training. Design/methodology/approach A review of organizational change and instructional design practices is presented to facilitate TeamSTEPPS® to its fullest. This article serves as a continuation of steps to full implementation following an initial article introducing TeamSTEPPS® and a second article identifying the challenges and opportunities for success during preliminary organization-wide training. Findings TeamSTEPPS® is a patient safety tool developed by the U.S. Department of Defense that is based on four competencies. The TeamSTEPPS® competencies and simulation can be used to create a just culture, which is based on effective teamwork and communication. However, full implementation and facilitation of a just culture requires health care organizations to consider reinforcement and next steps in training, along with a new way of thinking about the use of observation and simulation to facilitate organizational change. Research limitations/implications The literature contains large gaps concerning full implementation of TeamSTEPPS®. Very little has been published on how to implement TeamSTEPPS® throughout a health care organization, particularly articles based on good instructional design and organizational change principles. These gaps can lead to piecemeal implementation of TeamSTEPPS® with few positive results for the organization. Originality/value Many organizations have implemented TeamSTEPPS®, but have not conducted follow-on training that uses direct observation, debriefing, and simulation to address or strengthen specific behaviors.
Article
Dual-language programs are becoming increasingly popular among educators and the public in general. In these programs, students aim at attaining full proficiency in English and another language while reaching an academic achievement at or above grade level. This article describes a series of pedagogical practices in the context of dual-language classrooms. We set the discussion across three defining characteristics of our constructivist perspective: learning as collaboration, teachers as facilitators, and language and culture as intertwined elements in schools. In sum, we postulate that dual-language programs bring equity to schools.
Integrating differentiated instruction + understanding by design
  • C A Tomlinson
  • J Mctighe
Tomlinson, C. A., & McTighe, J. (2006). Integrating differentiated instruction + understanding by design. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.
Brain-compatible learning for the block
  • B R Williams
  • S E Dunn
Williams, B. R., & Dunn, S. E. (2008). Brain-compatible learning for the block. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press. Photos from Microsoft Office.